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Research Article
Taxonomy of Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae) – overall phylogenetic relationships and assessment of species diversity based on a first comprehensive checklist of the genus
expand article infoGeorgia Fassou, Nadja Korotkova§, Anush Nersesyan|, Marcus A. Koch, Panayotis Dimopoulos, Thomas Borsch§
‡ University of Patras, Patras, Greece
§ Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
| A. Takhtajyan Institute of Botany, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia
¶ University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

In this study, we present an overall phylogenetic framework for Dianthus using four plastid regions (matK-trnK-psbA, rpl32-trnL, trnQ-rps16) and nuclear ITS and a species-level checklist for the genus developed by using all available databases and the literature. The trees from the plastid dataset depict a clade of Dianthus that also includes Velezia and a few taxa of Petrorhagia. New combinations in Dianthus are provided for these species. The checklist of Dianthus in this new delimitation covers 1781 names, with 384 accepted species, 150 subspecies, 12 heterotypic varieties and two forms (not counting autonyms), 1050 synonyms, 22 hybrid names and 172 unresolved names, 3 names were excluded. Implications for the evolution of flower characters, life forms, biogeography, as well as sectional classification are discussed based on the phylogenetic framework.

Keywords

Caryophyllaceae, Caryophyllales, Caucasus, Dianthus, EDIT Platform for Cybertaxonomy, Greece, Petrorhagia, phylogeny, taxonomy, Velezia, World Flora Online

Introduction

The genus Dianthus L. (pinks and carnations) is after Silene L. the second largest genus in the family Caryophyllaceae. It it was considered to contain approximately 300 species mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere, with many range-restricted or narrow-endemic species in the Mediterranean area, SW Asia, the Caucasus and the Irano-Turanian region, and with some species occurring in eastern and southern Africa (Bittrich 1993). Dianthus is a genus with many taxonomically complex species groups, which is perhaps the reason that no comprehensive treatment of the whole genus exists. Valente et al. (2010) reported Dianthus to be one of the lineages with the highest species diversification rates in flowering plants, which may explain the evolution of numerous narrow-endemic taxa and render Dianthus an interesting model for understanding the evolution of north-temperate floras.

Dianthus consists of mostly perennial and a few annual or biennial herbs or shrubs with oblong to ovate or linear and grass-like leaves. According to the widely used circumscription of Pax and Hoffmann (1934), the genus is characterised by hermaphrodite flowers appearing solitary or in more or less dense terminal cymes. The flowers are subtended by 2 to many epicalyx scales and possess a 5-toothed, tubular calyx with 20–60 well-marked parallel nerves. The inclusion of several species formerly classified as Petrorhagia (Ser.) Link and Velezia L. as suggested by Madhani et al. (2018) adds taxa with fewer (5–15) nerves [D. candicus (P.W.Ball & Heywood) Madhani & Heubl., D. nudiflorus Griff., D. recticaulis Ledeb., and D. tunicoides (Ser. ex DC.) Madhani & Heubl). Similarly, the calyx in three of these taxa possesses scarious commissures (D. candicus, D. recticaulis, D. tunicoides) whereas these are missing in Dianthus s. str., e.g. as circumscribed by Bittrich (1993), and in Velezia. The corolla consists of five distinct petals, with distinct blade and claw. Contrary to the long and pale claw, the limb is brightly coloured (red/pink/purple, yellow) in most species, rarely white. The limb is entire, dentate to laciniate, fimbriate, and without coronal scales. Peltate seeds with a facial hilum and a straight embryo are a characteristic feature of Dianthus including Velezia rigida L. and apparently all species of Petrorhagia (Madhani et al. 2018).

The first infrageneric classification of Dianthus was published by Boissier (1867), who recognised six sections, or “sections naturales”; the names he used are considered unranked (Rabeler 1993): D. § 5. Carthusiani Boiss., D. § 4. Dentati Boiss., D. § 3. Fimbriati Boiss., D. § 2. Leiopetali Boiss. and D. § 1. Verruculosi Boiss., but this classification was based only on species occurring in the area of his Flora Orientalis. Williams (1893) developed a more comprehensive infrageneric classification system, but apparently did not consider Boissier’s work. Williams described the morphology of the genus in detail and recognised three subgenera with eight sections and 22 subsections in total. The most widely used classification until today is the one of Pax and Hoffmann (1934), who recognised seven sections. An overview of the taxonomic history of Dianthus is given in Table 1.

Table 1.

Summary of the infrageneric classification in Dianthus as presented by the respective treatments. The names are given as they were used by the authors, not considering some existing earlier names not used by them.

Boissier 1867 Williams 1885 Pax and Hoffmann 1934
D. subg. Carthusianastrum F.N.Williams sect. Armerium F.N.Williams D. subg. Armeriastrum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. Armerium F.N.Williams
D. § 4. Dentati Boiss. D. subg. Carthusianastrum F.N.Williams sect. Suffruticosi F.N.Williams D. subg. Armeriastrum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. Suffruticosi F.N.Williams
D. § 5. Carthusiani Boiss. D. subg. Carthusianastrum F.N.Williams sect. Carthusiani (Boiss.) F.N.Williams [as “Carthusianum”] D. subg. Armeriastrum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. Carthusiani (Boiss.) F.N.Williams
D. subg. Caryophyllastrum F.N.Williams sect. Barbulatum F.N.Williams D. subg. Caryophyllum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. Barbulatum F.N.Williams (D. sect. Chamaegarophalon Griseb.)
D. subg. Caryophyllastrum F.N.Williams sect. Caryophyllum Ser. in Candolle D. subg. Caryophyllum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. Eucaryophyllum Graebn.
D. subg. Caryophyllastrum F.N.Williams sect. Imparjugum F.N.Williams
D. § 3. Fimbriati Boiss. D. subg. Caryophyllastrum F.N.Williams sect. Fimbriati Boiss. [“Fimbriatum”] D. subg. Caryophyllum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. “Plumaria” Opiz
D. § 1. Verruculosi Boiss. D. subg. Caryophyllastrum F.N.Williams sect. “Tetralepides Leiopetala” F.N.Williams D. subg. Caryophyllum (Ser.) Pax & K.Hoffm. sect. “Tetralepides Leiopetala” F.N.Williams
D. § 2. Leiopetali Boiss. D. subg. Proliferastrum F.N.Williams in Tunica Ludw.

The first overall molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Caryophyllaceae (Fior et al. 2006) included D. furcatus Balb. and Dianthus seguieri Vill. and showed Velezia rigida L. as sister to a Dianthus clade. Harbaugh et al. (2010) added D. armeria L. and an unidentified species of Dianthus, but found Velezia within the Dianthus clade that in turn was sister to Petrorhagia saxifraga (L.) Link. After including more species in their plastid and ITS datasets, Valente et al. (2010) concluded that Dianthus is monophyletic if Velezia is also included. However, this conclusion was premature with respect to Petrorhagia since Valente et al. represented this genus of > 30 species with only two species (P. thessala (Boiss.) P.W.Ball & Heywood and P. prolifera (L.) P.W.Ball & Heywood) as outgroup, not even including P. saxifraga (L.) Link, the type of Petrorhagia. Greenberg and Donoghue (2011) then largely confirmed these findings using five chloroplast regions (matK, ndhF, trnL-trnF, trnQ-rps16, trnS-trnfM) and nrITS, although their tree lacked crucial lineages within Dianthus.

In a recent synopsis of the genera of the tribe Caryophylleae, Madhani et al. (2018) formally extended the circumscription of Dianthus by three species of Petrorhagia and Velezia rigida, based on trees of plastid rps16 and nrITS sequences and mapping of selected morphological characters. They recovered P. armerioides (Ser. ex DC.) P.W.Ball & Heywood as sister to V. rigida based on ITS but the support for a position of this lineage within Dianthus was weak (0.77 PP), and only six species of Dianthus were sampled, again lacking crucial lineages. Their rps16 tree shows Petrorhagia alpina (Hablitz) P.W.Ball & Heywood, P. armerioides, and P. candica P.W.Ball & Heywood in a subclade that is nested in a Dianthus clade. However, only Dianthus carthusianorum L. (only supported by BI, 0.98 PP) and D. armeria were included and resolved as successive sisters, whereas Velezia was not sampled at all. Moreover, the fact that the authors used different taxa in their plastid and nuclear datasets, some of them crucial for determining generic concepts but represented in only one of the datasets, further limits firm conclusions. The wider circumscription of Dianthus proposed by Madhani et al. (2018) is not supported by a morphological synapomorphy because the peltate seeds and straight embryos mentioned therein as important characters for diagnosing Dianthus are also found in Petrorhagia. The circumscription of Dianthus in particular with respect to Petrorhagia therefore remains to be clarified by analyses with an improved taxon sampling of both genera and also an increased character base that allows for better resolved trees and statistical support of relevant nodes. These investigations should also consider the Greek and Levant taxa of Bolanthus (Ser.) Rchb.. The genus was found closely related to Dianthus and Petrorhagia based on ITS and rps16 (Zografidis et al. 2020), which includes Bolanthus hirsutus (Labill.) Barkoudah, the type of Bolanthus.

Valente et al. (2010) conducted the first comprehensive molecular analysis of Dianthus, based on partial matK, psbA-trnK, trnH-psbA and nrITS sequences from 104 species plus some representatives from Velezia, Petrorhagia and Saponaria L. Based on their trees, the authors annotated five major lineages within Dianthus. The first branching lineage largely comprised members of D. sect. Armerium F.N.Williams (e.g. D. armeria, D. deltoides L., D. viscidus Bory & Chaub.), followed by a Velezia clade (represented by three different samples of V. rigida), and a lineage called “Section Verruculosi” with D. cyri Fisch & C.A.Mey., D. strictus Banks ex Sol. and D. tripunctatus Sm. The majority of the species then appeared in a clade annotated as “Eurasian radiation” that was depicted as sister to an African clade. However, the Eurasian clade had almost no internal resolution.

Dianthus has received considerable interest from botanists in recent years, focusing on individual species groups and the description of new taxa or treatments in specific geographic areas (Balao et al. 2009; Kuzmina and Nersesyan 2012; Deniz et al. 2016; Ferrer Gallego and Laguna 2018; Oskay 2018; López-Jurado et al. 2019) and conservation (Kołodziejek et al. 2018; Cogoni et al. 2019). As a result, 54 species and 18 subspecies, mostly from the Euro-Mediterranean area, were described as new to science the last 15 years.

The absence of an overall phylogenetic tree of Dianthus as a prerequisite to break up the genus into workable units, in which species level relationships then can be studied in more detail with evolutionary methods, has so far limited the analysis of species limits in Dianthus. Also lacking is a comprehensive treatment or checklist, which would be fundamental to inform sampling and provide a basis for synthesising the existing information on Dianthus. Considering the wealth of new descriptions, we assumed that the diversity of Dianthus may in fact be considerably higher than 300 species as cited by Pax and Hoffmann (1934) and Bittrich (1993). Dianthus represents one of the major genera of the order Caryophyllales (Hernández-Ledesma et al. 2015), for which a globally consistent species-level taxonomic backbone is developed by the Caryophyllales Network, which also contributes to the treatments for World Flora Online (WFO, www.worldfloraonline.org) (Borsch et al. 2020).

As a starting point for this study, we took advantage of ongoing research activities in the context of the Caucasus Plant Biodiversity Initiative and the Flora of Greece project (http://portal.cybertaxonomy.org/flora-greece/intro), all covering geographic areas with high species diversity of the genus, and in which Dianthus is currently studied. In Greece, Dianthus is represented by 44 species and 43 subspecies, of which about half are endemic. Some of them are morphologically and geographically divergent, such as the D. juniperinus Sm. and D. fruticosus L. groups, which are woody chasmophytes occurring mostly on the island of Crete (Dimopoulos et al. 2013). In the Caucasus, about sixty species are native, of which 20 are endemic (Kuzmina and Nersesyan 2012), and five further endemics occur in NE Turkey and SW Iran.

The specific objectives for this paper are therefore twofold: first, to generate an overall phylogenetic hypothesis for Dianthus that covers a broad spectrum of taxa, also extending to putative close relatives (e.g. Petrorhagia) to further test the monophyly of Dianthus. Due to the extremely low genetic diversity encountered in Dianthus as compared to other large genera of flowering plants (e.g. Campanula), we sequenced four plastid regions (matK-trnK-psbA, rpl32-trnL, trnQ-rps16) that were selected for high variability and hierarchical phylogenetic signal (Borsch and Quandt 2009) as well as to match existing datasets of Valente et al. (2010). We added nrITS to obtain data from a nuclear region that allows for some first insights to possible hybridisation and reticulate evolution.

The second specific objective is to provide an up-to-date taxonomic backbone for Dianthus. This was done using an import that integrated all electronically available sources from the World Flora Online. In this way, an already comprehensive name source was available that we then matched with recent treatments, e.g. major Floras published in the last thirty years, accounts of specific species groups, etc., to have a clear reference for accepting a name or putting it into synonymy. The checklist of Dianthus presented here will be also incorporated into the World Flora Online taxonomic backbone and will be updated whenever changes become necessary.

Considering the difficulty in species delimitation and the species diversity of Dianthus, we believe that our integrated approach to develop both a taxonomic backbone that includes all names belonging to the genus in a current, monophyletic circumscription, along with a traceable source for the taxon concepts used at species level, will be crucial to understanding evolutionary relationships and species diversification in space and time. Such information is also urgently needed from applied perspectives such as to assess the conservation status of many Dianthus species that are local or regional endemics and/or have a critical conservation status.

Methods

Taxon sampling and collection of plant material

Plant material was collected in the field or from well-documented accessions in the living collections of the Botanic Garden Berlin, and from herbarium specimens kept at the herbaria B and ERE. Information on the origin of all samples is provided in Appendix 1. Vouchers are deposited in B, ERE, HEID and UPA.

DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing

Total genomic DNA was extracted from silica-dried leaf material using the NucleoSpin Plant II kit (Macherey Nagel, Düren, Germany) and from herbarium samples using a CTAB protocol with triple extractions (Borsch et al. 2003). DNA fragments were amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 50 µl volumes, containing 4 μl of DNA template (concentration c. 10 ng/μl), 5 μl Taq buffer S (PeqLab, Erlangen, Germany), 2 μl of each primer (20 pm/μl), 10 μl dNTPs (each 1.25 mM), 1.5 units of Hot Taq DNA Polymerase (PeqLab), and ultrapure water.

The matK-trnK-psbA region was amplified in overlapping halves using the primer pair trnK-F (Wicke and Quandt 2009) and CARYmatK-1440R (Schäferhoff et al. 2009) for the 3′ fragment and ACmatK500F (Müller and Borsch 2005), and psbA5’R (Shaw et al. 2005) for the 5′ fragment. The use of the reverse primer psbA5′R that anneals to the psbA gene allows the full sequence at the 5′ end of the trnK intron to be obtained and additionally covers the trnK-psbA intergenic spacer. Amplification conditions were: an initial denaturation step of 1 min 30 sec at 96 °C, followed by 34 cycles of denaturation (30 sec at 95 °C), annealing (1 min at 50 °C), extension (1 min 30 sec at 72 °C), and a final extension step (20 min at 72 °C).

The rpl32-trnL IGS was amplified using the primers rpl32-F and trnL-UAG (Shaw et al. 2007) and the trnQ-rps16 IGS was amplified using the primers trnQ2 (Korotkova et al. 2010) and rpl16x1 (Shaw et al. 2007). The PCR conditions were as for matK-trnK-psbA, except that the extension step was only 1 minute. ITS was amplified using the primers ITS5 and ITS4 (White et al. 1990), amplification conditions were: 35 cycles of denaturation (1 min at 97 °C), annealing (1 min at 48 °C) and extension (45 s at 72 °C), and a final extension step (7 min at 72 °C).

All PCR products were electrophoresed for 2 hours on a 2% agarose gel and then excised and purified using the Geneaid Gel/PCR DNA Fragments Extraction Kit (Geneaid Biotech Ltd., New Taipei City, Taiwan) and sequenced via standard Sanger sequencing at Macrogen Europe (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Chromatograms were inspected by eye, erroneous nucleotide calls were manually corrected, and final sequences were assembled using PhyDE v. 0.9971 (Müller et al. 2005+). All sequences were submitted to the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/home under the projects PRJEB48120, PRJEB43752.

Sequence alignment, indel coding and model selection

DNA sequences were aligned in PhyDE following a motif alignment approach and the rules laid out by Löhne and Borsch (2005). Homonucleotide stretches and parts of uncertain homology were excluded from the final matrix prior to the analyses. Indels were coded according to the scheme “Simple Indel Coding” (Simmons and Ochoterena 2000) in SeqState v.1.40 (Müller 2005b).

Phylogenetic analyses

Best-fitting models of nucleotide substitution were selected via the Akaike Information Criterion in jModeltest v.2.1.6 (Darriba et al. 2012). The models that were found to best fit the given DNA sequence data are listed in Table 2. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed via Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). Jackknife (JK) node support was additionally calculated under parsimony in PAUP* v.4.0b10 (Swofford 1998) with 10,000 replicates, branch swapping via tree-bisection-reconnection, a deletion of 36.8% of all characters during replicates, and a retention of one tree per replicate (Müller 2005a).

Table 2.

Sequence characteristics of the individual partitions in the plastid dataset. SD = standard deviation.

rpl32-trnL trnQ-rps16 trnK intron matK CDS trnK-psbA ITS
Dataset including hotspots
Number of sequences 202 202 202 202 202 145
Aligned length 1372 1166 1229 1536 270 714
Mean length (SD) 786 (89) 688 (120) 815 (163) 1406 (332) 195 (95) 674 (33)
Dataset excluding hotspots
Aligned length 1236 1068 1186 1537 270 714
Mean length (SD) 755 (78) 653 (114) 793 (160) 1405 (332) 195 (95) 674 (33)
% variable characters 31.5 23.6 16.8 22.4 16.2 33.3
% informative characters 18.8 8.3 5.3 8.8 4.4 27.5
Number of coded indels 106 102 52 17 10 43
jModeltest v.2.1.6, AIC results GTR+G TPM1uf+G TPM1uf+I+G TPM1uf+I+G -- SYM+I+G

Tree inference under ML was conducted on the concatenated alignment with RAxML v.8.2.9 (Stamatakis 2014) using the thorough ML optimisation option. The dataset was analysed as a single partition under the nucleotide substitution model GTR+I+G, with branch lengths linked across partitions. Branch support for the ML inference was calculated via 100 bootstrap (BS) replicates using the rapid BS algorithm (Stamatakis et al. 2008).

Bayesian Inference (BI) was conducted with MrBayes v.3.2.2 (Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003), using four parallel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) runs for a total of 10 million generations on CIPRES. The initial 25% of all MCMC trees were discarded as burn-in, and post-burn-in trees were summarised as majority rule consensus trees. Datasets for BI comprised both DNA sequence data and coded indels; the binary character model was applied for the indel partition. All trees were visualised via TreeGraph2 (Stöver and Müller 2010).

Compilation of the Dianthus checklist

The checklist was compiled using the EDIT Platform for Cybertaxonomy (cybertaxonomy.org) (Ciardelli et al. 2009; Berendsohn 2010), which is a suite of open-source software tools and services that covers all aspects of an integrative taxonomic workflow and include tools to capture, process, attribute, document, publish and maintain the data. This way, the already existing interaction with the Global Caryophyllales Synthesis initiative (Borsch et al. 2015) can be used and future dynamic updating is guaranteed.

As a first step, a complete list of Dianthus names and their respective World Flora Online (WFO)-IDs were received from the WFO Data Centre in February 2018 and imported into the EDIT Platform. This import included names accepted in the WFO backbone, their synonyms therein, doubtful names, and names of hybrids, and each of these taxonomic states was preliminarily assigned to the imported names. This dataset was then matched with the World Checklist of Vascular Plants dataset received from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in December 2019 (Kew WCVP 2019), which resulted in some 181 additional, mostly infraspecific names, not yet covered by the WFO backbone, which were manually entered into the EDIT platform as well.

This preliminary list of accepted names and their synonyms was then cross-checked with relevant taxonomic treatments (see below). The resulting circumscription of each taxon is indicated by means of a “secundum” (“sec.”) reference (Berendsohn 1995; 1997; Berendsohn and Geoffroy 2007), which is the particular reference for the taxon to be accepted in our taxonomic backbone. For synonyms, the “syn. sec.” reference indicates the assignment of the synonym to the concept of either the accepted name or one of its homotypic synonyms; this may or may not be the same reference as that of the taxon’s secundum. We selected the secundum reference to be the most comprehensive source of information available for a species or subspecies. Ideally, this was a monographic treatment based on morphology and a detailed revision of type material, as carried out for some Floras. In those cases where a newly described species had not yet been included in any subsequent more inclusive treatment, the original publication served as the secundum reference. The references used as secundum for the Euro-Mediterranean area in the widest sense included the treatments of Dianthus in the Euro+Med PlantBase (Marhold 2011), Flora Iberica (Bernal et al. 1990), Vascular Plants of Greece: an annotated checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013) and Flora Iranica (Rechinger 1988). Several checklists and Floras were examined for Russia and the Caucasus (Czerepanov 1995; Barkalov and Probatova 2006; Chepinoga et al. 2008; Kuzmina and Nersesyan 2012). For eastern Asia, the sources were the Floras of China (Dequan and Turland 2001), Japan (Zoku 1965) and Pakistan (Ghanzafar and Nasir 1986). The African Plant Database version 3.4.0 (2012) was taken as the primary reference for the African species. These references already covered about 90% of the Dianthus species. Further publications reporting taxonomic data were used, such as descriptions of new species (Brullo et al. 2000; Shaulo and Erst 2011; Brullo et al. 2015; Son et al. 2017), nomenclatural notes on certain species or species groups (Peruzzi and Gargano 2006; Bacchetta et al. 2010) and studies on species in single countries (Iamonico 2013; Lazkov 2016). Many new Dianthus species were described from Turkey in the last 10–15 years, which were considered through the respective publications (Menemen and Hamzaoğlu 2000; İlçim et al. 2013; Hamzaoğlu et al. 2015; 2017; 2018; Deniz et al. 2016).

In the rare cases of differing taxonomic concepts, we accepted the circumscription with the respective secundum reference that was either the most recent one or the one covering the area where the accepted taxon in question is primarily distributed.

Names that were part of the WFO backbone, treated therein as unresolved names and not found in any of the sources cited above, were also treated as unresolved names in our checklist.

Results

Sequence datasets

The concatenated plastid alignment matrix comprised a total of 202 taxa and 5573 positions, which resulted in a matrix of 5297 nucleotide characters and 287 coded indels. The ITS matrix contained only 136 taxa and was 714 nucleotides in length, with an average length of 674 nucleotides. There were polymorphic sites in about one-third of the generated ITS sequences, including some obvious hybrid sequences which were not readable. For this reason, the ITS matrix only includes unambiguously readable sequences and is therefore smaller than the plastid matrix. Detailed sequence statistics are provided in Table 2.

Trees inferred from the concatenated plastid dataset

Our annotation in the phylogenetic trees uses accepted names as available prior to this study; new names or combinations in order to make Dianthus monophyletic are provided below.

The plastid tree (Fig. 1) depicts a maximally supported clade comprising all sampled Dianthus taxa as well as Velezia and several Petrorhagia, which are nested within Dianthus. Petrorhagia alpina (= Dianthus recticaulis Ledeb.) is resolved as sister to the rest of the Dianthus-Velezia-Petrorhagia clade. The other Petrorhagia samples are resolved in a separate highly supported clade including P. saxifraga, the type species of the genus, with Bolanthus graecus (Schreb.) Barkoudah sister to the rest of Petrorhagia.

Figure 1. 

Bayesian majority-rule consensus tree inferred from combined plastid dataset of trnK/matK, trnK-psbA, trnQ-rps16, rpl32-trnL. Support values PP (left) and MLBS (right) can be found above branches and JK below; “<50” denotes branches with MLBS support below 50%, “--” denotes a node not found by the respective analysis. Country codes: AM = Armenia, AT = Austria, AZ = Azerbaijan, BG = Bulgaria, CY = Cyprus, DE = Germany, ES = Spain, FR = France, GE = Georgia, GR = Greece (NE = North East, NC = North Central, KK = Kriti and Karpathos, StE = Sterea Ellas, NPi = Norh Pindos, EAe = East Aegean Islands, Pe = Peloponnisos), HR = Croatia, IR = Iran, IT = Italy, RO = Romania, RU = Russia, SK = Slovakia, TR = Turkey, ZA = South Africa. The annotations on the infrageneric classification based on Pax and Hoffmann (1934) are indicated by coloured squares.

A Dianthus armeria clade (1 PP, 98% MLBS and 100% JK) is the first branching lineage. The next branching lineages are Velezia, Dianthus candicus, and a clade comprising Dianthus cyri, D. strictus, D. tunicoides and two further species of Petrorhagia (P. cretica (L.) P.W.Ball & Heywood and P. illyrica (Ard.) P.W.Ball & Heywood). However, the branching order among these clades only receives moderate (BI) to weak support.

The core of Dianthus that includes most species (1 PP, 69% MLBS and 65% JK) is composed of three main clades. Clade A (1 PP, < 50% MLBS) contains a wide spectrum of Eurasian taxa. Clade B (1 PP, 90% MLBS and 87% JK) contains mainly Irano-Turanian and Caucasian taxa and all species from southern Africa. Clade C (1 PP, 61% MLBS and 67% JK) consists of Dianthus juniperinus and most subspecies of D. fruticosus, but D. fruticosus subsp. amorginus Runemark, subsp. fruticosus , and subsp. rhodius (Rech. f.) Runemark are resolved in a sublineage of clade A.

Trees inferred from nrITS

The ITS topology (Fig. 2) is hardly resolved at all. Still, the tree depicts a well-resolved core of species of Petrorhagia in a clade sister to the Dianthus clade. Dianthus recticaulis (= Petrorhagia alpina) is again depicted as first branch, followed by the D. armeria lineage, which is congruent to the plastid tree. Dianthus cyri, the species of Velezia, Dianthus tunicoides along with Petrorhagia cretica and P. illyrica are found in a weakly supported clade, inconsistent to their positions in a rather weakly supported grade in the plastid tree. Bolanthus (= Graecobolanthus) is resolved in the first branch in the tree, albeit with weak support (0.7 BI, 66% JK).

Figure 2. 

Bayesian majority-rule consensus tree inferred from nuclear ITS datasets. Support values PP (left) and MLBS (right) can be found above branches and JK below; “<50” denotes branches with MLBS support below 50%, “--” denotes a node not found by the respective analysis. Country codes: AM = Armenia, AT = Austria, AZ = Azerbaijan, BG = Bulgaria, CY = Cyprus, DE = Germany, ES = Spain, FR = France, GE = Georgia, GR = Greece (NE = North East, NC = North Central, KK = Kriti and Karpathos, StE = Sterea Ellas, NPi = Norh Pindos, EAe = East Aegean Islands, Pe = Peloponnisos), HR = Croatia, IR = Iran, IT = Italy, RO = Romania, RU = Russia, SK = Slovakia, TR = Turkey, ZA = South Africa. The annotations on the infrageneric classification based on Pax and Hoffmann (1934) are indicated by coloured squares.

Unlike the plastid sequences, ITS sequence data do not provide resolution within the core of Dianthus, although some subclades are evident within a broad polytomy (Fig. 2). The lineage with subspecies of D. juniperinus together with D. fruticosus subsp. sitiacus Runemark corresponds to subclade C in the plastid tree, whereas neither the D. broteri Boiss. & Reut. - D. rupicola Biv. - D. lusitanus Brot. subclade of the ITS tree nor the subclade with D. caucaseus Sims, D. gabrielianae Nersesian and D. oschtenica are recovered by plastid data. Also, the southern African species (e.g. D. mooiensis F. N. Williams, D. zeyheri Sond) appear within the core polytomy in ITS.

Accepted species names and synonyms

In total, 1781 names are included for a monophyletic genus Dianthus as defined here, including Petrorhagia p.p. and Velezia. The resulting checklist treatment is subdivided into four parts: i) the core checklist that contains the accepted species and infraspecies and their synonyms, ii) hybrid names, iii) unresolved names and iv) excluded names. The core checklist of Dianthus including 2 former Petrorhagia species and 3 heterotypic subspecies and 6 former Velezia species contains 384 total accepted species and 150 accepted heterotypic subspecies, and 1050 names are assigned as synonyms. There are 22 hybrid names, 172 unresolved names, and 3 excluded names.

Discussion

Circumscription and overall relationships of Dianthus

Plastid and nuclear data agree on a Dianthus clade that includes Velezia and further species of Petrorhagia (P. cretica, P. illyrica) as deeply nested (Figs 1, 2) that were not sampled in previous phylogenetic analyses (Valente et al. 2010; Madhani et al. 2018). It is noteworthy that Dianthus recticaulis is resolved as sister to all other species of Dianthus in both genomic compartments with good support. It is an annual with solitary flowers on conspicuous peduncles (Ball and Heywood 1964) similar to P. cretica (Fig. 4A, B). The inflorescence architecture is apparently connected to the annual life form, which evolved independently in different terminal branches in Dianthus and allies. Dianthus recticaulis is the legitimate name for P. alpina, while Dianthus strictiformis that was proposed as a new name for Petrorhagia alpina by Madhani et al. (2018) is superfluous and illegitimate (Mosyakin and Federonchuk 2018). Their plastid rpl16 tree, however, depicts this species in an incongruent position as sister to P. candica (also transferred to Dianthus by the authors), but this may be a spurious signal caused by an imbalanced sampling of Dianthus (both species appear nested within the D. armeria clade). Our phylogenetic results confirm the position of these former Petrorhagia species within Dianthus (Figs 2, 3). Nevertheless, we extended the sampling of Petrorhagia and found further species (P. cretica, P. illyrica) within Dianthus, whereas a distant clade of the members of the genus Petrorhagia (including the type P. saxifraga, and P. dianthoides (Sm.) P.W.Ball & Heywood, P. glumacea (Bory & Chaub.) P.W.Ball & Heywood, P. prolifera, P. thessala and P. dubia (Raf.) G.López & Romo) receives high support in chloroplast and ITS trees. The taxa that were found nested within Dianthus belong to the Petrorhagia sect. Pseudotunica (Fenzl) Ball & Heywood and Petrorhagia sect. Pseudogypsophila (A.Braun) P.W.Ball & Heywood, while the Petrorhagia taxa that form a distant clade belong to Petrorhagia sect. Petrorhagia and Petrorhagia sect. Kohlrauschia (Kunth) P.W.Ball & Heywood (Ball and Heywood 1964). This clade is related to Bolanthus, which is inferred as sister with high support in the plastid tree, but is depicted inconsistently in a grade with ITS (Fig. 2). Apart from our now clearer picture of relationships between Dianthus and Petrorhagia, the genus Velezia still plays a role in the monophyletic circumscription of Dianthus. Madhani et al. (2018) merged Velezia with Dianthus, following the suggestion by Valente et al. (2010), but considered only one species, V. rigida L., and resurrected the name Dianthus nudiflorus Griff. based on a type from Afghanistan. Sequence data of Velezia indicate that this former genus consists of more than one species (Fig. 2), with V. fasciculata Boiss. in a different position in the ITS tree compared to V. rigida, which is in line with the acceptance of six species in the Euro+Med PlantBase (Marhold 2011). Only V. rigida is widespread from the western Mediterranean through SW Asia and the Caucasus as well as introduced in North America, specifically in California (Rabeler and Hartmann 1993+), whereas the other species are range-restricted and occur in Greece, Turkey and Syria. Consequently, we propose to also include the remaining Velezia species in Dianthus (see Nomenclatural Novelties).

Figure 3. 

Habit, inflorescence and floral morphology in the core lineage of Dianthus. From the predominantly Euro-Mediterranean clade A are D. sphacioticus (A) with solitary flowers enclosed basally by cauline leaves, D. integer subsp. minutiflorus (B) enclosed basally by several slightly coriaceous bracts with an outward-pointing green tip, D. stenopetalus (C) with several flowers in a condensed terminal inflorescence with many brown scales, D. critinus (D) with four decussate bracts at the base, and D. haematocalyx (E). Clade B, which includes many Caucasian and Irano-Turanian species, is represented by D. gabrielianae (F) and the predominantly Cretan clade C by D. juniperinus subsp. juniperinus (G). D. juniperinus is a densely branched, cushion-like subshrub and D. haematocalyx is a small cushion plant. Photos: N. Turland (A), K. Goula (B–D), A. Zografidis (E), A. Nersesyan (F) and G. Fassou (G).

Figure 4. 

Habit, inflorescence and floral morphology in early-branching lineages of Dianthus and Petrorhagia. The Dianthus tunicoides clade is represented by D. pachygonus (= Petrorhagia cretica), which has solitary flowers (A, B) in diffusely branched inflorescences (C). The Dianthus armeria clade is represented by D. armeria (D), which has condensed terminal inflorescences and flowers supported by reflexed, bract-like leaves, and D. deltoides, which has lax inflorescences with solitary flowers each supported by two opposite bracts (E). The core clade of Petrorhagia is represented by P. prolifera, which has highly condensed terminal inflorescences with broadly ovate and thinly scarious bracts enclosing the flowers (F with opened inflorescence to the right). Photos: A. Nersesyan (A-D), T. Borsch (E, F).

The second branch within the Dianthus clade is composed of Dianthus armeria (incl. D. viscidus) and relatives such as D. carthusianorum and D. deltoides, as congruently inferred by the nuclear and plastid partition and which is also consistent with trees shown by Valente et al. (2010) and Greenberg and Donoghue (2011). The respective positions of the next-branching lineages, i.e. Velezia and a lineage of Dianthus strictus plus D. cyri, are not well supported. Again, our tree topologies agree in principle with the findings of Valente et al. (2010) and Greenberg and Donoghue (2011) but differ in that two former species of Petrorhagia as recognised by Madhani et al. (2018) belong here (P. armerioides (Ser. ex DC.) P.W.Ball & Heywood, P. candica P.W.Ball & Heywood). We show that P. cretica and P. illyrica are also part of this lineage (Fig. 2) and need to be merged with Dianthus.

Our results also agree with a core clade of Dianthus that contains the majority of the Dianthus species. Contrary to Valente et al. (2010), our results depict three major clades (clades A-C) of core Dianthus.

Clade A contains Eurasian taxa and includes the type of the genus, D. caryophyllus. Clade A also comprises three subspecies of D. fruticosus (subsp. amorginus, subsp. fruticosus and subsp. rhodius) that are apparently convergent in terms of evolving a similar life form as the members of clade C. Several terminal sublineages of apparently geographically close samples receive good support such as D. cretaceus Adams subsp. cretaceus and D. floribundus Boiss., but at the same time the samples of D. gratianopolitanus Vill. are spread over this clade (Fig. 2).

Clade B contains mostly Irano-Turanian and Caucasian taxa but also D. cyprius A.K.Jacks. & Turrill from Cyprus, D. alpinus L. from the European Alps and the taxa from tropical and southern Africa (D. mooiensis, D. namaensis Schinz and D. zeyheri). This is in contrast with the claim of Valente et al. (2010) that an African clade is well supported as a sister clade to a Eurasian radiation. According to our data, the African taxa are nested within the Eurasian radiation.

The third clade of the core of Dianthus (clade C) consists of the Cretan taxa Dianthus juniperinus and some subspecies of Dianthus fruticosus. Specifically, the subspecies D. fruticosus subsp. carpathus Runemark, D. fruticosus subsp. occidentalis Runemark and D. fruticosus subsp. karavius Runemark can be found in clade C together with D. juniperinus. Dianthus fruticosus is not monophyletic; some of its subspecies, D. fruticosus subsp. fruticosus, D. fruticosus subsp. amorginus and D. fruticosus subsp. rhodius are resolved within clade A. There are no apparent morphological differences of D. fruticosus subsp. amorginus and subsp. fruticosus (both from the Cyclades), and D. fruticosus subsp. rhodius (from Rhodes and other east Aegean islands) compared to the other subspecies of D. fruticosus from clade C. This indicates convergent evolution resulting from adaptation to similar coastal rocky habitats.

Infrageneric classification of Dianthus

The classification of Pax and Hoffmann (1934) is annotated on the phylogenetic trees in Fig. 1. Even though many species were described later and therefore were not classified into infrageneric entities, it is evident that these subgenera and sections do not represent natural groups. Apart from D. sect. Armerium, there is little correlation with the taxonomic groups of either Williams (1893) or Pax and Hoffmann (1934).

Dianthus subg. Armeriastrum is highly polyphyletic and is represented both in the core of Dianthus, namely in clades A and C by D. sect. Carthusiani and D. sect. Suffruticosi, but also in the Dianthus armeria clade (with D. sect. Armerium) that belongs to the first branches of Dianthus. However, D. sect. Armerium is paraphyletic to D. deltoides (D. subg. Caryophyllum). Clade C has exclusively taxa from D. sect. Suffruticosi, but the section itself is not limited to this clade C. It is polyphyletic due to the presence of D. armeria outside of the core Dianthus clade, the presence of three subspecies of D. fruticosus, and two further independent terminal lineages composed by D. rupicula and D. gracilis in clade A. The suffruticose life form that characterises D. sect. Suffruticosi must therefore have evolved multiple times.

Dianthus subg. Caryophyllum is in the clades A and B, with its sections forming no specific pattern. Although all the sections appear in the core of Dianthus, D. sect. Eucaryophyllum appears exclusively in clade A, while the section “Tetralepides leiopetala” can be found in clade A and outside of the core. What was referred to as a clade corresponding to D. sect. Armerium in Valente et al. (2010) in fact consists of taxa from different sections sensu Pax and Hoffmann (1934). In addition to D. sect. Armerium, these are D. sect. Carthusiani (D. carthusianorum and D. viscidus), although the majority of species from this section are in clade A. Dianthus deltoides, which is congruently inferred as part of the Dianthus armeria clade by Valente et al. (2010), is classified herein in D. subg. Caryophyllum.

The early branch of Dianthus cyri and D. strictus belongs to the section “Tetralepides leiopetala” according to Pax and Hoffmann (1934), which was originally described by Williams (1885); see Table 1. The two species D. cyri and D. tripunctatus (not sampled here) were earlier used by Boissier (1867) to define D. § 1. Verruculosi, although no type for the sectional name was designated. If we accept D. cyri as the type, the name D. sect. Verruculosi (Boiss.) Schischkin would be correct in terms of priority. This corresponds to the use of this sectional name by Valente et al. (2010), as well as some floristic treatments, e.g. Rechinger (1988). However, Williams (1885; 1893) did not designate any types for his subgeneric or sectional names either. The wide taxon concept of the section “Tetralepides leiopetala” sensu Williams (1893) and Pax and Hoffmann (1934) can only be adjusted after the application of a validly published name and its typification. This section is polyphyletic and its species are found across all our clades (Fig. 1).

Implications for the evolution of floral and inflorescence morphology

The inflorescences in Dianthus, Petrorhagia and related genera possess a cymose principal structure as in most Caryophyllaceae, and these inflorescences exhibit various levels of complexity. The spectrum ranges from solitary flowers on more or less unbranched stems (e.g. D. sphacioticus Boiss. & Heldr., Fig. 3A), over more or less richly branched inflorescences (e.g. D. deltoides, D. juniperinus, Figs 3G, 4C, 4E) to somewhat condensed (e.g. D. armeria, Fig. 4D) or strongly condensed terminal head-like inflorescences (e.g. D. stenopetalus Griseb., Fig. 3C). These complex inflorescences have evolved independently in different lineages within Dianthus, such as the early-branching Dianthus armeria clade (D. armeria, D. carthusianorum) and within clade A of the core group (D. cruentus Griseb., D. giganteus d’Urv., D. pinifolius Sm., D. stenopetalus) and also within clade B (D. asperulus Boiss. & A.Huet, D. transcaucasicus Schischk.). In a similar way, the condensed inflorescences in Petrorhagia prolifera and relatives (Fig. 1C, Fig. 4F; Ball and Heywood 1964) mark convergent evolution in a terminal clade, whereas P. saxifraga has solitary flowers subtended by four decussate bracts, like in several species of Dianthus in core clades A-C (Fig. 3). Within the inflorescences, cauline herbaceous leaves more or less gradually become narrower, more scarious or papery in texture and with a more distinctly excurrent midrib (Figs 3D, 4E) toward the tip of the branches. The position of the uppermost pair of these leaf organs can be distinctly below the calyx as in Petrorhagia cretica, and in this case they differ only slightly in their morphology from cauline leaves. Alternatively, these leaf organs arise directly at the base of the calyx, resulting from a reduced peduncle and shortened uppermost internodes of the inflorescence branches or stems (Figs 3 B, D, 4E). This seems to be the most common state in Dianthus, which is present in all major lineages. These “subtending” modified leaf organs usually differ more abruptly from the upper leaves on stems and inflorescence branches and have been called “epicalyx scales” or “epicalyx bracts” (Ball and Heywood 1964; Tutin 1964; Madhani et al. 2018;) . Condensed inflorescences with multiple flowers do not only have such “epicalyx scales” but also additional, usually brown, scarious bracts (Fig. 3C) that create a firm, head-like appearance.

This was noted by Tutin (1964), who stated that bracts occur in species with capitate inflorescences and should be distinguished from epicalyx scales. Specialised inflorescence types have also evolved in other genera of Caryophyllales, such as the head-like synflorescences composed of several paracladia that are supported by pseudanthial leaves in Gomphrena, Amaranthaceae (Ortuño Limarino and Borsch 2020). Therefore, complex evolution of inflorescences is present in the Caryophyllales, and occurs multiple times within the respective genera. The absence or presence of “epicalyx bracts” as discussed by Ball and Heywood (1964) and Madhani et al. (2018) can therefore not be used as diagnostic to delimit Dianthus from Petrorhagia and as such does not represent a homologous character. Nevertheless, the evolution of complex inflorescence types, which possess additional modified leaf organs compared to the subtending opposite leaves in dichasial inflorescence structures, may be more accurately reconstructed once there is a fully resolved tree of Dianthus.

The conspicuous species with plumose petals (Fig. 3) were early on classified as “Dianthus sect. Plumaria”, a name published by Opiz (1852), albeit a nomen nudum and therefore invalid. It largely corresponds to D. sect. Fimbriati (Boiss.) F.N.Williams. This section is highly polyphyletic, and points to multiple evolutionary origins of plumose petals in Dianthus, such as in D. superbus (core clade A) and D. crinitus or D. libanotis, (core clade B), and there are also transitional petals slightly plumose at the tip (e.g. D. cyprius, D. namaensis).

Implications for biogeography and diversification patterns

A striking biogeographic feature within Dianthus is the Cretan D. juniperinus-D. fruticosus clade (clade C). The highly fragmented form of the Aegean region with many islands is the result of a series of geological events. Between the Lower Oligocene and before the Serravallian, there was a land mass, Aegea. Since Serravallian and until Upper Tortonian times (12–5 MYA), the sea slowly invaded and formed the mid-Aegean Trench, which divided the eastern and central-western parts of Aegea. During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.96–5.33 MYA), the Mediterranean Sea almost dried up, creating routes between some isolated areas. Nevertheless, Crete remained isolated from the Cyclades and Peloponnese due to deep trenches with high salinity. At the beginning of the Pliocene (5.3 Ma), the sea level rose again and resulted in a highly fragmented Aegea. Crete was almost submerged and only the peaks of the mountains remained as isolated islands. Since the Middle Pliocene until the upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene, the Aegean islands and Crete took their present form, with minor changes. The palaeogeographic history of the Aegean Sea has a major contribution to the biogeographic patterns of all recent taxa of these areas (Sfenthourakis and Triantis 2017). The bisection of D. fruticosus into two different clades, with D. fruticosus subsp. fruticosus, D. fruticosus subsp. amorginus and D. fruticosus subsp. rhodius belonging to clade A and the rest of the subspecies nested in the C with D. juniperinus, follows the fragmentation of Aegea due to the formation of the Mid-Aegean Trench. Moreover, Crete was connected to the mainland during most of the Miocene and was mostly isolated during the Pliocene, forming its own unique biogeographic patterns. The Aegean region is a biologically very diverse archipelago, but the way in which the islands and plant groups have interacted and evolved is not yet sufficiently understood. There are some recent studies, e.g. Kougioumoutzis et al. (2016) that address the biogeographic studies in the area, but further research is nonetheless crucial.

The tropical and southern African Dianthus taxa appear in our clade C within the Eurasian taxa, although, due to lack of resolution, we cannot yet infer the closest relatives of the southern African species. Dianthus shows a pattern like other species from the northern hemisphere with African high-mountain clades nested within Eurasian clades, as shown for, e.g., Carex and Ranunculus (Gehrke and Linder 2009). Many cases suggest not only migration from the northern hemisphere, but the recurrence of that (Bleeker et al. 2002; Carlsen et al. 2009), which could explain the presence of the African taxa within the clades of Eurasian taxa. The tropical-alpine and tropical-montane floras, as suggested by Linder (2014), show strong relations with the flora of Eurasia. One probable migration route from Eurasia to southern Africa for these taxa is through the Arabian Peninsula and the high mountains of eastern and southern Africa (Koch et al. 2006), which fits well with the pattern observed in this study that African Dianthus are part of a clade dominated by the Eurasian and Irano-Turanian taxa.

Dianthus is suggested to be one of the fastest species radiations of flowering plants (Valente et al. 2010). These authors calculated diversification rates by using a rather conservative estimate of 300 species. Considering that the number of species in Dianthus as assessed here is distinctly higher, the true speciation rates may also even be higher. On the other hand, there is not a single “Eurasian radiation” as suggested by Valente et al. (2010). Rather, our data point to three sub-radiations in the core of Dianthus, which seem to have evolved different numbers of species in different geographic areas. It is noteworthy that Dianthus has not evolved a high number of species in tropical and southern Africa. The smallest is the radiation of D. juniperinus and allies on Crete (our clade C). However, the number of species in this lineage is still difficult to assess because the current classification includes many subspecies and because species as currently classified do not represent biological entities.

Compared to the other lineages of Dianthus, clade C shows a high phylogenetic structure and apparently some geographic patterns. Future analyses will therefore test how far speciation was triggered through geographic and ecological isolation on Crete. The two much more species-rich clades A and B have colonised vast geographic areas, offering many more ecological opportunities and potential areas for spatial isolation.

Phylogenetic signal at species level and speciation in Dianthus

Genetic distances in Dianthus are very low, which limits resolution in phylogeny reconstruction at species level and may be attributed to the core clade of Dianthus representing a rapid radiation (Valente et al. 2010) that did not yet allow for the accumulation of mutations in the genomic regions sequenced, while the evolution of phenotypic characters occurred more quickly. Sequence divergence is particularly low in the ribosomal array (Fig. 2). Nevertheless, the overall phylogenetic tree of Dianthus (Fig. 2) reveals deep nodes with significant statistical support. The core Dianthus clade exhibits a deep sharing of plastid haplotypes in some species, for example in D. gratianopolitanus, where individuals from geographically different populations in central Europe are resolved in various sublineages of clade A. The pattern in this species is particularly striking since there were no noticeable morphological differences among these individuals. Another species complex with deeply shared plastid haplotypes is D. orientalis Adams (Fig. 1, clade B), although here considerable morphological variation is present that has led to the acceptance of several subspecies. Again, the haplotypes are shared only within subclade C, and not across the genus. Such a pattern could be explained by a combination of shared ancestral variation and continuous secondary genetic contact, which took place within certain major lineages of Dianthus and within certain geographic areas. Dianthus seems to be one of the most extreme cases of deep chloroplast-sharing in flowering plants, similar to what has been observed in the rapid postglacial evolution of relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. during the last 800,000 years (Hohmann and Koch 2017; Novikova et al. 2016).

Future research will therefore have to employ phylogenomic approaches to better understand species-level relationships and species limits in Dianthus. In addition to sequencing a broad set of nuclear loci, the analysis of complete plastid genomes will reveal how far plastid genomes are really shared between extant species, considering that our current limited sampling of the plastid regions may not depict the full complexity and divergence patterns of this maternally inherited organellar genome.

Species diversity of Dianthus

Our Dianthus checklist contains 384 accepted species, and 147 accepted heterotypic subspecies. The unresolved names section of the checklist contains a further 172 species names that were not assessed, and a number of them may be good species as well. Therefore, the often-quoted number of 300 species (Pax and Hoffmann 1934; Bittrich 1993; Hernández-Ledesma et al. 2015) is underestimated. It should be noted that we present a compilation of names, not a genus-wide treatment, which we nevertheless consider to be an accurate estimate of the species diversity since it is based on available detailed treatments. It is therefore much more accurate compared to the previous World Flora Online backbone based on The Plant List in terms of accepted species and synonyms. About 50 names that were unresolved in the original WFO backbone could be resolved in our checklist. The remaining 172 unresolved names are in part old names, described in the 19th century and apparently not used in subsequent treatments. But there are also a number of names described from south-eastern Europe, which would have to be assessed in more detail by local experts.

It is both noteworthy and unexpected that taxon concepts are congruent between different treatments, despite some geographic overlap. The widely distributed species are accepted under the same name in different Floras, while subspecies are normally geographically restricted and therefore only accepted in one Flora. In total, differing taxonomic concepts affect fewer than 10 taxa in the whole checklist.

So far, only one species complex within Dianthus has been analysed with an evolutionary approach. Farsi et al. (2013) used a combination of sequence data and morphological characters to assess species limits in the D. polylepis Bien. complex, concluding that D. binaludensis Rech.f. could not be separated from D. polylepis but should be better treated as its subspecies. Our present study provides insights into the Dianthus fruticosus and D. juniperinus groups, but aside from that, basically all other species limits in Dianthus are still based on classical morphology, and so are the numerous recent descriptions of new species.

Nomenclatural novelties

The three species of Petrorhagia that were found nested in Dianthus (P. armerioides, P. candica and P. alpina) were already transferred to Dianthus by Madhani et al. (2018). We found two additional Petrorhagia species to be part of the Dianthus clade although they have no name in Dianthus. Of the three subspecies of P. illyrica, we sampled only one. They all are morphologically very similar (Ball and Heywood 1964) and therefore can be expected to be closely related, although we are aware that is not true for the subspecies of Dianthus fruticosus that we showed to be unrelated. Nevertheless, we provide new combinations for the other two P. illyrica subspecies so that these subspecies can be classified in Dianthus. Their phylogenetic placement remains to be tested.

Velezia rigida, the nomenclatural type of Velezia, was found to be nested within the Dianthus clade by Madhani et al. (2018) and therefore Velezia cannot be accepted as a separate genus any longer. We therefore provide new names in Dianthus for the five remaining Velezia species; their phylogenetic placement however remains to be confirmed.

The complete homotypic and heterotypic synonymy for each of the species is given in the checklist; here we provide only the basionyms and the former names in Petrorhagia or Velezia.

Dianthus antalyensis Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, nom. nov.

Velezia tunicoides P.H.Davis in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 166. 1957.

Holotype

Turkey, Prov. Antalya, distr. Kemer (Lycia): Gönük, by dry stream bed, 7 Jul 1949, Davis, Bilger & Attila D. 15009 (K-000077456!; isotype: E-00301891!).

Note

The name Dianthus tunicoides Madhani & Heubl in Taxon 67(1): 103. 2018) was already published as a new name for Gypsophila armerioides Ser. ex DC. ≡ Petrorhagia armerioides (Ser. ex DC.) P.W.Ball & Heywood. This new name refers to the province of Antalya, Turkey, from where the species was described.

Dianthus hispidus (Boiss. & Balansa) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Velezia hispida Boiss. & Balansa in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 57. 1856.

Syntypes

Turkey, Yaïla de Bozdagh (Tmolus occidental), dans les vergers, 27 Jul 1854, Balansa 117 (GOET-000717!, P-04998030!, P-04998031!, P-04998036!, WAG-0000421!).

Dianthus illyricus (Ard.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Saponaria illyrica Ard., Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt.: 24. 1764 ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica (Ard.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 133. 1964.

Lectotype (designated here)

locality and date unknown, Arduino s.n., Herb. Linnaeus No. 580.7 (LINN!). This specimen was mentioned by Ball and Heywood (1964). The sheet has two distinct specimens, one of which is labelled “Ard.”, and the typification refers to this specimen. Ball & Heywood mentioned that it “may be regarded at least as an isotype”, but did not formally designate it as a type.

Dianthus illyricus subsp. illyricus

Dianthus illyricus subsp. angustifolius (Poir.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Silene angustifolia Poir., Voy. Barbarie 2: 164. 1789 ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica subsp. angustifolia (Poir.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 136. 1964.

Neotype (designated here)

locality and date unknown, Poiret 32 (P-00286897!). This specimen might be original material for the name.

Dianthus illyricus subsp. haynaldianus (Nyman) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Tunica haynaldiana [Borbás in Mat. Term. Közlem. 13: 46. 1877, pro. syn; in Just's Bot. Jahresber. 4(2): 1067. 1878, provisional name] Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2(1): 57. 1889 ≡ T. illyrica var. haynaldiana (Nyman) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 222. 1924 ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica subsp. haynaldiana (Nyman) P.W.Ball & Heywood in in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 134. 1964.

Type

Romania, in rupestribus versus portam ferram ad Danubium inferiorem infra Orsova jam in Vallachia sitis frequens, 28 Jun 1870, Janka #Iter banaticum s.n. (B-100365631!).

Dianthus illyricus subsp. taygeteus (Boiss.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Tunica illyrica var. taygetea Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 521. 1867 ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica subsp. taygetea (Boiss.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 137. 1964.

Syntypes

Greece, Peloponnisos, Androuvista, Montis Taygeti, Jun-Jul 1844, Heldreich s.n., (G-00227046!, G-00227047!, BR0000006981167!, BR0000006981495!, BM, CGE, K fide Ball and Heywood 1964).

Dianthus fasciculatus (Boiss.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Velezia fasciculata Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 92. 1849.

Syntypes

Syria, locality as given in the protologue: “Hab. in montosis Syriae borealis inter fluvium Orontem et urbem Laodiceam”, Jun 1846, Boissier s.n. (K-000077457!, K-000077458!, LECB-0000587!, P-04998034!, P-04998035!).

Note

The name Dianthus fasciculatus Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 161. 1782 was not validly published.

Dianthus pachygonus (Fisch & C.A.Mey.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Nersesian & Borsch, comb. nov.

Tunica pachygona Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Sem. Hort. Bot. Petropol. 4: 50. 1838

= Saponaria cretica L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 1: 584. 1762 ≡ Petrorhagia cretica (L.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 142. 1964.

Type

not designated

Lectotype

(designated by Davis in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 164. 1957): locality, date and collector unknown, Herb. Linnaeus No. 580.4 (LINN!).

Davis (1957) had pointed out the name Tunica cretica (L.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (basionym: Saponaria cretica L.) had been misapplied, whereas in fact the type of the name (the specimen in LINN) is an annual species that was later named Tunica pachygona Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Accordingly, the correct name in Dianthus would be D. pachygonus, the new combination published here because the epithet of Saponaria cretica is preoccupied in Dianthus by D. creticus Tausch. which is now treated as Dianthus fruticosus subsp. creticus (Tausch) Runemark.

Dianthus pseudorigidus (Hub.-Mor.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Velezia pseudorigida Hub.-Mor. in Bauhinia 2: 195. 1963.

Holotype

Turkey, Prov. Antalya, Distr. Antalya, Poterium-Cistus-Macchie in der Bucht von Atbükü, 5 km nördlich von Cirali, 10–50 m, auf Serpentin, 26 May 1950, Huber-Morath 9666 (E 00301890!).

Dianthus quadridentatus (Sm.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch, comb. nov.

Velezia quadridentata Sm. in Sibthorp & Smith, Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 283. 1809.

Type

not designated; original material: “In Asiâ minori”, Sibthorp s.n. (OXF Sib-FG Sib-0954!, K000077455!).

Checklist

Dianthus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 409. 1753. Sec. this publication

Caryophyllus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4: [textus s.n.]. 1754, nom. illeg. syn. sec. IPNI

Caryophyllus Tourn. ex Moench, Methodus: 58. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Velezia L., Sp. Pl.: 332. 1753 syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018). Type: Velezia rigida L.

= Cylichnanthus Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 260. 1867 syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018)

Diosanthos St.-Lag. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 87. 1880, nom. inval. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Core checklist

Dianthus acantholimonoides Schischk. in Byull. Gosud. Muz. Gruzii 5: 121. 1930. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus acicularis Fisch. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 284. 1842. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus tauscheri Eversm. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 284. 1842 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus acrochlorus Stapf in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 5. 1886. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus acrochlonis Stapf in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 5. 1886 syn. sec. Marhold (2011) [is misspelling for Dianthus acrochlorus Stapf]

Dianthus aculeatus Hamzaoğlu in Biol. Diversity Conservation 7(2): 160. 2014. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2014)

Dianthus afghanicus Rech.f. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 360. 1951. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus agrostolepis Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 246. 1983. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus akdaghensis Gemici & Leblebici in Candollea 50: 43. 1995. Sec. Gemici & Leblebici (1995)

Dianthus albens Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2: 90. 1789. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus incurvus Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 81. 1794 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus algetanus Graells ex F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 347. 1885. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. algetanus (Graells ex F.N.Williams) Malag., Sin. Fl. Ibér. 20: 318. 1975 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus costae subsp. algetanus (Graells ex F.N.Williams) M.Laínz, Muñoz Garm. & Soriano in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 43: 473. 1986 [“1987”] syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus algetanus var. toletanorum Pau in Cavanillesia 1: 63. 1928 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus algetanus subsp. algetanus

Dianthus algetanus subsp. turolensis (Pau) M.Bernal, Laínz & Muñoz Garm. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 575. 1988 [“1989”]. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus turolensis Pau in Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21: 142. 1921 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus algetanus var. turolensis (Pau) Pau in Bortéria, Sér. Bot. 22: 111. 1926 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus costae subsp. turolensis (Pau) M.Laínz & Muñoz Garm in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 43: 473. 1986 [“1987”] syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus alpinus L., Sp. Pl.: 412. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus alpinus lusus angustifolius Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 530. 1862 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus alpinus lusus latifolius Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 530. 1862 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus alpinus var. meyeri Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 530. 1862 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus altaicus L.X.Dong & Chang Y.Yang in Acta Bot. Boreal.-Occid. Sin. 28(12): 2355. 2008. Sec. Dong et al. (2008)

Dianthus amurensis Jacques in J. Soc. Imp. Centr. Hort. 7: 625. 1861. Sec. Barkalov & Probatova (2006)

Dianthus chinensis var. amurensis (Jacques) Kitag., Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 266. 1979 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus anatolicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 22. 1843. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus parviflorus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 21. 1843 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus anatolicus var. parviflorus (Boiss.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 490. 1867 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus kotschyanus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 68. 1849 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus ancyrensis Hausskn. & Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 89: 94. 1936. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus andronakii Woronow ex Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 841. 1936. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus tristis Woronow in Vĕstn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada 10: 25. 1908 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus androsaceus (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek in Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 94: 141. 1918. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus lilacinus var. androsaceus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Fl. Orient. Suppl.: 81. 1888 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus andrzejejowskianus (Zapał.) Kulcz., Fl. Polska 2: 156. 1921. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus capitatus subsp. andrzejowskianus Zapał. in Rozpr. Wydz. Mat.-Przyr Polsk Akad. Umiejetn., Dzial A/B, Nauki Mat-Fiz. Biol. 11: 25. 1911 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus capitatus var. pancicianus F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 342. 1885 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus andrzejejowskianus subsp. orientalis Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 14: 104. 1932 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus angolensis Hiern ex F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 24: 301. 1886. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus angrenicus Vved. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 3: 9. 1941. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus angulatus Royle ex Benth., Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.: 79. 1834. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus orientalis var. angulatus (Royle ex Benth.) Majumdar, Fl. India 2: 532. 1993 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus incertus Jacquem. ex Edgew. & Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 215. 1874 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus angulatus subsp. angulatus

Dianthus angulatus subsp. subangulatus Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 163: 183. 1988. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus antalyensis Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 118

Velezia tunicoides P.H.Davis in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 166. 1957. Syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus anticarius Boiss. & Reut., Pugill. Pl. Afr. Bor. Hispan.: 19. 1852. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus cintranus subsp. anticarius (Boiss. & Reut.) Malag., Pl. Sennen. I: Dianthus 6. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus gaditanus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 67. 1854 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus hornemannii Salzm. ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 67. 1854 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus schousboei Coss. ex Ball in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 355. 1877 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus anticarius subsp. anticarius

Dianthus anticarius subsp. saorinii Sánchez-Gómez, M.L.Rodr., López Esp., J.B.Vera & J.F.Jiménez in Anales Biol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Murcia 27: 101. 2005. Sec. New taxa described to the Flora Iberica region after publication of the respective volumes. Published at http://www.floraiberica.es/eng/miscelania/nuevos_taxones.php

Dianthus arenarius L., Sp. Pl.: 412. 1753. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Tunica arenaria (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 301. 1771 ≡ Silene arenaria (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 115. 1901, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019);

= Dianthus arenarius var. glaucus Blocki in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 34: 72. 1884 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus krylovianus Juz. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 71. 1950 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus arenarius var. suecicus Novák syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus arenarius subsp. arenarius

Dianthus arenarius subsp. borussicus Vierh. in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 12–13: 34. 1931. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus borussicus (Vierh.) Juz. syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus arenarius var. bohemicus Novák syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus arenarius subsp. bohemicus (Novák) O.Schwartz in Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 99. 1949 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus arenarius subsp. pseudoserotinus (Blocki) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus pseudoserotinus Blocki syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)Dianthus serotinus var. pseudoserotinus (Blocki) Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 3: 150. 1911 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus arenarius subsp. pseudosquarrosus (Novák) Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 12–13: 35. 1931. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus arenarius f. pseudosquarrosus Novák in Mem. Soc. Sci. De Bohem 1: 9. 1925 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus pseudosquarrosus (Novák) Klokov, Fl. RSS Ucr. 4: 639. 1952 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus aristatus Boiss., Asie Min., Bot. 1: 222. 1860. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus zonatus var. aristatus (Boiss.) Reeve, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 28: 21. 1967 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus preobrazhenskii Klokov in Trudy Silsko-Gosp. Bot. 1(3): 170. 1927 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus armeria L., Sp. Pl.: 410. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Caryophyllus armerius (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Dianthus armeria subsp. armeria syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus hirsutus Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 533. 1779 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus hirtus Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 533. 1779 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus villosus Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 160. 1782 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carolinianus Walter, Fl. Carol.: 140. 1788 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Gypsophila armeria var. nanus Boenn., Prodr. Fl. Monast. Westphal.: 124. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus hybridus F.W.Schmidt ex Tausch in Flora 13: 245. 1830 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus vivariensis Jord. ex Boreau, Fl. Centre France ed. 3, 2: 91. 1857 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus armeria var. laevis Heuff. in Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8: 68. 1858 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus armeriastrum Wolfner in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 318. 1858 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus armeria subsp. armeriastrum (Wolfner) Velen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl. 1: 42. 1898 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus epirotus Halácsy in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 48: 708. 1898 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Silene vaga E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 109. 1901 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus pseudocorymbosus Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 8: 6. 1910 [“1911”] syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus armeria f. acaulis Bolzon in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1911: 56. 1911 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus armeria f. caespitosa Bolzon in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1911: 56. 1911 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus armeria f. albiviridis Lehr in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 207. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus armeria f. glabrissimus Sigunov in Glasn. Prir. Muz. Beogradu, C 10: 23. 1977 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus armeria f. alba Stritch in Castanea 48: 58. 1983 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus arpadianus Ade & Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 36: 385. 1934. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus arrosti C.Presl, Delic. Prag.: 60. 1822. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus caryophyllus var. arrosti (C.Presl) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 283. 1892 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. arrosti (C.Presl) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 306. 1894 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus arrostii C.Presl, Delic. Prag.: 60. 1822 syn. sec. Marhold (2011) [is orthographic variant for Dianthus arrosti C.Presl]

= Dianthus contractus Jan ex Lojac., Fl. Sicul. 1: 164. 1889 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × artignanii Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 145. 1926. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus aticii Hamzaoğlu in Phytokeys 48: 22. 2015. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2015)

Dianthus atlanticus Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 1: 332. 1874. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus liburnicus var. atlanticus (Pomel) Chabert in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 38: 383. 1892 [“1891”] syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus atschurensis Sosn. in Vestn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada n.s. 1: 74. 1923. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus azkurensis Sosn. in Vestn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada n.s. 1: 74. 1923 syn. sec. this publication [is misspelling for Dianthus atschurensis Sosn.]

Dianthus austroiranicus Lemperg in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 50: 260. 1941. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus awaricus Kharadze in Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 16: 50. 1951. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus aydogdui Menemen & Hamzaoğlu in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 37: 285. 2000. Sec. Menemen & Hamzaoğlu (2000)

Dianthus aytachii C.Vural in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 158: 55. 2008. Sec. Vural (2008)

Dianthus balansae Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 488. 1867. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus barbatus L., Sp. Pl.: 409. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Caryophyllus barbatus (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Cylichnanthus barbatus (L.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 261. 1867 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Silene barbata (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 108. 1901 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019); ≡ Dianthus barbatus var. barbatus

= Tunica barbata Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 298. 1771 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus hispanicus Dum.Cours. in Bot. Cult. 3: 168. 1802 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus latifolius Willd., Enum. Pl.: 466. 1809 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus aggregatus Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 124. 1816 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus corymbosus F.Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. 2: 667. 1816 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus barbatus var. latifolius Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus barbatus var. paniculatus Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus barbatus var. pedunculosus Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus pulcherrimus Loisel., Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2, 35: 417. 1825 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus splendidissimus Hoffmanns. in Verz. Pfl.-Kult. Nachtr: 27. 1842 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus girardinii Lamotte in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 21: 120. 1874 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus barbatus var. asiaticus Nakai, Tyosen-Syokubutsu: 143. 1914 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus barbatus subsp. barbatus

Dianthus barbatus subsp. compactus (Kit. ex Schult.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2(1): 58. 1889. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus compactus Kit. ex Schult., Oestr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 654. 1814 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus barbatus var. compactus (Kit. ex Schult.) Heuff. in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8: 68. 1858 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus basianicus Boiss. & Hausskn. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. Suppl.: 77. 1888. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus basuticus Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 220. 1922. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus micropetalus var. galpinii Burtt Davy syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus basuticus subsp. basuticus

Dianthus basuticus subsp. fourcadei S.S.Hooper, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 7 [1]: 20–22. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus basuticus var. grandiflorus S.S.Hooper, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 7 [1]: 19. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus benearnensis Loret in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 5: 327. 1858. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus furcatus subsp. benearnensis (Loret) Kerguélen in Lejeunia 120: 79. 1987 syn. sec. IPNI

Dianthus bessarabicus (Kleopow) Klokov in Bot. Zhurn. (Kiev) 5: 28. 1948. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus polymorphus subsp. bessarabicus Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 14: 114. 1932 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus polymorphus var. bessarabicus Sanda syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus bicolor Adams in Beitr. Naturk. 1: 55. 1805. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus caucasicus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 327. 1808 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus bicolor var. minor Ser., Prodr. 1: 361. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus biflorus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 285. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus binatus Bartl. ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 810. 1832 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus cinnabarinus Spruner ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 6: 22. 1846 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus samaritani Heldr. ex Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 213. 1900 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus biflorus subsp. samaritanii (Heldr. ex Halácsy) Maire & Petitm syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus samaritani Heldr. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 511. 1867, nom. inval. syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus boissieri Willk., Icon. Descr. Pl. Nov. 1: 22. 1853. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus caryophyllus var. boissieri (Willk.) Emb. & Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 10: 318. 1963 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus sylvestris subsp. boissieri (Willk.) Dobignard in J. Bot. Soc. Bot. France 20: 37. 2002 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sylvestris Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 701. 1867 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. brevifolius Rouy, Obs. Dianthus France: 3. 1882 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus f. brevifolius (Rouy) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 319. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. longifolius Rouy, Obs. Dianthus France: 3. 1882 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus f. longifolius (Rouy) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 319. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. longifolius Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 22: 36. 1931, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus charmelii Sennen & Mauricio, Diagn. Nouv.: 246. 1936 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus caryophyllus f. charmelii (Sennen & Mauricio) Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 10: 319. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. tenuicaulis Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 30: 333. 1939 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus caryophyllus f. grandiflorus Pau & Font Quer, Iter Marocc. 1928: no. 102. 1829, nom. inval. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus caryophyllus f. emancipatus Pau & Font Quer, Iter Marocc. 1927: no. 195. 1928, nom. inval. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus bolusii Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 218. 1922. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus borbasii Vandas in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 36: 193. 1886. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus borbonicus Brullo, C.Brullo, Colombo, Giusso, Ilardi & R.Perrone in Phytotaxa 233: 50. 2015. Sec. Brullo et al. (2015)

Dianthus brachycalyx A.Huet & É.Huet ex Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Nordic J. Bot. 28: 142. 2010. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus brevicaulis Fenzl, Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr.: 10. 1842. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus brevicaulis subsp. brevicaulis

Dianthus brevicaulis subsp. setaceus Reeve in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 28: 21. 1967. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus brevipetalus Vved. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 3: 9. 1941. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus broteri Boiss. & Reut., Pugill. Pl. Afr. Bor. Hispan.: 22. 1852. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus fimbriatus Brot., Fl. Lusit. 2: 177. 1805, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus serrulatus var. barbatus Boiss., Elench. Pl. Nov.: 19. 1838 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus serrulatus subsp. barbatus (Boiss.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 13: 281. 1983 [“1984”] syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus valentinus Willk., Icon. Descr. Pl. Nov. 1: 14. 1852 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus malacitanus var. valentinus (Willk.) Losa & Rivas Goday in Arch. Inst. Aclim. Cons. Super. Invest. Ci. 13(2): 150. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus broteri subsp. valentinus (Willk.) Rivas Mart. et al. in Rivasgodaya 6: 29. 1991 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus malacitanus Haens. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 85. 1867 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus serrulatus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 84. 1867 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus eusebii Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 264. 1936 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus absconditus Fern.Casas in Fontqueria 3: 35. 1983 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus subbaeticus Fern.Casas in Fontqueria 3: 37. 1983 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus broteri subsp. subbaeticus (Fern.Casas) Fern.Casas, M.Laínz & Muñoz Garm. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 573. 1987 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus anticarius subsp. subbaeticus (Fern.Casas) Rivas Mart. et al. in Rivasgodaya 6: 28. 1991 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus hinoxianus Gallego in Lagascalia 14: 71. 1986 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus broteri subsp. hinoxianus (Gallego) Rivas Mart. in Lagascalia 15(Extra): 116. 1988 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus brutius Brullo, Scelsi & Spamp., Portugaliae Act. Biol., Sér. B, Sist. 19: 304. 2000. Sec. Brullo et al. (2000)

Dianthus brutius subsp. brutius

Dianthus brutius subsp. pentadactyli Brullo, Scelsi & Spamp., Portugaliae Act. Biol., Sér. B, Sist. 19: 306. 2000. Sec. Brullo et al. (2000)

Dianthus bukovinensis (Zapał.) Klokov, Fl. RSS Ucr. 4: 606. 1952. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus carthusianorum var. bucovinensis Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 3: 113. 1911 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus bucoviensis (Zapał.) Klokov syn. sec. WFO 2018 [is orthographic variant for Dianthus bukovinensis (Zapał.) Klokov] – Dianthus carthusianorum var. bucoviensis Zapał. syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995) [is orthographic variant for Dianthus carthusianorum var. bucovinensis Zapał.]

Dianthus burchellii Ser., Prodr. 1: 359. 1824. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus burdurensis Hamzaoğlu & Koç in Phytotaxa 233: 197. 2015. Sec. Hamzaoğlu & Koç (2015)

Dianthus busambrae Soldano & F.Conti, Annot. Checkl. Italian Vasc. Fl.: 18. 2005. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

= Dianthus paniculatus Lojac. in Malpighia 20: 188. 1906 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus cachemiricus Edgew. & Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 214. 1874. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus caespitosus Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 81. 1794. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus caespitosus subsp. caespitosus

Dianthus caespitosus subsp. pectinatus (E.Mey. ex Sond.) S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 37. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus pectinatus E.Mey. ex Sond., Fl. Cap. 1: 124. 1860 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus prostratus Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 11. 1798 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus albens Eckl. & Zeyh., Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral. 1: 32. 1835 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus crenatus S.T.Edw. syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus callizonus Schott & Kotschy in Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 9: 192. 1851. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus calocephalus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 6: 23. 1846. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus campestris M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 326. 1808. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus hypanicus Besser ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 809. 1832 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pseudoversicolor Klokov, Fl. RSS Ucr. 4: 660. 1952 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus campestris subsp. arenarius Širj. syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus campestris subsp. serbanii Prodán syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus serbanii (Prodán) Prodán, Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Roman. 2: 670. 1953 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus campestris subsp. campestris

Dianthus campestris subsp. laevigatus (Gruner) Klokov, Fl. RSS Ucr. 4: 625. 1952. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus campestris var. laevigatus Gruner in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 41(2): 124. 1868 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus laevigatus (Gruner) Klokov in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Nizsh. Rast. 1980: 99. 1980 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus campestris subsp. steppaceus Širj. in Širj. & Lavrenko, Consp. Crit. Fl. Prov. Charkov.: 1. 1926. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus candicus (P.W.Ball & Heywood) Madhani & Heubl in Taxon 67(1): 103. 2018. Sec. Madhani et al. (2018)

Petrorhagia candica P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 141. 1964 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019); ≡ Fiedleria candica (P.W.Ball & Heywood) Ovcz., Fl. Tadzhikskoi S.S.R. 3: 608. 1968 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019).

Dianthus canescens K.Koch in Linnaea 15: 710. 1841. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus fimbriatus var. canescens (K.Koch) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 496. 1867 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus capitatus Balb. ex DC., Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp.: 103. 1813. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus capitatus J.St.-Hil., Pl. France 3: 70. 1809. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus cephalotes Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus glaucophyllus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 514. 1867 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus capillatus Meinsh., Beitr. Pfl. Geogr. Sued-Ural-Geb.: 6 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus capitellatus Klokov, Fl. RSS Ucr. 4: 659. 1952. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus borbasii subsp. capitellatus (Klokov) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 192. 1963 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus pseudomembranaceus Schischk. ex Grossh., Fl. Cauc. 2(3): 282. 1945 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus carbonatus Klokov in Sc. Mag. Biol. 1927: 15. 1927. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus carmelitarum Reut. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 512. 1867. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus artwinensis Schischk. ex Grossh., Fl. Cauc. 2(3): 284. 1945 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus carthusianorum L., Sp. Pl.: 409. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Tunica carthusianorum (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 299. 1771 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Caryophyllus carthusianorum (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Silene carthusianorum (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 110. 1901 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.;

= Dianthus atrorubens All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 75. 1785 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Caryophyllus atrorubens (All.) Moench, Suppl. Meth.: 23. 1802 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Dianthus carthusianorum var. atrorubens (All.) Ser., Prodr. 1: 357. 1824 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. atrorubens (All.) Hegi in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 17: 15. 1911 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus vaginatus Chaix, Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 1: 330. 1786 syn. sec. WFO 2018Cylichnanthus vaginatus (Chaix) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 261. 1867 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus montanus F.W.Schmidt in Neuere Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. 1: 30. 1791 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus clavatus Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 169. 1821 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. anisopodus Ser., Prodr. 1: 357. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. nanus Ser., Prodr. 1: 357. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus nanus Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 41. 1826 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus atrorubens var. intermedius Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 146. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. pygmaeus Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 145. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus allionii Colla, Herb. Pedem. 1: 297. 1833 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sanguineus Vis., Index Seminum (PAD) 1845: 1. 1845 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus atrorubens var. sanguineus (Vis.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 84. 1882 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus carthusianorum var. sanguineus (Vis.) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 254. 1892 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. sanguineus (Vis.) Hegi in Ill. Fl. Mitt. Eur. 3: 323. 1910 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus ferrugineus Pourr. ex Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 1: 232. 1847 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus gramineus Schur in Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 11. 1853 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus congestus Boreau, Fl. Centre France ed. 3, 2: 90. 1857 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. campestris Heuff. in Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8: 68. 1858 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. ternatus Heuff. in Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8: 68. 1858 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus graminifolius Schur in Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 144. 1859 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus tenuifolius Schur in Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 143. 1859 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. tenuifolius (Schur) Hegi syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. saxigenus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 93. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. saxigenus (Schur) Dostál in Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 5. 1984 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus chloaephyllus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 95. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus rupicola Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 93. 1866 syn. sec. Schur (1866)

= Dianthus rupicolus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 93. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus subneglectus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 95. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. puberulus Simonk., Mat. Term. Közlem. 15: 531. 1878 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. puberulus (Simonk.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 161. 1972 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus puberulus (Simonk.) A.Kern. syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus atropurpureus Gromov ex Trautv. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 8: 130. 1883 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carpathicus Woł., Spraw. Komis. Fizjogr. 22(2): 214. 1888 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus semperflorens Voss in Gartenflora 44: 514. 1895 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. brachyanthus Dörfl. & Hayek in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 70: 12. 1921 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. longisquamis Kulcz., Fl. Polska 2: 159. 1921 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus ceretanicus Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 147. 1926 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. tenorei Lacaita in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s., 34: 188. 1927 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. tenorei (Lacaita) Pignatti in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 111: 46. 1977 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus montivagus Domin in Acta Bot. Bohem. 8: 53. 1929 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus velebiticus Borbás ex Degen, Fl. Veleb. 2: 97. 1937 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. capillifrons Borbás syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus capillifrons (Borbás) H.Neumayer in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 91: 236. 1942 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. capillifrons (Borbás) Soó in Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23: 391. 1977 [“1978”] syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. parviflorus Čelak. syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. parviflorus (Čelak.) Dostál in Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 5. 1984 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sanguineus var. atrisquamatus Novák syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum f. atrisquamatus (Novák) Gajić, Fl. SR Srbije 9: 64. 1977 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus fasciculatus Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 161. 1782, nom. inval. syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. carthusianorum

Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. latifolius (Griseb. & Schenk) Hegi in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 17: 13. 1911. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus carthusianorum var. latifolius Griseb. & Schenk in Arch. Naturgesch. 18: 300. 1852 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus montivagus var. carsticus Novák syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. carsticus (Novák) Dostál in Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 5. 1984 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. polonicus (Zapał.) Kovanda in Preslia 56: 297. 1984. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus polonicus Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 3: 122. 1911 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum var. polonicus (Zapał.) Kulcz., Fl. Polska 2: 159. 1921 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. sudeticus Kovanda in Preslia 52: 122. 1980. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus caryophyllus L., Sp. Pl.: 410. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Silene caryophylla (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 111. 1901 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.; ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus var. coronarius L., Sp. Pl. 1: 410. 1753 syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021) ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. coronarius (L.) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 318. 1963 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica caryophyllus (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 301. 1771 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.; – Dianthus coronarius (L.) Burm.f., Fl. Ind. Prodr. Fl. Cap.: 13. 1768, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021) – Dianthus coronarius Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 536. 1779, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021)

= Caryophyllus tunica Garsault, Fig. Pl. Méd.: t. 203. 1764 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus moschatus J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat.: 711. 1791 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. minor Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 644. 1822 [“1821”] syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. carduinus Ser., Prodr. 1: 359. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus corsicus Link ex Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 2: 376. 1825 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus arbuscula Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 13: t. 1086. 1827 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus arrectus Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 196. 1827 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. wakefieldii C.Morren, Hort. Belge 2: 7. 1834 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus multinervis Vis., Fl. Dalmat. 3: 164. 1850 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus longicaulis Costa, Introd. Fl. Cataluña: 36. 1864 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus acinifolius Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 97. 1866 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus binatus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 97. 1866 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus kayserianus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 97. 1866 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus miniatus A.Huet ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 105. 1878 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus caryophyllus f. intermedius Pamp. in Boll. Mus. Republ. San Marino 1: 142. 1917 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus caucaseus Sims in Bot. Mag. 21: t. 795. 1804. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus discolor Sims in Bot. Mag. 29: t. 1162. 1808 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus charidemi Pau in Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 16(206): 74. 1906. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus cintranus subsp. charidemi (Pau) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus chimanimaniensis S.S.Hooper in Kew Bull. 13: 318. 1958. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus chinensis L., Sp. Pl.: 411. 1753. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus sequieri Chaix, Vill. Fl. Dauph. 1: 330. 1786 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus pulcher Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 303. 1796 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus scaber Schleich. ex Suter, Helvet. Fl. 1: 259. 1802 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus serratus var. scaber (Schleich. ex Suter) DC., Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 5: 601. 1815 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus collinus var. scaber (Schleich. ex Suter) Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 147. 1828 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus tataricus Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki ed. 2: 59. 1812 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus umbellatus DC., Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp.: 104. 1813 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus ibericus Willd., Enum. Pl., Suppl.: 24. 1814 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus patens Willd., Enum. Pl., Suppl.: 24. 1814 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus fischeri Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 62. 1815 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus ruthenicus Roem. ex Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 131. 1816 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus ochroleucus Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 420. 1821 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus versicolor Fisch. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 420. 1821 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus chinensis var. versicolor (Fisch. ex Link) Y.C.Ma, Fl. Intramongolica 2: 191. 1978 [“1979”] syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus chinensis subsp. versicolor (Fisch. ex Link) Vorosch., Florist. Issl. Razn. Rayonakh SSSR: 167. 1985 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus willdenowii Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 420. 1821 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus schraderi Rchb. in Iconogr. Bot. Exot. 1: 24. 1824 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus dentosus Fisch. ex Rchb. in Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 6: 32. 1828 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus chinensis var. dentosus (Fisch. ex Rchb.) Debeaux in Act. Simpo. Internac. Bot. Pius Font Quer 31: 124. 1876 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus seguieri var. dentosus (Fisch. ex Rchb.) Franch., Pl. David. 1: 46. 1884 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus sequieri var. dentosus (Fisch. ex Rchb.) Franch., Pl. David. 1: 46. 1884 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus sinensis Link, Handbuch 2: 237. 1831 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. sylvaticus W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 96. 1835 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus altaicus Willd. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 278. 1842 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus jeniseensis Less. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 278. 1842 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. macrosepalus Franch. ex L.H.Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort.: 100. 1900 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus laciniatus Makino in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 60. 1903 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus morii Nakai in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 302. 1914 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus chinensis var. morii (Nakai) Y.C.Chu, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or. 3: 49. 1975 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus pineticola Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 12–13: 161. 1931 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus versicolor var. alpinus Krylov, Fl. Zapadnoi Sibiri 5: 1104. 1931 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus chinensis var. longisquama Nakai & Kitag. in Rep. Exped. Manchoukou Sect. IV, 1: 23. 1934 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. ignescens Nakai in Rep. Exped. Manchoukou Sect. IV, 4(2): 15. 1935 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus chinensis f. ignescens (Nakai) Kitag. in J. Jap. Bot. 34: 5. 1959 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus subulifolius Kitag. in Rep. Exped. Manchoukou Sect. IV, 2: 16. 1935 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus versicolor var. subulifolius (Kitag.) Y.C.Chu, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or. 3: 50. 1975 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus chinensis var. subulifolius (Kitag.) Y.C.Ma, Fl. Intramongolica 2: 191. 1978 [“1979”] syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus subulifolius f. leucopetalus Kitag. in Rep. Exped. Manchoukou Sect. IV, 2: 17. 1935 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus versicolor f. leucopetalus (Kitag.) Y.C.Chu, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or. 3: 50. 1975 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. liaotungensis Y.C.Chu, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or. 3: 227. 1975 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis subsp. paracampestris Vorosch. in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. n.s., 83(5): 116. 1978 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus versicolor var. ninelli Peschkova, Fl. Tsentralnoi Sibiri 1: 334. 1979 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus versicolor subsp. ninelli (Peschkova) Baikov & N.V.Vlassova, Rast. Mir Aziatsk. Rossii 3(23): 21. 2016 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus chinensis var. trinervis D.Q.Lu in Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 15: 185. 1995 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. jingpoensis G.Y.Zhang & X.Y.Yuan in Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 18: 10. 1998 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. shandongensis J.X.Li & F.Q.Zhou in Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 21: 511. 2001 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis f. albiflora Y.N.Lee in Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 28. 2004 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus chinensis var. serpens Y.N.Lee in Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 29. 2004 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus chouardii Dobignard in J. Bot. Soc. Bot. France 48: 15. 2009. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus cibrarius Clementi in Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino II 16: 20. 1855. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus ciliatus Guss., Ind. Sem. Horto Boccad. 1825: 5. 1825. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus litoralis Host, Fl. Austriaca 1: 522. 1827 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus ciliatus subsp. ciliatus

Dianthus ciliatus subsp. dalmaticus (Čelak.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 246. 1924. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus dalmaticus Čelak. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 35: 189. 1885 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus racemosus Vis. in Flora 12(1 Erg.): 12. 1829 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus ciliatus subsp. racemosus (Vis.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 246. 1924 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus ciliatus subsp. medunensis (Beck & Szyszyl.) Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 6: 8. 1979. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus medunensis Beck & Szyszył., Pl. Cernagor. Lect.: 65. 1888 syn. sec. WFO 2018 – Dianthus ciliatus subsp. medunensis (Beck & Szyszyl.) Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 5: 751. 1979, nom. inval. syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus × cincinnatus Lem. in Ill. Hort. 11: t. 388. 1864. Sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus × isensis Hirahata & Kitam. in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 205. 1962 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Dianthus × cincinnatus f. isensis (Hirahata & Kitam.) M.Hiroe, Pl. Bashos & Busons Hokku Lit. 8: 489. 1971 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus × cincinnatus f. longipetalus M.Hiroe, Pl. Bashos & Busons Hokku Lit. 8: 489. 1971 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus × cincinnatus f. rosalbus M.Hiroe, Pl. Bashos & Busons Hokku Lit. 8: 489. 1971 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus cinnamomeus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 287. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus cinnamomeus subsp. cinnamomeus

Dianthus cinnamomeus subsp. naxensis Runemark ex Strid in Strid & Tan, Fl. Hellenica 1: 352. 1997. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus cintranus Boiss. & Reut., Pugill. Pl. Afr. Bor. Hispan.: 20. 1852. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus cintranus subsp. atrosanguineus (Emb. & Maire) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gaditanus subsp. atrosanguineus Emb. & Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 21–22: 26. 1930 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus anticarius subsp. atrosanguineus (Emb. & Maire) Valdés & Mateos in Lagascalia 29: 157. 2009 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cintranus subsp. barbatus R.Fern. & Franco in Franco, Nova Fl. Portugal 1: 159. 1971. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus cintranus subsp. byzacenus (Burollet) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus byzacenus Burollet, Sahel Sousse: 35. 1927 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus gaditanus subsp. byzacenus (Burollet) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 307. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus cintranus subsp. cintranus

Dianthus cintranus subsp. jahandiezii (Maire) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gaditanus subsp. jahandiezii Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 15: 17. 1927 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus anticarius subsp. jahandiezii (Maire) Valdés & Mateos in Lagascalia 29: 157. 2009 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cintranus subsp. maroccanus (F.N.Williams) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gaditanus var. maroccanus F.N.Williams in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 423. 1893 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus gaditanus subsp. maroccanus (F.N.Williams) Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 15: 17. 1927 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus anticarius subsp. maroccanus (F.N.Williams) Valdés & Mateos in Lagascalia 29: 157. 2009 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus gaditanus var. rifeus Pau & Sennen, Cat. Fl. Rif Orient.: 19. 1933 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus cintranus subsp. mauritanicus (Pomel) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus mauritanicus Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 1: 333. 1874 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus serrulatus subsp. mauritanicus (Pomel) Batt., Fl. Algérie, Dicot.: 145. 1888 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus gaditanus subsp. mauritanicus (Pomel) Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 21–22: 26. 1930 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus anticarius subsp. mauritanicus (Pomel) Valdés & Mateos in Lagascalia 29: 157. 2009 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cintranus subsp. mentagensis (Maire) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gaditanus subsp. mentagensis Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 23: 168. 1932 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus anticarius subsp. mentagensis (Maire) Valdés & Mateos in Lagascalia 29: 157. 2009 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cintranus subsp. occidentalis (Quézel) Mathez in Willdenowia 13: 280. 1983 [“1984”]. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gaditanus subsp. occidentalis Quézel in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 44: 197. 1953 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus anticarius subsp. occidentalis (Quézel) Valdés & Mateos in Lagascalia 29: 157. 2009 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus collinus Waldst. & Kit. in Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 1: 51. 1800. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. collinus (Waldst. & Kit.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 493. 1805 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus asper var. collinus (Waldst. & Kit.) Ser., Prodr. 1: 357. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus seguieri var. collinus (Waldst. & Kit.) W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 96. 1835 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus seguieri subsp. collinus (Waldst. & Kit.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 84. 1882 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus collinus var. minor Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 147. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus seguieri subsp. scaber Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Böhmen: 507. 1875 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus commutatus (Zapał.) Klokov, Fl. RSS Ucr. 4: 607. 1952. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus carthusianorum var. commutatus Zapał., Fl. Galic. Crit.: 119. 1911 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus corymbosus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 285. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus corymbosus Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 124. 1816 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus poiretianus Ser., Prodr. 1: 360. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus chalcidicus Halácsy in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 48: 707. 1898 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus costae Willk., Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 683. 1878. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. costae (Willk.) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 187. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus algetanus subsp. costae (Willk.) Romo, Fl. Veg. Montsec: 98. 1989, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus ciliatus Costa, Introd. Fl. Cataluña: 36. 1864 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus marianii Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 32. 1936 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus crassipes R.Roem. in Linnaea 25: 11. 1852. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus serenaeus Coincy in J. Bot. (Morot) 12: 53. 1898 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus crassipes subsp. serenaeus (Coincy) Rivas Mart. et al. in Rivasgodaya 6: 29. 1991 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus crenatus Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 81. 1794. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus inaequalis E.Mey., Zwei Pflanzengeogr. Dokum.: 178. 1843 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cretaceus Adams in Beitr. Naturk. 1: 56. 1805. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus petraeus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 328. 1808 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus bracteatus Willd. ex Ser., Prodr. 1: 360. 1824 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus liboschitzianus Ser., Prodr. 1: 360. 1824 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus siemienkiewiczii Bordz. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 30: 364. 1932 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus cretaceus subsp. cretaceus

Dianthus cretaceus subsp. dmanissianus (M.Kuzmina) Nersesian in Nov. Syst. Vyssh. Rast. 42: 113. 2011. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus dmanissianus M.Kuzmina in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(8): 80. 1996 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus cretaceus subsp. multicaulis (Boiss. & A.Huet) Nersesian in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 42: 112. 2011. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus multicaulis Boiss. & A.Huet in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 53. 1856 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012) ≡ Dianthus liboschitzianus var. multicaulis (Boiss. & A.Huet) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 487. 1867 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012) ≡ Dianthus cretaceus var. multicaulis (Boiss. & A.Huet) Grossh., Fl. Cauc. 2: 430. 1930 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus cretaceus subsp. sevanensis Nersesian in Nov. Syst. Vyssh. Rast. 42: 113. 2011. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus cribrarius Clementi in Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino II 16: 20. 1855. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus crinitus Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2: 300. 1794. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus fimbriatus Hohen. in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 6: 232. 1833 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus ibericus Steven ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 283. 1842 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus amoenus Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 1: 210. 1874 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)Dianthus crinitus var. amoenus (Pomel) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 300. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus crinitus var. flaviflorus Emb. in Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 15: 196. 1935 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus crinitus subsp. baldzhuanicus (Lincz.) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 285. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus baldzhuanicus Lincz. in Trudy Tadzhikistansk. Bazy 8: 629. 1940 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crinitus subsp. crinitus

Dianthus crinitus subsp. kermanensis Rech.f., Pl. Syst. Evol. 151(3–4): 286. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crinitus subsp. nuristanicus (Gilli) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 285. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus nuristanicus Gilli in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 59: 162. 1956 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crinitus subsp. soongoricus (Schischk.) Kozhevn. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 22: 112. 1985. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus soongoricus Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 899. 1936 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crinitus subsp. tetralepis (Nevski) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 286. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus tetralepis Nevski, Fl. URSS 6: 899. 1936 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crinitus subsp. turcomanicus (Schischk.) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 287. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus turcomanicus Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 899. 1936 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crinitus var. argaeus Aytaç & H.Duman in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 41: 217. 2004. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus crossopetalus (Fenzl ex Boiss.) Grossh., Fl. Kavkaza 2: 428. 1930. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus crinitus var. crossopetalus Fenzl ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 496. 1867 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus cruentus Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 186. 1843. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus cruentus var. micropetalus Pančić in Verh. Zool.-Bot. Vereins Wien 6: 501. 1856 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus consanguineus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 93. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus fastigiatus Pant. in Verh. Vereins Natur- Heilk. Presburg n.s., 2: 105. 1871 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus holzmannianus Heldr. & Hausskn. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2(1): 58. 1889 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus cibrarius var. leucolepis Hausskn. in Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins n.f., 5: 54. 1893 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus brachyzonus Borbás ex Formánek in Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 35: 194. 1897 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus quadrangulus Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1892: 372. 1893 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus turcicus Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1892: 273. 1893 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus cruentus subsp. turcicus (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht., Fl. Bulg. ed. 3: 405. 1948 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus lateritius Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 213. 1900 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus baldaccii Degen in Magyar Bot. Lapok 5: 275. 1906 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus cruentus var. pancicii Stoj. & Acht., Krit. Stud. Nelk. Bulg.: 56. 1935 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus hyalolepis Acht. & Lindtner in Izv. Carsk. Prir. Inst. Sofija 13: 195. 1940 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus calocephalus var. villiger Bornm. syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus villiger (Bornm.) Bornm. in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 32: 27. 1926 [“1927”] syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus brachyzonus subsp. villiger (Bornm.) Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 45. 1987 [“1990”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cyathophorus Moris, Index Seminum (TO) 1852: 32. 1852. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus siculus subsp. cyathophorus (Moris) Arrigoni in Parlatorea 7: 20. 2005 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

= Dianthus minae Mazzola, Raimondo & Ilardi in Bocconea 17: 307. 2004 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus cyathophorus subsp. minae (Mazzola, Raimondo & Ilardi) Raimondo in Quad. Bot. Amb. Appl. 21: 189. 2010 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus cyprius A.K.Jacks. & Turrill in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1938: 462. 1938. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus cyri Fisch. & C.A.Mey. in Index Seminum St. Petersburg (Petropolitanus) 4: 34. 1838. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus daghestanicus Kharadze in Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 16: 47. 1951. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus darvazicus Lincz. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus deltoides L., Sp. Pl.: 411. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Caryophyllus deltoides (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Cylichnanthus deltoides (L.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 262. 1867 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Silene deltoides (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 113. 1901 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.;

= Dianthus deltoides var. montanus Klett & Richt., Fl. Leipzig: 376. 1830 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus albus Schkuhr ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 498. 1840 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus endressii Zahlbr. ex Conrath in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 38: 51. 1888 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus glaucus L., Sp. Pl.: 411. 1753 syn. sec. WFO 2018Caryophyllus glaucus (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Dianthus deltoides var. glaucus (L.) Trevir., Index Seminum (WROCL, Wratislaviensi) 1818: 3. 1818 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus deltoides f. glaucus (L.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 686. 2018 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus supinus Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 534. 1779 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus crenatus Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 161. 1782 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus volgensis Ser., Prodr. 1: 361. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus deltoides subsp. degenii (Bald.) Strid in Willdenowia 13: 280. 1983 [“1984”]. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus degenii Bald. in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s., 6: 27. 1899 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides

Dianthus denaicus Assadi in Iranian J. Bot. 3: 17. 1985. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus desideratus Strid, Fl. Hellenica 1: 371. 1997. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus diffusus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 285. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus pubescens Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 286. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus rupestris Friv. ex Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 191. 1843 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus cylleneus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 63. 1854 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus syriacus F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 346. 1885 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus glandulosopubescens Halácsy in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 48: 706. 1898 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus dilepis Rech.f. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 361. 1951. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus diversifolius Assadi in Iranian J. Bot. 3: 40. 1985. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus dobrogensis Prodán in Bul. Acad. Stud. Agron. Cluj 5(1): 97. 1934. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus × dufftii Hausskn. ex Asch. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 26: 259. 1876

Dianthus edetanus (M.B.Crespo & Mateo) M.B.Crespo & Mateo in Flora Montiber. 40: 64. 2008. Sec. Mateo Sanz & Crespo (2008)

Dianthus hispanicus subsp. edetanus M.B.Crespo & Mateo in Flora Montiber. 20: 7. 2002 syn. sec. Mateo Sanz & Crespo (2008)

Dianthus elatus Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. 2: 136. 1830. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus elbrusensis Kharadze in Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 21: 48. 1959. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus eldivenus Czeczott in Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 9: 33. 1932. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus elegans d’Urv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 302. 1822. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus actinopetalus Fenzl, Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr.: 11. 1842 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus cous Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 20. 1843 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus wawrae Freyn ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. Suppl.: 79. 1888 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus elymaiticus Hausskn. & Bornm. in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19(2): 213. 1905. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus engleri Hausskn. & Bornm. in Mitt. Geogr. Ges. (Thüringen) Jena 9: 15. 1891. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus eretmopetalus Stapf in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 349. 1886. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus erinaceus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 21. 1843. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus webbianus Parl. ex Vis. in Atti Riunione Sci. Ital. 2: 180. 1841 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus ernesti-mayeri Micevski & Matevski in Razpr. Slov. Akad. Znan. Umetn., Razr. Nar. Vede 42: 155. 2001. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus erythrocoleus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 493. 1867. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus eugeniae Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 12–13: 157. 1931. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus tesquicola Klokov in Bot. Zhurn. (Kiev) 5: 26. 1948 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus excelsus S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 13. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus angolensis subsp. orientalis Turrill in Kew Bull. 9: 49. 1954 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus falconeri Edgew. & Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 214. 1874. Sec. Ghanzafar & Nasir (1986)

Dianthus × fallens Timb.-Lagr. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 5: 329. 1858. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus × tener subsp. fallens (Timb.-Lagr.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 104. 1878 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus × monspessulanus var. fallens (Timb.-Lagr.) Pau in Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 4: 187. 1905 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus × borderei Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 183. 1896 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) – Dianthus × borderi Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 183. 1896 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990) [is misspelling for Dianthus × borderi Rouy & Foucaud]

Dianthus fasciculatus (Boiss.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 141

Velezia fasciculata Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 92. 1849

Dianthus ferrugineus Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8: 9. 1768. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus balbisii Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus carthusianorum var. balbiosii (Ser.) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 253. 1892 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus balbisii var. paniculatus Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus glaucophyllus Hornem. ex Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus propinquus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 94. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus ligusticus Willd. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 103. 1878 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus rosulatus Borbás ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 103. 1878 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus albaceteanus Huter in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 54: 339. 1904 syn. sec. Peruzzi & Gargano (2006)

Dianthus ferrugineus subsp. ferrugineus

Dianthus ferrugineus subsp. liburnicus (Bartl.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus liburnicus Bartl. in Beitr. Bot. 2: 52. 1825 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus balbisii subsp. liburnicus (Bartl.) Pignatti in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 111: 45. 1977 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus liburnicus var. albiflorus Caldesi in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 11: 338. 1879 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus floribundus Boiss., Asie Min., Bot. 1: 221. 1860. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus schischkinii Grossh. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 11: 83. 1949 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus woronowii Schischk. in sched. herb. LE syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan 2012 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus formanekii Borbás ex Formánek in Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 32: 39. 1894. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus fragrans Adams in Weber u. Mohr, Beitr. Naturk. 1: 56. 1805. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus fragrans M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 331. 1808 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus liboschitzianus Hohen. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 491. 1867 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus tichomirovii Devyatov, Taisumov & Teimurov in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. n.s. 104(2): 37. 1999 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Notes: – Although Bieberstein (1808) didn’t mention Adams (1805) as an author of D. fragrans in his 1st volume of the Flora Taurica-Caucasica, the descriptions are very similar and very likely refer to the same species.

Dianthus freynii Vandas in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1889(2): 255. 1890. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus fruticosus L., Sp. Pl.: 413. 1753. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus frutescens Houtt., Nat. Hist. 2(5): 109. 1775 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. amorginus Runemark in Bot. Not. 133(4): 485. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. carpathus Runemark in Bot. Not. 133(4): 487. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. creticus (Tausch) Runemark in Bot. Not. 133(4): 488. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus creticus Tausch in Flora 13: 247. 1830 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. fruticosus

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. karavius Runemark in Bot. Not. 133(4): 487. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. occidentalis Runemark in Bot. Not. 133: 483. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. rhodius (Rech.f.) Runemark in Bot. Not. 133: 486. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus rhodius Rech.f. in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105: 156. 1943 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus fruticosus subsp. sitiacus Runemark in Bot. Not. 133(4): 488. 1980. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus furcatus Balb., Mém. Acad. Sci. Turin, Sci. Phys. 10–11: 13. 1804. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus alpester Balb., Mém. Acad. Sci. Turin, Sci. Phys. 1: 13. 1802 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. alpester (Balb.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 493. 1805 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus pungens Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 1: 234. 1847 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus furcatus subsp. dissimilis (Burnat) Pignatti in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 107: 209. 1973. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus furcatus var. dissimilis Burnat, Fl. Alpes Marit. 1: 230. 1892 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus furcatus subsp. furcatus

Dianthus furcatus subsp. gyspergerae (Rouy) Burnat ex Briq., Prodr. Fl. Corse 1: 572. 1910. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gyspergerae Rouy in Rev. Bot. Syst. Géogr. Bot. 1: 132. 1903 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus furcatus subsp. lereschii (Burnat) Pignatti in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 107: 209. 1973. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus furcatus var. lereschii Burnat, Fl. Alpes Marit. 1: 230. 1892 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus tener Balb., Mém. Acad. Sci. Turin, Sci. Phys. 1: 14. 1802 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus strictus var. tener (Balb.) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 272. 1892 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus furcatus subsp. tener (Balb.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 189. 1963 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gabrielianiae Nersesian in Takhtajania 1: 45. 2011. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus gasparrinii Guss., Fl. Sicul. Syn. 1: 479. 1843. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. gasparrinii (Guss.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 306. 1894 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus geminiflorus Loisel., Fl. Gall. 2: 725. 1807. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus furcatus subsp. geminiflorus (Loisel.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 189. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus genargenteus Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Nordic J. Bot. 28: 145. 2010. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus giganteiformis Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 32. 1891. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus sabuletarum Heuff. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 26. 1858 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pontederae A.Kern., Sched. Fl. Exs. Austro-Hung. 2: 539. 1882 [“1883”] syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. pontederae (A.Kern.) Hegi in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 17: 16. 1911 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus giganteiformis subsp. pontederae (A.Kern.) Soó in Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 15: 339. 1969 [“1970”] syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus sabuletorum subsp. pontederae (A.Kern.) Holub in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 214. 1984 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus tenuifolius subsp. serpentini Podp., Spisy Přír. Fak. Masarykovy Univ. 12: 20. 1922 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus sabuletorum subsp. serpentini (Podp.) Holub in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 214. 1984 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus urziceniensis Prodán, Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Roman. 2: 667. 1953 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus diutinus Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 6: 44. 1844, nom illeg syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus giganteiformis var. comanae Prodán syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus comanae (Prodán) Prodán, Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Roman. 2: 284. 1953 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus giganteiformis subsp. giganteiformis

Dianthus giganteiformis subsp. kladovanus (Degen) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 161. 1972. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus kladovanus Degen in Magyar Bot. Lapok 4: 122. 1905 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus sabuletorum subsp. kladovanus (Degen) Holub in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 214. 1984 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus giganteus d‘Urv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 301. 1822. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus intermedius Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 515. 1867 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus haynaldianus Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 38: 144. 1888 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus giganteus subsp. haynaldianus (Borbás) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 69: 191. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus subgiganteus Borbás ex Formánek in Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 32: 181. 1894 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus giganteus subsp. subgiganteus (Borbás ex Formánek) Hayek in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 94: 138. 1917 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus giganteus subsp. banaticus (Heuff.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus carthusianorum var. banaticus Heuff. syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus banaticus (Heuff.) Dörfl., Exsicc. (Herb. Norm.) 1894: 3018. 1894 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus giganteus subsp. croaticus (Borbás) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 70: 4. 1964. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus croaticus Borbás in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 4: 1059. 1877 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus giganteus subsp. giganteus

Dianthus giganteus subsp. vandasii (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht., Sborn. Blghar. Akad. Nauk 29: 43. 1935. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus vandasii Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1892: 16. 1893 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus glabriusculus (Kit.) Borbás in Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 19: 19. 1877. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus collinus var. glabriusculus Kit. in Linnaea 32: 528. 1863 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)Dianthus collinus subsp. glabriusculus (Kit.) Thaisz in Bot. Közlem. 8: 252. 1910 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus glabriusculus subsp. moldavicus Prodán in Bul. Soc. Sti. Cluj. 10: 158. 1948 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)Dianthus piatra-neamtzui Prodán, Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Roman. 2: 234. 1953 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus collinus subsp. glabriusculus Soó syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus glacialis Haenke in Collectanea 2: 84. 1788. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus alpinus var. glacialis (Haenke) Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 533. 1862, nom. illeg.

= Dianthus glacialis var. acaulis Ser., Prodr. 1: 362. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus glacialis var. latifolius Ser., Prodr. 1: 362. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus alpinus var. subacaulis Roth, Enum. Pl. Phaen. Germ. 1(2): 282. 1827 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus glacialis f. reducta Fornac. in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 107: 246. 1973 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus glacialis subsp. gelidus (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gelidus Schott, Nyman & Kotschy in Schott, Analecta Bot.: 54. 1854 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus glacialis subsp. glacialis

Dianthus glutinosus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 61. 1854. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus pubescens d’Urv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 303. 1822 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus goekayi Kaynak, Yılmaz & Daşkın in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 48: 74. 2011. Sec. Yılmaz et al. (2011)

Dianthus goerkii Hartvig & Strid in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 108: 321. 1987. Sec. Hamzaoğlu & Koç (2021)

= Dianthus leucophaeus var. patens Reeve syn. sec. Hamzaoğlu & Koç (2021)

Dianthus gracilis Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 288. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus gracilis subsp. armerioides (Griseb.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gracilis var. armerioides Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 190. 1843 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus suskalovicii Adamović in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 55: 179. 1905 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus callosus Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 8: 5. 1910 [“1911”] syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus achtarovii Stoj. & Kitan. in Izv. Bulg. Bot. Druzh. 9: 94. 1943 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus gracilis subsp. achtarovii (Stoj. & Kitanov) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gracilis subsp. drenowskianus (Rech.f.) Strid in Willdenowia 13: 281. 1983 [“1984”]. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus drenowskianus Rech.f. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 31: 158. 1932 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gracilis subsp. friwaldskyanus (Boiss.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus friwaldskyanus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 65. 1854 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus gracilis subsp. gracilis

= Dianthus albanicus Wettst. in Biblioth. Bot. 26: 34. 1892 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus athous Rech.f. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 31: 159. 1932 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gracilis subsp. xanthinus (Davidov) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus xanthinus Davidov in Trav. Soc. Bulg. Sci. Nat. 8: 56. 1915 syn. sec. this publication – Dianthus xanthianus Davidov in Trav. Soc. Bulg. Sci. Nat. 8: 56. 1915 syn. sec. this publication [is orthographic variant for Dianthus xanthinus Davidov] – Dianthus gracilis subsp. xanthianus (Davidov) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963 syn. sec. this publication [is orthographic variant for Dianthus gracilis subsp. xanthinus (Davidov) Tutin]

Dianthus graminifolius C.Presl, Fl. Sicul. 1: 147. 1826. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus arrosti var. graminifolius (C.Presl) Lojac., Fl. Sicul. 1: 164. 1889 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus arrostii var. graminifolius (C.Presl) Lojac., Fl. Sicul. 1: 164. 1889 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010) [is orthographic variant for Dianthus arrosti var. graminifolius (C.Presl) Lojac.]

Dianthus graniticus Jord., Observ. Pl. Nouv. 7: 13. 1849. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus hirtus subsp. graniticus (Jord.) Rouy & Foucaud in Rouy, Fl. France 3: 177. 1896 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gratianopolitanus Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 3: 598. 1789. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus caesius Sm., Engl. Bot. [1]: t. 62. 1792 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Silene caesia (Sm.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 112. 1901, nom. illeg.

= Dianthus caesius subsp. adscendens Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 158. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus caesius subsp. montanus Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 159. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus caesius var. nanus Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 159. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus flaccidus Fieber in Flora 17: 633. 1834 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus gredensis Pau ex Caball. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 5: 513. 1945. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus langeanus subsp. gredensis (Pau ex Caball.) Rivas Mart., Fern.Gonz. & Sánchez Mata in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 2: 108. 1986 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus pungens subsp. gredensis (Pau ex Caball.) Crespí, C.P.Fern., A.Castro, Bernardos & Amich in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 44: 253. 2007 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus grossheimii Schischk. in Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 2: 278. 1936. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus guessfeldtianus Muschl., Man. Fl. Egypt 1: 330. 1912. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus guliae Janka in J. Bot. 12: 338. 1874. Sec. Peruzzi & Gargano (2006)

Dianthus liburnicus var. guliae (Janka) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 85. 1882 syn. sec. Peruzzi & Gargano (2006) ≡ Dianthus carthusianorum var. guliae (Janka) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 254. 1892 syn. sec. Peruzzi & Gargano (2006)

Dianthus guttatus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 328. 1808. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus pseudogrisebachii Grecescu, Consp. Fl. Roman.: 100. 1898 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus guttatus subsp. mariae Kleopow in Zhurn. Inst. Bot. Vseukraïns’k. Akad. Nauk 21–22: 244. 1939 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus mariae (Kleopow) Klokov in Bot. Zhurn. (Kiev) 5: 27. 1948 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus guttatus subsp. dicaricatus Prodán, Fl. Republ. Popul. Român. 2: 669. 1953. Sec. Jalas & Suominen (1988)

Dianthus guttatus subsp. guttatus

Dianthus haematocalyx Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 68. 1854. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus haematocalyx f. olympica Stoj. & Jordanov in God. Sofiisk. Univ. Fiz.-Mat. Fak. 34: 178. 1938 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. haematocalyx

Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. phitosianus Constantin. in Phyton (Horn) 39(2): 279. 1999. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. pindicola (Vierh.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 240. 1924. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus pindicola Vierh. in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 47: 31. 1897 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. pinidicola (Vierh.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 240. 1924 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus pineticola var. jacupicensis Košanin syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. pruinosus (Boiss. & Orph.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 240. 1924. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus pruinosus Boiss. & Orph. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 28. 1859 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. ventricosus Maire & Petitm. in Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy III, 9: 193. 1908. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus ventricosus Heldr. ex Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 204. 1900, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus sibthorpii Vierh. in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 47: 33. 1897 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. sibthorpii (Vierh.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 240. 1924 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus hafezii Assadi in Iranian J. Bot. 3: 23. 1985. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus halisdemirii Hamzaoğlu & Koç in KSÜ Tarim Doga Derg. 21: 548. 2018. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2018)

Dianthus hamzaoglui Koç in Phytotaxa 439(1): 58. 2020. Sec. Koç (2020)

Dianthus harrissii Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 240. 1983. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus helenae Vved. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 3: 10. 1941. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus × hellwigii Borbás ex Čelak. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1878: 20. 1879. Sec. IPNI

Dianthus × hellwigii Borbás ex Asch. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 26: 258. 1876;

Dianthus × helveticorum M.Laínz in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 42: 549. 1985 [“1986”]. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus henteri Heuff. ex Griseb. & Schenk in Arch. Naturgesch. 18(1): 303. 1852. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus hispidus (Boiss. & Balansa) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 150

Velezia hispida Boiss. & Balansa in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 57. 1856 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus hoeltzeri C.Winkl. in Gartenflora 30: 1. 1881. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus holopetalus Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 27(2): 369. 1854. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus humilis Willd. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 280. 1842. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus hirtus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 326. 1808 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus virgineus Hablitz ex M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 326. 1808 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sterilis Steven ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 505. 1867 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hymenolepis Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 64. 1849. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus hypanicus Andrz., Ischisl. Rast. Podolsk. Gub. 1: 18. 1860. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus hyrcanicus Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 241. 1983. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus hyssopifolius L., Cent. Pl. I: 11. 1755. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus monspeliacus L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 2: 1029. 1759 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus ambiguus Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 303. 1796 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus saxatilis Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 494. 1805 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus alpestris Sternb., Deutschl. Fl.: 28. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus monspessulanus var. alpestris (Sternb.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 87. 1882 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus plumosus DC. ex Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 64. 1815 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus monspessulanus var. plumosus (DC. ex Spreng.) Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 6: 355. 1830 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus suaveolens Spreng., Novi Provent.: 16. 1818 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus monspessulanus var. suaveolens (Spreng.) Trevir., Index Seminum (WROCL, Wratislaviensi) 1821(App. 3): 1. 1821 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus monspessulanus var. brevifolius Ser., Prodr. 1: 365. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus acuminatus Tausch, Syll. Pl. Nov. 2: 242. 1828 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus controversus Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 157. 1828 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus seguieri var. controversus (Gaudin) W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 96. 1835 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus seguieri subsp. controversus (Gaudin) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 84. 1882 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus sprengelii G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 394. 1831 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus odoratissimus Vest ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 807. 1832 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus monspessulanus var. alpicola W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 99. 1835 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus condensatus Kil. in Linnaea 32: 532. 1863 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus oreades Balb. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 104. 1878 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus eynensis Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 148. 1926 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus monspessulanus var. jacetanus P.Monts. in Bull. Soc. Échange Pl. Vasc. Eur. Occid. Bassin Médit. 18: 72. 1981 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hyssopifolius subsp. gallicus (Pers.) M.Laínz & Muñoz Garm in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 572. 1987. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus gallicus Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 495. 1805 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus monspeliacus subsp. gallicus (Pers.) M.Laínz & Muñoz Garm in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 42: 259. 1985 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus hyssopifolius subsp. hyssopifolius

Dianthus ichnusae Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Nordic J. Bot. 28: 146. 2010. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus ichnusae subsp. ichnusae

Dianthus ichnusae subsp. toddei Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Nordic J. Bot. 28: 147. 2010. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus illyricus (Ard.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 151

Saponaria illyrica Ard., Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt.: 24. 1764 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica illyrica (Ard.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 4: 49. 1838 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Fiedleria illyrica (Ard.) Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 6: 42, t. 246. 1844 syn. sec. this publication (2019) ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica (Ard.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 133. 1964 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus illyricus subsp. angustifolius (Poir.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 152

Silene angustifolia Poir., Voy. Barbarie 2: 164. 1789 syn. sec. this publication (2019); ≡ Tunica angustifolia (Poir.) Briq., Prodr. Fl. Corse 1: 544. 1910 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica illyrica subsp. angustifolia (Poir.) Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 30: 265. 1939 syn. sec. this publication

= Gypsophila compressa Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 343, t. 97. 1798 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica compressa (Desf.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 4: 50. 1838 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthella compressa (Desf.) Pomel, Mat. Fl. Atl.: 9. 1860 syn. sec. this publication (2019)

= Tunica davaeana Coss. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 36: 103. 1889 syn. sec. this publication

= Tunica scoparia Pamp. in Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 12: 25. 1936 syn. sec. this publication (2019)

Dianthus illyricus subsp. haynaldianus (Janka) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 152

Gypsophila haynaldiana Janka in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 20: 316. 1870 syn. sec. this publication (2019) ≡ Tunica haynaldiana (Janka) Borbás in Math. Term. Közlem. 12: 165. 1876 syn. sec. this publication (2019) ≡ Gypsophila haynaldiana Janka ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 100. 1878 syn. sec. IPNI ≡ Tunica illyrica var. haynaldiana (Janka) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 222. 1924 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica illyrica subsp. haynaldiana (Janka) Prodán in Savulescu, F. Roman. P. R. 2: 215. 1953 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica subsp. haynaldiana (Janka) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 134. 1964 syn. sec. this publication

= Tunica rhodopea Velen. in Abh. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. 1894 (29): 4. 1895 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus illyricus subsp. illyricus

Dianthus illyricus subsp. taygeteus (Boiss.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 152

Tunica illyrica var. taygetea Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 521. 1867 syn. sec. this publication; ≡ Tunica taygetea (Boiss.) P.H.Davis in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 165. 1957 syn. sec. this publication (2019) ≡ Petrorhagia illyrica subsp. taygetea (Boiss.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 137. 1964 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica cretica var. taygetea (Boiss.) Halácsy syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus imereticus (Rupr.) Schischk. in Byull. Gosud. Muz. Gruzii 5: 123. 1928 [“1930”]. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus montanus f. imereticus Rupr., Fl. Caucasi: 173. 1869 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus charadzeae Gagnidze & Gvin. in Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 37: 25. 1981 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus inamoenus Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 897. 1936. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus lenkoranicus Kharadze in Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 16: 46. 1951 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus pallens subsp. inamoenus Sanda syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus ingoldbyi Turrill in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1924: 314. 1924. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus insularis Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Nordic J. Bot. 28: 156. 2010. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus integer Vis. in Flora 12(1 Erg.): 11. 1829. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus petraeus subsp. integer (Vis.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus nicolai Beck & Szyszył., Pl. Cernagor. Lect.: 65. 1888 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus prenjus Beck in Wiss. Mitt. Bosnien & Herzegovina 11: 488. 1909 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus integer subsp. integer

Dianthus integer subsp. macedonicus Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 6: 8. 1979. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus integer subsp. macedonicus Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 5: 737. 1979, nom. inval. syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus integer subsp. minutiflorus (Halácsy) Bornm. ex Strid, Mount. Fl. Greece 1: 182. 1986. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus minutiflorus Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 216. 1900 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus petraeus subsp. minutiflorus (Halácsy) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus strictus var. minutiflorus Borbás in Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 34: 85. 1896 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus integerrimus Bunge in Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 7: 583. 1858. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus liboschitzianus var. integerrimus (Bunge) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 487. 1867 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012) ≡ Dianthus cretaceus var. integerrimus (Bunge) Grossh., Fl. Cauc. 2: 430. 1930 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus jacobsii Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 243. 1983. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus jacquemontii Edgew. & Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 214. 1874. Sec. Ghanzafar & Nasir (1986)

Dianthus × jaczonis Asch. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 26: 257. 1876. Sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus japigicus Bianco & S.Brullo in Braun-Blanquetia 2: 31. 1988. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus japonicus Thunb., Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 417. 1784. Sec. Zoku (1965)

= Dianthus ellipticus Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 27(2): 369. 1854 syn. sec. Zoku (1965)

= Dianthus nipponicus Makino in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 58. 1903 syn. sec. Zoku (1965)

= Dianthus japonicus f. albiflorus J.Ohara ex Nakan. in J. Geobot. 16: 116. 1968 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus japonicus f. albiflorus Honda & Koike in J. Jap. Bot. 46: 75. 1971, nom. illeg. syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus japonicus f. albiflorus Konta & S.Matsumoto in Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, B. 31(1): 23. 2005, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Zoku (1965)

Dianthus jaroslavii Galushko in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 6: 213. 1970. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus × javorkae Kárpáti in Borbásia 5–6: 87. 1946. Sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus juniperinus Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2: 303. 1794. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. aciphyllus (Sieber ex Ser.) Turland in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 22: 168. 1992. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus aciphyllus Sieber ex Ser. in Candolle, Prodr. 1: 358. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. bauhinorum (Greuter) Turland in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 22: 168. 1992. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus aciphyllus var. bauhinorum Greuter in Candollea 20: 190. 1965 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus arboreus L., Sp. Pl.: 413. 1753, nom. rej. syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. heldreichii Greuter in Candollea 20: 187. 1966. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. idaeus Turland in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 22(2): 168. 1992. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. juniperinus

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. kavusicus Turland in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 22(2): 168. 1992. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus juniperinus subsp. pulviniformis (Greuter) Turland in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 22: 166. 1992. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus pulviniformis Greuter in Candollea 20: 189. 1965 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus juzeptchukii M.Kuzmina in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81: 80. 1996. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus kapinaensis Markgr. & Lindtner in Glasn. Skopsk. Naucn. Drustva 18(6): 125. 1938. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus karami (Boiss.) Mouterde in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 104: 511. 1958. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus hypochlorus var. karami Boiss., Fl. Orient. Suppl.: 80. 1888 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus karataviensis Pavlov in Sovetsk. Bot. 1934(1): 22. 1934. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus kastembeluensis Freyn & Sint. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 43: 375. 1893. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus khamiesbergensis Sond., Fl. Cap. 1: 124. 1860. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus kirghizicus Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 896. 1936. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus kiusianus Makino in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 178. 1912. Sec. Zoku (1965)

= Dianthus hachijoensis Nakai in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 35: 150. 1921 syn. sec. Zoku (1965)

Dianthus klokovii Knjasev in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 82(11): 80. 1997. Sec. Knjasev (1997)

Dianthus knappii (Pant.) Asch. & Kanitz ex Borbás, Mat. Term. Közlem. 13: 196. 1877. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus liburnicus var. knappii Pant. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 23: 4. 1873 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus balbisii subsp. knappii (Pant.) Peruzzi & Uzunov in Phytol. Balcan. 14: 48. 2008 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus koreanus D.C.Son & K.H.Lee in Phytotaxa 303(1): 71. 2017. Sec. Son et al. (2017)

Dianthus kubanensis Schischk. in Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3: 184. 1937. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus kuschakewiczii Regel & Schmalh. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 5: 244. 1877. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus kusnezowii Marcow. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 4: 31. 1923. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus abchasicus Gvin. in Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 27: 78. 1969 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus lactiflorus Fenzl in Asie Min., Bot. 1: 215. 1860. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus laingsburgensis S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 30. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus lanceolatus Steven ex Rchb., Pl. Crit. 6: 34. 1828. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus langeanus Willk., Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 690. 1878. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus laricifolius Boiss. & Reut., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Hisp.: 7. 1842. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus laricifolius subsp. caespitosifolius (Planellas) M.Laínz, Aport. Conocim. Fl. Gallega 6: 6. 1968. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus caespitosifolius Planellas, Ensayo Fl. Gallega: 118. 1852 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus planellae Willk., Icon. Descr. Pl. Nov. 1: 79. 1854 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus laricifolius subsp. laricifolius

Dianthus laricifolius subsp. marizii (Samp.) Franco in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 23: 91. 1986. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus graniticus var. marizii Samp. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Oporto) 10: 14. 1906 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus marizii (Samp.) Samp. in Bol. Soc. Brot. II, 1: 134. 1922 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus merinoi subsp. marizii (Samp.) Rivas Mart. & Penas in Itinera Geobot. 15: 700. 2002 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus graniticus var. maritzii Samp. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Oporto) 10: 14. 1906 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) [is misspelling for Dianthus graniticus var. marizii Samp.]

Dianthus laricifolius subsp. merinoi (M.Laínz) M.Laínz in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 43: 197. 1986. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus merinoi M.Laínz, Comun. I. N. I. A., Sér. Recurs. Nat. 2: 3. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus legionensis (Willk.) F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 346. 1885. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus lusitanus var. legionensis Willk., Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 684. 1878 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus toletanus var. cutandae Pau in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 22: 87. 1923 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus cutandae (Pau) Pau in Cavanillesia 1: 63. 1928 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus scaber subsp. cutandae (Pau) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus leptoloma Steud. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 42. 1847. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus abyssinicus R.Br., Voy. Abyss. App: lxiv. 1814 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus leptopetalus Willd., Enum. Pl.: 468. 1809. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus pomeridianus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 329. 1808 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus pubescens Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki ed. 2: 59. 1812 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus bicolor Hornem. in Hort. Bot. Hafn. 1: 407. 1813 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus leucophaeus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 288. 1809. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus olympicus Sibth. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 487. 1867 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus ilgazensis Czeczott in Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 9: 32. 1932 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus leucophoeniceus Dörfl. & Hayek in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 70: 13. 1921. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus giganteus subsp. leucophoeniceus (Dörfl. & Hayek) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus libanotis Labill. in Icon. Pl. Syr. 1: 14. 1791. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus atomarius Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 71. 1849 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus lindbergii Riedl in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 65: 30. 1962. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus longicalyx Miq. in J. Bot. Néerl. 1: 127. 1861. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus oreadum Hance in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. V, 5: 207. 1866 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus superbus var. oreadum (Hance) Pamp. in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s., 17: 265. 1910 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus superbus f. longicalycinus Maxim. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 11: 64. 1890 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus (Maxim.) F.N.Williams in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 34: 411. 1899 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus superbus subsp. longicalycinus (Maxim.) Kitam. in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 205. 1962 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus var. latifolius Nakai in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 43: 457. 1929 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus superbus f. latifolius (Nakai) Kitag. in J. Jap. Bot. 40: 138. 1965 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus taiwanensis Masam. in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 618. 1943 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus superbus var. taiwanensis (Masam.) T.S.Liu & S.S.Ying, Fl. Taiwan 2: 334. 1976 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus superbus f. tricolor Honda in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 18. 1962 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus var. pycnophyllus Kitag. in J. Jap. Bot. 55: 266. 1980 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus longiglumis Delile in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. II, 20: 89. 1843. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus longivaginatus Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 244. 1983. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus × lorberi Kubát & Abtová in Severoceskou Prír. 21: 5. 1988. Sec. Danihelka et al. (2012)

Dianthus lucae Asch. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 26: 259. 1876

= Dianthus × lucae var. novakii Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5(2): 451. 1922 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus × novakii (Graebn.) Novák in Vestn. Král. Ceské Spolecn. Nauk. Tr. Mat.-Prír. 9: 47. 1927 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus lusitanus Brot., Fl. Lusit. 2: 177. 1805. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus bolivaris Sennen in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 32: 96. 1932 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus lusitanus var. imberbis Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 28: 342. 1937 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus lusitanus subsp. lusitanus

Dianthus lusitanus subsp. sidi-tualii (Font Quer) Dobignard in J. Bot. Soc. Bot. France 20: 39. 2002. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus sidi-tualii Font Quer in Cavanillesia 7: 149. 1935 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus lusitanus var. latifolius Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 24: 204. 1933 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus lusitanus var. tamarutii Caball., App. Discurs. Univ. Madrid: 2. 1935 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus atlanticus Romo in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 108: 205. 1992 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus lydus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 20. 1843. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus macranthoides Hausskn. ex Bornm. in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19(2): 213. 1906. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus macranthus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 23. 1843. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus macroflorus Hamzaoğlu in Syst. Bot. 40: 210. 2015. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2015)

Dianthus mainensis Shaulo & Erst in Feddes Repert. 122: 345. 2011. Sec. Shaulo & Erst (2011)

Dianthus marschallii Schischk. in J. Bot. Gard. Nikita 10(2): 39. 1928. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus bicolor M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 329. 1808 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus pallens subsp. marschallii Sanda syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus martuniensis M.Kuzmina in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(8): 81. 1996. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus masmenaeus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 51. 1856. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus mutabilis Boiss. in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. IV, 2: 44. 1854 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus asperulus Boiss. & A.Huet in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 51. 1856 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus mazanderanicus Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 245. 1983. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus × melandrioides Pau in Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 1: 29. 1887. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus × carolipaui M.B.Crespo & Mateo in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 47: 506. 1989 [“1990”] syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus membranaceus Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 26: 125. 1876. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus rehmannii Blocki in Kosmos (Lvov) 5: 494. 1880 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus pseudobarbatus Besser ex Blocki in Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3(9): 131. 1885 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus mercurii Heldr. in Atti Congr. Int. Bot. Firenze 1874: 237. 1876. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus micranthus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 69. 1849. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus haussknechtii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 489. 1867 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus microlepis Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 22. 1843. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus pumilus Friv. ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 22. 1843 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus brachyanthus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 96. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pumilio Degen & Urum. in Magyar Bot. Lapok 13: 177. 1914 [“1915”] syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus microlepis f. alba Delip. & Dimitrov in Feddes Repert. 83: 490. 1972 [“1973”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus microlepis var. degenii Stoj. & Acht. syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus microlepis subsp. degenii (Stoj. & Acht.) Peev & Zlatkova in Phytologia Balcan. 1: 38. 1995 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus microlepis var. musalae Velen. syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus musalae (Velen.) Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 8: 6. 1910 [“1911”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus micropetalus Ser., Prodr. 1: 359. 1824. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus moesiacus Vis. & Pančić in Mem. Reale Ist. Veneto Sci. 15: 17. 1870. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus carthusianorum var. moesiacus (Vis. & Pančić) F.N.Williams in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 376. 1893 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus burgasensis Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 192. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus moesiacus subsp. grancarovii (Urum.) Stoj. & Acht. in Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 29(2): 53. 1935. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus grancarovii Urum. in Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 22(1): 22. 1926 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus moesiacus var. grancarovii Urum. ex Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 368. 1933 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus moesiacus subsp. moesiacus

Dianthus moesiacus subsp. sevlievensis (Degen & Nejceff) Stoj. & Acht. in Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 29(2): 54. 1935. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus vandasii var. sevlievensis Degen & Nejceff in Period. Spis. Bulg. Knizh. Druzh. 69: 74. 1908 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus moesiacus subsp. skobelevii (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht. in Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 29(2): 53. 1935. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus moesiacus var. skobelevii Velen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl.: 45. 1898 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus monadelphus Vent., Choix Pl.: t. 39. 1807. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus ochroleucus Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 494. 1805 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus monadelphus subsp. judaicus (Boiss.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 186. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus judaicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 66. 1849 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus auraniticus Post in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24: 422. 1888 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus monadelphus subsp. monadelphus

Dianthus monadelphus subsp. pallens (Sm.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus pallens Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 286. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus procumbens Vent., Choix Pl.: Index. 1808 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus rhodopeus Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1890(2): 40. 1890 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus monspessulanus L., Amoen. Acad. 4: 1313. 1759. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus monspessulanus subsp. marsicus (Ten.) Novák, Spisy Prir. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 21: 25. 1924. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus marsicus Ten., Fl. Napol. 4: 61. 1830 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus monspessulanus var. marsicus (Ten.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 87. 1882 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus sternbergii subsp. marsicus (Ten.) Pignatti in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 107: 209. 1973 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus waldsteinii subsp. marsicus (Ten.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 188. 1982 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus

Dianthus mooiensis F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 27: 199. 1889. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus moviensis F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 27: 199. 1889 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus nelsonii F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 27: 200. 1889 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus mooiensis subsp. kirkii (Burtt Davy) S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 54. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus kirkii Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 220. 1922 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0) ≡ Dianthus moviensis subsp. kirkii (Burtt Davy) S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 54. 1959 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus mooiensis subsp. mooiensis

Dianthus mooiensis var. dentatus Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 222. 1922. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus moviensis var. dentatus Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 222. 1922 syn. sec. this publication [is misspelling for Dianthus mooiensis var. dentatus Burtt Davy]

Dianthus moravicus Kovanda in Preslia 54: 241. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus gratianopolitanus subsp. moravicus (Kovanda) Holub in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 18: 205. 1983 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus morisianus Vals. in Boll. Soc. Sarda Sci. Nat. 24: 333. 1985. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus siculus subsp. morisianus (Vals.) Arrigoni in Parlatorea 7: 20. 2005 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus mossanus Bacch. & Brullo in Portugaliae Act. Biol., Sér. B, Sist. 19: 296. 2000. Sec. Bacchetta & Brullo (2000)

Dianthus siculus subsp. mossanus (Bacch. & Brullo) Arrigoni in Parlatorea 7: 20. 2005 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus muglensis Hamzaoğlu & Koç in Phytotaxa 491(4): 291. 2021. Sec. Hamzaoğlu & Koç (2021)

Dianthus elegans var. gramineus R.M.Burton in Karaca Arbor. Mag. 3: 184. 1997 syn. sec. Hamzaoğlu & Koç (2021)

Dianthus multiaffinis Pau in Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21: 142. 1921. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus pungens var. multiaffinis (Pau) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus costae subsp. multiaffinis (Pau) M.Laínz in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 43: 473. 1986 [“1987”] syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus multiceps subsp. multiaffinis (Pau) Rivas Mart. in Itinera Geobot. 15: 700. 2002 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus multiceps Costa ex Willk. in Linnaea 30: 88. 1859. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cintranus subsp. multiceps (Costa ex Willk.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pungens subsp. multiceps (Costa ex Willk.) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pungens var. multiceps (Costa ex Willk.) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38: 88. 1974 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus × bergadensis Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 144. 1926 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus × corberae Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 143. 1926 [“1927”] syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus × notabilis Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 207. 1926 [“1927”] syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus multiceps subsp. multiceps

Dianthus multiceps subsp. praepyrenaicus M.Bernal in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 569. 1987. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus multiflorus Deniz & Aykurt in Phytokeys 63: 3. 2016. Sec. Deniz et al. (2016)

Dianthus multisquamatus F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 344. 1885. Sec. Williams (1893)

Dianthus multisquameus Bondarenko & R.M.Vinogr., Opred. Rast. Sred. Azii 2: 327. 1971. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus muschianus Kotschy ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 510. 1867. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus myrtinervius Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 194. 1843. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus myrtinervius subsp. zupancicii Micevski & E.Mayer in Razpr. Slov. Akad. Znan. Umetn., Razr. Nar. Vede 43: 411. 2002 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus myrtinervius subsp. caespitosus Strid & Papan. in Ann. Mus. Goulandris 4: 219. 1978. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus myrtinervius var. oxylepis Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 509. 1867 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus oxylepis (Boiss.) Kümmerle & Jáv., Balkán-Kutat Tud. Eredm. 3: 233. 1926 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus kajmaktzalanicus Mitsevski in Fragm. Balcan. Mus. Macedon. Sci. Nat. 10(4): 29. 1977 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus myrtinervius subsp. myrtinervius

Dianthus namaensis Schinz in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 5(App. 3): 84. 1897. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus pearsonii Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 215. 1922 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus namaensis var. dinteri (Schinz) S.S.Hooper. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus dinteri Schinz in Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 74: 110. 1929 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus namaensis var. junceus (Burtt Davy) S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 30. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus junceus Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 219. 1922 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus namaensis var. namaensis

Dianthus nangarharicus Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 240. 1983. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus nanshanicus Chang Y.Yang & L.X.Dong in Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 28: 644. 2008. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus nardiformis Janka in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 23: 195. 1873. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus nihatii Güner, Fl. Turkey 11: 318. 2000 [“2001”]. Sec. Güner (2000)

Dianthus nitidus Waldst. & Kit. in Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 2: 209. 1805. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus noeanus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 52. 1856. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus strictus subsp. noeanus (Boiss.) Stoj. & Acht. in Sborn. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 29: 81. 1935 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus petraeus subsp. noeanus (Boiss.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus nudiflorus Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4: 466. 1854. Sec. Madhani et al. (2018)

= Velezia rigida L., Sp. Pl.: 332. 1753 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Velezia rigida var. glabrata Regel in Izv. Imp. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestv. Moskovsk. Univ. 34(2): 13. 1882 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Velezia rigida var. sessiliflora F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 37: 28. 1899 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus oliastrae Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Nordic J. Bot. 28: 171. 2010. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus orientalis Adams in Beitr. Naturk. 1: 54. 1805. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus fimbriatus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 332. 1808 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus pogonopetalus Boiss. & Kotschy in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 29. 1859 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. aphanoneurus Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 290. 1986. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus aphanoneurus (Rech.f.) M.Kuzmina in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81: 82. 1996 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. gilanicus Rech.f. in Pl. Syst. Evol. 151(3–4): 289. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. gorganicus Rech.f. in Pl. Syst. Evol. 151(3–4): 291. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. ketzkhovelii (Makaschv.) Nersesian, Konspekt Fl. Kavkaza 3(2): 194. 2012. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus ketzkhovelii Makaschv. in Soobshch. Akad. Nauk Gruzinsk. S.S.R. 8(7): 447. 1947 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. macropetalus (Boiss.) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 289. 1986. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus fimbriatus var. macropetalus Boiss., Fl. Orient. Suppl.: 77. 1888 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. nassireddinii (Stapf) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 292. 1986. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus nassireddinii Stapf in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 279. 1886 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus dumulosus Boiss. & A.Huet in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 53. 1856 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus fimbriatus var. brachyodontus Boiss. & A.Huet in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 5: 53. 1856 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012) ≡ Dianthus brachyodontus (Boiss. & A.Huet) Grossh., Fl. Cauc., ed. 2, 3: 294. 1945 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. obtusisquameus (Boiss.) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 291. 1986. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus fimbriatus var. obtusisquameus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 495. 1867 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. orientalis

Dianthus orientalis subsp. scoparius (Fenzl ex Boiss.) Bornm. in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 28(2): 134. 1911. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus scoparius Fenzl ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 494. 1867 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus fallax Rech.f. & Esfand. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 362. 1951 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus orientalis subsp. stenocalyx (Boiss.) Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 151: 292. 1986. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus fimbriatus var. stenocalyx Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 495. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus macronyx Fenzl ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 495. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus pulverulentus Stapf in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 279. 1886 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus oschtenicus Galushko in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 2: 118. 1965. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus pachygonus (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Nersesian & Borsch. Sec. this publication 167

Tunica pachygona Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Sem. Hort. Bot. Petropol. 4: 50. 1838 syn. sec. this publication;

= Saponaria cretica L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2 1: 584. 1762 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Tunica cretica (L.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Sem. Hort. Bot. Petropol. 4: 49. 1837 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Petrorhagia cretica (L.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Bot.) 3(4): 142. 1964 ≡ Fiedleria cretica (L.) Ovcz., Fl. Tadzhiksk. S.S.R. 3: 608. 1968 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus paghmanicus Rech.f. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 75: 362. 1951. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus palinensis S.S.Ying, Col. Ill. Fl. Taiwan 2: 693. 1987. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus pallidiflorus Ser., Prodr. 1: 358. 1824. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus campestris subsp. pallidiflorus (Ser.) Schmalh., Fl. Sredn. Yuzhn. Rossii 1: 447. 1895 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus paniculatus Gueldenst., Reis. Russland 1: 68. 1787 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pallens M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 325. 1808 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus saxatilis Pall. ex M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 329. 1808 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus emarginatus Ser., Prodr. 1: 359. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus parviflorus Willd. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 279. 1842 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus aridus Griseb. ex Janka in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 23: 196. 1873 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus maeoticus Klokov in Sc. Mag. Biol. 1927: 13. 1927 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus pamiralaicus Lincz. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1: 76. 1964. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus pancicii Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1886(Extr.): 9. 1886. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus stenopetalus var. pancicii (Velen.) F.N.Williams in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 389. 1893 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus cruentus var. pancicii (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht., Krit. Stud. Nelk. Bulg.: 56. 1935 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus cruentus subsp. pancicii (Velen.) Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg., ed. 3: 405. 1948 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus tristis Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1890(2): 41. 1890 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus × paradoxus Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 187. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus patentisquameus Bondarenko & R.M.Vinogr., Opred. Rast. Sred. Azii 2: 327. 1971. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus pavlovii Lazkov in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 87(12): 113. 2002. Sec. Lazkov (2006)

Dianthus attenuatus Pavlov, Fl. Kazakhst. 3: 426. 1960, nom. inval. syn. sec. Lazkov (2002)

Dianthus pavonius Tausch in Flora 22: 145. 1839. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus neglectus Loisel. in J. Bot. (Paris) 2: 321. 1809 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Cylichnanthus neglectus (Loisel.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 262. 1867

Dianthus pelviformis Heuff. in Flora 36: 625. 1853. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus bulgaricus Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 78. 1891 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus zernyi Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 237. 1924 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus pendulus Boiss. & Blanche in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 28. 1859. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus persicus Hausskn. in Mitt. Geogr. Ges. (Thüringen) Jena 9: 16. 1891. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus petraeus Waldst. & Kit. in Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 3: 246. 1807. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus bohemicus Mayer ex Tausch in Flora 13: 246. 1830 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus bebius Vis. ex Rchb. in Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 6: 47. 1844 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus integripetalus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 98. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pseudocaesius Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 98. 1866 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus liliodorus Pančić, Fl. Serbiae: 176. 1874 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus petraeus f. liliodorus (Pančić) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 252. 1924 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus kitaibelii Janka ex Beck in Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 192. 1889 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus skorpilii Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1890(2): 40. 1890 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus petraeus subsp. orbelicus (Velen.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus strictus subsp. orbelicus Velen., Fl. Bulg. Suppl. 1: 40. 1898 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus strictus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 288. 1809 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus simonkaianus Péterfi in Magyar Bot. Lapok 15: 14. 1916 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus petraeus subsp. simonkaianus (Péterfi) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus suendermannii Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 40. 1921 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus stefanoffii Eig in J. Bot. 75: 191. 1937 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus petraeus subsp. stefanoffii (Eig) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus petraeus subsp. petraeus

Dianthus pinifolius Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 284. 1809. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus brevifolius Friv. in Flora 18: 334. 1835 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus pinifolius subsp. brevifolius (Friv.) Stoj. & Stef., Fl. Bulg., ed. 3: 406. 1948 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus rumelicus Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 78. 1891 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pinifolius subsp. rumelicus (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht., Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 29(2): 66. 1935 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus pinifolius subsp. smithii Wettst. in Biblioth. Bot. 26: 33. 1892 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus serresianus Halácsy & Charrel in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 42: 271. 1892 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus smithii Wettst. in Biblioth. Bot. 26: 33. 1892 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus rhodopeus Davidov in Trav. Soc. Bulg. Sci. Nat. 8: 55. 1915, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus serresianus Hayek in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 94: 140. 1917 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus serulis Kulcz. in Rozpr. Wydz. Mat.-Przyr Polsk Akad. Umiejetn., Dzial A/B, Nauki Mat-Fiz. Biol. 59: 361. 1923 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pinifolius subsp. serulis (Kulcz.) Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 6: 9. 1979 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pinifolius subsp. serulis (Kulcz.) Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 5: 753. 1979, nom. inval. syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus pinifolius subsp. lilacinus (Boiss. & Heldr.) Wettst. in Biblioth. Bot. 26: 33. 1892. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus lilacinus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 63. 1854 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus pinifolius subsp. pinifolius

Dianthus pinifolius subsp. serbicus Wettst. in Biblioth. Bot. 26: 34. 1892. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus serbicus (Wettst.) Hayek in Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 94: 141. 1918 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus pinifolius subsp. tenuicaulis (Turrill) Strid, Fl. Hellenica 1: 368. 1997. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus tenuicaulis Turrill in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 224. 1929 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus plumarius L., Sp. Pl.: 411. 1753. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Tunica plumaria (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 300. 1771 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.; ≡ Caryophyllus plumarius (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Cylichnanthus plumarius (L.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 262. 1867 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ≡ Silene plumaria (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 114. 1901 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019);

= Dianthus hortensis Schrad. ex Willd., Enum. Pl.: 469. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus plumarius var. hortensis (Schrad. ex Willd.) Trevir., Index Seminum (WROCL, Wratislaviensi) 1818: 3. 1818 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus portensis Libosch. ex Ser., Prodr. 1: 363. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus plumarius var. portensis Ser., Prodr. 1: 363. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus plumarius var. blandus Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 807. 1832 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus blandus (Rchb.) Hayek, Fl. Steiermark 1: 320. 1908 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus odoratus Vest ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 500. 1840 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Plumaria vulgaris Opiz, Seznam: 75. 1852 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus plumarius var. parviflorus Kauffm., Index Seminum (MHA, Mosquensis) 1868: 9. 1868 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus hoppei Port. ex Hayek, Fl. Steiermark 1: 320. 1908 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus neilreichii Hayek syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus dubius Hornem. ex DC., Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp.: 103. 1813, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus dubius Hornem. in Hort. Bot. Hafn. 1: 408. 1813 syn. sec. WFO 2018 [is later isonym of Dianthus dubius Hornem. ex DC.]

Dianthus plumarius subsp. plumarius

Dianthus plumarius subsp. regis-stephani (Rapaics) Baksay in Bot. Közlem. 57: 215. 1970. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus regis-stephani Rapaics syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus hungaricus subsp. regis-stephani (Rapaics) Holub in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9: 273. 1974 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus plumbeus Schischk. in Izv. Tomsk. Gosud. Univ. 81: 451. 1928. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus polylepis Bien. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 497. 1867. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus polylepis subsp. binaludensis (Rech.f.) Vaezi & Behrooz. in Pl. Syst. Evol. 299: 1430. 2013. Sec. Farsi et al. (2013)

Dianthus binaludensis Rech.f. in Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 242. 1983 syn. sec. Farsi et al. (2013)

Dianthus polylepis subsp. polylepis

Dianthus polymorphus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 324. 1808. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus dichotomus Pall., Reise Südl. Statthaltersch. Russ. Reich. 2: 335. 1801 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus diutinus Kit. ex Schult., Oestr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 655. 1814 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus polymorphus var. diutinus (Kit.) Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus atratus Beaupré ex Ser., Prodr. 1: 356. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus ponticus Wahlenb., Isis (Oken) 21: 985. 1828 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus glomeratus Pall. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 276. 1842 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus intermedius Willd. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 276. 1842 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus autumnalis Kit. in Linnaea 32: 530. 1863 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sabuli Kit. in Linnaea 32: 530. 1863 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus platyodon Klokov in Bot. Zhurn. (Kiev) 5: 27. 1948 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus polymorphus var. platyodon Sanda syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus praecox Willd. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 2: 381. 1825. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus plumarius subsp. praecox (Willd. ex Spreng.) Domin syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus hungaricus Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 494. 1805 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus praecox subsp. lumnitzeri (Wiesb.) Kmet’ová, Biol. Práce Slov. Akad. Vied. 5: 63. 1985. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus lumnitzeri Wiesb. in Bot. Centralbl. 26: 85. 1886 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus hungaricus subsp. lumnitzeri (Wiesb.) Holub in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9: 272. 1974 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus plumarius subsp. lumnitzeri (Wiesb.) Domin syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus plumarius f. palaviensis Novák syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus lumnitzeri subsp. palaviensis (Novák) Dostál in Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 5. 1984 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus praecox subsp. praecox

Dianthus praecox subsp. pseudopraecox (Novák) Kmet’ová, Biol. Práce Slov. Akad. Vied. 5: 69. 1985. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus plumarius f. pseudopraecox Novák syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus lumnitzeri subsp. pseudopraecox (Novák) Dostál in Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 4. 1984 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus pratensis M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 300. 1819. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus seguieri lusus pratensis (M.Bieb.) Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 526. 1862 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus chloroleucus Fisch. in Hort. Bot. Hafn. Suppl: 137. 1819 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus seguieri lusus angustifolius Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 526. 1862 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus seguieri lusus humilis Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 526. 1862 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus pratensis subsp. pratensis

Dianthus pratensis subsp. racovitzae (Prodán) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 189. 1963. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus racovitzae Prodán, Bul. Soc. St. Cluj 10(2): 162. 1948 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus pseudarmeria M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 323. 1808. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus pseudobarbatus Besser ex Ledeb. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus trifasciculatus subsp. euponticus Kleopow syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus pseudocrinitus Behrooz. & Joharchi in Phytotaxa 156: 69. 2014. Sec. Vaezi et al. (2014)

Dianthus pseudorigidus (Hub.-Mor.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 173

Velezia pseudorigida Hub.-Mor. in Bauhinia 2: 195. 1963 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus pungens L., Mant. Pl. 2: 240. 1771. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus purpureus Poir., Encycl. 4: 523. 1798 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus serratus Lapeyr., Hist. Pl. Pyrénées: 241. 1813 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus asper var. serratus (Lapeyr.) Ser., Prodr. 1: 357. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus insignitus Timb.-Lagr. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 11: 143. 1864 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus pungens subsp. brachyanthus (Boiss.) B.Fern.Casas, G.López & M.Laínz in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 180. 1987. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus brachyanthus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 701. 1867 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus subacaulis subsp. brachyanthus (Boiss.) P.Fourn., Quatre Fl. France: 331. 1936 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus strictus var. brachyanthus (Boiss.) Boiss. syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus attenuatus Xatard ex Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 1: 267. 1842 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pungens J.Gay ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 85. 1867 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus brachyanthus var. maroccanus Pau & Font Quer, Iter Marocc. 1927: 197. 1928 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus subacaulis var. maroccanus (Pau & Font Quer) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 314. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus brachyanthus subsp. cantabricus Font Quer in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 3: 355. 1953 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus subacaulis subsp. cantabricus (Font Quer) Laínz in Bol. Inst. Estud. Adsturianos, Supl. Ci. 15: 12. 1970 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus brachyanthus var. nivalis Willk. syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus subacaulis subsp. nivalis (Willk.) Malag., Subesp. Variac. Geogr.: 6. 1973 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus pungens subsp. hispanicus (Asso) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 188. 1974. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus hispanicus Asso, Syn. Stirp. Aragon.: 53. 1779 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus pungens var. hispanicus (Asso) Ser., Prodr. 1: 360. 1824 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus brachyanthus subsp. tarraconensis (Costa) Rivas Mart. ex M.B.Crespo & Mateo in Flora Montiber. 45: 90. 2010 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus brachyanthus var. tarraconensis Costa in Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 3: 183. 1874 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus pungens subsp. tarraconensis (Costa) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus hispanicus subsp. tarraconensis (Costa) Molero in Folia Bot. Misc. 3: 12. 1982 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus pungens subsp. pungens

Dianthus pungens subsp. ruscinonensis (Boiss.) M.Bernal, Laínz & Muñoz Garm. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 571. 1987. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus brachyanthus var. ruscinonensis Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 86. 1867 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus ruscinonensis (Boiss.) Sennen in Trab. Mus. Ci. Nat., Ser. Bot., 15: 48. 1931 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus subacaulis subsp. ruscinonensis (Boiss.) G.Bosc & Kerguélen in Lejeunia 120: 80. 1987 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus purpureimaculatus Podlech in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 16: 544. 1980. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus pygmaeus Hayata in Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 34. 1913. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

= Dianthus pygmaeus var. albiflorus S.S.Ying in Quart. J. Chin. Forest. 8(4): 120. 1975 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001) ≡ Dianthus pygmaeus f. albiflorus (S.S.Ying) S.S.Ying, Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 2: 356. 1996 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus pyrenaicus Pourr., Mém. Acad. Sci. Toulouse 3: 318. 1788. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus cognobilis (Timb.-Lagr.) Timb.-Lagr. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 11: 143. 1864 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus requienii var. cognobilis Timb.-Lagr. syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus pungens subsp. cognobilis (Timb.-Lagr.) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus maritimus (Rouy) P.Fourn., Quatre Fl. France: 332. 1936, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. maritimus (Rouy) Kerguélen, Coll. Patrim. Nat. 8: 13. 1993 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pungens subsp. fontqueri O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus hispanicus subsp. fontqueri (O.Bolòs & Vigo) A.Barber, M.B.Crespo & Mateo, Contr. Coneix. Fl. Fitogeogr. Lit. Comarca Marina Alta: 77. 1999 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. attenuatus (Sm.) M.Bernal, Laínz & Muñoz Garm. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 364. 1988. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus attenuatus Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2: 301. 1794 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus longiflorus Poir., Encycl. 4: 522. 1798 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus attenuatus var. catalaunicus Willk. & Costa syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus catalaunicus (Willk. & Costa) Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 684. 1878 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. catalaunicus (Willk. & Costa) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. pyrenaicus

Dianthus quadridentatus (Sm.) Fassou, N.Korotkova, Dimop. & Borsch. Sec. this publication 175

Velezia quadridentata Sm. in Sibthorp & Smith, Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 283. 1809 syn. sec. this publication

= Velezia clavata d’Urv. in Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 284. 1822 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus raddeanus Vierh. in Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 57(1): 1145. 1898. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus trautvetteri Woronow in Izv. Kavkazsk. Muz. 7: 346. 1913 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus ramosissimus Pall. ex Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 130. 1816. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus recognitus Schischk. in Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3: 187. 1937. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus recticaulis Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1(2): 287. 1842. Sec. Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk (2018)

Dianthus repens Willd., Sp. Pl. 2: 681. 1799. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus alpinus var. repens (Willd.) Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 531. 1862 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus alpinus subsp. repens (Willd.) Kozhevn. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 18: 238. 1981 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)Dianthus chinensis subsp. repens (Willd.) Vorosch., Florist. Issl. Razn. Rayonakh SSSR: 167. 1985 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus repens var. repens syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus repens var. scabripilosus Y.Z.Zhao in Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Intramongol. 20: 110. 1989 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus repens subsp. repens

Dianthus repens subsp. schistosus Kuvaev, Fl. Subarkt. Gor Evraz.: 144. 2006. Sec. Kuvaev (2006)

Dianthus rigidus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 325. 1808. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Tunica rigida (M.Bieb.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 54. 1837 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus robustus Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 492. 1867. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus superbiens Kotschy ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 492. 1867 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus rogowiczii Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 12–13: 160. 1931. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus roseoluteus Velen. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 36: 226. 1886. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus campestris subsp. roseoluteus (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht., Sborn. Blghar. Akad. Nauk 29(2): 16. 1935 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus purpureoluteus Velen., Fl. Bulg.: 73. 1891 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus rudbaricus Assadi in Iranian J. Bot. 3: 38. 1985. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus rupicola Biv., Sicul. Pl. 1: 31. 1806. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus bisignanii Ten., Cat. Piante Barra: 13. 1805 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus suffruticosus Willd., Enum. Pl.: 466. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus involucratus Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 132. 1816 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus arborescens Hoffmanns., Verz. Pfl.-Kult.: 56. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus bertolonii J.Woods, Tourists Fl.: 45. 1850 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus rupicola var. bertolonii (J.Woods) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 85. 1882 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus hermaeensis Coss., Ill. Fl. Atlant. 1: 129. 1890 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus rupicola var. hermaeensis (Coss.) F.N.Williams in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 363. 1893 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus rupicola subsp. hermaeensis (Coss.) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 187. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus rupicola subsp. aeolicus (Lojac.) Brullo & Miniss. in Inform. Bot. Ital. 33: 539. 2001 [“2002”]. Sec. Iamonico (2013)

Dianthus aeolicus Lojac., Fl. Sicul. 1(1): 163. 1888 syn. sec. Iamonico (2013)

Dianthus rupicola subsp. bocchoriana L.Llorens & Gradaille in Candollea 46: 389. 1991. Sec. New taxa described to the Flora Iberica region after publication of the respective volume. Published at http://www.floraiberica.es/eng/miscelania/nuevos_taxones.php

Dianthus rupicola subsp. lopadusanus Brullo & Miniss. in Inform. Bot. Ital. 33: 541. 2002 [“2001”]. Sec. Iamonico (2013)

Dianthus rupicola subsp. rupicola

Dianthus ruprechtii Schischk. ex Grossh., Fl. Kavkaza 2: 432. 1930. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

= Dianthus carthusianorum var. caucasicus Rupr., Fl. Caucasi: 174. 1869 syn. sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus sachalinensis Barkalov & Prob., Fl. Ross. Dalnego Vostoka: 444. 2006. Sec. Barkalov & Probatova (2006)

Dianthus saetabensis Rouy in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 29: 44. 1882. Sec. Mateo Sanz & Crespo (2008)

Dianthus saetabensis subsp. contestanus (M.B.Crespo & Mateo) M.B.Crespo & Mateo in Flora Montiber. 40: 65. 2008. Sec. Mateo Sanz & Crespo (2008)

Dianthus hispanicus subsp. contestanus M.B.Crespo & Mateo in Flora Montiber. 20: 8. 2002 syn. sec. Mateo Sanz & Crespo (2008)

Dianthus saetabensis subsp. saetabensis

Dianthus sahandicus Assadi in Iranian J. Bot. 3: 45. 1985. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus sajanensis (Baikov) Czepinoga, Konspekt Fl. Irkutsk. Obl.: 116. 2008. Sec. Chepinoga et al. (2008)

Dianthus superbus subsp. sajanensis Baikov in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 77(9): 80. 1992 syn. sec. Chepinoga et al. (2008)

Dianthus sancarii Hamzaoğlu & Koç in Biol. Diversity Conservation 11(1): 31. 2018. Sec. Hamzaoğlu & Koç (2018)

Dianthus sardous Bacch., Brullo, Casti & Giusso in Feddes Repert. 116: 271. 2005. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus × saxatilis F.W.Schmidt in Neuere Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. 1: 28. 1790. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus scardicus Wettst. in Biblioth. Bot. 26: 31. 1891. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus scardicus var. incisus Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 44. 1987 [“1990”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus nitidus subsp. lakusicii Wraber in Biol. Vestn. 36: 97. 1988 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus schemachensis Schischk. in Trudy Geobot. Obsl. Pastb. S.S.R. Azerbaidzhn, Ser. A., Zimn. Pabstb. 7: 90. 1931. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus seguieri Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 1: 330. 1786. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Silene seguieri (Vill.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 109. 1901 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus asper Willd., Enum. Pl.: 466. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus seguieri var. asper (Willd.) W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 96. 1835 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus asper var. angustifolius Ser., Prodr. 1: 357. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus seguieri f. longibracteatus Regel, Index Seminum (St. Petersburg, Petropolitanus) 1863: 34. 1863 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus seguieri var. viscidus Regel, Index Seminum (St. Petersburg, Petropolitanus) 1863: 40. 1863 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Cylichnanthus ciliatus Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 261. 1867 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus sylvaticus var. pseudocollinus P.Fourn., Quatre Fl. France: 330. 1936 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus seguieri subsp. pseudocollinus (P.Fourn.) Jauzein, Biocosme Mésogéen 27: 114. 2010 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus seguieri var. subaggregatus Albov syn. sec. IPNI ≡ Dianthus subaggregatus (Albov) Schischk. ex Kem.-Nath. in Vеstn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada, n.s., 5: 12. 1931 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus seguieri subsp. glaber Čelak., Prodr. F. Böhmen 3: 507. 1875. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus seguieri subsp. requienii (Godr.) M.Bernal, Laínz & Muñoz Garm. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 569. 1987. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus requienii Godr., Fl. France 1: 234. 1847 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus furcatus subsp. requienii (Godr.) Kerguélen in Lejeunia 120: 80. 1987 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Cylichnanthus unibiflorus Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 261. 1867 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus arragonensis Timb.-Lagr. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 105. 1878 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus gerundensis Sennen & Pau in Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 4: 309. 1905 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus seguieri var. gerundensis (Sennen & Pau) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus gautieri Sennen in Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 21: 107. 1911 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus seguieri subsp. gautieri (Sennen) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 189. 1963 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus seguieri var. gautieri (Sennen) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38: 88. 1974 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus cadevallii Sennen & Pau in Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 24: 237. 1914 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)Dianthus seguieri subsp. cadevallii (Sennen & Pau) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus × paui Sennen in Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 24: 236. 1914 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus queraltii Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 210. 1926 [“1927”] syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus seguieri var. queraltii (Sennen) O.Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 38(1): 88. 1974 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus seguieri subsp. seguieri

Dianthus seidlitzii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 506. 1867. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus pusillus Freyn & Sint. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3: 75. 1895 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus semenovii (Regel & Herder) Vierh. in Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 107: 1147. 1898. Sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus alpinus var. semenovii Regel & Herder in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39(1): 531. 1866 syn. sec. Dequan & Turland (2001)

Dianthus seravschanicus Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 898. 1936. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus serotinus Waldst. & Kit. in Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 2: 188. 1804. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus serpentinus Hamzaoğlu in Nordic J. Bot. 33: 59. 2014. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2015)

Dianthus serratifolius Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 287. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus nazaraeus E.D.Clarke, Trav. Var. Eur. 2: 420. 1812 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus serratifolius subsp. abbreviatus (Heldr. ex Halácsy) Strid, Mount. Fl. Greece 1: 179. 1986. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus serratifolius var. abbreviatus Heldr. ex Halácsy syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus serratifolius subsp. serratifolius

Dianthus serrulatus Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 346. 1798. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus serrulatus var. strictus Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 23: 169. 1932 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus serrulatus var. subsimplex F.N.Williams ex Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 23: 169. 1932 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus taygeteus Quézel & Contandr. in Taxon 16: 239. 1967 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus serrulatus subsp. cyrenaicus (Pamp.) Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 10: 303. 1963. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus serrulatus var. cyrenaicus Pamp. in Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 12: 24. 1936 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus serrulatus subsp. macranthus Maire. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus serrulatus var. broteri Batt., Fl. Algérie Tunisie: 61. 1905 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus mesanidum Litard. & Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 6: 7. 1924 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus serrulatus var. mesanidum (Litard. & Maire) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 303. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus serrulatus subsp. serrulatus

Dianthus sessiliflorus Boiss., Fl. Orient. Suppl.: 78. 1888. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus setisquameus Hausskn. & Bornm. in Mitt. Geogr. Ges. (Thüringen) Jena 9: 15. 1891. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus shinanensis (Yatabe) Makino in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 58. 1903. Sec. Zoku (1965)

Dianthus barbatus var. shinanensis Yatabe in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6: 132. 1892 syn. sec. Zoku (1965)

= Dianthus takenakae Honda in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 44: 670. 1930 syn. sec. Zoku (1965)

= Dianthus shinanensis f. alpinus Hid.Takah. ex T.Shimizu, Fl. Nagano Pref.: 1505. 1997 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus siculus C.Presl, Delic. Prag.: 59. 1822. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. siculus (C.Presl) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 306. 1894 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus caryophyllus var. siculus (C.Presl) Fiori, Fl. Italia 1: 379. 1898 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus sylvestris subsp. siculus (C.Presl) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

= Dianthus kremeri Boiss. & Reut., Pugill. Pl. Afr. Bor. Hispan.: 21. 1852 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus siculus var. lanceolatus Pau in Trab. Mus. Ci. Nat., Ser. Bot., 11: 22. 1917 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0) ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus var. lanceolatus (Pau) Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc 2: 238. 1932 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. transiens Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 20: 16. 1929 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0) ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus f. transiens (Maire) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 319. 1963 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. puberulus Faure & Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 22: 280. 1931 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus mauritii Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 295. 1936 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus kremeri var. trichodontus Faure & Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 30: 333. 1939 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus simulans Stoj. & Stef. ex Stef. & Jordanov in Magyar Bot. Lapok 32: 1. 1933. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus gracilis subsp. simulans (Stoj. & Stef.) Stoj. & Acht. in Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 29(2): 71. 1935 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus sinaicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 23. 1843. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus multisquamatus Hochst. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 497. 1867 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus siphonocalyx Blakelock in Kew Bull. 3: 397. 1948 [“1949”]. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus somanus Oskay in Phytotaxa 347: 264. 2018. Sec. Oskay (2018)

Dianthus sphacioticus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 70. 1849. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus leucophaeus Sieber, Reise Kreta 2: 320. 1823, nom. illeg. syn. sec. WFO 2018 [non Dianthus leucophaeus Sm.]

Dianthus spiculifolius Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 98. 1866. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus squarrosus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 331. 1808. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus arenarius Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 3: 600. 1776 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995) [non Dianthus arenarius L.]

= Dianthus mussini Hornem. in Hort. Bot. Hafn. 1: 408. 1813 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus recurvus Fisch. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 284. 1842 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus sabulosus Willd. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 284. 1842 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus stamatiadae Rech.f. in Bot. Not. 124: 77. 1971. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus stapfii Lemperg in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 50: 261. 1941. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus stellaris Camarda in Parlatorea 6: 87. 2003. Sec. Camarda (2003)

Dianthus siculus subsp. stellaris (Camarda) Arrigoni in Parlatorea 7: 20. 2005 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus stenocephalus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1 1: 19. 1843. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus macrolepis Fenzl ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 64. 1849 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus stenopetalus Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 187. 1843. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus geticus Kulcz. in Rozpr. Wydz. Mat.-Przyr Polsk Akad. Umiejetn., Dzial A/B, Nauki Mat-Fiz. Biol. 59: 37. 1923 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus stepanovae Barkalov & Prob., Fl. Ross. Dalnego Vostoka: 444. 2006. Sec. Barkalov & Probatova (2006)

Dianthus sternbergii Sieber ex Capelli, Cat. Stirp.: 24. 1821. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus monspessulanus var. sternbergii (Sieber ex Capelli) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 276. 1892 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus hyssopifolius subsp. sternbergii (Sieber ex Capelli) Graebn. & P.Graebn. in Ascherson & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5(2): 436. 1922 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus waldsteinii Sternb. in Flora 9(1 Beibl.): 73. 1826 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus monspessulanus subsp. sternbergii Hegi syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus stramineus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 70. 1849. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus stribrnyi Velen. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1892: 15. 1893. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus moesiacus subsp. stribrnyi (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht. in Sborn. Bălg. Akad. Nauk. 29(2): 53. 1935 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus strictus Banks & Sol., Nat. Hist. Aleppo ed. 2, 2: 252. 1794. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus polycladus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 65. 1849 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus quadrilobus Boiss., Asie Min., Bot. 1: 222. 1860 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus sulcatus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 483. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus halepensis Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 89: 91. 1936 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strictus subsp. multipunctatus (Ser.) Mouterde ex Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus multipunctatus Ser., Prodr. 1: 362. 1824 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus lineolatus Bové ex Delile in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. II, 7: 286. 1837 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strictus subsp. strictus

Dianthus strictus subsp. sublaevis D.F.Chamb. in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 56. 1994. Sec. Chamberlain et al. (1994)

Dianthus strictus subsp. troodi (Post) B.F.Osoriol & Seraphim ex Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus multipunctatus var. troodi Post in Mém. Herb. Boissier 1(18): 91. 1900 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)Dianthus strictus var. troodi (Post) S.S.Hooper, Fl. Cyprus 1: 806. 1977 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strictus subsp. velutinus (Boiss.) Mouterde ex Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus multipunctatus var. velutinus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 65. 1849 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strictus var. axilliflorus (Fenzl) Reeve in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 28: 19. 1967. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus axilliflorus Fenzl, Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr.: 10. 1842 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)Dianthus multipunctatus var. axilliflorus (Fenzl) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 483. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus bitlisianus Kotschy ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 483. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strictus var. gracilior (Boiss.) Reeve in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 28: 19. 1967. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus multipunctatus var. gracilior Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 483. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus striatellus Fenzl, Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr.: 10. 1842 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus paniculatus Pau in Trab. Mus. Ci. Nat., Ser. Bot., 14: 9. 1918 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strictus var. subenervis (Boiss.) Reeve in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 28: 19. 1967. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus multipunctatus var. subenervis Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 483. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus strymonis Rech.f. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 69: 450. 1939. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus subacaulis Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 3: 597. 1789. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus virgineus var. subacaulis (Vill.) Ser., Prodr. 1: 361. 1824 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus subaphyllus (Lemperg) Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 163: 170. 1988. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus tabrisianus var. subaphyllus Lemperg in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 50: 259. 1941 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus × subfissus Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 184. 1896. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus subscabridus Lincz., Fl. Uzbekist. 2: 525. 1953. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus subulosus Conrath & Freyn in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3: 76. 1895. Sec. Nersesyan (2011)

Dianthus superbus L., Amoen. Acad. 4: 272. 1759. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Caryophyllus superbus (L.) Moench, Methodus: 59. 1794 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019); ≡ Silene superba (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 116. 1901 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.; ≡ Dianthus superbus var. superbus syn. sec. WFO 2018Plumaria superba (L.) Opiz, Seznam: 75. 1852, nom. inval. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019);

= Dianthus fimbriatus Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 538. 1779 syn. sec. WFO 2018Cylichnanthus fimbriatus (Lam.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 262. 1867 syn. sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

= Dianthus multifidus Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 162. 1782 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus contortus Sm., Cycl.: 11. 1808 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus var. rubicundus Ser., Prodr. 1: 365. 1824 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus plumarius Gunnerus ex Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 2: 379. 1825 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus schizopetalus Wallr. in Linnaea 14: 570. 1840 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus wimmeri Wich. in Jahresber. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1854: 75. 1854 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus var. subobtusus Regel & Herder in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39(1): 532. 1866 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus superbus subsp. silvestris Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Böhmen 3: 508. 1875 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus szechuensis F.N.Williams in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 34: 428. 1899 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus f. albiflorus Iljinski in Trudy Bot. Muz. Imp. Akad. Nauk 14: 25. 1915 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus f. albiflorus Honda in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 52: 140. 1938, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus superbus f. albiflorus Tatew., Veg. Shikotan Is.: 32. 1940, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus superbus f. albus Popov in Konspekt Fl. Pober. Baikal: 213. 1966 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus superbus f. leucanthus T.Shimizu in J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 37: 120. 1989 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus subsp. norvegicus M.Kuzmina, Fl. Vostoch. Evropy 11: 294. 2004 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus revolutus Tausch in Flora 13: 245. 1830 syn. sec. WFO 2018Plumaria revoluta (Tausch) Opiz, Seznam: 75. 1852, nom. inval. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus superbus subsp. alpestris Kablík. ex Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Böhmen: 508. 1875. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus superbus var. speciosus Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 808. 1832 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus speciosus (Rchb.) Rchb. in Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 6: 46. 1844 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus superbus subsp. speciosus (Rchb.) Hayek, Sched. Fl. Stiriac. 11–12: 9. 1907 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus superbus f. speciosus (Rchb.) Bolzon in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 21: 180. 1914 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus superbus var. monticola Makino in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 59. 1903 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus var. bibracteolata Koidz. in Icon. Pl. Koisikav. 3(4): t. 183. 1916 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus superbus f. bibracteolata (Koidz.) Tatew. in J. Sapporo Soc. Agric. 121: 256. 1934 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus superbus f. chionanthus Okuyama in J. Jap. Bot. 30: 42. 1955 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus superbus subsp. autumnalis Oberd., Pfl. Exkurs. Fl., ed. 4: 359. 1979. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus superbus subsp. stenocalyx (Trautv. ex Juz.) Kleopow in Izv. Kievsk. Bot. Sada 14: 137. 1932. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus stenocalyx Trautv. ex Juz. in Mem. Inst. Agron. For. Belarus 4: 212. 1925 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus superbus subsp. superbus

Dianthus superbus var. amoena Nakai in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 44: 520. 1930. Sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus superbus var. alpestris Nakai in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 63. 1922, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus sylvaticus Hoppe ex Willd., Enum. Pl.: 467. 1809. Sec. Danihelka et al. (2012)

Dianthus seguieri var. sylvaticus (Hoppe ex Willd.) W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 96. 1835 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus seguieri subsp. sylvaticus (Hoppe ex Willd.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 84. 1882 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus sylvestris Wulfen in Collectanea 1: 237. 1786. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. sylvestris (Wulfen) Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 193. 1896 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Silene sylvestris (Wulfen) E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. Abbild., ed. 2, 5: 112. 1901, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019);

= ?Dianthus caryophyllus var. inodorus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 410. 1753 syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021) ≡ ?Dianthus inodorus (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 227. 1791 syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021)

= Dianthus rupestris L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 240. 1782 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus caryophylloides Schult., Observ. Bot.: 78. 1809 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus wulfenii F.Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. 2: 669. 1816 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus frigidus Zucc. in Flora 7: 283. 1824 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sylvestris var. imbricatus Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 152. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus sylvestris var. uniflorus Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 3: 152. 1828 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus sylvestris var. humilior W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 97. 1835 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus sylvestris var. subacaulis W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 97. 1835 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus saxicola Jord., Mém. Acad. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Sci. 1: 241. 1851 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus aggericola Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemagne: 48. 1855 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus aggericolus Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 48. 1855 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus consimilis Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 47. 1855 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus guyetanii Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 46. 1855 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus orophilus Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 43. 1855 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus reuteri Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 49. 1855 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus papillosus Vis. & Pančić in Mem. Reale Ist. Veneto Sci. 10: 434. 1861 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus sylvestris f. papillosus (Vis. & Pančić) Beck in Glasn. Zemaljsk. Muz. Bosni Hercegovini 21: 175. 1909 syn. sec. this publication

= Dianthus brevicalyx Beck in Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 63. 1887 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus juratensis Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 32. 1903 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sylvestris f. albiflorus Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 44. 1987 [“1990”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus sylvestris var. alpestris Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 42. 1987 [“1990”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. alboroseus F.K.Mey. in Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 53. 2011. Sec. Meyer (2011)

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. aristidis (Batt.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus aristidis Batt., Fl. Algérie Dicot.(App. 2): v. 1888 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. aristidis (Batt.) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 10: 320. 1963 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. bertisceus Rech.f. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 38: 150. 1935. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus bertisceus (Rech.f.) E.Mayer & Trpin in Biol. Vestn. 13: 57. 1965 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. kozjakensis Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 43. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. longibracteatus (Maire) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. longibracteatus Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 19: 33. 1928 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. mogadorensis Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 20: 16. 1929 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. volubilitanus Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc 2: 238. 1932 syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus caryophyllus f. mogadorensis (Maire) Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 10: 319. 1963 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. longicaulis (Ten.) Greuter & Burdet in Willdenowia 12: 187. 1982. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus longicaulis Ten., Cat. Hort. Neapol. 1813 App. 2: 77. 1819 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus caryophyllus var. longicaulis (Ten.) Trevir., Index Seminum (WROCL, Wratislaviensi) 1821: 1. 1821 syn. sec. this publication ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. longicaulis (Ten.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 306. 1894 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus virgineus Gren. & Godr. in Bot. Mag. 42: t. 1740. 1815 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus caryophyllus var. tenuifolius Moris, Fl. Sardoa 1: 231. 1837 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus siculus subsp. tenuifolius (Moris) Arrigoni in Parlatorea 7: 20. 2005 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus scheuchzeri Jord., Mém. Acad. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Sci. 1: 241. 1851 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus collivagus Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 46. 1855 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus godronianus Jord., Annot. Fl. France Allemange: 45. 1855 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. godronianus (Jord.) P.Martin in Bull. Soc. Échange Pl. Vasc. Eur. Occid. Bassin Médit. 19: 93. 1984 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)Dianthus sylvestris var. godronianus (Jord.) Kerguélen in Lejeunia 120: 81. 1987 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. nodosus (Tausch) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 247. 1924. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus nodosus Tausch, Syll. Pl. Nov. 2: 243. 1828 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris

Dianthus sylvestris subsp. tergestinus (Rchb.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 247. 1924. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus virgineus var. tergestinus Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 6: 47, t. 5049b. 1844 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus tergestinus (Rchb.) A.Kern., Sched. Fl. Exs. Austro-Hung.: no. 545. 1882 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus caryophyllus var. tergestinus (Rchb.) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 283. 1892 syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus szowitisianus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 503. 1867. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus pallens var. oxylepis Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 485. 1867 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus tabrisianus Bien. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 496. 1867. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

= Dianthus pachypetalus Stapf in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 278. 1886 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus tabrisianus var. coloratus (Bornm.) Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 163: 147. 1988. Sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus pachypetalus var. coloratus Bornm. in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 60: 80. 1910 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)Dianthus coloratus (Bornm.) Hand.-Mazz., Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 26: 153. 1912 syn. sec. Rechinger (1988)

Dianthus tabrisianus var. tabrisianus

Dianthus takhtajanii Nersesian in Takhtajania 1: 47. 2011. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus talyschensis Boiss. & Buhse in Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 34. 1860. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus tarentinus Lacaita in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s., 18: 511. 1911. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

= Dianthus sylvestris var. garganicus Ten., Fl. Napol. 2: 208. 1830 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. garganicus (Ten.) Grande in Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1912: 178. 1912 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus caryophyllus var. garganicus (Ten.) Fiori, Nuov. Fl. Italia 1: 512. 1924 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus sylvestris subsp. garganicus (Ten.) Pignatti in Giorn. Bot. Ital. 107: 211. 1973 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)Dianthus garganicus (Ten.) Brullo in Braun-Blanquetia 2: 31. 1988 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus tenuiflorus Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 189. 1843. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus corymbosus subsp. tenuiflorus (Griseb.) Trinajstić in Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 5: 746. 1979 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus thunbergii S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 38. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus hirtus Vill., Syst. Pl. Eur. 1: 41. 1785 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus scaber Chaix, Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 1: 331. 1786 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus scaber Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 81. 1794 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus prostratus Eckl. & Zeyh., Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral. 1: 32. 1835 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus ramentaceus Fenzl ex Sond., Fl. Cap. 1: 122. 1860 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus thunbergii f. maritimus S.S.Hooper, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 7 [1]: 38–40. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus thunbergii f. thunbergii

Dianthus tianschanicus Schischk., Fl. URSS 6: 897. 1936. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus tlaratensis Husseinov in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 75: 234. 1990. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus toletanus Boiss. & Reut., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Hisp.: 7. 1842. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus scaber subsp. toletanus (Boiss. & Reut.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus transcaucasicus Schischk. in Izv. Tomsk. Gosud. Univ. 80: 452. 1929. Sec. Nersesyan (2011)

Dianthus transvaalensis Burtt Davy in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 215. 1922. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus scaber var. graminifolius Fenzl ex Szyszyl. syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus trifasciculatus Kit. ex Schult., Oestr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 654. 1814. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus lancifolius Tausch in Flora 14: 215. 1831 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus danubialis Griseb. & Schenk in Arch. Naturgesch. 18(1): 301. 1852 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus heptaneurus Griseb. & Schenk in Arch. Naturgesch. 18(1): 302. 1852 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus biternatus Schur in Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 11. 1853 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus transsylvanicus Schur in Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 5: 82. 1854 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus pruinosus Janka, Index Seminum (WU) 1858: 4. 1858 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus banaticus Kit. in Linnaea 32: 527. 1863 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus trifasciculatus subsp. parviflorus Stoj. & Acht., Sborn. Blghar. Akad. Nauk 29: 40. 1935. Sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus trifasciculatus var. deserti Prodán syn. sec. WFO 2018Dianthus deserti (Prodán) Prodán, Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Roman. 2: 232. 1953 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus trifasciculatus subsp. deserti (Prodán) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 190. 1963 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus trifasciculatus subsp. pseudobarbatus (Schmalh.) Jalas in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 22: 219. 1985. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus chinensis subsp. pseudobarbatus Schmalh., Fl. Sredn. Yuzhn. Rossii 1: 125. 1895 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus pseudobarbatus (Schmalh.) Besser ex Klok., Fl. S.S.S.R. 4: 609. 1952 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

= Dianthus euponticus Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 3: 141. 1911 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus trifasciculatus subsp. trifasciculatus

Dianthus tripunctatus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1(2): 286. 1809. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus barati Duval-Jouve in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 2: 350. 1855 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus tunicoides Madhani & Heubl in Taxon 67(1): 103. 2018. Sec. Madhani et al. (2018)

Tunica sibthorpii Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 61. 1849, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018)Gypsophila armerioides Ser. ex DC., Prodr. 1: 353. 1824 syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018)Tunica armerioides (Ser. ex DC.) Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 194. 1900 syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018)Petrorhagia armerioides (Ser. ex DC.) P.W.Ball & Heywood in Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 139. 1964 syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018)Fiedleria armerioides (Ser. ex DC.) Ovcz., Fl. Tadzhikskoi S.S.R. 3: 608. 1968 syn. sec. Madhani et al. (2018).

Dianthus turkestanicus Preobr. in Izv. Imp. Bot. Sada Petra Velikago 15: 366. 1915. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus versicolor subsp. turkestanicus (Preobr.) Kozhevn. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 22: 113. 1985 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

= Dianthus alatavicus Popov in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. n.s., 47: 86. 1938 syn. sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus tymphresteus (Boiss. & Spruner) Heldr. & Sart. ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 27. 1859. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus viscidus var. tymphresteus Boiss. & Spruner in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 64. 1849 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus ucarii Hamzaoğlu & Koç in Turkish J. Bot. 41: 487. 2017. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2017)

Dianthus ugamicus Vved. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 3: 10. 1941. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus uniflorus Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: cxi. 1775. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus uralensis Korsh. in Trudy Glavn. Bot. Sada 43: 310. 1930. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus urumoffii Stoj. & Acht., Fl. Bulg. ed. 2: 364. 1933. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus uzbekistanicus Lincz., Fl. Uzbekist. 2: 526. 1953. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus vanensis Behçet & Ilçim in Turkish J. Bot. 37: 219. 2013. Sec. İlçim et al. (2013)

Dianthus varankii Hamzaoğlu & Koç in KSÜ Tarim Doga Derg. 21: 546. 2018. Sec. Hamzaoğlu et al. (2018)

Dianthus × varians Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 186. 1896. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus × saxatilis nothosubsp. varians (Rouy & Foucaud) M.Bernal, Laínz & Muñoz Garm. in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 367. 1988 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus vigoi M.Laínz in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 42: 551. 1985 [“1985”]. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus seguieri subsp. vigoi (M.Laínz) O.Bolòs, Fl. Països Catalans 2: 757. 1990 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus virgatus Pasq. in Ann. Accad. Aspir. Naturalisti III, 1: 28. 1861. Sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus caryophyllus subsp. virgatus (Pasq.) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 306. 1894 syn. sec. Bacchetta et al. (2010)

Dianthus virgineus L., Sp. Pl.: 412. 1753. Sec. Domina et al. (2021)

Tunica virginea (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 302. 1771 syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021); ≡ Dianthus caryophyllus var. virgineus (L.) Fiori, Fl. Italia 1(2): 379. 1898 syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021) ≡ Dianthus rupestris Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 536. 1779, nom. illeg. syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021) ≡ Dianthus scheuchzeri Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 811. 1832 syn. sec. Domina et al. (2021)

Dianthus viridescens Clementi in Atti Riunione Sci. Ital. 3: 520. 1841. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus viscidus Bory & Chaub., Nouv. Fl. Pélop.: 26. 1838. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus olympicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 1: 19. 1843 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

= Dianthus grisebachii Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 62. 1854 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus parnassicus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 64. 1854 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus heldreichii Bornm. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 59: 393. 1924 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus viscidus subsp. elatior (Halácsy) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 227. 1924 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus viscidus subsp. grisebachii (Boiss.) Hayek in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 226. 1924 syn. sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus viscidus var. glandulosus Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 44. 1987 [“1990”] syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus vladimirii Galushko in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 11: 298. 1974. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus volgicus Juz. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 73. 1950. Sec. Czerepanov (1995)

Dianthus vulturius Guss. & Ten., Index Seminum (NAP) 1837: 3. 1837. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus carthusianorum var. vulturius (Guss. & Ten.) Tanfani, Fl. Ital. 9: 253. 1892 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019) ≡ Dianthus balbisii subsp. vulturius (Guss. & Ten.) Maire in Bull. Soc. His. Nat. Afrique N. 23: 169. 1932 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)Dianthus ferrugineus subsp. vulturius (Guss. & Ten.) Tutin in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 191. 1963 syn. sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus vulturius subsp. aspromontanus Brullo, Scelsi & Spamp. in Portugaliae Acta Biol., Sér. B, Sist. 19: 310. 2000. Sec. Brullo et al. (2000)

Dianthus vulturius subsp. vulturius

Dianthus × warionii Timb.-Lagr. in Bull. Soc. Agric. Sci. Litt. Pyrén.-Orient. 25: 20. 1881. Sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus richteri nothovar. warionii (Timb.-Lagr.) Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 183. 1896 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

= Dianthus × richteri Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 182. 1896 syn. sec. Bernal et al. (1990)

Dianthus woroschilovii Barkalov & Prob., Fl. Ross. Dalnego Vostoka: 76. 2006. Sec. Barkalov & Probatova (2006)

Dianthus chinensis subsp. reflexus Vorosch. in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. n.s., 83(5): 116. 1978 syn. sec. Barkalov & Probatova (2006)

Dianthus xylorrhizus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 67. 1849. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

Dianthus zangezuricus Nersesian in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 42: 115. 2011. Sec. Kuzmina & Nersesyan (2012)

Dianthus zederbaueri Vierh. in Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 20: 391. 1905. Sec. Marhold (2011)

Dianthus zeyheri Sond., Fl. Cap. 1: 124. 1860. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus albens Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 27(2): 369. 1854 syn. sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus serpae Ficalho & Hiern in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 2: 17. 1881 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus mecistocalyx F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 27: 199. 1889 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus zeyheri subsp. natalensis S.S.Hooper in Hookers Icon. Pl. 37: 48. 1959. Sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

= Dianthus colensoi F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 344. 1885 syn. sec. African Plant Database (version 3.4.0)

Dianthus zeyheri subsp. zeyheri

Dianthus zonatus Fenzl, Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr.: 11. 1842. Sec. Dimopoulos et al. (2013)

= Dianthus hypochlorus Boiss. & Heldr. in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 8: 67. 1849 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Hybrids

Dianthus × ambrozy-migazzianus Boros in Magyar Bot. Lapok 23: 33. 1924 [“1925”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × arvernensis Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 185. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × brivatensis Blanch., Jardin 6: 174. 1892. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × burciae Péterfi & Gürtler in Magyar Bot. Lapok 15: 20. 1916. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × calalpinus Farrer in Engl. Rock Gard. 1: 283. 1919

Dianthus × callizonoides Sünd. in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 12: 91. 1906. Sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus × courtoisii Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 806. 1832. Sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus × wolfii Vetter in Bull. Murith. Soc. Valais. Sci. Nat. 11: 132. 1883 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus × digeneus Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 184. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × ebneri Heimerl, Fl. Brixen: 105. 1911. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × gabrielae Domin in Vestn. Král. Ceské Spolecn. Nauk. Tr. Mat.-Prír. 13: 4. 1927 [“1926”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × genersichii Györffy in Magyar Bot. Lapok 23: 70. 1924 [“1925”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × josephinae Font Quer in Cavanillesia 1: 34. 1928. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × julii-wolfii Marton in Magyar Bot. Lapok 15: 19. 1916. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × krasanii A.Kern. ex Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Fl. Tirol 6(2): 209. 1909. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × lacinulatus Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 3: 161. 1911. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × lamyi Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 176. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × laucheanus Bolle ex Bolle & Asch. in Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 33: 102. 1892. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × loretii Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 176. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × mammingiorum Murr in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 13: 23. 1907. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × nigritus Hirahata & Kitam. in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 205. 1962. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × paradoxus Keller ex Schröt. in Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 14: 117. 1905. Sec. POWO. Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Dianthus × ponsi Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 184. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × pritchardii Farrer, Engl. Rock Gard. 1: 300. 1919

Dianthus × saxatilis F.W.Schmidt in Neuere Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. 1: 28. 1790. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × zarencznianus Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 3: 149. 1911. Sec. WFO 2018

Unresolved names

Dianthus acuminatus F.W.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 347. 1885. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus adulterinus Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2: 50. 1830. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus ambiguus Pančić, Fl. Serbiae: 178. 1874. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus ambiguus Pančić ex F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 342. 1885. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus andersonii F.N.Williams in J. Bot. 23: 346. 1885. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus aragonensis Timb.-Lagr., Mém. Acad. Sci. Toulouse VI, 5: 242. 1867. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus arenarius var. gigas Novák. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus arenarius subsp. gigas (Novák) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 161. 1972 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus armerioides Raf. in J. Bot. Agric. 4: 269. 1814. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus attenuatus proles maritimus Rouy. Sec. Kew WCVP (2019)

Dianthus banaticiformis Prodán in Bul. Soc. Sti. Cluj 10: 152. 1948. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus basalticus (Domin) Fritsch, Exkursionsfl. Oesterreich ed. 2: 215. 1909. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus carthusianorum var. basalticus Domin syn. sec. this publication

Dianthus behriorum Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 41: 188. 1936. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus bolfae Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 149. 1926. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus bornmuelleri Hausskn. in Mitt. Geogr. Ges. (Thüringen) Jena 9: 16. 1891. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus borzaeanus Prodán in Bul. Inform. Grad. Bot. Univ. Cluj 5: 41. 1925. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus bottemeri Bouchard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 97: 220. 1951. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus brachyanthus Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 1: 235. 1847. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus brachycarpus Velen. in Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. 7(Folge 1): 9. 1886. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus brevilimbis Boiss. ex Trautv. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 2: 506. 1873. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus brevior Gand., Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 5. 1883. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus brevistylus Timb.-Lagr. & Jeanb. in Bull. Soc. Agric. Sci. Litt. Pyrén.-Orient. 25: 24. 1881. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus bucovinensis Prodán & Morariu in Bul. Sti. Acad. Republ. Populare Romîne, Sect. Biol. Sti. Agric. Ser. Bot., 9: 301. 1957. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus buergeri Miq. in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 77. 1865. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus callichrous Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 30. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus callizonoides Sünd. in Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 12: 91. 1906. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus calverti Boiss., Asie Min., Bot. 1: 223. 1860. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus camboi Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 42. 1936. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus camusii Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 9. 1936. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus carneus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 25. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus carpaticus Woloszack. [publication] Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus caucasicus Spreng., Adumbr. Pl. Hort. Hal.: 23. 1806. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus chlorostomus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 31. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus collincola Spreng. in Bot. Gart. Halle Nachtr. 1: 20. 1801. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus companyoi Sennen in Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 208. 1926 [“1927”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus corymbosus Andrz. in Trudy Komiss. Vys. Uchr., Kiev 1: 18. 1860. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus costei Sennen in Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 24: 237. 1914. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus cruentus Fisch. ex Planch., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 5: t. 488. 1849. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus curticeps Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 40: 97. 1890. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus decrescens Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 27: 378. 1877. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus deserti Post, Pl. Postianae 2: 6. 1891. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus deserti Kotschy in Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 52(1): 262. 1866. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus dissimilis (Burnat) Landolt, Fl. Indicativa: 268. 2010. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus divaricatus d’Urv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 302. 1822. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus dostalii Novák in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 38: 304. 1935. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus egregius Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 23. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus elegans M.Bieb. ex Rupr., Fl. Caucasi: 174. 1870. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus elongatus C.A.Mey., Verz. Caucasus Pfl.: 211. 1849. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus erubescens Roth, Enum. Pl. Phaen. Germ. 1(2): 279. 1827. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus exilis Posp., Fl. Oesterr. Küstenl. 1: 452. 1897. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus fallacinus Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 190. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus faurei Arv.-Touv. in Bull. Soc. Dauphin. Échange Pl. 7: 263. 1880. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus fauriei H.Lév. & Vaniot in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 200. 1909. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus flabellatus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 29. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus flahaultii Braun-Blanq. in Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 21: 32. 1919. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus flexicaulis Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 26. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus floribundus Sennen in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 73: 645. 1926 [“1927”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus foliosus Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 5: 184. 1832. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus galicicae Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 40. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus gelcenii Gelcenis ex Sennen in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 73: 646. 1926 [“1927”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus gizellae Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 27: 378. 1877. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus glaucophyllus Colla in Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino 35: 187. 1831. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus grandiflorus Poir., Encycl. 4: 515. 1798. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus gremblichii Asch. in Sitzungsber. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 19: 28. 1877. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus gustavii Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 9. 1936. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus handelii Hayek in Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 28: 157. 1914. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hanryi Burnat, Fl. Alpes Marit. 1: 223. 1892. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hazaricus F.N.Williams in Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 892. 1901. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus helwigii Asch. [publication] Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hendersonianus Paxton in Fl. Mag. (London) 14: 126. 1848. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus heterophyllus Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 3: 172. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hornemannii Ser., Prodr. 1: 262. 1824. Sec. WFO 2018

= Dianthus geminatus Kit. ex Schult., Oestr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 656. 1814 syn. sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus huebneri Seehaus in Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 33: 95. 1892. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus hypoleucus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 31. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus impunctatus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 29. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus inoxianus Gallego in Lagascalia 14: 71. 1986. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus istriacus Gand., Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 5. 1883. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus italicus Jan ex Pasq., Index Seminum (NAP): 1866. 1866. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus jablanicensis Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 31. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus jacupicensis (Košanin) Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 41. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus japigicum Bianco & Brullo. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus jugoslavicus Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 33. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × laucheanus Bolle in Gartenflora 53: 393. 1904. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus laxus Tausch, Hort. Canal. 2: t. 17. 1825. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus lereschii (Burnat) Landolt, Fl. Indicativa: 268. 2010. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus levieri Borbás in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 27: 231. 1877. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus lisae Burnat, Fl. Alpes Marit. 1: 233. 1892. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus longicaulis St.-Lag. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 144. 1880. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus longifolius Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 32. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus macedonicus Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 35. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus macrophyllus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 30. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus magyari Dorsch, Kert. Szemle 5: 241. 1933. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus marginatus Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 131. 1816. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus maris Willd. ex B.S.Williams in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 29(203): 415. 1893. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus marisensis Simonk. in Term. Füz. 9: 37. 1885. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus maritimus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 25. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus massiliensis Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 25. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus mayeri C.Presl in Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. V, 3: 448. 1845. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus medius Besser ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 103. 1878. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus microcheilus B.S.Williams in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 176. 1891. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus mikii Reichardt in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 17: 331. 1867. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus minimus Javeiol in Curr. Sci. 42: 692. 1973. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus minor Porta in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 11: 278. 1879. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus moldavicus Grinț. in Bul. Inform. Grad. Bot. Univ. Cluj 4: 57. 1924. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus monteuilii Burnat, Fl. Alpes Marit. 1: 221. 1891. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus morrisii Hance in London J. Bot. 7: 472. 1848. Sec. WFO 2018

Tunica morrisii (Hance) Walp. in Ann. Bot. Syst. 2: 101. 1851 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019);

Dianthus nevadensis Sennen, Diagn. Nouv.: 210. 1936. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus nicaeensis Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 30. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus nobilis Anon. in Gartenflora 81: 94. 1932. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus novakii J.Sojak, Čas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Přír. 148: 77. 1979 [“1980”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus obtusifolius Scheele in Flora 26: 428. 1843. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus oculatus Boiss. in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. IV, 2: 245. 1854. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus × oenipontanus A.Kern. in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 15: 209. 1865. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus ohridanus Micevski in Prilozi Oddel. Biol. Med. Nauki Makedonska Akad. Nauk. Umet. 8: 34. 1987 [“1990”]. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus pancicii F.N.Williams. [publication] Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus parciflorus Jord., Icon. Fl. Eur. 3: 28. 1903. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus pedemontanus Rouy, Fl. France 3: 188. 1896. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus penrynae Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2: 51. 1830. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus petteri Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 66. 1854. Sec. WFO 2018

Dianthus