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An annotated plant checklist of the transboundary volcanic Mt Elgon, East Africa
expand article infoPeninah Cheptoo Rono§|, Fredrick Munyao Mutie§|, Vivian Kathambi, Neng Wei§|, Benjamin Muema Watuma§|, Consolata Nanjala§|, Godfrey Kinyori Wagutu§|#, Paul M. Kirika, Itambo Malombe, Guang-Wan Hu§|, Qing-Feng Wang§|
‡ CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
§ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
| Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
¶ East African Herbarium, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
# Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, ChineseAcademy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
Open Access

Abstract

Mt Elgon is an ancient transboundary volcanic mountain found at the Kenya-Uganda boarder possessing high plant diversity. This study documents an updated checklist of the mountain’s vascular plants obtained through random-walk field excursions and retrieval of herbarium specimen tracing back to 1900. We compiled 1709 species from 673 genera in 131 families. One new species of the family Cucurbitaceae was also reported. This checklist records respective habitat, habits, elevation ranges, voucher numbers and global distribution ranges of each species. Native and exotic species were also distinguished, where 8.4% of the total species in 49 families were exotic species. There were 103 endemic species, while 14 species were found to be both rare and endemic. IUCN conservation status revealed 2 Critically Endangered, 4 Endangered, 9 Vulnerable and 2 Near Threatened species. This study presents the first and most comprehensive plant inventory of Mt Elgon that will facilitate further ecological and phylogenetic studies.

Keywords

Checklist, conservation, distribution, Mt Elgon, plant species

Introduction

Plants form part of the most fundamental natural resources offered by nature. They provide essential requirements for life including fuel, food, medicine, fodder, timber, oils, and resins (Price 1998; Muhweezi et al. 2007; Okello et al. 2010; Mutie et al. 2020). Plants’ communities also play a key role in maintaining the general biodiversity (flora and fauna) as well as being significant in environmental conservation necessary for attaining sustainable environmental management (Mutie et al. 2020b). The first step in effective conservation and sustainable use of natural resources is acknowledging their existence and distribution (Gaston 2000; Sosef et al. 2017). Researchers across the world have been keen to conduct surveys, collect samples and store the acquired data (where and when the specimen was seen and collected) and a physical proof of the plant in the form of dried specimens in different herbaria of the world. Herbaria are major physical storage facilities of essential primary plant data in dried form or in a liquid such as alcohol (Bebber et al. 2010). So far, over 350,000,000 specimens have been curated and preserved in various herbaria (Sosef et al. 2017). Plant checklists offer foundational data in analysing ecological, evolutionary and biogeographical hypothesis used to determine land use management and environmental assessment policies governing biodiversity (Zhou et al. 2018). This is evident in the existence of a plethora of biodiversity databases hosting thousands of museum records and observations of species made during field excursions (Boyle et al. 2013). Mistakes during the compilation of checklists may trigger continuous environmental deterioration as a result of erroneous biodiversity policy conclusions. Therefore, conducting floristic surveys and documenting checklists is important in understanding these natural resources for economic development in both developed and developing countries.

Mountains, estimated to be 8,616 in number globally, are among the unique and diverse physical features of the world found in all continents, accounting for about 20–24% of the terrestrial surface area (Beniston 2000; Körner et al. 2006; Snethlage et al. 2022). Compared to flat lands, montane regions have rich biodiversity with high rates of species extinction and speciation, as well as regions of low immigration rates (Jacob et al. 2015; Lomolino 2016). These mountain ecosystems are also hotspots of biodiversity harboring rare and endemic species (Lomolino 2001; Kessler and Kluge 2008; Jacob et al. 2015). Field excursions and ecological studies have revealed that the high plant diversity found in mountains can be attributed to the different vegetation stratification, brief ecotones, enormous beta diversity, dynamic environmental factors, isolation, and climatic variation within a limited geographical range as result of altitudinal differences over a short horizontal distance (Hamilton 1975; Crausbay and Martin 2016). Furthermore, mountains are, in part, determinant factors of the floristic composition, economic activities, social activities, and climatic condition of the surrounding regions (Price 1998; Wu et al. 2020).

African mountains host species rich regions of the world. Several biodiversity hotspots have been identified within the African tropics including the eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot, the Eastern Arc Mountains, and the Coastal Forest Ecosystem (Myers et al. 2000; CEPF 2012). In East Africa, the majority of these mountains under the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot are of volcanic origin, including Mt Elgon, Meru, Kenya, Kilimanjaro, and Abardare ranges (CEPF 2012). However, their diversity is at high risk of extinction due to overexploitation, climate change, and habitat destruction (Stévart et al. 2019). Several floristic studies have been recently reported on mountains with the aim of formulating priority conservation polices (Mbuni et al. 2019; Kipkoech et al. 2020; Watuma et al. 2022; Zhou et al. 2022). However, transboundary mountains have encountered prolonged research barriers emanating from ethical and political disputes (Roga 2017). In East Africa, an example of a transboundary mountain that experienced conflicts is Mt Elgon (Petursson and Vedeld 2015). Several transboundary cooperations have been formulated and successfully mitigated cross-country disputes (Roga 2017). Mt Elgon was categorized as a Biosphere reserve in 2003 on the Kenyan side and in 2009 as a man and biosphere reserve for the Ugandan side by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization (UNESCO), because of its cultural significance, considerable plant diversity comprising of rare and endemic species of Afromontane flora, and its role as a water catchment area with more than two million people relying on it for livelihood (UWA 2000). However, depletion of its natural resources by local communities, wild fire caused by poachers, and encroachment to expand agricultural land has been escalating over time (Roga 2017). In addition, human conflicts have frequently been reported from the Kenyan side of Mt Elgon. For instance, conflicts intensified between the years 2006–2008 with the formation Sabaot Land Defense Forces that resulted in the death of more than 600 people, which consequently limited scientific exploration (Simiyu 2008).

Mt Elgon is among the oldest floristic regions in East Africa tracing back to about 22 million years ago and possesses the world’s largest intact caldera (UWA 2000). It forms part of the lake Victorian regional mosaic, which stretches through Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi and portions of Tanzania and Congo (Mukhwana 2002). Initial floristic studies on the mountain trace back to the 1910s with a study on the crater vegetation (Dummer 1919). Further explorations were done in the 1930s where 649 species were collected of which 32 were new species by Bullock (1932; 1933). Since then, the fascinating flora of Mt Elgon has been vastly studied by a number of botanists (Dale 1940; Hedberg 1955, 1957, 1964; Langdale-Brown et al. 1964; Synnott 1968; Tweedie and Agnew 1970; Hamilton 1975; Tweedie 1976; Hamilton and Perrott 1981; Beck et al. 1987; van Heist 1994; Davenport et al. 1996; Reed and Clokie 2000; Wesche 2002; Bakamwesiga et al. 2005; Russell et al. 2017). Significantly, Tweedie and Agnew (1970) reviewed Lugard’s initial plant samples of Mt Elgon, Dale in 1940 studied the forest types, while Tweedie (1976) classified plants according to their different habits. Hamilton and Perrott (1981) studied the altitudinal vegetation zones; van Heist in 1994 produced an aerial map; Reed and Clokie (2000) documented the effects of grazing and cultivation on forest communities; and Wesche in 2002 recorded the different plant communities of Mt Elgon. Okello et al. (2010) reported the ethno-botanical significance of Mt Elgon species to the Sabaoti community, while Russell et al. (2017) documented the forest trends and implication of governance regimes. Wanyama et al. (2020) implored remote sensing techniques to evaluate the vegetation cover of Mt Elgon, reporting cases of browning and greening with key drivers being human activities and natural occurrences. Masayi et al. (2021) studied forest degradation in Mt Elgon. This mountain ecosystem has been of interest due to its old age and physical isolation from other high montane regions despite conflicts emanating from its transboundary location between two countries (Kenya and Uganda). These studies all agree that Mt Elgon hosts a unique ecosystem that forms part of the African Afromontane centre of endemism. However, the number of species reported in this ecosystem has been changing over time (Bakamwesiga et al. 2005; MUIENR and NMK 2005).

The absence of a comprehensive up-to-date checklist hampers priority species conservation and implementation of biodiversity management policies in Mt Elgon. The present study aims to fill the knowledge gap by documenting an elaborate plant species checklist of Mt Elgon that: (i) distinguishes between native and exotic plants and their distribution ranges; (ii) evaluates the conservation status of extant taxa; and (iii) identifies rare and endemic species found in Mt Elgon. This study is fundamental in further evaluating phylogenetic diversity and ecological studies. This will be significant in formulating and implementation of conservation policies for the ecosystems of Mt Elgon.

Materials and methods

Study site

Mt Elgon is an extinct, solitary, transboundary volcanic mountain at the Kenya and Uganda border. It is located at 1°08'N, 34°45'E (Fig. 1). In the Kenyan side, it stands on Mt Elgon and Trans-Nzoia Counties on the western part of the country, whereas it lies in two provinces in Uganda, Kapchorwa and Mbale, on the Eastern side of the country (Fig. 1). It covers about 112,898 ha of land, which is the largest base area among East Africa volcanic mountains, stretching about 80 km from north to south and about 50 km from east to west (Muhweezi et al. 2007). It has an 8 km wide crater at the top and rises to a height of 4321 m asl with a gentle slope angle of less than 4° on average. Mt Elgon is believed to have once been the highest peak in Africa, but due to volcanic rock weathering, it is now the fourth highest mountain in East Africa and the eight highest in Africa. Significantly, it is the oldest among the East African volcanic mountains on the East African peneplain formed during the Miocene epoch about 24 million years ago (Lippard 1973; Baker et al. 1971).

Figure 1. 

Floristic divisions of Kenya and Uganda and the location of Mt Elgon.

The climate of Mt Elgon is characterized by two alternating seasonal air streams. The moist southwesterly and the dry northeasterly air streams provide it a bimodal pattern of rainfall (Okello et al. 2010; Obiri 2014). The months between April and October are the wettest with short dry seasons in June and July. The driest season occurs from November to February. Generally, the mountain receives an annual rainfall of 2700 mm, which is higher to the southern side (that receives about 2000 mm of precipitation annually) than to the northern side that records an annual precipitation of 1500 mm (Bussmann 2006). Maximum rainfall is experienced in the forest zone in the lower and mid altitudes. In the higher altitudes, rain falls in the form of drizzle rather than heavy downpours. Temperature ranges vary between 27–30 °C at the higher limit and 15–17 °C at the lower limit. As the altitude increases, the climatic conditions become more temperate and less seasonal. Distinctively in the alpine zone, temperatures drop to as low as 0 °C. Mt Elgon experiences wet and humid conditions throughout the year predicting a rich composition of woody climbers and epiphytes (Hitimana et al. 2004; Okello et al. 2010; Jiang et al. 2014). It is divided into vegetation zones including (i) mixed montane forests up to 2500 m, (ii) bamboo and low canopy montane forest at 2500–3000 m asl, (iii) high montane heath at 3000–3500 m, and (iv) moorland above 3500 m to the peak (Dale 1940; Howard 1991; van Heist 1994).

In 1932, Mt Elgon forest was gazetted as a montane forest, under the Ministry of Environment & Natural Resources (MENR). The forest covers 73,705 ha while that within the national park covers 16,900 ha on the northeastern slope of the mountain managed by the Kenya Wildlife Service (Petursson et al. 2013). On the Ugandan side, Mt Elgon forest is exclusively a National Park covering approximately 1,121 km2 having a park boundary of 211 km long (Sassen and Sheil 2013). The park is bordered by eight districts, making human encroachment into the forest ecosystem inevitable. In 1993, Mt Elgon in Uganda was re-assigned to being a National Park from a National Reserve formerly designated and gazetted in 1929.

Data collection

We assembled an inclusive database of plants of Mt Elgon from field excursions tracing back to the 1900s. The Sino-Africa Joint Research Centre in collaboration with the National Museums of Kenya conducted field excursions between the year 2017 and 2019 in the vast Mt Elgon ecosystem. Plant specimen assembling were done using the random-walk survey where fertile plants sample (in fruiting or flowering stages) were collected in triplicates. Onsite plants and habitat characteristics were recorded and specimen voucher numbers assigned alongside scientific and/or local names, location, and collection date. Specimens were preserved by pressing and drying. Assigned scientific names were later confirmed using standard references (FTEA editors 1952–2012; Blundell 1987; Agnew and Agnew 1994; Agnew 2013). The identified and labelled herbarium specimens were stored at the East African herbarium in Kenya (EA) and duplicates transferred to the Hubei Institute of Botany herbarium (HIB), in China.

For inclusive tabulation of vascular plants of Mt Elgon, previous plant collections dating back to 1900 were retrieved from various online herbaria, field guides and published floras, such as Kenya Trees Shrubs and Lianas (Beentje 1994), Wild Flowers of East Africa (Blundell 1987), Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA editors 1952–2012), and Upland Kenya Wild Flowers and Ferns (Agnew 2013), as well as checklists (Bullock 1932, 1933; Tweedie 1976). We also retrieved information on habitat, altitudinal distribution ranges, collectors and voucher specimen numbers to augment our collections. In the cases of unavailable vouchers, descriptive monographs were cited. Corresponding herbaria hosting voucher specimens were indicated by their respective acronyms according to the Index Herbariorum (http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/). Distribution ranges of each taxon were extrapolated to be within the maximum and minimum possible record in relation to altitudinal ranges of Mt Elgon. Based on our collections, life forms were assigned as herbs, shrubs, climbers, lianas and trees following Agnew (2013) and Beentje (2016). Herbarium and additional collections from checklists and monography were categorized into different lifeforms based on standard references (FTEA editors 1952–2012; Blundell 1987; Agnew and Agnew 1994; Agnew 2013). Scientific name circumscription, classes and families of all assembled taxa were checked against the International Plant Name Index (IPNI 2022) (https://www.ipni.org/), Plants of the World Online (POWO 2022) (https://powo.science.kew.org), and Tropicos (Tropicos 2022) (https://www.tropicos.org).

Conservation status of each taxon were assigned as either Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU) or Near Threatened (NT) based on International Union for Conservation of Nature criterion (IUCN) Red list of threatened species (IUCN 2021) (https://www.iucnredlist.org). In addition, taxa endemism was determined based on literature citation and online distribution ranges according to the Global Biodiverity Information Facility (https://www.gbif.org). We also inferred whether the taxa compiled was native or exotic.

Results

Species composition

This study presents an expansive checklist of the flora of Mt Elgon constituting 1709 taxa (1589 species, 75 subspecies and 45 varieties) representing 673 genera in 131 families. The plant taxa were classified into five classes, namely: Magnoliopsida 1230 species (72%), Liliopsida 396 species (23%), Polypodiopsida 72 (4%), Lycopodiopsida 7 species (0.4%), and Pinopsida 4 species (0.2%) (Table 1). On comparison, the top 20 most species rich families recorded include; Asteraceae (191), Fabaceae (168), Orchidaceae (114), Poaceae (98), Lamiaceae (79), Cyperaceae (59), Rubiaceae (58), and Acanthaceae (45 species) (Table 2). The top species-rich genera were Cyperus (31), Asplenium (29), Crotalaria (27), Habenaria (25), Helichrysum (24), and Coleus (21) (Table 2). During field excursions between the year 2018 and 2019, a new species of the family Cucurbitaceae in the genus Peponium was discovered (Peponium elgonense; Mutie et al. 2020). We also made herbarium collections and took photographs of plants endemic to Mt Elgon, as well as rare and endemic, regional endemic, and exotic species (Fig. 2).

Table 1.

Number of plant families, genera, species, varieties and subspecies present in each class.

Class Families Genera Species Varieties Subspecies
Magnoliopsida 98 502 1230 39 61
Liliopsida 19 136 396 6 13
Polypodiopsida 9 28 72 0 1
Lycopodiopsida 3 4 7 0 0
Pinopsida 2 3 4 0 0
Table 2.

The 20 highest species-rich families and genera recorded from Mt Elgon.

Family No species No of genera Genus No of species
Asteraceae 191 68 Crotalaria L. (Fabaceae) 27
Fabaceae 168 48 Habenaria Willd. (Orchidaceae) 25
Orchidaceae 114 31 Helichrysum Mill. (Asteraceae) 24
Poaceae 98 50 Coleus Lour. (Lamiaceae) 21
Lamiaceae 79 25 Indigofera L. (Fabaceae) 18
Cyperaceae 59 7 Solanum L. (Solanaceae) 20
Rubiaceae 58 24 Asplenium L. (Aspleniaceae) 29
Acanthaceae 45 17 Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) 16
Apocynaceae 39 23 Commelina Plum. ex L. (Commelinaceae) 14
Malvaceae 36 13 Carex L. (Cyperaceae) 15
Asparagaceae 34 10 Cyperus L. (Cyperaceae) 31
Aspleniaceae 29 1 Lobelia Plum. ex L. (Campanulaceae) 14
Euphorbiaceae 29 8 Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) 14
Commelinaceae 27 4 Eulophia R.Br. (Orchidaceae) 13
Orobanchaceae 26 9 Trifolium Tourn. ex L. (Fabaceae) 12
Apiaceae 25 18 Senecio L. (Asteraceae) 10
Campanulaceae 24 4 Impatiens Riv. ex L. (Balsaminaceae) 10
Solanaceae 24 5 Vigna Savi (Fabaceae) 11
Rosaceae 18 5 Swertia L. (Gentianaceae) 10
Iridaceae 17 8 Hypericum Tourn. ex L. (Hypericaceae) 10
Figure 2. 

Photographs of specimens collected from Mt Elgon A (i,ii,iii) Peponium elgonense (new species) B Swertia crassiuscula (regional endemic) C Plantago lanceolata (exotic) D Indigofera homblei (exotic) E Tripogon major (rare and endemic) F Aloe elgonica (Endemic to Mt Elgon).

Growth habit

The plant life forms of Mt Elgon were categorized as either trees, shrubs, climbers, lianas, or herbs. Herbs constituted the highest percentage of forest cover (72%) of the total species recorded, which consisted largely of terrestrial plants, few aquatic (9 species) and epiphytic (45 species) plants. The other growth habits constituted shrubs (13% with 228 species), climbers (6% with 118 species), trees (6% with 108 species), and lianas (2% having 24 species) (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. 

Different growth forms of the vascular plants of Mt Elgon.

Endemism and conservation status

The conservation status of the plants of Mt Elgon are recorded according to the IUCN Red list of Threatened species (IUCN 2021). A large proportion of the species have not been evaluated adding up to 1345 species (Fig. 4). A total of 340 species were of Least Concern (LC), 2 Near Threatened (NT), 9 Vulnerable (VU), 4 Endangered (EN) and 2 Critically Endangered (CR) (Fig. 4, Table 3). Bothriocline auriculata is the only critically endangered species native to the Ugandan side of Mt Elgon, known from 7 collections in 5 localities and has a decreasing population (IUCN 2021). The only exotic species recorded in Mt Elgon that is threatened (Critically Endangered with a decreasing population) in its native range (a limited distribution range in Northern Central and Eastern Central America) is Fraxinus quadrangulata (Wallander 2008; IUCN 2021).

Table 3.

List of threatened plants species found in Mt Elgon, IUCN Red list category and population trends.

Family Species Habit IUCN status Population trend Version
Acanthaceae Dicliptera nilotica C.B.Clarke Herb VU Decreasing 3.1
Asteraceae Bothriocline auriculata (M.Taylor) C.Jeffrey Herb or shrub CR Decreasing 3.1
Oleaceae Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Tree CR Decreasing 3.1
Asteraceae Helichrysum ellipticifolium Moeser Shrub VU Unknown 3.1
Fabaceae Galega lindblomii (Harms) J.B.Gillett Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Cyperaceae Carex monostachya A.Rich. Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Araliaceae Polyscias kikuyuensis Summerh. Tree NT Unknown 3.1
Fabaceae Angylocalyx braunii Harms Tree VU Unspecified 3.1
Hydrocharitaceae Lagarosiphon hydrilloides Rendle Aquatic herb EN Unknown 3.1
Meliaceae Entandrophragma angolense C.CD. Tree NT Threatened 3.1
Orchidaceae Platanthera micrantha Schltr. Herb EN Decreasing 3.1
Orchidaceae Ansellia africana Lindl. Herb VU Decreasing 3.1
Orchidaceae Angraecopsis tenerrima Kraenzl. Epiphytic herb EN Decreasing 3.1
Poaceae Colpodium hedbergii (Melderis) Tzvelev Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Poaceae Deschampsia angusta Stapf & C.E.Hubb. Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Polypodiaceae Arachniodes webbiana (A.Braun) Schelpe Herb VU Stable 3.1
Rosaceae Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman Tree VU Decreasing 3.1
Figure 4. 

Number of species in each IUCN Red List category conservation status of vascular plants of Mt Elgon.

A total of 143 species recorded were found to be rare, endemic, or both. They comprised 103 endemic species in 35 families, 32 rare species in 22 families, and 14 that were both rare and endemic belonging to seven families. The families with a high number of endemic species include Asteraceae (22) and Cyperaceae (7) (Fig. 5), while species-rich families of rare species were Asteraceae (3) and Orobanchaceae (3) (Fig. 6). Asteraceae (4) and Poaceae (3) constituted the highest number of both rare and endemic species (Fig. 7).

Figure 5. 

Families with high number of endemic species from Mt Elgon vascular plants.

Figure 6. 

Families with high number of rare species from Mt Elgon.

Figure 7. 

Families with high number of rare and endemic species from Mt Elgon.

Residence status

Species of Mt Elgon were categorized according to their natural place of origin. All introduced cultivated or naturalized species were termed as exotic according to the Plants of the World Online (POWO 2022) (https://powo.science.kew.org). In Mt Elgon, a total of 144 species from 49 families were determined as exotic (Table 4). This represents 8.4% of the total species richness observed in Mt Elgon from this study. Asteraceae (38), Fabaceae (11), Solanaceae (9), Orchidaceae (6), Lamiaceae (5), and Euphorbiaceae (5) constituted the highest number of exotic species (Fig. 8). Being a transboundary mountain, 127 species were exclusively native to Kenya, while 29 species were only native to Uganda. However, since the mountain has no other physical or geographical barrier, exclusively native species were considered native to Mt Elgon.

Table 4.

List of exotic species and their growth habits recorded from Mt Elgon.

Family Species Habit Status
Acanthaceae Justicia insularis T.Anderson Herb Exotic
Acanthaceae Dicliptera colorata C.B.Clarke Herb Exotic
Anacardiaceae Searsia natalensis (Bernh. ex Krauss) F.A.Barkley Shrub or tree Exotic
Apiaceae Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link Herb Exotic
Apiaceae Ammi majus L. Herb Exotic
Araliaceae Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Achillea millefolium L. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Adenostemma caffrum DC. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Chrysanthellum americanum (L.) Vatke Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Sonchus oleraceus L. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Ethulia conyzoides L. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Gutenbergia cordifolia var. marginata (O.Hoffm.) C Jeffrey Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Baccharoides calvoana subsp. leucocalyx (O.Hoffm.) Isawumi, El-Ghazaly & B.Nord. Shrub, woody herb, rarely tree Exotic
Asteraceae Vernonia schweinfurthii Oliv. & Hiern Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Gnaphalium declinatum L.f. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Helichrysum panduratum O.Hoffm. ex De Wild. & T.Durand Shrub Exotic
Asteraceae Helichrysum setosum Harv. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Helichrysum stenopterum DC. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Eschenbachia stricta (Willd.) Raizada Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Cotula australis Hook.f. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Artemisia afra Jacq. Shrub Exotic
Asteraceae Cineraria deltoidea Sond. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Robust herb Introduced
Asteraceae Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Emilia integrifolia Baker Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Crassocephalum picridifolium S.Moore Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Mikaniopsis clematoides (Sch Bip. ex A Rich.) Milne-Redh. Subshrub Exotic
Asteraceae Dendrosenecio johnstonii (H.H.Johnst.) B.Nord. Tree or shrub Exotic
Asteraceae Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C.Jeffrey succulent herb Exotic
Asteraceae Solanecio mannii (Hook.F.) C.Jeffrey Shrub or small tree Exotic
Asteraceae Spilanthes mauritiana (A.Rich ex Pers.) DC. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Acmella caulirhiza Delile Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Bidens flagellata (Sherff) Mesfin Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Bidens pilosa L. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Chromolaena corymbosa (Aubl.) R.M.King & H Rob. Herb Exotic
Asteraceae Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H Rob. Herb or shrub Exotic
Asteraceae Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob. Shrub or subshrub Exotic
Campanulaceae Lobelia heyneana Roem. & Schult. Herb Exotic
Caryophyllaceae Corrigiola litoralis L. Herb Exotic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia prostrata Aiton Herb Exotic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia murielii N.E.Br. Tree Exotic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia rubella Pax Herb Exotic
Fabaceae Vachellia sieberiana var. woodii (Burtt Davy) Kyal. & Boatwr. Tree or shrub Exotic
Fabaceae Indigofera homblei Baker f. & Martin Shrub Exotic
Fabaceae Indigofera emarginella Steud. ex A.Rich. Shrub Exotic
Fabaceae Indigofera schlechteri Baker f. Woody herb or shrub Exotic
Fabaceae Macrotyloma axillare var. glabrum (E.Mey.) Verdc. Climbing or trailing herb Exotic
Fabaceae Rhynchosia minima var. prostrata (Harv.) Meikle Climbing herb Exotic
Fabaceae Vicia eriocarpa (Hausskn.) Halácsy Herb Exotic
Fabaceae Vicia villosa Roth Herb Exotic
Geraniaceae Geranium mascatense Boiss. Herb Exotic
Geraniaceae Geranium bequaertii De Wild. Herb Exotic
Geraniaceae Pelargonium alchemilloides (L.) L’Hér. Herb Exotic
Hypericaceae Hypericum lanceolatum Lam. Shrub or tree Exotic
Lamiaceae Leucas tettensis Vatke Herb Exotic
Lamiaceae Orthosiphon rubicundus Benth. Herb Exotic
Lamiaceae Aeollanthus pubescens Benth. Herb Exotic
Linderniaceae Bonnaya ciliata Spreng. Herb Exotic
Lythraceae Ammannia aegyptiaca Willd. Herb Exotic
Oleaceae Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Tree Exotic
Orobanchaceae Sopubia trifida Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Herb Exotic
Plantaginaceae Callitriche stagnalis Scop. Herb Exotic
Plantaginaceae Veronica calycina R.Br. Herb Exotic
Podocarpaceae Afrocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) C.N.Page Tree Exotic
Polygonaceae Persicaria pulchra Soják Herb Exotic
Primulaceae Lysimachia tenella L. Herb Exotic
Rubiaceae Pentas Lanceolata subsp. quartiniana (A.Rich) Verdc Herb or subshrub Exotic
Rubiaceae Galium tanganyikense Ehrend. & Verdc. Herb Exotic
Rubiaceae Galium aparine L. Herb Exotic
Solanaceae Datura stramonium L. Herb Exotic
Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L. Herb Exotic
Solanaceae Solanum pseudospinosum C.H.Wright Herb Exotic
Solanaceae Solanum capsicoides All. Herb or shrub Exotic
Solanaceae Solanum dasyphyllum Schumach. & Thonn. Herb Exotic
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum L. Herb Exotic
Verbenaceae Lantana trifolia L. shrub or subshrubby Herb Exotic
Vitaceae Cyphostemma junceum subsp. jatrophoides (Baker) Verdc. Herb Exotic
Amaryllidaceae Crinum zeylanicum (L.) L. Herb Exotic
Asparagaceae Asparagus asiaticus L. Climber or shrub Exotic
Asparagaceae Ornithogalum gussonei Ten. Herb Exotic
Colchicaceae Androcymbium melanthioides Willd. Herb Exotic
Commelinaceae Commelina africana var. krebsiana (Kunth) C.B.Clarke Herb Exotic
Hydrocharitaceae Najas pectinata Magnus Herb Exotic
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis villosa L.f. Herb Exotic
Iridaceae Moraea carsonii Baker Herb Exotic
Iridaceae Moraea vegeta L. Herb Exotic
Iridaceae Dierama pendulum Baker Herb Exotic
Orchidaceae Arachnis flos-aeris (L.) Rchb.f. Herb Exotic
Orchidaceae Platanthera micrantha (Hochst. ex Seub.) Schltr. Herb Exotic
Orchidaceae Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth Herb Exotic
Orchidaceae Satyrium neglectum subsp. woodii (Schltr.) A.V.Hall Herb Exotic
Orchidaceae Bulbophyllum josephi var. mahonii (Rolfe) J.J.Verm. Herb Exotic
Orchidaceae Angraecopsis tenerrima Kraenzl. Herb Exotic
Poaceae Stipa dregeana Steud. Herb Exotic
Poaceae Festuca camusiana St.-Yves Herb Exotic
Poaceae Eleusine coracana Gaertn. Herb Exotic
Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton nodosus Poir. Herb Exotic
Aspleniaceae Asplenium thunbergii Kunze Herb Exotic
Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Herb Exotic
Polypodiaceae Polystichum sinense (Christ) Christ Herb Exotic
Pteridaceae Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn Herb Exotic
Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris pozoi (Lag.) Morton Herb Exotic
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. Herb or subshrub Doubtful for Kenya (Exotic)
Asteraceae Tagetes minuta L. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus hybridus L. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Basellaceae Basella alba L. Herb or shrub Introduced (Exotic)
Brassicaceae Mummenhoffia alliacea (L.) Esmailbegi & Al-Shehbaz Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Caryophyllaceae Silene gallica L. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta L. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Fabaceae Biancaea decapetala (Roth) O.Deg. Shrub Introduced (Exotic)
Fabaceae Senna bicapsularis (L) Roxb. Shrub or tree Introduced (Exotic)
Malvaceae Malva verticillata L. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Oxalidaceae Oxalis latifolia Kunth Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Pedaliaceae Sesamum indicum L. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Rubiaceae Spermacoce pusilla Wall. Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Solanaceae Solanum wendlandii Hook.f. Climber and liana Introduced (Exotic)
Solanaceae Solanum mauritianum Scop. Shrub or small tree Introduced (Exotic)
Solanaceae Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. Herb or Shrub Introduced (Exotic)
Poaceae Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy Herb Introduced (Exotic)
Piperaceae Piper umbellatum L. shrub or woody herb Introduced and Naturalised (Exotic)
Fabaceae Vigna hosei (Craib) Backer Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Amaranthaceae Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S.Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Amaranthaceae Chenopodium album L. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Brassicaceae Brassica juncea (L.) Czern Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Brassicaceae Brassica napus L. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Cucurbitaceae Sicyos polyacanthos Cogn. Climber Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Lamiaceae Coleus rotundifolius (Poir.) A. Chev. & Perrot Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Polygonaceae Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve climbing herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Primulaceae Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U.Manns & Anderb. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Rosaceae Rubus niveus Thunb. Shrub Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Verbenaceae Verbena brasiliensis Vell. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic)
Asteraceae Erigeron bonariensis L. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic))
Poaceae Briza maxima L. Herb Introduced to Kenya (Exotic))
Lamiaceae Salvia coccinea Buc’hoz ex Etl. Herb Naturalised-introduced (Exotic)
Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Herb Naturalized-introduced (Exotic)
Figure 8. 

Families with highest number of exotic species of the vascular plants of Mt Elgon.

Discussion

Mt Elgon forms a significant ecosystem to both Kenya and Uganda for its ability to sustain both high numbers of plants as reported in this study, as well as supporting a large number of human populations (Russell et al. 2017). It is known to be among the oldest mountains in East Africa and hence serve as the potential origin from where some species emanated and dispersed to their current distribution ranges (Tweedie 1976). Besides the scarcity of recent floristic studies in this mountain, it is among the hotspot regions of Africa for scientific studies on flora, fauna, and archeological studies (Bower 1974; CEPF 2012). This is evidenced by the high number of species recorded in this study, as well as the similarity of its species to different floristic regions of both close and distant proximity (Mbuni et al. 2019). Out of more than 12,000 species recorded in the flora of Tropical Africa, Mt Elgon hosts about 1709 species representing 14.24% of the Tropical African flora (FTEA editors 1952–2012). The number is expected to fluctuate and to either increase due to the discovery of new species, or reduce as a result of forest degradation and human encroachment. This could only be properly monitored based on field observations.

This study reports high species richness as compared to the previously available checklists (Bullock 1933; Tweedie 1976) whose work remain paramount to the current knowledge of Mt Egon. In this study, the highest species-rich family was Asteraceae, which is consistent with other floristic studies of East Africa (Mbuni et al. 2019; Kipkoech et al 2020; Melly et al. 2020; Watuma et al. 2022). Other common high species families, though not in the same sequence of richness, include Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Lamiaceae, and Cyperaceae. Interestingly, the family Asteraceae also constitutes the highest number of rare and endemic species of Mt Elgon. This calls for higher conservation of threatened species and species in the family Asteraceae among tropical montane forest, due to their potential high phylogenetic diversity, which increases the ability of the associated community to adapt to environmental stress and climate change (Chaves et al. 2021).

Compared to resent floristic studies in East Africa, Mt Elgon accounts for the highest species richness in the region (Zhou et al. 2018; Mbuni et al. 2019; Kipkoech et al. 2020; Melly et al. 2020; Watuma et al. 2022). This could be as a result of its strategic position among Afromontane regions, being an intersection of several floristic regions, its old age and isolation from other high tropical montane forests (CEPF 2012). However, compared to other highland forests, the increasing encroachment and anthropogenic activities in and around the mountain pose higher threats to the mountain ecosystem (Sassen et al. 2013; Masayi et al. 2021). Similarly, the presence of many exotic species poses threats to the native species in terms of competition for resources. Exotic species may thrive better than native species and become invasive due to their ability to adapt to new habitats, as well as adjusting to the impact of climate change, causing partial or total displacement of native species (Michelan et al. 2010). For instance, Solanum incanum also known as bush encroacher, Solanum mauritianum and Lantana camara, have been recorded in Mt Elgon among the exotic species and are known to be among the 100 most noxious invasive species in East Africa (Lusweti et al. 2011). Furthermore, the native species are preferred for charcoal burning, timber and wood harvesting, as well as for medicinal purposes, and are thus rendered susceptible to depletion. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen conservation strategies, especially since human settlements are evident up to the moorland zone on the forest reserve (Ongugo et al. 2002).

Though there are evident efforts of forest regeneration through massive plantation and forest intrusion mitigation policies (Roga 2017), it is essential that the governments of both Kenya and Uganda join efforts to enforce planting native and indigenous trees, shrubs and herbs. This will, in turn, overcome the impending forest structure transformation and improve the capacity of Mt Elgon to sustain its ecosystem (flora and fauna), which forms the basis of livelihood to the surrounding population (Russell et al. 2017). Furthermore, it will secure springs of water that serve as sources of all permanent rivers, including the longest river in Africa, the Nile River.

Conclusion

Conservation efforts of Mt Elgon have been in progress for many decades. This is because it forms a significant ecosystem of the East African mountains due to its unique flora shaped by its old age and isolation from other high tropical montane forests. This study provides a comprehensive list of plant species occurring on Mt Elgon and outlines characteristic species associated with this ecosystem that need priority conservation. It reports rare and endemic species, as well as the conservation status of evaluated species according to the IUCN. The existence of a high number of exotic species, which may alter the structure and species composition of the ecosystem, is of concern to Mt Elgon and needs further studies. The present study therefore builds on the foundation laid in previous studies and broadens the scope of possible ecological and phylogenetic studies in this region. Amid the biodiversity crisis, there is an urgent need for enhanced conservation of Mt Elgon’s natural resources in order to preserve the extant species and the landscape features associated with its evolutionary formation and diversification.

Checklist

The annotated checklist of plants of Mt Elgon records species in Kenya and Uganda for the benefit for scientific exploration of its flora, as well as broader research on conservation. The checklist is arranged alphabetically at family, genus, and species level. The plants are grouped into five classes: (i) Lycopodiopsida; (ii) Polypodiopsida; (iii) Pinopsida; (iv) Liliopsida; and (v) Magnoliopsida. The native range of the species are recorded for the benefit of biodiversity studies. The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group I (PPG I) (2016) was used as the basis of classification of Lycopodiopsida and Polypodiosida; Christenhusz et al. (2011) for Pinopsida; and APG IV (2016) for the classification of Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. For each species, information on growth habit, habitat, collection vouchers, altitudinal occurrence range, and their native distribution ranges are provided. In the cases of unavailable vouchers, descriptive monographs were cited. Species endemic to Mt Elgon are indicated by (**) while those endemic to the region in which Mt Elgon is located are indicated by (*). Exotic species are also indicated in the checklist by (EX).

Part 1 Lycopodiopsida

F1. ISOETACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Isoetes abyssinica Chiov. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonal rock outcrop, 1520–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

F2. LYCOPODIACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

Huperzia dacrydioides (Baker) Pic.Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane Forest, 1500–2800 m. Vouchers: Holm Å 47 (S). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, Comoros.

Huperzia saururus (Lam.) Trevis. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, Ericaceous zone, 2550–4300 m. Vouchers: Åke Strid 3584 (S), Holm Å 46 (S), Hedberg O 1037 (S). Native distribution range: Ascension, St Helena, Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Africa, W Indian Ocean, Peru to Subantarctic Islands.

Lycopodium clavatum L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, roadside, montane forest, 2000–2800 m. Vouchers: Katende 1034 (K), Mwangangi OM 482 (WAG.). Native distribution range: Temperate Northern Hemisphere to Tropical Mountains.

F3. SELAGINELLACEAE

1 Genus, 3 species

Selaginella caffrorum (Milde) Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock crevices, 1450–2300 m. Voucher: Wood GHS 449 (EA). Native distribution range: Sudan to S Africa.

Selaginella goudotiana Spring – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, moist thickets, 1250–2450 m. Voucher: Brown EJ in EA 12492 (EA), Wesche K 391 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar.

Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A.Braun – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest floor, bamboo zone, 1300–3100 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 505 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0271 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Tropical & S Africa.

Part 2 Polypodiopsida

F4. ASPLENIACEAE

1 Genus, 29 species

Asplenium abyssinicum Fée – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zones, montane forest, 1850–3600 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 2239 (K), Wood GHS 178 (MO), Hedberg O 151 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Asplenium actiniopteroides Peter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, 2500–4250 m. Voucher: Wesche K 853 (US), 107 (EA), 1078 (US), Åke Strid 3561 (S), Hedberg O 954 (S), Molesworth-Allen BEG 3672 (S). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Asplenium adamsii Alston – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, upper ericaceous zones, 2970–3400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, bamboo zones, heath scrub, ericaceous zone, moorland, 3000–3800 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 906 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia, Macaronesia, NW & S Africa to Tropical African Mountains, W Central America to N Mexico, Hawaiian Islands.

Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist bushland, moist forest, bamboo zone, rock crevices, moorland, 1430–3600 m. Vouchers: Charles E DeVol 5 (MICH), Bamps PRJ 6519 (BR), Sheil D; Katende T 836, 764 (K), Tiyoy LM 1242 (K), Wesche K 1412 (EA), 1271 (K), 897 (US), Wood C 173 (US), Beentje HJ 1932 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Pacific.

Asplenium anisophyllum Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1000–1600 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 89 (S), Holm Å 44 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Asplenium auriculatum Sw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, moorland, (2400–)2600–4200 m. Voucher: Synge PM 1033 (MO). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical America.

Asplenium boltonii Hook. ex Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, montane forest, 1600–2750 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1272 (S), Granvik H 343 (S). Native distribution range: Tanzania to S Africa, Madagascar, Réunion.

Asplenium buettneri Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, 1450–1700 m. Voucher: Molesworth-Allen BEG 3673 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Asplenium bugoiense Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, bamboo forest, 2000–2700 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 579 (US), Molesworth-Allen BEG 3671 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0199 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Rwanda.

Asplenium ceii Pic.Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1700–2430 m. Voucher: Gardner 1028 (EA). Native distribution range: Gabon to Ethiopia and Mozambique.

Asplenium christii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist Forest, 1450–1900 m. Voucher: Granvik H 361 (S). Native distribution range: Kenya to South Africa.

Asplenium elliottii C.H.Wright – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, bamboo forest, 1200–2650 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1899 (S), Molesworth-Allen BEG 3670 (US). Native distribution range: Ethiopia, E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Asplenium erectum Bory ex Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1300–2750 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 690 (US), Hedberg O 90 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, India, Sri Lanka, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands (Timor), Samoa (Savai’i).

Asplenium friesiorum C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine thickets, bamboo forest, moist forest, 2700–3000 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 2258 (K), van Heist M 571 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Asplenium gemmascens Alston – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1100–1150 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Nigeria to Uganda and Angola.

Asplenium gemmiferum Schrad. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 1500–2300 m. Voucher: Holm Å 48 (S). Native distribution range: Bioko to Uganda and S Africa, Réunion, Mauritius.

Asplenium hypomelas Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine, moist forest, rock outcrops, 1500–2400 m. Vouchers: Kisalye N; van Heist M 564 (K), Gerhard Lindblom 577 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to South Africa.

Asplenium loxoscaphoides Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, moist forest, 3100–3650 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1301 (US), Hedberg O 116 (S). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Malawi.

Asplenium lunulatum Sw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 2200–2500 m. Vouchers: Åke Strid 3174 (S, MO). Native distribution range: Bioko, Ascension, St Helena, Kenya to S Africa.

Asplenium monanthes L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, dry montane forest, 2100–3400 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 1954 (WAG), Brown EJ EA 12493 (U), Katende T; Sheil D 1144 (K), Wesche K 655 (K), Brown, EJ EA 12493 (U). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Tristan da Cunha, Bioko, Cameroon, Somalia to S Africa, Madagascar, Réunion, Hawaiian Islands, Tropical & Subtropical America.

Asplenium protensum Schrad. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1250–2900(–3300) m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 1073 (K), Wesche K 502 (US), Wood G 179 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, N Yemen.

Asplenium sandersonii Hook. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, rock outcrops, 2600–3100 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1339 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Asplenium smedsii Pic.Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, moist forest, 1500–3000 m. Voucher: Beentje 1958 (US), Wesche K 571 (US). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi, W Indian Ocean.

Asplenium stuhlmannii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, riverine forest, 1200–2230 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Evans AJ 69/718 (US). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Sudan and Tanzania, Madagascar.

Asplenium theciferum (Kunth) Mett. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist, forest, bamboo zone, 850–2900 m. Voucher: Wesche K 898 (US). Native distribution range: S Mexico to Tropical America, Africa.

EX Asplenium thunbergii Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, (2400–)2600–4200 m. Voucher: Wood 177 (MO). Native distribution range: Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Assam to New Guinea.

Asplenium trichomanes L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist rocky forest, 2130–2700 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1648 (US). Native distribution range: Cosmopolitan.

Asplenium uhligii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, forest, giant heath, woodland (2400–)2600–4200 m. Vouchers: Wood G 268 (K), Rose F 10,266 (K), 269 (K), Dummer RA 3331 (US). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

F5. CYATHEACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Alsophila camerooniana (Hook.) R.M.Tryon – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Afromontane mixed forest, by streams, 1500–2835 m. Vouchers: Kisalye N; van Heist M 535 (K). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Angola.

F6. DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Hypolepis rugosula subsp. viscida (Roxb.) Schwartsb. & J.Prado – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, moorland, forest, 2700–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: St Helena, Bioko, Cameroon to E Central & E Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

EX Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 300–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, N & NE Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Europe to Siberia and Iran.

F7. HYMENOPHYLLACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Trichomanes melanotrichum Schltdl. – Habit: Epiphytic or lithophytic herb. Habitat: Moist forest, on tree trunks, rocks, 1460–3050 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 1953 (WAG), Dummer RA 3703 (NMNH), 3699, 3703 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius.

F8. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Ophioglossum polyphyllum A.Braun ex Seub. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, montane grassland, forests, 1100–1350 m. Voucher: Faden & Evans 71/472 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World, Arizona to Texas and Mexico.

Ophioglossum reticulatum L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moist woodland, forest margin, 0–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1881 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0057 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

F9. POLYPODIACEAE

11 Genera, 18 species

Arachniodes webbiana (A.Braun) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet forest, streamside, 1300–2600 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 151 (S), Beentje HJ 1986 (US). Native distribution range: Madeira, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe to South Africa.

Arthropteris monocarpa (Cordem.) C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, near streams, bamboo zone, 1250–2450 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 797 (NHMUK), Schippers RR K 229 (WAG), Collector unknown 3679 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Arthropteris orientalis (Gmel.) Posth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist thickets, 900–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, W Indian Ocean, N Yemen.

Dryopteris tricellularis J.P.Roux – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, riverine, bamboo zone, 2075–3420 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 649 (US), 471 (US). Native distribution range: Kenya to Uganda

Elaphoglossum angulatum (Blume) T.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo, ericaceous zone, 2470–2600 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1277 (K). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

Elaphoglossum aubertii (Desv.) T.Moore – Habit: epiphyte herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1500–2600 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 1075 (K), Dummer RA 3480 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Elaphoglossum deckenii (Kuhn) C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bamboo to ericaceous zone, 2200–3300 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1278 (K), Wood GHS 270 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Elaphoglossum hybridum (Bory) T.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, moorland, 2000–3600 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 904 (K, S). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius.

Elaphoglossum subcinnamomeum Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, ericaceous zone, 3000–3600 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 993 (K). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Kenya to Tanzania.

Lepisorus excavatus (Bory ex Willd.) Ching – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, 2378–3050 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1276 (US), Schippers RR K 185 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Loxogramme abyssinica (Baker) M.G.Price – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry, wet forest, 1000–2500 m. Vouchers: Kisalye N; van Heist M 499 (K), Wesche K 630 (US), Tiyoy L 1243 (K), Eggeling W 2456 (US), Granvik H 365 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, N Yemen.

Melpomene flabelliformis (Poir.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, moorland, bamboo zone, 2230–3500 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1217 (US), Molesworth-Allen BEG 3668 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas) to Tropical America, Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist upland forest, 1000–1500 m. Voucher: Chater-Jack 25 in CM 5848 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Nephrolepis undulata J.Sm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, marshy grassland, bushland, forest, rocky cliffs, 750–2450 m. Voucher: Lugard 285 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, riverine forest, bamboo forest, moorland, 1099–3600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1820 (US), Wesche K 553 (US), Bamps PRJ 6491 (BR), Szczepanek K 278 (BR), Molesworth-Allen BEG 3681 (US). Native distribution range: Mexico to S Tropical America, Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S India, Sri Lanka.

Polystichum magnificum F.Ballard – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, 3300–3750 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 965 (K), Wesche K 1419 (US). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Tanzania.

EX Polystichum sinense Christ – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, streamsidde, bamboo zone, moorland, 2400–3800 m. Vouchers: RB Faden 71/464 (K), Granvik H 361 (S). Native distribution range: S Africa, Pakistan to China, Taiwan.

Polystichum transvaalense N.C.Anthony – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, bamboo zone, 1500–2700 m. Vouchers: Tiyoy L 1241 (WAG, K). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Kenya and S Africa.

F10. PTERIDACEAE

8 Genera, 12 species

Actiniopteris semiflabellata Pic.Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open bushland, woodland, 600–2100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1838 (K). Native distribution range: Africa to Nepal.

Adiantum poiretii Wikstr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, forest/bamboo boundary, 1625–3000 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K 226 (WAG), Hedberg O 65 (K), Roscoe J sn (K), Brown EJ EA12489 (K), Tweedie 1883 (K), Tweedie 1883A (K), Wesche K 1360 (K). Native range: Tropical & Subtropical America, Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, W Indian Ocean, SW India, Sri Lanka.

Anogramma leptophylla (L.) Link – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges and slopes, moorland, 1500–3400 m. Vouchers: Lewin NH 304 (EA), Lye KA; Katende AB 6406 (K), Hamilton 6627 (MO), Irwin PH 304 (K), Snowden JD 512 (EA). Native distribution range: S Central Europe to Tropics & Subtropics.

Coniogramme africana Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Stream sides, waterfall spray zones, 2134–2900 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 359 (K), Katende; Sheil 1869 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

EX Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 1000–2300 m. Voucher: Tweedie 2435 (EA). Native distribution range: S Mexico to Tropical America.

Haplopteris volkensii (Hieron.) E.H.Crane – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, 1750–2255 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 950 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Hemionitis calomelanos (Sw.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, rock crevices, 1350–2700 m. Voucher: Hemp A 5419 (US). Native distribution range: NE Spain, Ethiopia to S Africa, W Indian Ocean, Pakistan to China (S Sichuan, Yunnan).

Hemionitis farinosa (Forssk.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, moorland, 2150–3000 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ 295 (K), Hedberg O 178 897(K), Wesche K 1048 (US), Granvik H 359 (S), Gardner HM 1035 (K). Native distribution range: Mexico to Venezuela and Peru, Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

Hemionitis quadripinnata (Forssk.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, banks, moist montane forests, bamboo zones, 1525–2890 m. Voucher: Sheil D; Katende T 775 (K), Wesche K 699 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, N Yemen.

Hemionitis viridis (Forssk.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrop, bushland, shady riverines, forested areas, 650–2250 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 630 (K), Tweedie 1831 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, W Indian Ocean, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Pteris cretica L. – Habit: herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1500–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Canary Islands (Gran Canaria), Ethiopia to S Africa, Réunion, Madagascar, St Helena, Ascension, Socotra, Yemen, Mediterranean to Japan and Tropical Asia.

Pteris friesii Hieron.in Fries – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, swamps, bamboo zones, 1000–3050 m. Voucher: Taylor G 3415 (NHMUK). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

F11. THELYPTERIDACEAE

1 Genus, 5 species

Thelypteris bergiana (Schltdl.) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: By streams, rivers in moist montane forest, bamboo zones, 1800–2470 m. Voucher: Molesworth-Allen BEG 3680 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Thelypteris dentata E.P.St.John – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Along streams, moist forest, 2100 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Pacific.

Thelypteris oppositiformis (C.Chr.in Bonap) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: By streams in Bamboo zone, ericaceous zone, montane forest, 1900–2950 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1302 (US). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Africa, Madagascar.

EX Thelypteris pozoi (Lag.) Morton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, moist montane forest, ericaceous zone, 2050–3350 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Azores, Madeira, SW France to Spain.

Thelypteris pulchra (Bory ex Willd.) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest 1465–2135 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Mpulamanga, W Indian Ocean.

F12. WOODSIACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Athyrium schimperi Moug.; Fee – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edge, among rocks in montane grasslands, 1820–3050 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1882 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo zone, 1400–4300 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1918 (US), Beentje HJ 1959 (WAG). Native distribution range: Cosmopolitan.

Part 3 Pinopsida

F13. CUPRESSACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Drier upland forest, 1800–2950 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 2025 (K), Snowden JD 930 (BR), 844 (EA, MO), Styles BT 292 (K), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 408 (K), Bamps PRJ 6511 (WAG, MO), Thomas AS 2630 (MO, EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Zimbabwe, SW Arabian Peninsula.

F14. PODOCARPACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

EX Afrocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) C.N.Page – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 1250–2700 m. Vouchers: EA. Native distribution range: Malawi to S Africa.

Afrocarpus gracilior (Pilg.) C.N.Page – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 1500–2400 m. Vouchers: Vesey-Fitzgerald in C.M 18617 (EA), Eggeling 2474 (EA), Wesche K 2024 (K), Bamps PRJ 6496 (WAG), Hedberg O 320 (K), Mwangangi OM 429 (BR), Styles BT 269 (BR), Eggeling WJ 2479 (BR), 2474 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Podocarpus milanjianus Rendle – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland forest, 1500–3350m. Vouchers: Wesche K 616 (K), Katende T; Sheil D 325 (K), Wood GHS 914 (K), Snowden JD 964 (EA, K, US), Dummer RA 3623 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0229 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Nigeria to S Sudan and S Tropical Africa.

Part 4 Liliopsida

F15. ALISMATACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, streamside, 1450–2340 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 730 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia, North Africa to Tanzania

F16. AMARYLLIDACEAE

4 Genera, 6 species

*Ammocharis angolensis (Baker) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2600 m. Vouchers: Lugard 421 (EA), Snowden JD 1015 (K), 1055 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Angola.

Boophone disticha Herb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky grassland, 1280–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: SE South Sudan to S Africa

Crinum kirkii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushlands, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Mozambique.

Crinum macowanii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grasslands, 1630–2310 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 827 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Seychelles.

EX Crinum zeylanicum (L.) L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, riverine, old cultivations, 1000–1900 m. Voucher: Wahlstrom 3 (EA). Native distribution range: Seychelles, SW India, Sri Lanka.

Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, grassland, 1750–2700 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 846 (EA), Holm Å 20 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to SW Arabian Peninsula.

F17. ARACEAE

3 Genera, 5 species

Amorphophallus abyssinicus (A.Rich.) N.E.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grasslands, marshland, 1000–2300 m. Vouchers: Lugard 581, Tweedie 2591 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Arisaema enneaphyllum Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edges, bamboo zone, 2300–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1167 (K), Tweedie 1167B (2/3) (K), Tweedie EM 1167A (K), Osmaston 4010 (EA), Hedberg 1056 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0032 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Uganda, Yemen.

Arisaema mildbraedii Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, bamboo zone, 1400–2620 m. Vouchers: EjJ & C Lugard (EA), Snowden JD 895 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0045, 0101 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Arisaema schimperianum Schott – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo.

Sauromatum venosum (Aiton) Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist woodland, riverine forest, 230(1000)–2140 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 245 (K), Major EJ; Lugard C 580 (K), Anderson 2773 (K). Native distribution range: Upland areas of Africa and Asia

F18. ASPARAGACEAE

10 Genera, 34 species

Albuca abyssinica Jacq. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, 0010–2500 m. Voucher: Polhill 399 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Albuca virens (Lindl.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland, seasonally wet grassland, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 511 (K), Polhill, R 415 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa.

Anthericum angustifolium Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasses, seasonally waterlogged soils, 1800–2850 m. Vouchers: Naiga; Katende 700 (K), Symes 358 (K), Major EJ; Lugard C 592 (K), Irwin PH Mrs 69 (K), Tweedie 3449 (K), Chater-Jack 264 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Kenya.

Asparagus africanus Lam. – Habit: Erect or climbing woody shrub. Habitat: Forest, woody bushes, grassland, 100–3500 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3737 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, W India.

EX Asparagus asiaticus L. – Habit: Scrambling or woody climbing shrub. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: India.

Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: woodland, dry forest, forest margin, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1311 (EA). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to S Africa.

Asparagus buchananii Baker – Habit: Scrambling or woody climbing shrub. Habitat: Grassland, wooded grassland, thickets, woodland, 150–2250 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1064 (EA, WAG). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to S Africa.

Asparagus flagellaris Baker – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, 500–1000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Arabian Peninsula.

Asparagus racemosus Willd. – Habit: Scrambling or woody climbing shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, bushlands, 800–2900 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1036 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to N Australia.

Bowiea volubilis Harv. ex Hook.f. subsp. volubilis – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Africa.

Bowiea volubilis Harv. ex Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, rocky woodland, 1680–2320 m. Vouchers: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0153 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Africa.

Chlorophytum affine var. curviscapum (Poelln.) Hanid – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Raymer 611 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Yemen.

Chlorophytum africanum var. silvaticum (Dammer) Meerts – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rock outcrop, open woodlad, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Chlorophytum blepharophyllum Schweinf. ex Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, rocky outcrops, 1500–2450 m. Voucher: Polhill RM 413 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Chlorophytum cameronii (Baker) Kativu – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky slopes, 1675–2550 m. Vouchers: Symes 373 (EA), Rayner WR 544 (EA), Lugard EJ 2804 (EA), Jack C 253 (EA), Padwa JH 22 (EA), Tweedie EM 5452 (EA), Adamson J 508 (508). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, outcrop rock, 1800–3000 m. Voucher: Lugard EJ; Lugard C 629 (K). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Cameroon, Ethiopia to S Africa.

Chlorophytum gallabatense Schweinf. ex Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, open woodland, 750–2439 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1998 (K), Polhill RM 410 (BR), Tweedie DR 1354 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to Namibia.

Chlorophytum polystachys Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, open woodland, 1750–2900 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 1354 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Chlorophytum subpetiolatum (Baker) Kativu – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, grassland, woodland, 1750–2450 m. Voucher: Polhill 398 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Chlorophytum viridescens Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrops, grassland, riverbanks, 1750–2700 m. Voucher: Polhill 410 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, E Tropical Africa.

Dracaena afromontana Mildbr. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Moist forest, bamboo forest, 1600–3200 m. Vouchers: Lye KA; Pocs T 23128 (K), Dummer RA 3604 (K), Snowden JD 804 (EA, K), Tiyoy LM 1280 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0175 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: South Sudan (Imatong Mountains) to Malawi.

Dracaena conspicua (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1441 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Forest, near streams, 600–2250 m. Vouchers: Jackson THE 338 (K)? Jack? 5195 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Dracaena frequens (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, rocky sites, secondary grassland, 50–2600 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1441 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Dracaena steudneri Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forest, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Jack C 427 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Drimia altissima (L.f.) Ker Gawl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Lugard EJ; Lugard C 558 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

*Drimia congesta Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky outcrop, moorland, 2800–3000 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ; Lugard C 474 (K), Thoma AS 2628 (MO). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

Drimia elata Jacq. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, grassland, 1250–2500 m. Vouchers: O’Brien (EA), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 563 (K). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Africa.

*Drimia porphyrantha (Bullock) Stedje – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 2000–2300 m. Voucher: Lugard EJ; Lugard C 556 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Eriospermum abyssinicum Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet rocky grassland, 2000–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Eriospermum triphyllum Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie 906 (EA). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, bushland, grassland, woodland, 1800–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, India, Sri Lanka.

Ornithogalum gracillimum R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 2000–3000 m. Vouchers: Polhill RM 406 (EA, BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0110 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Kenya.

EX Ornithogalum gussonei Ten. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, woodland, swampy regions, 1000–3000 m. Voucher: Polhill 415 (EA). Native distribution range: Italy, Greece to SW Turkey.

F19. ASPHODELACEAE

3 Genera, 7 species

**Aloe elgonica Bullock – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grass covered slopes, rock pockets, 1980–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2406 (EA), Tweedie EM 343 (K), Brandham 98 (MO), Brandham PE; Cutler DF 11 (K), Lugard 299 (K), Brandham PE; Cutler DF 94 (K), Reynolds GW 8003 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0089 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Kenya (Mt Elgon).

*Aloe wilsonii Reynolds – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky slopes, cliffs, 1525–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 1424 (K), Reynolds 9041 (K). Native distribution range: N Uganda to NW Kenya.

*Aloe wollastonii Rendle – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1750–2285 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 322 (EA), Irwin PH 355 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central Tropical Africa.

Bulbine abyssinica A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, outcrop rock, 2000–3200 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O (UPS), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0107 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, Yemen.

Kniphofia grantii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp grassland, 750–2700 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 847 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Zambia.

Kniphofia thomsonii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bushland, grassland, marshy grounds, 1900–3960 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 4467 (EA), Snowden JD 944 (EA), Wright CH 5455 (EA), Lugard EJ 83 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0149 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Tanzania.

**Kniphofia thomsonii var. snowdenii (C.H.Wright) Marais – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, bushland, 2100–4000 m. Vouchers: Tothill BH 2284 (EA), Hedberge 4467 (EA), Tweedie 1279 (EA), Snowden JL 437 (K). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

F20. COLCHICACEAE

4 Genera, 5 species

EX Androcymbium melanthioides Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Zimbabwe to S Africa.

Colchicum striatum (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) J.C.Manning & Vinn. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrop, evergreen woodland, bushland, grassland, 1500–3480 m. Voucher: Symes 378 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa.

Gloriosa superba L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, outcrop rock, woodland, evergreen forests and bushlands, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Cheseny CM 9 (BR), Lindblom G sn (S). Native distribution range: Widespread in tropical and southern Africa and in tropical Asia.

Wurmbea tenuis (Hook.f.) Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forests, 2000–3500 m. Vouchers: Hamilton A; Wendelbo P 6616 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0144 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

*Wurmbea tenuis subsp. hamiltonii (Wendelbo) B.Nord. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, rock outcrop, 2000–3500 m. Vouchers: Hamilton A; Wendelbo P 6616 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0020 (EA, HIB), Tweedie 575 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

F21. COMMELINACEAE

4 Genera, 27 species

Aneilema hirtum A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1750–2050 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 76B,175 (EA), Tweedie EM 464 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Aneilema leiocaule K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland Forest, forest edges, 1000–2750 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 752 (K). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to E DR Congo.

*Aneilema minutiflorum Faden – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane, riverine forest, 1800–2500 m. Vouchers: Lewis WH 5973 (US), Hemp A 5442 (US), Wesche K 1965 (US). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Aneilema spekei C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, woodland, roadsides, 700–1800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 759, 1885, (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Commelina africana L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, weed in disturbed places, 300–2900 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 785 (K), Wesche K 568 (K). Native distribution range: Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

EX Commelina africana var. krebsiana (Kunth) C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upper Forest edge, 3000–3150 m. Vouchers: Lind EM 460 (K), Tweedie 1392 (K). Native distribution range: S Tropical & S Africa, Comoros.

Commelina benghalensis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, moist grassland, cultivation, 010–2350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 787 (K), Lewis WH 5961 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Commelina diffusa Burm.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, swamps, forest clearings, caltivations, 1750–3400 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1853 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Commelina eckloniana subsp. echinosperma (K.Schum.) Faden – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky grassland, 1050–2050 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1350, 3444 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Commelina erecta subsp. erecta – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, outcrop rock, 550–1500 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 4165 (EA). Native distribution range: America, Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

**Commelina kitaleensis Faden – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, seasonally wet grassland, forest edge, 1800–2000 m. Vouchers: Irwin 146 (EA), Tweedie EM EM; Faden RB; Evans A 69/715 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya (E Mt Elgon).

Commelina latifolia Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, among rocks, forests, 1100–2100 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Evans AJ 69/714 (US). Native distribution range: Congo to Ethiopia and N Tanzania, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Commelina purpurea C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, woodlands, forest edge, outcrop rock, 1800–2250 m. Vouchers: Lugard 145 (K), Wesche K 1507 (US), Faden RB & Evans AJ 69/737B (US), Lewis WH 5960 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0023 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Congo to South Sudan and Tanzania.

Commelina reptans Brenan – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, seasonally moist grasslands, 1800–2550 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Burundi and N Tanzania.

Commelina schweinfurthii C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: grassland, rocky araes, swamps, forests edges, roadside, 1750–2350 m. Vouchers: Lewis WH 5974, Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0022 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Commelina schweinfurthii subsp. schweinfurthii – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ; Lugard C 549 (K), Tweedie 786 (K), Lewis WH 5974 (US), Faden RB & Evans AJ 69/717 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Commelina subulata Roth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, rock outcrop, wet grasslands, bushlands, 1750–2300 m. Voucher: Lewis WH 5975 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S India.

Commelina triangulispatha Mildbr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist roadside banks, damp pastures, wooded grasslands and woodland, 1650–2300 m. Voucher: Thomas 414 (EA). Native distribution range: DR Congo to E Tropical Africa.

Cyanotis arachnoidea C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: outcrop rock, 1800–2600 m. Vouchers: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0027, SAJIT-PR 0128 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Tanzania, India to Taiwan.

Cyanotis caespitosa Kotschy & Peyr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rock outcrop, 2150–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Cyanotis foecunda DC. ex Hassk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock near rivers, bushland, woodlands, occasionally in swampy places, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 3466 (K), Lewis WH 5964 (US). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and N Botswana, Arabian Peninsula.

Cyanotis lanata Benth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1750–2150 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 782 (K), Lewis WH 5976 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0142 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Cyanotis longifolia Benth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, grassland, bamboo clumps, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Stein W Bie (UPS). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to NE Namibia.

Cyanotis paludosa Brenan – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Marshes, open grassland., 1100–2000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 3655 (EA), Faden RB & Evans AJ 69/716 (US). Native distribution range: DR Congo to E Tropical Africa.

Cyanotis vaga (Lour.) Schult. & Schult.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest edge clearing, moorland, rock outcrop, 1650–4150 m. Vouchers: Tweedie Mrs 1420, 1351 (K), Wesche K 1800, 1655 (US), Dummer RA 3383 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, Himalaya to W Malesia.

Murdannia semiteres (Dalzell) Santapau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 926 (K), Tweedie EM 161 (K). Native distribution range: Uganda to Zambia, Iran to Indo-China.

Murdannia simplex (Vahl) Brenan – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, woodland, 1750–2200 m. Vouchers: Lind EM 450 (EA), Tweedie EM 161 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia.

F22. CYPERACEAE

7 Genera, 59 species

Abildgaardia ovata (Burm.f.) Kral – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 0–2000 m. Vouchers: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Bulbostylis atrosanguinea C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Afroalpine grassland, rocky moorland, 2000–3700 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1369 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Angola, Yemen.

Bulbostylis congolensis De Wild. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, rocky outcrops, 1050–1400 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Bulbostylis densa subsp. afromontana (Lye) R.W.Haines – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest, 1200–2600 m. Voucher: Lind EM 271 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

*Bulbostylis glaberrima Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland rocks, 3000–3600 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 4545 (EA), Hamilton 233 (EA). Native distribution range: E Uganda to W Central Kenya.

Bulbostylis oligostachys C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet rocks, wooded grassland, 1800–2500 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1422 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Angola.

Bulbostylis pilosa (Willd.) Cherm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Flooded wooded grassland, bushland, 1–1400 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Carex bequaertii De Wild. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet montane, alpine grasslands, 2000–3600 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1208 (EA), Haines W 4165 (K), Lugard C; Verdcourt B 482 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Carex castanostachya K.Schum. ex Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist Forest, bamboo thickets, 1850–2050 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya (Taita Hills) to Tanzania.

Carex conferta Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, bamboo forest, moorland, upland forest, 2250–3650 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 77 (K), 1939 (K), Mwangangi OM 364 (BR), Hedberg O 1034 (K), Dummer RA 3461 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Carex echinochloe Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland edges, grasslands, bamboo, marshes, 900–2750 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Bioko to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

**Carex elgonensis Nelmes – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Heath zones, bamboo forest, 2400–3650 m. Voucher: Adamson J 493 (K, EA), Hedberg 4555 (EA), Wesche K 1170 (EA), Bogdan A 5409 (K), George Taylor 3474 (NHMUK), Lye, Katende & Swinscow 5741 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

Carex erythrorrhiza Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streamside, heath zone, rock outcrops, 2400–3500 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 5425A, 5425B (EA), Thomas AS 2667 (EA), Wesche K 1947 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo and N Tanzania.

Carex fischeri K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist Forest, Hagenia and bamboo zone, 21500–4300 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3465 (K, S), Lisowski S 10936 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central and E Tropical Africa.

Carex johnstonii Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 2200–3300 m. Vouchers: Tothill BH 2266 (EA), Bogdan A 4130 (K), Smith SAL 185 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Carex lycurus subsp. scabrida (Kük.) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, riverine montane forest, 2350–3300 m. Vouchers: Haines 4154 (EA), Bogdan 3935 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, E Central, Tropical Africa (Mountains).

Carex mannii E.A.Bruce – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps in upland forest, 2450–3100 m. Vouchers: Liebenberg L 1708 (US), Dummer RA 3459 (US). Native distribution range: Bioko, SW Cameroon, Ethiopia to Burundi and Kenya.

Carex monostachya A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine bushland, forest, moorland, upper bamboo forest, 2700–4321 m. Voucher: Hedberg 127 (K). Native distribution range: N Ethiopia to Tanzania (Mt Kilimanjaro).

Carex petitiana A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bamboo forest, grassland, heath by streams, 2400–3450 m. Vouchers: Wood G 121 (EA), Bogdan A 4088 (K), 5388 (K), 4129, Hedberg O 192 (K), 192 (K), Haines W 4164 (K), Trelawny BR 4343 (K), Mwangangi OM 373 (BR). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Cameroon, Ethiopia to Zimbabwe.

*Carex runssoroensis K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, 2700–4100 m. Vouchers: Liebenberg L sn (US), Dummer RA 3361 (US), Bogdan 3934, 5413 (EA), Haines 4156 (EA). Native distribution range: NE DR Congo to Kenya (Mountains).

Carex simensis Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, montane forest, moorland, 1850–3900 m. Vouchers: Lugard 680 (EA), Herdberg 1043 (EA), Wesche K 1809 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo.

Carex steudneri Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, montane bushlands, bamboo zone, rock crevices, woodland, 2300–3050 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Cyperus alatus subsp. albus (Nees) Lye – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushlands, 500–2500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Seychelles.

Cyperus albosanguineus Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet grassland, moorland, seepages in rock crevices, 1550–4000 m. Vouchers: Granvik H 323 (S), Wood G 146 (EA), Hedberg O 43 (K). Native distribution range: South Sudan to E Tropical Africa.

Cyperus amauropus Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry rocky grassland, 500–2000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Zimbabwe, Arabian Peninsula.

Cyperus aromaticus (Ridl.) Mattf. & Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streamside, forest margin, wet grassland, 1950–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Cyperus assimilis Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streamside, seasonal pools, rock outcrops, 250–2100 m. Voucher: Lind EM 236 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Madagascar.

*Cyperus boreochrysocephalus Lye – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry wooded grassland, 1000–2200 m. Voucher: Mabberley 1128 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to NW Tanzania.

Cyperus bracheilema (Steud.) Mattf. & Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, 1500–3400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Tanzania, S Africa.

Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Endl. ex Hassk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, forest margins, 1600–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Cyperus costatus Mattf. & Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry rocky grassland, 1250–2900 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S. Tropical Africa.

Cyperus cyperoides (L.) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 100–2200 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Africa to Pacific.

Cyperus derreilema Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, bamboo forest, along streams, 2100–3050 m. Voucher: Wesche K 627 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi.

Cyperus distans L.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist site, streamside in forest edges, cultivation, 1800–2100 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Cyperus elegantulus Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, riverine edges, moist forest margins, 1100–3050 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ 1961 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

Cyperus fischerianus Schimp. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane, riverine forest, 1750–2650 m. Voucher: Lye & Katende 6410 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Tropical Africa.

Cyperus isolepis (Nees ex Arn.) Bauters – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1750–2000 m. Voucher: Gilbert & Mesfin 6549 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

*Cyperus karisimbiensis (Cherm.) Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, alpine streamsides, 1850–3050 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical African Mountains.

*Cyperus kerstenii Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine moor, montane grassland, 2500–3600 m. Voucher: Lye 5750 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to E Tropical African Mountains.

Cyperus luteus Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest plantation, 2400–3600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: SW Cameroon, Gabon, Uganda to Malawi, W Indian Ocean.

Cyperus mapanioides C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest paths, 900–1800 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Cyperus maranguensis K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, swampy grasslands, cultivations, 800–2150 m. Voucher: Lye & Katende 6423 (EA). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Cyperus melanospermus (Nees) Valck.Sur. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, streamside, 1000–2000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Old World.

Cyperus microaureus Lye – Habit: clustered annual. Habitat: Bushlands, wet rocky outcrops, grassland, 1750–1950 m. Voucher: fide Haine & Lye,Napper (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Cyperus mollipes K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasslands, 2100–2750 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa, India to Thailand.

Cyperus niveus Retz. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland in rocky pockets, 100–2200 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 813 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical and S Africa to S Central China.

Cyperus niveus var. leucocephalus (Kunth) Fosberg – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry grassland, recently burnt areas, 0–2100 m. Voucher: Dale IR 4117 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Aldabra, S Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula.

Cyperus plateilema (Steud.) Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mountain grassland, giant heath zones, roadside, moist forest, 1750–3650 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 5398 (EA), Wesche K 544 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to N Tanzania, Yemen (J Ta’kar).

Cyperus platycaulis Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet areas, swamps in bamboo zone, 1000–3000 m. Voucher: Naiga 419 (EA). Native distribution range: Chad to South Africa, Madagascar.

Cyperus rigidifolius Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, bushlands, wet grassland, 1800–2100 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1030 (EA), Dummer RA 3627 (US), Padwa JH 31 (WAG). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Cyperus rubicundus Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, rocky wooded grassland, 0–2300 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Africa to India, Lesser Sunda Islands to N Australia.

Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. subsp. sesquiflorus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upper forest levels, 1300–3300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Cyperus usitatus Burch. ex Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky slopes and outcrop, flooded grassland, 800–2150 m. Voucher: Lye & Katende 6422 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Ficinia gracilis Schrad. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, moorland, alpine grassland, 2400–4321 m. Voucher: Smith, Beentje & Muasya 179 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Africa.

Isolepis costata Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, stream banks, seepage area, 1700–3500 m. Vouchers: Lisowski S 10799 (EA), Dummer RA 3543 (US). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, Madagascar.

Isolepis fluitans (L.) R.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, on or in shallow water, bog, 1200–3700 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3501 (US), Hedberg O (UPS). Native distribution range: Old World.

**Isolepis graminoides (R.W.Haines & Lye) Lye – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine bogs, 3200–3500 m. Vouchers: Hamilton 1418, 4319, Forbes 277 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Ruwenzori, Mt Elgon).

Isolepis setacea R.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet open grassland, 2400–3800 m. Vouchers: Haines 4151, Dummer RA 3494 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Temperate & Subtropical Eurasia, Africa.

Scleria woodii C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, 1000–2100 m. Vouchers: Lugard C Mrs 667B, 667A (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

F23. DIOSCOREACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Dioscorea quartiniana A.Rich. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, 1750–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1404 (EA), Snowden JD 520, 910 (K), Lugard C 674 (K), Lye KA; Pócs T 23134 (K), Tweedie DR O 205 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Dioscorea schimperiana Hochst. ex Kunth – Habit: Twinning herb. Habitat: Forest margin, wooded grassland, riverine forest, 1600–2150 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1839 (K), 2845 (K) 2847 (K), Irwin PH 185 (K), Jack C 274 (K), Coll S 453 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

F24. ERIOCAULACEAE

1 Genus, 3 species

Eriocaulon abyssinicum Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist zone of waterfall, wet grassland, 1650–2750 m. Vouchers: Lind EM 247 (EA), Wood 446 (EA). Native distribution range: N. Nigeria to Eritrea and S Africa, Madagascar.

Eriocaulon mesanthemoides Ruhland – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upper edge of forest, montane grassland, moorland, 2400–3150 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Malawi.

Eriocaulon schimperi Körn. ex Ruhland – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Afroalpine grassland, bamboo zone, 2440–3500 m. Voucher: Hooper SS & Townsend CC 1392 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi.

F25. HYDROCHARITACEAE

3 Genera, 3 species

**Lagarosiphon hydrilloides Rendle – Habit: Aquatic herb. Habitat: Still or flowing fresh water, 1650–3500 m. Voucher: Lugard EJ; Lugard C 534 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya to Uganda.

EX Najas pectinata Magnus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Senegal to Sinai.

Ottelia ulvifolia (Planch.) Walp. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wetland, streams, 1750–2700 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

F26. HYPOXIDACEAE

1 Genus, 4 species

Hypoxis angustifolia Lam. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1300–3000 m. Voucher: Hedberg O (UPS). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Hypoxis fischeri Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, wooded grassland, 1500–2600 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 822 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, S Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

Hypoxis obtusa Burch. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, swamp edges, 1750–2750 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Africa.

EX Hypoxis villosa L.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Burnt grassland, 1700–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Africa.

F27. IRIDACEAE

8 Genera, 17 species

Aristea abyssinica Pax ex Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, upper edge of forest, grassland, 1400–3800 m. Voucher: Mwangangi OM 363 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Aristea alata Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grass glades, forest edges, bamboo edge, 1800–3500 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0125 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Aristea angolensis Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, 1700–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, heath, 2000–3900 m. Vouchers: Adamson J 451 (K), Ludanga RI 337 (K), Dummer RA 3315 (EA), Tothill BH 2422 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0136 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Malawi.

EX Dierama pendulum Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, 3150–4321 m. Voucher: Svein Manum (O). Native distribution range: South Africa.

Dietes iridioides (L.) Sweet ex Klatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Thickets, riverine forests, 1500–2300 m. Voucher: Tweedie 165 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Freesia laxa (Thunb.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky Mountain slopes, forest margin, 1800–2000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: W Kenya to S Africa.

Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet upland grassland, 1750–3100 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Gladiolus dichrous (Bullock) Goldblatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rocks on cliffs, 2000–3500 m. Vouchers: Saunders & Hancock 34 (EA), Lankester CH sn (K). Native distribution range: South Sudan to W Kenya.

Hesperantha petitiana Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Subalpine, alpine grassland, 1800–4000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 42, 9, 121 (EA), Bickford N 53, 34 (EA), J. Wilson 1196 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to Zimbabwe.

*Moraea afro-orientalis Goldblatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grasslands, 1400–2400 m. Vouchers: Friis I; Hansen OJ 2568 (EA, K), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 573 (K), Adamson J 513 (K), Wesche K 1318 (K), Bridson DM 64 (K), Polhill 411 (K). Native distribution range: South Sudan to E Tropical Africa.

EX Moraea carsonii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open short grassland, outcrop rock, 1600–2400 m. Voucher: Polhill R 411 (K). Native distribution range: Sudan to W Botswana.

Moraea stricta Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky grasslands, 1600–3000 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0021 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

EX Moraea vegeta L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: South Africa.

Romulea camerooniana Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, upper edge forest, wet grassland and subalpine stony soils, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon, S Ethiopia to S Africa.

Romulea congoensis Bég. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine grassland, mossy seeps, 3300–4200 m. Vouchers: Hamilton & Perrott 30 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Rwanda.

Romulea fischeri Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet upland and subalpine stony grassland, 2700–4200 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 2051 (K), Snowden JD 470 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0108, SAJIT-PR 0126 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa to Uganda, Socotra, SW Arabian Peninsula.

F28. JUNCACEAE

2 Genera, 6 species

Juncus capitatus Weigel – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ephemeral wetland, 4000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Europe to Kazakhstan, Macaronesia, Mediterranean to Kenya, Cameroon, S Africa.

Juncus dregeanus Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine forest, streamside, moor grassland, bog, 2900–3400 m. Vouchers: Lye KA, Katende A & Swinscow D (UPS). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Sudan and S Africa.

Juncus effusus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland marshes, 1500–3300 m. Voucher: Hedberg 180 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Northern Hemisphere to W South America, Rwanda to S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Luzula abyssinica Parl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet alpine forest, streamside, seepages, 2000–4300 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 4139, Ekkens DB 623 (EA), Mwangangi OM 350 (EA), Svein Manum 44 (O). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E & E Central Tropical Africa.

Luzula johnstonii Buchenau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine wet grasslands, 2400–4200 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 213 (EA), Dummer RA 3548 (EA), Bogdan A 4128 (EA), Hedberg O 975 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

**Luzula mannii subsp. gracilis (S.Carter) Kirschner & Cheek – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, wet places, by streams, moorland, 2700–3700 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 186 (EA), Dummer RA 3545 (EA), Liebenberg 1704 (EA), Wood GHS 126 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

F29. ORCHIDACEAE

31 Genera, 114 species

Aerangis luteoalba Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Moist shady forest, woodland, 1500–2330 m. Voucher: Gerh. Lindblom (S). Native distribution range: W Central & E Tropical Africa to Ethiopia.

Aerangis thomsonii Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Upland Forest, woodland, forest, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 809 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 468 (EA), (K), Tweedie 30 (K). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Aerangis ugandensis Summerh. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest trees, 1330–2300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 879 (K, NHMUK). Native distribution range: E DR Congo to Kenya.

Angraecopsis gracillima (Rolfe) Summerh. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Woodland, evergreen forest, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 505 (EA), Snowden JD 202 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Zambia.

EX Angraecopsis tenerrima Kraenzl. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tanzania.

Angraecum erectum Summerh. – Habit: sub-epiphytic herb. Habitat: Riverine Forest, 1350–2350 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Zambia.

Angraecum sacciferum Lindl. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Shady Forest, 1650–2650 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 178 (EA), Tweedie EM 463 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0010 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: São Tomé to Kenya and S Africa.

Ansellia africana Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland on rocks, tree roots, 1750–2350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 12962 (EA), Snowden JD 942 (EA), Tweedie EM 553 (BR), Laan FM van der 1031 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

EX Arachnis flos-aeris (L.) Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1000 m. Voucher: Adamson J (6) (EA). Native distribution range: S Indo-China to W Malesia and Phillipines.

Bonatea steudneri T.Durand & Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest on rocks, Bushland, 1700–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: NE Sudan to South Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Brachycorythis kalbreyeri Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine Forest, upland rain forest, 1800–2350 m. Voucher: Bush RZ 244 (EA). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Kenya and Zambia.

Brachycorythis ovata Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1200–2550 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 877 (EA, K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Brachycorythis ovata subsp. schweinfurthii (Rchb.f.) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie 8 (EA). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Brachycorythis pleistophylla Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and edges of deciduous woodland, 2000–2700 m. Voucher: Chater-Jack 847 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Brachycorythis pubescens Harv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, woodland, 2000–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 14 (K), Snowden JD 928 (AMES). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Bulbophyllum cochleatum Lindl. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Shady Forest, 1450–2400 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 940 (EA), Tweedie 47 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Bulbophyllum intertextum Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist and riverine forest, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles.

EX Bulbophyllum josephi var. mahonii (Rolfe) J.J.Verm. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 850–2100 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 923 (EA). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Malawi.

Cynorkis anacamptoides Kraenzl. – Habit: herb. Habitat: Upland moorland, grassland, upland rain forest, 2250–3350 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 247 (EA), Tweedie 69/58 (EA), Tweedie EM 1191 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Cyrtorchis arcuata Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Woodland, wet savanna, open forest, 1750–3300 m. Vouchers: Symes YE 357 (EA), Chater-Jack 225 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 565 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0005 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Diaphananthe lorifolia Summerh. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, 1830–2330 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD sn (NMHUK). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Rwanda and Tanzania.

Diaphananthe odoratissima (Rchb.f.) P.J.Cribb & Carlsward – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest trees, 1500–2430 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 31 (EA), Chater-Jack 36 (EA), Laan, FM van der 1066 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Diaphananthe sarcophylla (Schltr. ex Prain) P.J.Cribb & Carlsward – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Montane Forest, 1500–2400 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 880 (EA), Tweedie 559 (EA), Tweedie EM 482 (K). Native distribution range: Central & E Tropical Africa.

Diaphananthe vesicata (Lindl.) P.J.Cribb & Carlsward – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Montane moist forest, 350–2200 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 2481 (K). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Tanzania.

Disa aconitoides Sond. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 2300–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 12954 (EA), Chater-Jack 244 (EA), Tweedie 66/147 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 594 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Disa aconitoides subsp. concinna (N.E.Br.) H.P.Linder – Habit: Herb. Habitat: wet savanna, woodland, 1450–2850 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 244 (EA), Snowden JD 1086 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Disa erubescens Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grasslands, 1500–2850 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 66/148 (EA), Dale IR 3135 (AMES). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Disa hircicornis Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 572 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Disa scutellifera A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp grassland, grassy rocky slopes, 1800–2700 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 12953 (EA). Native distribution range: NE & E Tropical Africa.

Disa stairsii Kraenzl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine grassland, moorland, rocky areas 3000–4200 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 5446 (EA), 3 (EA), Adamson J 464 (EA), Tweedie EM 1807A (K). Native distribution range: Congo to E Tropical Africa.

Disa welwitschii Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp grasslands, 1700–2000 m. Vouchers: Lindblom, S s.n. (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Disperis anthoceros Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, bamboo forests on ground litter, 1800–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 560 (EA), Tweedie EM 2852(K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Disperis dicerochila Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moist forest in leaf litter, mossy branches, rocks, 1650–2830 m. Voucher: Sellow, Miss (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Disperis kilimanjarica Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense shade forest on branches covered with moss and liverworts, 2300–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 920 (EA, K). Native distribution range: Kenya to Zambia.

Disperis reichenbachiana Welw. ex Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest floor on leaf mould, rock crevices, 1500–2330 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 9 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0012 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

EX Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 1300–1750 m. Voucher: Webster MVB 9025 (EA). Native distribution range: Colombia to Trinidad and W Bolivia.

Epipactis africana Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverbanks in forest, bamboo forest, 2330–3750 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 149 (EA), Napper DM & Irwin D 1495 (EA), Mwangangi OM 426 (K), Tweedie EM 1091 (K, BR). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to N Mozambique.

Epipogium roseum Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Leaf mold in wet forest floor, 1300–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie (Icon). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to SW Pacific.

Eulophia cucullata (Afzel. ex Sw.) Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1750–2300 m. Vouchers: Webster MVB 9037 (EA), Chater-Jack 231 (EA), Tweedie 67/57 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 596 (EA), Tweedie EM 5 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Eulophia eustachya (Rchb.f.) Geerinck – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, 1650–2000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zimbabwe.

Eulophia guineensis Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, woodland, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2586, 67/42 (EA), Tweedie DR 1 (EA), Chater-Jack 226 (EA). Native distribution range: Cape Verde, Tropical Africa to Botswana, Arabian Peninsula.

Eulophia horsfallii (Bateman) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open Forest, riverine, outcrop rock, 1500–2700 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 816 (EA), Symes YE 629 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Eulophia latilabris Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet grassland, 1300–1600 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 876 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Sudan and Botswana.

Eulophia livingstoneana (Rchb.f.) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1500–2350 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 230 (EA), 3314 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Eulophia mechowii T.Durand & Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, wooded grassland, 2000–2350 m. Voucher: Lugard 634 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to W Ethiopia and S Africa.

Eulophia montis-elgonis Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland among rocks, 2000–2350 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3109 (EA), Irwin PH 285 (EA), Tweedie 91 (EA), Chater-Jack 275 (EA), Lugard EJ 663 (EA) (K). Native distribution range: S Sudan to Tanzania.

Eulophia odontoglossa Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, rocky areas, 1750–2350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 620 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Eulophia orthoplectra (Rchb.f.) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, wooded grassland, swamp woodland, 1200–2350 m. Vouchers: Lugard 11 (EA), Gardner HM 2277 (EA), Chater-Jack 96 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Eulophia ruwenzoriensis Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1650–2530 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Zambia, E Bolivia to Brazil and NE Argentina.

Eulophia streptopetala Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bush, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 87 (EA), 159 (EA), Tweedie DR 4 (EA), Tweedie 66/149 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Eulophia subulata Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, seasonally wet grassland, 1100–1700 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Angola.

Habenaria altior Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, streams, forest, 2000–3700 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 425 (EA), 429 (EA), Tweedie EM 727 (K), Tweedie 1266 (K). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Habenaria attenuata Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist upland forest, moorland, 2400–4000 m. Voucher: Tweedie 360 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Cameroon and Tanzania SW Arabian Peninsula.

Habenaria bracteosa Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mountain forest, 2500–4000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 537 (K). Native distribution range: Bioko to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Habenaria chirensis Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, swamps, wet rocks outcrop, 1850–2300 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 302 (EA), Symes YE 395 (EA), Tweedie 66/145 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Habenaria cornuta Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1700–2700 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 523 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Habenaria decorata Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrop, upland moor, 2200–3300 m. Voucher: Thomas AS 642 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Uganda.

Habenaria filicornis Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp areas, grassland, woodland, 1200–2850 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 395(N19) (EA), Tweedie EM 321 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Habenaria hologlossa Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp grassland, open bushland, 1750– 3300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 469 (EA), Tweedie DR 201 (EA), 209 (EA), Tweedie EM 323 (EA), 324 (EA), 325 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya, Malawi, Angola.

Habenaria holubii Rolfe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, streamside, 1200–2300 m. Voucher: Chater-Jack 301 A (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to Namibia.

Habenaria huillensis Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1200–2500 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 224 (EA), Tweedie 67/228 (EA), Tweedie DR 10 (EA), Symes YE 164 (EA), Tweedie 2671 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Habenaria humilior Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1200–2700 m. Vouchers: Symes 164 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0114 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

*Habenaria keniensis Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, upland rainforest edges, 1950–2950 m. Vouchers: Tweedie in Bally 7619 (EA), Irwin PH 448 (EA), Tweedie 703 (EA), 387 (K), Tweedie EM 505a (K). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Habenaria laurentii De Wild. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, 1800–2100 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 310 (EA), 301B, Tweedie EM 630 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Habenaria lindblomii Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1800–2200 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 522 ,66 (K), Tweedie 2667 (EA), Tweedie EM 12951 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

Habenaria macruroides Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, swamps 1700–2000 m. Voucher: Tweedie 32 (EA). Native distribution range: W Central & E Tropical Africa.

Habenaria malacophylla Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moist forest, grassland, forest, 1200–2700 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 63 (EA), Tweedie 17 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, S Arabian Peninsula.

Habenaria microsaccus Kraenzl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest, 2100–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 728 (K), 1725 (K). Native distribution range: Uganda to Burundi.

Habenaria ndiana Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 1700–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 404 (EA), Tweedie EM 471 (K). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Malawi.

Habenaria peristyloides A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, marshes, 2000–2850 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 11 (EA), Tweedie 67/189 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to SW Arabian Peninsula.

Habenaria petitiana T.Durand & Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest edges, 1700–3300 m. Vouchers: Lucas GLl & Williams JG 177 (EA), G. Ll. Lucas 177 (AMES). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Eritrea and S Africa.

Habenaria quartiniana A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, thick bush, forest edge, 2100–2850 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 702 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0133 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Uganda.

Habenaria splendens Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest margin, 1700–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie (EA), Symes YE 628 (EA), Chater-Jack 300 (EA), Snowden JD 913 (AMES). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Habenaria tweedieae Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrop, woodland, 2200–2600 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 524 (EA), Tweedie DR 55 (EA), 25 (EA), Tweedie EM 680 (K). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to Rwanda.

Habenaria vaginata A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp grassland, forest edges, 1300–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 12949 (EA), Tweedie 2672 (EA), Tweedie EM 507 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Tanzania.

Habenaria walleri Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, 1200–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 12946 (EA), 66/121 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Holothrix aphylla Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest, 1500–2600 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 253, 252 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Yemen.

**Holothrix elgonensis Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest, 3300–3900 m. Vouchers: Lugard 379 (EA), Tweedie 199 (EA), Thomas 2682 (EA), Tweedie DR 31, 109 (EA), Tweedie EM 359 (EA), Lugard EJ 379 (EA), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 379 (K), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 379a (K). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

Kylicanthe rohrii (Rchb.f.) Descourv. & Farminhão – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 2100–3000 m. Vouchers: C Leaky 24 (EA), Tweedie 2015 (EA, K), Snowden JD 921 (NHMUK). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Liparis bowkeri Harv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mossy banks, forest trees, 1350–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Liparis deistelii Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest on mossy banks on tree and tree fern trunks, 1700–2750 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 506 (EA), Tweedie EM 457 (K), Synge PM 980 (EA, BR). Native distribution range: W Central & E Tropical Africa to W Ethiopia and Malawi.

EX Platanthera micrantha Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, upland moor, 2500–3000 m. Voucher: Lankester 13 (EA). Native distribution range: Azores.

Platycoryne crocea Rolfe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1300–2600 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3137 (EA), Chater-Jack 255 (EA), Tweedie EM 12963 (EA), Symes YE 355 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 647 (EA), Tweedie 66/102 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.

Polystachya adansoniae Rchb.f. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, 1650–2330 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 172 (EA), Chater-Jack 4818 (EA), Tweedie EM 12945 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Polystachya bella Summerh. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest trees, 1800–2350 m. Vouchers: Bush RZ 245 (EA). Native distribution range: SW Kenya.

Polystachya bennettiana Rchb.f. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: wet savanna, woodland, dry forest, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Yohana 2523 (EA), Chater-Jack 215 (EA). Native distribution range: Ivory Coast to Eritrea and Zambia.

Polystachya bicarinata Rendle – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Upland riverine forest, 1800–2830 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 960 (EA, MO), Tisdall 313 (MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0034 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Polystachya caespitifica Kraenzl. ex Engl. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, 1800–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Zimbabwe.

Polystachya campyloglossa Rolfe – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry Forest, 1700–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 1085 (K). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to E Zimbabwe.

Polystachya cultriformis Lindl. ex Spreng. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest near rivers, 330–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 7 (EA), Bamps PRJ sn (EA), Tweedie EM 556 (K). Native distribution range: Bioko to Ethiopia and S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Polystachya eurychila Summerh. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry forest, 1830–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 555 (K), Eggeling WJ 2438 (K), Eggeling WJ 2438 (K, US), Meyer, H. 291 (K), Dummer RA 3679 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to NW Kenya.

Polystachya lindblomii Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, 1000–2330 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 470 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0009 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Polystachya simplex Rendle – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry montane forest, 2000–2350 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 875 (EA), Tweedie DR 81 (EA). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to E Zimbabwe.

Polystachya spatella Kraenzl. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, 1600–2830 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 315, Major C & Lugard EJ 640 (EA), Bamps PRJ sn (EA), Tweedie EM 447 (K). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Polystachya steudneri Rchb.f. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry forest, 1850–2500 m. Vouchers: Lugard 504 (EA), Snowden JD 959 (EA), Jack C 401 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Eritrea and Burundi.

Polystachya tenuissima Kraenzl. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Upland forest, 1700–2500 m. Vouchers: Bush RZ 246 (EA), Hedberg O 303 (EA), Tweedie 2634 (EA), Tweedie DR 6 (EA), Tweedie EM 448 (K). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Uganda and N Tanzania.

Polystachya transvaalensis Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Upland forest, 1650–3350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 20 (EA), sn (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan and S Africa.

Porpax repens (Rolfe) Schuit., Y.P.Ng & H.A.Pedersen – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, 1950–2830 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1066 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Rangaeris muscicola (Rchb.f.) Summerh. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, woodland, 1700–2350 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 25 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 645 (EA), Chater-Jack 222 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Rhipidoglossum brachyceras (Summerh.) Farminhão & Stévart – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, 1700–2000 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3686 (EA), Snowden JD 900 (EA, NMHUK). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Rhipidoglossum pulchellum (Summerh.) Garay – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry forest, 1500–2330 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 571, 570A (K). Native distribution range: Central & E Tropical Africa.

Rhipidoglossum subsimplex (Summerh.) Garay – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, 1850–2850 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0063 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E & S Tropical Africa.

Satyrium carsonii Rolfe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grasslands, woodland, 1450–2330 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 161 (EA), Tweedie DR 8 (EA), Webster MVB 9031 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Kenya and Zambia.

Satyrium coriophoroides A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky slopes, 1700–2800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

Satyrium crassicaule Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, 1850–3300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 922 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 424 (EA), Synge PM 820 (WAG), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0258 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Zambia.

EX Satyrium neglectum subsp. woodii (Schltr.) A.V.Hall – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, 2150–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Africa.

Satyrium robustum Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grasslands, bog near streams, 1350–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 810 (EA, K, UPS), Bickford N 14 (EA), Tweedie EM 837 (EA), Hedberg O 171 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Satyrium sceptrum Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: upland grassland, and open bushland, upper forest edge in damp places, 1500–2700 m. Voucher: Tylor in Tweedie 624 (2) (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

Satyrium volkensii Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, open woodland, bushland, 2200–2700 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 245 in CM 4816 (EA), 246 (EA), Tweedie EM 12957 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 595 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Kenya and Zimbabwe.

Sphyrarhynchus amaniense (Summerh.) Bytebier – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Shady montane forest, 1600–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 603 (EA), Carroll, EW (K). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

Tridactyle bicaudata Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry forests, riverine forest, 0–2500 m. Vouchers: Blancowe J sn (EA), Chater-Jack 104 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Tridactyle scottellii Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Evergreen riverine forest, 2000–3000 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 903 (EA), Tweedie 88 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0106 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Gabon to Kenya.

Tridactyle tridactylites Schltr. – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Montane rain forest, 1000–1800 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 525 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Ypsilopus amaniensis (Kraenzl.) D’haijère & Stévart – Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Dry forest, open woodland 1500–2350 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Zimbabwe.

F30. POACEAE

50 Genera, 98 species

Adenochloa hymeniochila (Nees) Zuloaga – Habit: Herb. Habitat: River margins, moist meadows, 1000–3000 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 118 (US, MO, K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Agrostis gracilifolia C.E.Hubb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, highland grasses, 2800–4300 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 192 (EA), Bogdan 3934 (EA), Thomas AS 2671 (EA), Dummer RA (B) 3339, 3475 (US), Liebenberg LCC 1689 (K), Johnston HB 876 (K), Taylor Dr G 3709 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Agrostis keniensis Pilg. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest edges, wet upland grassland, 2300–3000 m. Voucher: Tothill BH 2262 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Agrostis kilimandscharica Mez – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo, forest clearing, upland grassland, 2100–3700 m. Vouchers: Bodgan A 3930 (EA), Thomas AS 2718 (EA), Taylor G 3703 (K), Johnston HB 876 (K), Liebenberg LCC 1689 (K), Hedberg KO 4461 (BR), Dummer RA 3569 (US). Native distribution range: Congo to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Agrostis producta Pilg. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, wet upland grassland, 2400–3800 m. Voucher: Thomas AS 2685, 2712 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Zimbabwe.

Agrostis quinqueseta (Steud.) Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, alpine heath, 3000–4000 m. Vouchers: Knight J 4501 (K), Ekkens DB 630 (EA), Bogdan A 3931 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Agrostis volkensii Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, wet upland grassland, 3000–4300 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3339A (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Aira caryophyllea L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moorland, 2100–4300 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3367 (EA), Bogdan 3399 (EA), Bogdan A 3941, 3945 (EA). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Mediterranean to African Mountains, Europe to Caucasus, Tibet to W Himalaya.

Andropogon amethystinus Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine grasslands, montane grassland, moorland, 2000–4000 m. Vouchers: Bogdan A 4136 (EA), Liebenberg L 1686 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S India, Myanmar.

Andropogon lima Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, dry moorland, 2400–4000 m. Vouchers: Katende T 911 (MO), Hedberg 260, Bie SW 275 (EA), Osterkamp M 111 (EA), Bogdan A 4497 (EA), Melderis 260 (EA), Hedberg O 869 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, South Sudan to Malawi.

Anthoxanthum nivale K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moorland, 2400–4800 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 3927 (K), 4494 (K), Liebenberg L 1701 (US), Hedberg O 191 (K). Native distribution range: NE DR Congo to E Tropical Africa.

Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 650–2600 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1209 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, W Indian Ocean, Asia to E Australia.

Arthraxon prionodes (Steud.) Dandy – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky slopes, 1000–2000 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: NE & E Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Afghanistan to China and Peninsula Malaysia.

Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moorland, 2600–4300 m. Vouchers: Bogdan3950 (EA), Hedberg O 931 (K). Native distribution range: Europe to Japan and Malesian Mountains, Macaronesia, NW & Tropical Montane Africa, Greenland to Central & E America, S South America to Falkland Islands.

Brachypodium flexum Nees – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland Forest shade, bamboo thickets, bushland, 2000–3000 m. Voucher: Bogdan 5389 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

EX Briza maxima L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, cultivations, 2400–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Macaronesia to Mediterranean.

Bromus leptoclados Nees – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest edge, grassland, 2300–4300 m. Vouchers: Bogdan A 4121 (K), 5391 (K), 5408 (K), Wesche K 1977 (K), Mwangangi OM 351 (K), Johnston HB 859 (BR), Hedberg O 223 (K), Dummer RA 3342 (US). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Eritrea and S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Cenchrus geniculatus Thunb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland pastures, old cultivation, roadsides, 1500–3500 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1181 (K). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Eritrea and S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Cenchrus riparius (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Morrone – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, cultivation, 1400–2600 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1214 (EA), 1227 (EA, K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Cenchrus trisetus (Leeke) Morrone – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1000–2800 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zimbabwe.

Cenchrus unisetus (Nees) Morrone – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, 300–2300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1244 (EA, S), Maitland 1179 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

*Colpodium hedbergii (Melderis) Tzvelev – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moor, stream sides, 3580–4000 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 908 (MO, S, K, UPS). Native distribution range: Ethiopia, Kenya.

Crinipes longifolius C.E.Hubb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, forest edges, 1869–2400 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3643 (EA), Thomas AS 296 (EA, MO), 2572 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia, South Sudan to Uganda.

Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, 0–2300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1246 (EA), Maitland 1179 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to Botswana, Madagascar.

Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grasslands, 300–2300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1218 (EA), Forbes LM 214 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

EX Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weedy places, roadside, 1500–2600 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1212 (EA). Native distribution range: S Africa.

*Deschampsia angusta Stapf & C.E.Hubb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streams in moorland, 3600–4300 m. Voucher: Bogdan 3937 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central Tropical Africa (Ruwenzori, Mt Elgon).

Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, streambanks, 2900–4000 m. Voucher: Hedberg 860 (EA). Native distribution range: Subarctic & Temperate to Tropical Mountains.

Digitaria abyssinica (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, grassland, grazing land, 0–3000 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1232 (K), 1022 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Peninsula Malaysia, New Guinea, SE Queensland.

Echinochloa pyramidalis Hitchc. & Chase – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, riverside, 0–2400 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1092 (US). Native distribution range: Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

Eleusine africana Kenn.-O’Byrne – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, in cultivation, 1300 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3655 (US). Native distribution range: Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

EX Eleusine coracana Gaertn. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, in cultivation. Voucher: Snowden JD 1235, 1236 (US). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Socotra and Angola.

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, forest edges, 0–2070 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1110 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

*Eleusine jaegeri Pilg. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest clearings, bushland, 1800–3300 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3655 (MO), Wesche K 1555 (MO). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open bushland, 1400–2800 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1260 (EA, US). Native distribution range: S Tropical America, Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Eragrostis exasperata Peter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist grassland, rock outcrop, 300–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

Eragrostis heteromera Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, old cultivations, water logged soils, 1200–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa.

Eragrostis hispida K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy places, rock outcrop seepage, 1000–2600 m. Vouchers: Hemp A (W), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0019 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

Eragrostis paniciformis (A.Braun) Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, streamsides, swamp grassland, 1300–2600 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ & Lugard C 604 (BR, US). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Zambia.

Eragrostis racemosa Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry grassland, 1200–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar.

Eragrostis schweinfurthii Chiov. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1300–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Malawi, SW Arabian Peninsula, Sri Lanka.

Eriochloa barbatus (Trin.) S.Yadav & M.R.Almeida – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Depressions in swampy areas, 0–1800 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula.

Exotheca abyssinica Andersson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland, montane grassland, 2000–4000 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 128 (EA), Mwangangi OM 355 (EA), Stein W Bie (UPS). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Tropical Africa, Indo-China.

Festuca abyssinica Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest edges, moor, 2800–4300 m. Vouchers: Dale JRD (EA), Wilson J 1227 (K), A Thomas Th644 (US). Native distribution range: Gulf of Guinea Islands to Cameroon, Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Festuca bromoides L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, forest edges, 2300–3900 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3778 (EA). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Europe to Caucasus, Sahara to Kenya, SW Cameroon, SW Arabian Peninsula.

EX Festuca camusiana St.-Yves – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, bamboo tickets, 2100–3500 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 5386 (EA), Dummer RA 3506 (EA). Native distribution range: Madagascar.

Festuca chodatiana (St.-Yves) E.B.Alexeev – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edge, grassland, bamboo thickets, 2100–3500 m. Voucher: Bogdan 5386 (EA). Native distribution range: Gulf of Guinea Islands, SW Cameroon, South Sudan (Imatong Mountains), Central Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

**Festuca claytonii E.B.Alexeev – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland of Elgon, above 2500 m. Voucher: Thomas SA 2727 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Festuca mekiste Clayton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: upland forest, 2300–3000 m. Voucher: Bogdan 5390 (EA). Native distribution range: Bioko, SW Cameroon, Ethiopia.

Festuca obturbans St.-Yves – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moor, 2400–4000 m. Voucher: Mwangangi OM 312 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania, Yemen.

*Festuca pilgeri St.-Yves – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry upland moor, 2700–4250 m. Vouchers: Liebenberg 1699 (EA), Thomas AS 2729 (EA), Bogdan A 3942 (K, MO), Wesche K 257 (K, MO), Hedberg KO 1006 (EA, MO), HB Johnston 870 (US). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mountains).

Festuca simensis Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland Forest shade, bamboo thickets, 2000–3300 m. Voucher: Bogdan 5402 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and N Tanzania.

Hyparrhenia cymbaria Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, forest, 1000–3000 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1217, 1162 (US). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Eritrea and S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, India.

Hyparrhenia dregeana Stapf ex Stent – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grazed grasslands, 2000–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Hyparrhenia mobukensis Chiov. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Subalpine forest, bamboo zone, 2500–3300 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3498 (EA), Thomas AS 2664 (EA, MO). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Hyparrhenia rufa Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushlands, wooded grasslands, 0–2300 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1029, 1102 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, S Central China to Indo-China.

Hyparrhenia schimperi Andersson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open moist bushland, wooded grassland, 700–1700 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1168 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, Madagascar.

Hyperthelia dissoluta (Nees) Clayton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, 0–2400 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1173 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Koeleria capensis Nees – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, moorland, 1800–4300 m. Vouchers: Liebenberg 1696 (EA), Tothill BH 2434 (EA), Granvik H (S), A Bogdan AB 3947 (US), Dummer RA 3341 (US). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Koordersiochloa longiarista (A.Rich.) Veldkamp – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest floor, heath zone, bamboo clearing, 1500–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Africa, Jawa to Lesser Sunda Islands, Philippines.

Loudetia simplex (Nees) C.E.Hubb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky dry woodland, wooded grassland, 1000–2600 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1242 (US), Hemp A (W). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky grassland, 0–2500 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1090 (US, MO). Native distribution range: Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

Micrachne patentiflora (Stent & J.M.Rattray) P.M.Peterson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally flooded shallow soils, 1400–2300 m. Voucher: Bogdan 4075 (BR, EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to Botswana.

Microchloa indica (L.f.) P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, bushland, 800–1600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World to N Australia.

Moorochloa eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, 500–2200 m. Voucher: Strange R 70 (EA). Native distribution range: Mediterranean to Indo-China and Africa.

Oldeania alpina (K.Schum.) Stapleton – Habit: Herb (bamboo). Habitat: Montane forest, 2400–3000 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3508 (EA, US), Eggeling W 2472 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen Forest, 0–2500 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1213 (EA, S) 1230 (US). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Oxytenanthera abyssinica Munro – Habit: Herb (bamboo). Habitat: Grassland, woodland, thickets, 2400–3000 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1051 (K, US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Panicum chionachne Mez – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 1000–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

Panicum hochstetteri Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 1600–3300 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 2665 (EA), Dummer RA 3567 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Sierra Leone to Eritrea and Tanzania.

Panicum monticola Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest shade, 600–2800 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and South Africa.

Panicum pusillum Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, bushland, 1350–3000 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3551 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Pentameris borussica (K.Schum.) Galley & H.P.Linder – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, moorland, 3000–4680 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3379 (EA), Thomas AS 2686 (EA), Wesche K 238 (K), 237 (K), Thomas AS 2686 (K), Bogdan A 3939 (K), Nouga 133 (K), Lisowski S 10468 ((BR), Katende 878 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Pentameris minor (F.Ballard & C.E.Hubb.) Galley & H.P.Linder – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, open grassland, moorland, 3000–4800 m. Voucher: Bodgan 4499 (EA), Bogdan A 3946, AB3940, AB4123 (K), Thomas AS 2721 (K, UPS), Hedberg O 4487 (K), Lisowski S 10468 (K), Dale IR 3189 (K), Mwangangi OM 314 (K), Knight J 4499 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Pentameris pictigluma (Steud.) Galley & H.P.Linder – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, montane path side, 2600–4300 m. Vouchers: Wood GH 160 (EA), Wesche K 316 (K), 310 (K). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to Tanzania, Yemen.

Poa annua L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland path sides, 2000–3550 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Temperate Old World to Tropical Mountains.

Poa leptoclada Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, upland grassland, heath, moor, 1800–4300 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 1028 (NHMUK), Dummer RA 3524 (US), Liebenberg L 1697 (US). Native distribution range: Bioko to Eritrea and S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Poa schimperiana Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Stream sides, moorland, 2300–4300 m. Vouchers: Bogdan A 3933 (BR), (K), Wesche K 1335 (K), Liebenberg L 1698 (S). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Malawi, Arabian Peninsula.

Poecilostachys oplismenoides (Hack.) Clayton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady forest, 1000–2500 m. Vouchers: Katende AB; Sheil 2290 (K). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Kenya and S Tropical Africa.

Polypogon schimperianus (Hochst. ex Steud.) Cope – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, moorland, 1500–4000 m. Voucher: Hedberg 3580 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf in Prain – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest shade, 1000–2500 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1183 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Pseudobromus africanus Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo thickets, upland forest, 2100–2700 m. Voucher: Bodgan 2832 (EA). Native distribution range: Sudan to S Africa.

Setaria sphacelata Stapf & C.E.Hubb. ex M.B.Moss – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grasslands, swamps, riversides, 0–3300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1103 (US, K), 1194 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Sporobolus nervosus Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grazed bushland, 300–1830 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Mauritania, Ethiopia to Tanzania, S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan.

Sporobolus olivaceus Napper – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moorland, 2300–4000 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 3948, Dale in FD 3190 (EA), Liebenberg 1717 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Sporobolus paniculatus T.Durand & Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, bushland, wooded grassland, 1000–2000 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1239 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Sporobolus pyramidalis P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland, 2000–3000 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1097 (US). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical America, Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

*Sporobolus scitulus Clayton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rare in swampy rock outcrop, at 2500 m. Voucher: Bogdan A AB 4072 (K). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

Sporobolus stapfianus Gand. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushlands, 500–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Niger to Ethiopia and S Africa, Madagascar.

EX Stipa dregeana Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest shade, roadside, 2000–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Africa.

Themeda triandra Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 0–3000 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 1060 (S, EA), Tweedie 21 (EA), Snowden JD 1220, 1171 (US). Native distribution range: Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

Tripogon major Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rocky grassland, 1200–3700 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1187 (K), Bodgan 3932 (US, EA), 5419 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0111 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Sierra Leone, Nigeria to Ethiopia and Malawi, S India.

Trisetopsis angusta (C.E.Hubb.) Röser & A.Wölk – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, 2300–2600 m. Voucher: Bogdan A (B). Native distribution range: Kenya, Yemen.

Trisetopsis milanjiana (Rendle) Röser & A.Wölk – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest egde, bamboo thickets, 2300–3500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi, Madagascar.

Trisetopsis umbrosa (Hochst. ex Steud.) Röser & A.Wölk – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland bamboo thickets, grassland, moor, 1850–4000 m. Vouchers: Bogdan 3929 (EA), 3936 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Urochloa brizantha (A.Rich.) R.D.Webster – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, wooded grassland, woodland, 300–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie 20 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Urochloa comata (A.Rich.) Sosef – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 600–2200 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1202 (EA, US). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Urochloa jubata (Fig. & De Not.) Sosef – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushlands, swamp margins, 500–2900 m. Voucher: Jack C 20 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

F31. POTAMOGETONACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

EX Potamogeton nodosus Poir. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Fresh water wetlands, 1510–4250 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cosmopolitan.

Potamogeton richardii Solms – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Fresh water wetlands, 1150–3450 m. Vouchers: Ross R 1346 (BR, EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Eritrea to S Africa, Central Madagascar.

F32. TYPHACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Typha latifolia L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Permanent swamps, river, 1300–2200 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1223 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Northern Hemisphere to Colombia, W Bolivia to S South America, Nigeria to Kenya.

F33. XYRIDACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Xyris capensis Thunb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland marsh, bogs, 1100–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World, Brazil.

Xyris straminea L.A.Nilsson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, outcrop rock, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Wood GHS 477 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Part 5 Magnoliopsida

F34. ACANTHACEAE

17 Genera, 45 species

Acanthopale pubescens C.B.Clarke – Habit: Shrub or shrubby herb. Habitat: Wet montane forest, forest swamps, 1655–2790 m. Voucher: Dale IR 50 (EA, BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Acanthus eminens C.B.Clarke – Habit: Woody shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, undergrowth of montane forest, scrub, thicket clumps in dump areas, 1500–2800 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 828 (EA), Bamps PRJ 6497 (WAG). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to South Sudan and Central Kenya.

Acanthus polystachius Delile – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane wet evergreen forest, woodland, forest margins, rocky hills, 1100–2800 m. Vouchers: Dale 50 (EA), James E sn (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to NW Tanzania.

Barleria grandicalyx Lindau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry savanna, wooded grassland, acacia combraetum woodland, 1100–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to Ethiopia and Tanzania, Angola.

Barleria ventricosa Hochst. ex Nees – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest undergrowth, woodland, thickets, in grassland, 1700–3590 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 131 (K), 838 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0218 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Yemen.

Crabbea velutina S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia bushland, riverine forest, thickets, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1828 (EA). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to S Africa.

EX Dicliptera colorata C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Rwanda to N Malawi.

Dicliptera laxata C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, undergrowth mountain rain forest, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 828 (K). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and N Malawi.

*Dicliptera maculata subsp. usambarica (Lindau) I.Darbysh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, wooded grasslands, disturbed areas, montane and submontane forest, (1150 –)1300–2700(–3050). Vouchers: Dummer RA 3618 (EA), Naiga 505A (EA). Native distribution range: E Uganda to N Tanzania.

*Dicliptera nilotica C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Recently burnt areas on roadsides and open woodland, short grassland, 1050–2350 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1524 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to W Kenya.

Dicliptera pumila (Lindau) Dandy – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short grassland, open woodland, recently burnt montane grassland, 1750–2850 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Dyschoriste multicaulis Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland, 1705–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central & E Tropical Africa, Yemen.

Dyschoriste radicans Nees – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Low altitude grassland, 1750–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (Ref). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, wet savanna and open woodland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.

Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, open woodland, wet grassland, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 812 (K), 823 (K), 829 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Hypoestes forskaolii subsp. hildebrandtii (Lindau) I.Darbysh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry grassland, bushland, forest edges, 1750–2820 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa to Kenya.

Hypoestes triflora Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and undergrowth, forest clearings and grassland, 1600–3300 m. Vouchers: Dawkins 777 (EA), Tweedie EM 830 (K), Tweedie 886 (K), Vollesen K 682 (K), Townsend CC 2335 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0204 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, Himalaya to China (Yunnan) and Indo-China.

Isoglossa gregorii (S.Moore) Lindau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Higher montane forest, bamboo zone undergrowth, woodland, 1790–2900 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 587 (EA), Lye 25497 (EA), Mwangangi OM 453 (BR). Native distribution range: Kenya to E Zimbabwe.

Isoglossa laxa Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane Forest understory, clearances, secondary growth, 1750–2550 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Tanzania, Madagascar.

Isoglossa punctata (Vahl) Brummitt & J.R.I.Wood – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane rain forest undergrowth, margin, secondary bushland, 1350–2750 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1896 (EA), Dale IR U89 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Isoglossa substrobilina C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane rain forest, woodland, 1600–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 891 (K), Napper DM & Tweedie EM 2128 (BR). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Justicia anagalloides T.Anderson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland bushland, 1020–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 512 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Justicia anselliana T.Anderson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Marshy grassland, 1300–1920 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Justicia calyculata Deflers – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, lawn, grassland weed, 100–2200 m. Vouchers: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0014 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa to N Tanzania, S Arabian Peninsula.

Justicia diclipteroides Lindau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland edges, forest, 1300–2325 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0170 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Justicia eminii Lindau – Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Woodland and bushland on rocky hill, forest margin, montane grassland, riverine woodland, 1200–2100 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1723 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Tropical Africa.

Justicia exigua S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, outcrop rock, 1720–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to South Africa.

Justicia flava Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open habitat, savanna, woodland, 1750–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 674 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

EX Justicia insularis T.Anderson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Chad.

Justicia striata (Klotzsch) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen woodland edges, bushed grassland, 2000–2600 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 3673 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Justicia unyorensis S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Edges of montane rain forest, montane grassland, woodland, bushland, 2170–3100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 3717 (EA), Bridson DM 67 (WAG). Native distribution range: Nigeria to SW Ethiopia and NW Tanzania.

Lepidagathis collina (Endl.) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Open fire prone grass, rocky outcrop, 1750–2170 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Eritrea and Kenya.

Lepidagathis glandulosa Nees – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Open wooded grassland, woodland, 850–2350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1370 (EA), Tweedie 1370A (K). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and Zambia.

Lepidagathis scariosa Nees – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Dry Tropical Africa to Namibia, Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar.

Mimulopsis alpina Chiov. – Habit: Woody herb. Habitat: Montane forest, bushland, bamboo forest, ericaceous zone, 1900–3300 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3464 (EA), Tweedie 1379 (EA), Dale IR 65 (BR), Thomas AS 2744 (BR), Mwangangi OM 391 (BR). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to N Malawi.

Mimulopsis arborescens C.B.Clarke – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Wet montane forest, bamboo forest, along clearings, gaps, streams, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Hancork 216/37 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to E DR Congo, Mozambique.

Mimulopsis solmsii Schweinf. – Habit: woody herb or undershrub. Habitat: Montane forest, bamboo forest, secondary forest, grassland, bushland, 1500–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2234 (EA), Snowden JD 947 (EA), Tweedie EM 1090 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0222 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Monechma debile Nees – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India.

Nicoteba betonica Lindau – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Wet forest, riverside, 700–2200 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Indian Subcontinent.

Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 53, Wesche K 1877 (K), Tweedie 803 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Ruellia patula Jacq. – Habit: Shrubby herb or subshrub. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, open places in forest, 1750–2100 m. Voucher: Polhill 402 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.

Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims – Habit: Trailing or twinning herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas, secondary vegetation, wet forest, bushlands and thickets, woodland and forest, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Symes YE 380, 365 (EA), Lugard EJ 65, 52 (EA), Mwangangi OM 515 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Thunbergia battiscombei Turrill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Burnt grassland, wooded grassland, 1500–2500 m. Voucher: Mr and Mrs Tweedie 281 (BR). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Kenya.

Thunbergia gregorii S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grasslands, bushlands and forest edges, 1350–2300 (–2450). Voucher: Katende & Sheil 1921 (EA). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Burundi and Tanzania.

Thunbergia paulitschkeana Beck – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushlands, montane forest, roadsides, 1450–2800 m. Vouchers: Lye & Katende 6407 (EA), Tweedie 3674 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0118 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E & S Ethiopia to E Tropical

F35. AIZOACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Zaleya pentandra (L.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Succulent herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, waste places, cultivated ground, roadside, on alkaline soils, 800–2000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Africa to Israel and Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan to India.

F36. AMARANTHACEAE

6 Genera, 12 species

Achyranthes aspera L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, forest, 0–3080 m. Vouchers: Katende 1012 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Achyranthes aspera var. sicula L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, cultivation or disturbed ground, hardpan patches between rocks, seasonal swamps, open grassland, along forest edges and trails, 0–3000 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3486 (EA). Native distribution range: Macaronesia to W Asia and Arabian Peninsula, Africa.

EX Amaranthus hybridus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated weed, wet savanna, introduced, 1500–2600 m. Vouchers: Hooper SS; Townsend, CC 1380 (WAG). Native distribution range: S Ontario to W South America.

Celosia schweinfurthiana Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest ridges, clearings and margins, thicker forest, 0–1650 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Chenopodiastrum fasciculosum var. schimperi (Asch.) Mosyakin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed in cultivated areas, waste places, evergreen upland forest, roadside, 1300–2600 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ 272 (MO), (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Tanzania.

EX Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S.Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1520–2750 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Europe, Mediterranean to NE Tropical Africa and Sri Lanka.

EX Chenopodium album L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed in cultivation, upland evergreen forest, 1650–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia to Indian Subcontinent.

Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J.Koch & Ziz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of cultivation, upland evergreen forest, 1600–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Europe, Mediterranean to Nepal, Eritrea to S Tropical Africa.

Cyathula cylindrica Moq. – Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Podocarpus-bamboo zone, forest edge and rocky scarps, 1300–3240 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ 1990 (WAG), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0179 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz – Habit: Prostrate or climbing herb or shrub. Habitat: Dense forest and forest edge, 1500–2900 m. Voucher: Stein W Bie (BOT), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0216 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Dysphania procera (Hochst. ex Moq.) Mosyakin & Clemants – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, waste places, weed of cultivation, 1000–2800 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3630 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zimbabwe, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Dysphania schraderiana (Schult.) Mosyakin & Clemants – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2300 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 7 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0095 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan.

F37. ANACARDIACEAE

3 Genera, 8 species

Lannea edulis Engl. – Habit: Shrublet. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, wooded and open grassland, prone to fire and floods, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ivory Coast, W Ethiopia to S Africa.

Lannea schimperi Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded savanna and deciduous woodland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Dale 3204 (BR). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Eritrea and S Tropical Africa.

Ozoroa insignis subsp. reticulata (Baker f.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree or shrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, bushland, bushland, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1062 (EA), Goldschmidt W 17 (EA), Jarchner HM 6960 (EA) Chalufack W 281 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Namibia.

Searsia longipes (Engl.) Moffett – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Riverine Forest, wet savanna, woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Ross R 1352 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

*Searsia longipes var. elgonensis (Kokwaro) Moffett – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Upland bushland, forest edges, riverine associations, 1800–2600 m. Vouchers: Eggeling 5761 (EA), Jackson THE 312 (EA, K), Lugard EJ sn (EA, K). Native distribution range: Uganda to W Central Kenya.

EX Searsia natalensis (Bernh. ex Krauss) F.A.Barkley – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Deciduous and evergreen forest, riverine associations, forest edges, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Lugard 136 (EA), Taiti S 611 (BR). Native distribution range: Coastal Mozambique to South Africa.

Searsia pyroides (Burch.) Moffett – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Wet savanna and woodland, 1750–2700 m. Vouchers: Jackson 326 (EA), Podwa SH 11 (EA), Jackson HE & Lugard EJ 326 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0035 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Searsia ruspolii (Engl.) Moffett – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Upland evergreen bushland, forest edges, riverine associations, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Dale IR 3195 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo.

F38. ANNONACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Annona senegalensis Pers. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Evergreen Forest along riverine fringes, 1140–1800 m. Vouchers: Goldschmidt W 22 (EA), Snowden JD 1045(EA). Native distribution range: Africa

Monodora myristica Dunal – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest of riverine fringing type, 1550–1650 m. Voucher: Childs- clarke B 337 (EA). Native distribution range: West Tropical Africa to SW Kenya and NW Angola.

F39. APIACEAE

18 Genera, 25 species

*Afroligusticum aculeolatum (Engl.) P.J.D.Winter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, woodland, 1900–3030 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 453 (EA), Tweedie EM 1897. Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical African Mountains.

*Afroligusticum elgonense (H.Wolff) P.J.D.Winter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edges, glades, bamboo forest margins, damp grasslands, streamside, marshes in subalpine zones, 1640–3300 m. Vouchers: Tothill BH 2317 (EA), Tweedie 3409, Synge PM S1004 (BR), Tothill BH 2317 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mountains).

Afrosciadium kerstenii (Engl.) P.J.D.Winter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Beside streams in montane zones, bamboo zone, 2700–4300 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 2333 (EA), Naiga 74 (K). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical African Mountains.

Alepidea peduncularis Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, burnt areas, shallow soils, 1530–3600 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0139 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

EX Ammi majus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed ground and cultivation, at 1680 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Mediterranean to Iran and Arabian Peninsula.

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo, forest zones, 2100–3970 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 817 (K), Thomas AS 2746 (BR), Synge PM S951 (BR), Naiga 228 (K), Kisalye N; van Heist M 547 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0117 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Cryptotaenia africana Drude – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet montane forest floor, 1600–3000 m. Voucher: Hedberg O (BOT). Native distribution range: Nigeria to SW Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Daucus incognitus (C.Norman) Spalik, Reduron & Banasiak – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, grassland, 1600–3600 m. Vouchers: Agnew ADQ 7268 (MO), Tiyoy L 1481 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0037 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Daucus melananthus (Hochst.) Reduron, Spalik & Banasiak – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, upper forest edge, forest glades, 1750–3600 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 445, 1953 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Ferula communis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas of evergreen woodland, 1500–3720 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 20955 (BR), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 425 (K). Native distribution range: Mediterranean to Arabian Peninsula and Tanzania.

Haplosciadium abyssinicum Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places, alpine, upland grassland, 2150–4600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical African Mountains.

Heracleum abyssinicum (Boiss.) C.Norman – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest margins, volcanic crater, burnt bushlands in the alpine zone, 1680–3790 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3712 (EA), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 425, Gillett JB 20953 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to N Malawi.

*Heracleum elgonense (H.Wolff) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine zones, marshes, open grassy woodland, 1080–4200 m. Vouchers: Clifford C Townsend CC 2327 (MO), Wesche K 1715 (MO), Tothill BH 2384 (MO), Dummer RA 3527 (EA, MO), Thomas AS 522 (MO), Hooper SS|Clifford C Townsend CC 1381 (MO), Gillett JB 18487 (BR), Tothill BH 1939 (EA), Synge PM 925, 1003 (MO), Taylor G 3439 (MO), Hedberg KO 217 (MO), Mwangangi OM 353 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical African Mountains.

Heteromorpha arborescens var. abyssinica (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) H.Wolff – Habit: Herb, shrub or tree. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1423 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0088 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Yemen.

Lefebvrea atropurpurea (A.Rich.) P.J.D.Winter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland pasture, disturbed places, scattered bushes, scrub, 1800–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Uganda.

Lefebvrea longipedicellata Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasslands at forest edge, roadside and shades in upland forest, 1860–2250 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Uganda to Mozambique.

Oenanthe palustris (Chiov.) C.Norman – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open waters and by streamside at or in forest edge, 1200–3260 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

*Oreoschimperella aberdarensis (C.Norman) Rauschert – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places of montane forest and stream edges, 2200–2910 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Pimpinella hirtella A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated grounds, open forest, on stony rock ground, upland grassland, 1800–2850 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1285 (EA). Native distribution range: Guinea to Mali, Nigeria to Cameroon, Eritrea to N Tanzania.

Pimpinella keniensis C.Norman – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, swampy grounds, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 1177 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0185 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Kenya to N Tanzania.

*Pimpinella lindblomii H.Wolff – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open montane forest, upland grassland, mountain slope, well-drained soil, 1530–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1177 (EA), Gerh. Lindblom sn (S). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

Pimpinella oreophila Hook.f. – Habit: Stoloniferous herb. Habitat: Upper montane forest, Streams in bamboo forest, heath zone, alpine grassland, 3000–4100 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3313 (EA), Thomas AS 634 (EA), Hedberg KO 4500 (BR), Naiga 84 (K), Katende T; D Sheil 907 (K), Rose F 10203 (BR), Taylor G 3476 (EA), Tweedie DR 118 (EA). Native distribution range: Bioko, SW Cameroon, Ethiopia to N Tanzania.

Sanicula elata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady Forest floor of bamboo zone and adjacent forest, 1500–3220 m. Vouchers: Naiga 241 (K), Beentje HJ 1972 (WAG). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, W Indian Ocean, SW Arabian Peninsula, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

EX Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Along paths of upland forests, 1560–2850 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Europe to Central Asia and Pakistan, Macaronesia, N Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

F40. APOCYNACEAE

23 Genera, 39 species

Asclepias fulva N.E.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, mixed deciduous woodland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 565 (K). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Africa.

Aspidoglossum angustissimum (K.Schum.) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, openwoodland, marshy areas, 1200–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 918 (K). Native distribution range: Cameroon to South Sudan and Zimbabwe.

Aspidoglossum masaicum (N.E.Br.) Kupicha – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasslands, 1700–2800 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to NE Namibia.

Carissa spinarum L. – Habit: Scrambling spiny shrub. Habitat: Forest edges, wet savanna, 1200–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Africa to Indo-China, Australia to New Caledonia.

Ceropegia abyssinica Decne. – Habit: Twiner herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, grassland, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 767 (K), Tweedie 819 (K). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to Eritrea and S Tropical Africa.

Ceropegia cufodontii Chiov. – Habit: Climbing Herb. Habitat: Forest edge, rocky grassland and bushland, 1450–2350 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 865 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda.

Ceropegia denticulata K.Schum. ex Engl. – Habit: Twiner herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

**Ceropegia filicorona Masinde – Habit: Twiner herb. Habitat: Bushland in stony ground, 1750–1900 m. Voucher: Irwin PH 339 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Ceropegia johnstonii (N.E.Br.) Bruyns – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, rock outcrop, 1800–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2017 (EA), Tweedie, M. 3979 (K), Tweedie 2137 (K). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Kenya.

Ceropegia meyeri-johannis Engl. – Habit: Twiner herb. Habitat: Forest edge and clearing, thickets, woodland, 940–2500 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0090 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Kenya to Zimbabwe.

Cynanchum abyssinicum Decne. – Habit: Climbing shrub. Habitat: Upland rain forest edges, woodland, 2000–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 758 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to DR Congo and Tanzania

Cynanchum altiscandens K.Schum. – Habit: Climbing shrub. Habitat: Upland forest edges, 1700–2500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E DR Congo and E Tropical Africa.

Cynanchum gonoloboides Schltr. – Habit: Woody climber. Habitat: Montane rain forest, 2400–3600 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1256 (EA), Tweedie DR 2103 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0234 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Rwanda and N Tanzania.

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. – Habit: Succulent twiner. Habitat: Wet savanna, outcrop rock, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, Tropical Asia to Australia

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) W.T.Aiton – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland grassland, 900–2900 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0124 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Gomphocarpus semilunatus A.Rich. – Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Disturbed places, flooded grassland, roadside, 1500–2650 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Zambia.

Gomphocarpus stenophyllus Oliv. – Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Grassland, disturbed or rocky soils, 1600–3050 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0244 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Tanzania

*Huernia keniensis R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 299 (K), Tweedie EM 236 (K), Jex-Blake, M. 8417 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania.

Landolphia buchananii Stapf – Habit: Woody climbing shrub. Habitat: Forest near water, woodland, 1400–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie DR 3253 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Margaretta rosea Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, burnt montane grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to South Sudan and S Tropical Africa.

Marsdenia angolensis N.E.Br. – Habit: Herbaceous or woody scrambler. Habitat: Moist forest, bushland, 700–1900 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1886 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Marsdenia schimperi Decne. – Habit: Robust climber. Habitat: Secondary vegetation, upland forest edges, 1800–2650 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 736 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0103 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Angola and SW Arabian Peninsula.

Mondia whitei Skeels – Habit: Climbing shrub. Habitat: Moist upland forest edges, disturbed forest, 1600–2000 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0193 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Orbea dummeri (N.E.Br.) Bruyns – Habit: Succulent herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, on rocky sandy soils, 1200–1650 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 1114 (K). Native distribution range: E DR Congo to E Tropical Africa.

Pachycarpus bisacculatus (Oliv.) Goyder – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally waterlogged grassland, deciduous woodland, 0–2300 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 1198 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Pachycarpus eximius (Schltr.) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1600–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Burundi and Tanzania.

Pachycarpus grantii (Oliv.) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1000–2000 m. Vouchers: E & C Lugard 570 (EA), Irwin PH 278 (EA). Native distribution range: S Sudan to NW Tanzania.

Pachycarpus lineolatus (Decne.) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grasslands, 1000–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to N Namibia.

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. – Habit: Herbaceous twiner. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Sinai to Arabian Peninsula, Iran to W Indo-China.

Periploca linearifolia Quart.-Dill. & A.Rich. – Habit: Woody climber. Habitat: Upland forest edges, 1900–2900 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 735 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Zambia.

Raphionacme madiensis S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland on outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1119 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Tropical Africa.

Rauvolfia caffra Sond. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Woodland, forest, 1800–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Saba comorensis (Bojer) Pichon – Habit: Scrambling or climbing bush. Habitat: Moist and riverine forest, 1750–2000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Secamone punctulata Decne. – Habit: Climber or small shrub. Habitat: Thickets and riverine forest, 1500–2400 m. Voucher: Andersen R 139 (S). Native distribution range: Dry Tropical Africa to NW Namibia.

Stathmostelma rhacodes K. Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet and waterlogged grassland, 1500–2650 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to NW Tanzania.

Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist Forest, 1400–2300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 860 (BR, EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0189 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Tropical Africa.

Vincetoxicum caffrum Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally burnt grassland, woodland, rocky slopes, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Lugard 618 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Vincetoxicum lugardiae (Bullock) Meve & Liede – Habit: Herbaceous twinning vine. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Lugard C 656 (K). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to Kenya.

Xysmalobium undulatum (L.) W.T.Aiton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, water logged depressions, roadsides, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

F41. AQUIFOLIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, forest, upper forest edge, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 1521 (BR), Battiscombe 643, Dale IR 57 (EA), Ceae 10 (EA), Gardner HM 2250 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

F42. ARALIACEAE

4 Genera, 9 species

Astropanax abyssinicus Seem. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rain forest, 1750–2770 m. Vouchers: St Clair-Thompson in Eggeling 3952 (EA), Dale IR 3097 (BR). Native distribution range: SE Nigeria and Ethiopia to Zambia.

Astropanax volkensii (Harms) Lowry, G.M.Plunkett, Gostel & Frodin – Habit: Scandent shrub or tall tree. Habitat: Upland rainforest, 1600–3000 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3605 (EA), St Clair-Thompson in Eggeling 3958 (EA), Snowden JD 805 (EA, P), Hedberg 162, Taylor G 3414 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Cussonia arborea Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, forest, 300–2470 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 850 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Cussonia spicata Thunb. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rain forest, woodland, 1750–2550 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 937 (EA, BR), Eggeling WJ 2492 (BR). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Africa, Comoros.

Hydrocotyle mannii Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp Forest floor, bamboo zone, 650–3000 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 611 (K), van Heist, M. 578 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

EX Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Muddy streams, ponds and marshes, 700–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: America.

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Muddy and peaty stream banks, dump grasslands, upper forest zone and alpine, 1130–4000 m. Vouchers: Rose 10.177 (EA), Agnew ADQ & Agnew S 7277 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland forest, riverine forest, grassland, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: St Clair-Thompson in Eggeling 3953 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

*Polyscias kikuyuensis Summerh. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rain forest, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya.

F43. ASTERACEAE

68 Genera, 191 species

EX Achillea millefolium L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed or in cultivation, forest, woodland, roadsides, 1950 m. Voucher: Jack C 163 (EA). Native distribution range: Subarctic & Temperate Northern Hemisphere to Guatemala

EX Acmella caulirhiza Delile – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest, Riverside grassland, 1750–3100 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM 475 (EA), Hedberg O 30 (S), Granvik H 78 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

EX Adenostemma caffrum DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2300 m. Voucher: Lugard 574 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Africa, W Yemen.

Adenostemma mauritianum DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, forest edge, stream banks, bamboo zone, 1300–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 921 (EA), Hedberg O 274 (BOT). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, W Indian Ocean.

EX Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Montane forest and forest margins, bamboo zone, 1960–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2679 (EA), Lavranos JJ;Newton I 17773 (WAG, US), Lye & Pocs 23135 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0211 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Mexico.

Ambassa hochstetteri Steetz – Habit: Shrub, herb or small tree. Habitat: Bushland, forest, forest edges, 1000–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 705 (EA), Granvik H (S), Hedberg O 175 (UPS). Native distribution range: Congo to Ethiopia and Angola.

Anisopappus chinensis (L.) Hook. & Arn. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, dump marshy sites, 1500–2500 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH hb (MNHN), Irwin PH 49 (S). Native distribution range: Sikkim to S China and Indo-China, Philippines.

Anisopappus chinensis subsp. africanus (Hook.f.) S.Ortiz & Paiva – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2320 m. Voucher: Tweedie 825 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Anthemis tigreensis J.Gay ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane and Afroalpine grasslands, woodland, forest, moorland, 2500–4300 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 598 (EA), Gillett JB 18464 (BR), Taylor G 3496 (S), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0146 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: NE & E Tropical Africa.

EX Artemisia afra Jacq. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, woodland, forest, moorland, 2000–4000 m. Vouchers: Kokwaro JO 2482 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 77 (EA), Tweedie D.R 126 (EA), Bickford N 39 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Aspilia kotschyi (Sch.Bip. ex Hochst.) Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 010–1900 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & South Africa, W Yemen.

Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Ruderal sites, seasonal swamps, woodland, wooded grassland, 005–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, W Yemen.

Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf. ex Engl. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1050–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Africa.

Athrixia rosmarinifolia Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane or alpine grassland, forest clearing, 2600–3500 m. Voucher: Hedberg 4507 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Baccharoides adoensis (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. – Habit: Woody herb or subshrub. Habitat: Grassland and wooded grassland, deciduous woodland, riverine and old cultivation, 800–2750 m. Voucher: Symes 239 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

EXBaccharoides calvoana subsp. leucocalyx (O.Hoffm.) Isawumi, El-Ghazaly & B.Nord. – Habit: Shrub, woody herb, rarely a tree. Habitat: Riverine, forest margin, bamboo forest margins, upland bushland, savanna, 1500–3000 m. Voucher: Tothill BH 2283 (EA). Native distribution range: Tanzania.

Baccharoides dumicola (S.Moore) Isawumi, El-Ghazaly & B.Nord. – Habit: Herb or small shrub. Habitat: Wet grassland, swamps, 1100–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 3677 (EA), Gilbert & Mesfin 6561 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Baccharoides hymenolepis (A.Rich.) Isawumi, El-Ghazaly & B.Nord. – Habit: Woody herb, shrub or tree. Habitat: forest and bamboo margins, upland bushland, savanna, 150–2950 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0215 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Kenya.

Baccharoides lasiopus (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob. – Habit: Shrub or woody herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, margins, riverine thickets, secondary grasslands, old cultivations, 1100–2800 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Mozambique.

Baccharoides pumila (Kotschy & Peyr.) Isawumi – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Burnt wooded grassland, wet grassland, 1750–1850 m. Voucher: Tweedie 124 (EA). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to South Sudan.

Berkheya spekeana Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1800–3810 m. Vouchers: Lewis WH 5968 (US), Hedberg O (S), Holm Å 63 (S), Gerh. Lindblom sn (S). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest margin, weed of cultivation, ruderal sites, 1750–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Bidens buchneri Sherff – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland among rocks, 1450–2500 m. Vouchers: symes 219 (EA), Gerh. Lindblom (S). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Angola.

*Bidens elgonensis (Sherff) Agnew – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland and Erica bushland, 2500–4000 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1680, 858 (EA), Lind EM 2099 (EA), Smith SA, Beentje HJ & Muasya A 163 (US), Taylor G 3586 (S), Dummer RA 3304 (S), Thomas AS 2689 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

EX Bidens flagellata (Sherff) Mesfin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1600–3300 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0116 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Burundi.

Bidens grantii Sherff – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, ruderal sites, 1100–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Central & E Tropical Africa.

EX Bidens pilosa L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: wet savanna, woodland, 400–2500 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ 95 (EA), Hedberg O 17 (S), Holm Å 75 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical America.

Bidens ternata (Chiov.) Sherff – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, bushland, forest clearing, 1500–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 394 (EA, MO). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

**Bothriocline auriculata (M.Taylor) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Bamboo thickets, montane forest, 2700–3150 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3563 (EA, MO), Wesche K 164, 1252 (MO), Kisalye 270 (MO), Liebenberg 1584 (EA)), Tothill BH 2330 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda.

Bothriocline fusca (S.Moore) M.G.Gilbert – Habit: Shrub or shrubby herb. Habitat: Roadside and disturbed places, 2000–3600 m. Vouchers: Kahuho SK 9 (K), Major EJ; Lugard C 370 (K), Smith SAL; Beentje HJ; Muasya AM 162 (K), Hedberg O 88 (K), Taylor G 3443 (S), Tweedie 2552 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0267 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to Zambia.

Bothriocline longipes N.E.Br. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest margin and clearing, Upland grassland, 1500–2800 m. Vouchers: Dawkins H 784 (K), Holm Å 71 (S), Granvik H 24 (S). Native distribution range: Gabon to Kenya and S Tropical Africa.

*Bothriocline monticola (M.Taylor) Wech. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Rare in margins of montane forest, 2550–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Kenya.

Carduus afromontanus R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, bamboo zones, 2350–3430 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3509 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to Uganda.

*Carduus keniensis R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland, heath zone, 2950–4300 m. Vouchers: Muasya J & Berit Gehrke 144 (EA), Hamilton & Perrott 76/569 (EA), Tweedie R 39 (EA), 107 (EA), Liebenberg 1610 (EA), Dummer RA 3349 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Carduus leptacanthus Fresen. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, forest glades, margins, 1550–2450 m. Vouchers: Lugard 191 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Carduus nyassanus R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, montane forest, wet disturbed ground, 1750–3350 m. Vouchers: Jack 343 (EA), Lewis WH 5972 (US). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

Carduus nyassanus subsp. kikuyorum (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, moorland, forest glades, bamboo margins, 1500–3450 m. Voucher: Tothill BH 2368 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Carduus schimperi Sch.Bip. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, alpine and subalpine zone, 1800–4100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 103 (EA), Lisowski S 84147 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0232 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Carduus schimperi subsp. nanus (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moorland, 2250–4050 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 136 (S, EA), Dummer RA 3311 (EA), Liebenberg 1602 (EA), Tothill BH 2328 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Centaurea praecox Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, grassland, wooded grassland, 1750–2600 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

EX Chromolaena corymbosa (Aubl.) R.M.King & H.Rob. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grounds, wet savanna, 30–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Caribbean to French Guiana.

EX Chrysanthellum americanum (L.) Vatke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Mexico (Chiapas, Michoacán) to Central America, Caribbean.

EX Cineraria deltoidea Sond. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, forest edge, moorland, 1750–4300 m. Vouchers: Taylor G 3519, (S, EA), 3440 (S), Adamson J 478, 498 (EA), Hedberg O 118 (S) 4484 (EA), 891, Ekkens DB 405 (EA), Morris 268 (EA), Synge PM S 1916, 1085 (S), Granvik H 163 (S), Tothill BH J T2427 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0243 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Cirsium buchwaldii O.Hoffm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, 1835–3050 m. Vouchers: Taylor G 3588 (EA, S). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Zambia.

EX Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In cultivation, 1790–2400 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0168 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Europe to Siberia and Arabian Peninsula, NW Africa.

Conyza clarenceana Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, along streams, moorland subalpine marshes, 2300–3300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Island, Kenya, Uganda, Zambia.

Conyza newii Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Shrub or woody herb. Habitat: Forest, montane scrub woodland, 1750–3050 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3608 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

Conyza pallidiflora R.E.Fr. – Habit: Woody herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas of forest, woodland, 2000–3000 m. Vouchers: Major EJ & Lugard C 401 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0262 (EA, HIB), Cheseny CMC 46 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Cotula abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short alpine grassland, forest margin, heath zones, bamboo zone, 2100–3650 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3579 (EA), Thomas AS 536, 2704 (EA), Lye KA 5715 (EA), Beentje HJ 1944 (EA, WAG), Hedberg O 945 (S). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

EX Cotula australis Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: moist cultivation, 1200–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Zimbabwe to S Africa, Madagascar, Australasia.

*Cotula cryptocephala Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rare along paths in alpine grassland, 3140–3800 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 996 (S), Hedberg O 4515 (BR, EA), Klotzli F et al. 1953 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Kenya.

EX Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest margins, secondary vegetation, 1700–2500 m. Voucher: Holm Å 70 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar.

Crassocephalum montuosum (S.Moore) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Herb or wooded shrub. Habitat: Clearing of montane forest, disturbed forest, bamboo zone, 1500–3260 m. Vouchers: Morrison 264 (EA), Dawkins HC 785 (K, EA), Mwangangi OM 486 (BR, EA), 395 (EA), Jack C 156 (EA), Granvik H 329 (S). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Crassocephalum paludum C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, grassland, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie 3646 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Zambia.

EX Crassocephalum picridifolium S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grasslands, wet savanna, woodland, 1750–2700 m. Vouchers: Symes YE 345 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 190 (EA), Jack C 2 (EA), Wiltshire FM 19 (K), Tweedie 3577 (US), Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Crassocephalum rubens (Jacq.) S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed cultivated areas, grassland, 1750–2500 m. Voucher: Lugard 439 (EA). Native distribution range: Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Crassocephalum rubens var. sarcobasis (DC.) C.Jeffrey & Beentje – Habit: Herb. Habitat: disturbed cultivated areas, grassland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Crassocephalum vitellinum S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland clearing, forest, woodland, bushlands, 1500–2800 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 313 (S). Native distribution range: Nigeria to South Sudan and Zambia.

Crepis carbonaria Sch.Bip. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: heath zones, short montane grassland, 1350–4000 m. Vouchers: Morris MES 272 (EA), Battiscombe E 674 (EA), Hedberg O 848 (EA), Wesche K 1348 (K), Smith SAL; Beentje HJ; Muasya AM 166 (K), Tweedie 26 (K), Irwin PH 14 (K), Tweedie 2549 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Crepis dianthoseris N.Kilian, Enke, Sileshi & Gemeinholzer – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine zone by streamside, 3600–4300 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 434 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0239 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Crepis rueppellii Sch.Bip. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1600–3200 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 729. Native distribution range: NE & E Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Crepis schultzii Hochst. ex Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Clearing in bamboo zone. Voucher: Tothill BH 2325 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Uganda.

**Dendrosenecio elgonensis subsp. barbatipes (Hedberg) E.B.Knox – Habit: Tree or shrub. Habitat: Upper afro alpine zone, 3750–4225 m. Vouchers: Gardener 2269 (K), Hedberg O 872 (K), Thomas AS 627 (K), Ekkens 622 (EA), Fairbairn G 3159 (BR), Synge P M 922 (BR), Dale A2/41 (EA), Eggeling 5753 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya (Mt Elgon).

**Dendrosenecio elgonensis (T.C.E.Fr.) E.B.Knox subsp. elgonensis – Habit: Tree or shrub. Habitat: Upper Afromontane Forest, 2750–4200 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 370 (K), Tweedie DR 2 (K), Lugard & Lugard 699 (K), Osmaston HA 4017 (K), Porter 2732, Synge 888 (EA), Dale K 3211 (EA), Thomas AS 628 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya (Mt Elgon).

EX Dendrosenecio johnstonii (H.H.Johnst.) B.Nord. – Habit: Tree or shrub. Habitat: Upper afro alpine zone, 2500–4000 m. Voucher: Fairbairn G 3159 (US). Native distribution range: Tanzania (Mt Kilimanjaro).

Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest and upper wet montane forest, 2200–3724 m. Vouchers: Morrison MES 270 (EA), Major EJ & Lugard C 241 (EA), Hedberg O 947 (S), Taylor G 3600 (S), Lisowski S 58054 (BR), Rwaburundindore 444 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia var. alpina (R.E.Fr.) Beentje – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine zone, 2600–3600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo and Tanzania.

Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed wet montane forest, cultivation, grassland, bamboo zone, 1700–3670 m. Vouchers: Jack C 199 (EA), Agnew ADQ & Agnew S 7266 (EA), Holm Å 56 (S). Native distribution range: Turkey to Asia and Pacific.

Echinops aberdaricus R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, moorland, forest margin, clearing, 2400–3600 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania.

Echinops amplexicaulis Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grasslands, edges of cultivated lands, 1300–2700 m. Vouchers: Lugard C & Lugard EJ 82 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Echinops angustilobus S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest edges, 2000–2850 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Kenya.

Echinops eryngiifolius O.Hoffm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1050–1850 m. Vouchers: Lugard & Lugard 553. Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Echinops hispidus Fresen. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, scattered tree grassland, 1500–2300 m. Vouchers: Major C & Lugard EJ 158 (EA), Jack C 83 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Tanzania.

Echinops hoehnelii Schweinf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, woodland, heathland, 2200–3500 m. Vouchers: Adamson J 487 (EA), Lisowski S 55110 (BR), Hamilton & Perrott 76/400 (EA), Thomas 638 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

*Echinops lanatus C.Jeffrey & Mesfin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grasslands, stoebe bushlands, 2400–3600 m. Vouchers: Townsend CC 2334 (EA), Fries re (EA), Freidberg A 152 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, E Tropical Africa.

Emilia coccinea G.Don – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, grassland, waste grounds, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Webster 8860 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Emilia debilis S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist grassland, 1750–2750 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Emilia discifolia (Oliv.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed forests, 500–2500 m. Voucher: Holm Å 59 (S). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

EX Emilia integrifolia Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed swamp, moist grasslands, 1900–2800 m. Vouchers: Webster 8859 (EA), Lugard EJ 101 (EA). Native distribution range: DR Congo to S Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

EX Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

*Emilia tenera (O.Hoffm.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, swampy grassland, 1800–2700 m. Voucher: Lind EM 269 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Emilia tricholepis C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock crevices, cultivated lands, 700–2000 m. Voucher: Wesche K 366 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya.

EX Erigeron bonariensis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, roadside, 400–2600 m. Voucher: Holm Å 73 (S). Native distribution range: Mexico to Tropical America.

Erigeron schimperi Sch.Bip. ex Schweinf. – Habit: Woody herb or small shrub. Habitat: Grassland, impeded drainage, woodland and upper forest edge, 2000–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1412 (EA), Hedberg O 1061 (UPS), J Wilson 1237 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa, Yemen.

Eschenbachia gouanii (L.) G.L.Nesom – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland, 1500–3600 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 911 (S), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0180 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

EX Eschenbachia stricta (Willd.) Raizada – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland, 1500–2000 m. Vouchers: Waston J 1195 (EA), Tweedie 2394 (EA), Lugard C & Major EJ 31 (EA). Native distribution range: Sahara & Sahel to S Jordan and Arabian Peninsula, Himalaya to China (Sichuan, Yunnan) and N Indo-China.

Eschenbachia subscaposa (O.Hoffm.) G.L.Nesom – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, alpine and subalpine grassland, 1750–4000 m. Vouchers: Marrison MES 271 (EA), Tweedie 53 (EA), Major EJ & Lugard J 616 (EA), Adamson J 501 (EA), Hedberg O 122, 1026 (S), Lisowski S 57185 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0240 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Kenya and S Tropical Africa.

EX Ethulia conyzoides L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, 1160–1670 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Africa to Sinai, Indian Subcontinent to China (Yunnan) and Peninsula Malaysia, Taiwan to Philippines.

Ethulia vernonioides (Schweinf.) M.G.Gilbert – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasslands, 1650–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania.

**Euryops elgonensis Mattf. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Heath zone, bamboo zone, moorland, 300–4200 m. Vouchers: Lugard C & Lugard EJ 368 (K, EA), Tweedie R 18 (EA), 76 (EA), Hedberg 863 (K, EA), Hedberg O 4525 (EA), Ekkens DB 407 (EA), Dummer RA 3386 (K), Lisowski S 53797 (BR), Kokwaro JO 2459 (EA), Freidberg A 145 (EA), Holm Å 77 (S), Taylor G 3529 (S), Granvik H 155 (S), Tothill BH 269 (EA), Thomas AS 2738 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda.

EX Galinsoga parviflora Cav. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist grassland, woodland, forest margin, 2300–3000 m. Vouchers: Major C & Lugard EJ 107 (EA), Dawkins, H.C. 778 (K), Hedberg O 8 (S), Holm Å 58 (S), Granvik H 294 (S). Native distribution range: Mexico to Tropical America.

EX Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: waste places, roadsides, 1800–2600 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ 1943 (EA). Native distribution range: Mexico to S Tropical America.

EXGamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, waste places, roadside, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie 2244 (EA). Native distribution range: E Canada to Tropical America.

Gerbera viridifolia (DC.) Sch.Bip. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, grassland, woodland, 1600–2750 m. Vouchers: Lewis WH 5969 (S), Major C & Lugard EJ 515 (EA), Podwa SH 24 (BR, EA), Beentje HJ 1930 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Eritrea and S Africa.

EX Gnaphalium declinatum L.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 1940 (WAG), Hedberg O 110 (S). Native distribution range: Zambia to S Africa.

Gnaphalium unionis Sch.Bip. ex Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, montane forest and heath zone, 1600–3800 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 604 (EA), Forbes 264 (EA), Wood G 147 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Burundi.

Gnaphalium unionis var. rubriflorum (Hilliard) Beentje – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet montane grassland, montane forest, heath zone, shallow soils, 1600–3150 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM 473 (EA), Tweedie 1296 (K), Wilson J 1193 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0264 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

*Guizotia jacksonii (S.Moore) J.Baagoe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist Forest glades, short grassland in bamboo, moorland, heath zones, 2350–3900 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1940 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

Guizotia scabra Chiov. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest clearing, 1300–3200 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3599 (US), Granvik H 260 (S), Synge PM S 847 (S), Holm Å 81 (S), Thomas AS 2701 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0203 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, W Yemen.

EXGutenbergia cordifolia var. marginata (O.Hoffm.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tanzania to S Tropical Africa.

Gutenbergia petersii Steetz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania.

Gutenbergia rueppellii Sch.Bip. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky eroded grassland, 900–2300 m. Vouchers: Gilbert & Mesfin 6546 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0028 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, secondary bushlands, forest margin, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Jackson 303 (EA), Freidberg A 27 (EA). Native distribution range: E Bolivia to Brazil, Tropical Africa, W Yemen.

Gymnanthemum auriculiferum (Hiern) Isawumi – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Disturbed bushland, montane forest margins, riverine forest, 1100–3000 m. Vouchers: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0154 (EA, HIB), Mwangangi OM 412 (BR), Hedberg O (UPS), Snowden JD 823 (MNHN). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Angola.

Gymnanthemum urticifolium (A.Rich.) H.Rob. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Secondary Forest, montane forest edges, 2160–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia, Kenya, DR Congo.

Gynura amplexicaulis Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places, swampy sites in grassland, weed in cultivations, 2000–3000 m. Voucher: Lugard 240 (EA). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to South Sudan and Tanzania.

Gynura scandens O.Hoffm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: mist forest clearing, about 2200 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Kenya and S Tropical Africa.

Haplocarpha rueppelii Beauverd – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, moorland, upper bamboo zone, 2600–4300 m. Vouchers: Lienberg 1578 (EA), Wood 127 (EA), Gillet 18461 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0145 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

**Helichrysum amblyphyllum Mattf. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Alpine stony grassland, 3200–4200 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3319 (K, US), Hedberg O 4454 (UPS), Hedberg O 864 (UPS, S), Åke Strid 3549 (S), Gardner HM 2271 (NMNH), Synge PM 1904 (BR). Native distribution range: Uganda (Mt Elgon).

Helichrysum argyranthum O.Hoffm. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest edges, streamside in heathland, 2100–3900 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3597 (MNHN), Lisowski S 57327 (BR), Lisowski S 57305 (BR), Lisowski S 57293 (BR), Thomas AS 2743 (BR), Synge PM 836 (BR), Synge PM 959 (BR), Ross R 1357 (BR), Mwangangi OM 501 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0242 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

*Helichrysum brownei S.Moore – Habit: Shrublet or prostrate herb. Habitat: Moorland, alpine slopes, 3150–4321 m. Vouchers: Taylor G 3507 (BR), Arambourg C|Jeannel R|Chappuis PA hn 179 (MNHN). Native distribution range: Kenya (Mt Kenya).

Helichrysum citrispinum Delile – Habit: Shrub or shrubby herb. Habitat: Alpine grasslands, 2900–4321 m. Vouchers: Åke Strid 3560 (S), Hedberg O 262 (S), Hedberg O 865 (S), Dummer RA 3317(US), Lisowski S 57263 (BR), Lisowski S 57262 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia.

Helichrysum citrispinum var. hoehnelii (Schweinf.) Hedberg – Habit: Shrub or shrubby herb. Habitat: Moorland, 3150–4321 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 262 (K), (BR), Dale IR 3185 (K), Mabberley, D.J. 456 (K), Tweedie 1989 (K), Tweedie R 95 (K), Raumfoid C 502 (K), Synge PM S1902 (BR), Taylor G 3505 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Helichrysum ellipticifolium Moeser – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, swamps in bamboo clearing, 2500–3600 m. Vouchers: (EA). Native distribution range: E Central Tropical Africa, Kenya.

Helichrysum foetidum Moench – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, montane forest, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Gerh Lindblom (S), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0158 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula.

Helichrysum formosissimum Sch.Bip. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Roadside, alpine zone, burnt grassland in moorland, 2300–4200 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3320 (K), Hedberg O 179 (S), Hedberg O 845 (S), Holm Å 65 (S), Thomas AS 2708 (MNHN), Taylor G 3612 (S), Arambourg C|Jeannel R|Chapuis PA 89, 178, 177 (P), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0253 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Helichrysum forskahlii (J.F.Gmel.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Alpine grassland, bushland, bamboo, forest and heath, 1750–4321 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 114 (EA), Kokwaro JO 2465 (EA), Hedberg O 1953 (EA), Dale IR 3212 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0252 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Comoros, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Helichrysum forskahlii var. compactum (Vatke) Mesfin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moorland grassland, tussock grassland, bushland, 2800–4300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 476 (EA), Dale 3212 (K), Knox EB 3757 (K), Kokwaro JO 2465 (EA), Tweedie DR 7 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 392 (EA), Smith SAL; Beentje HJ; Muasya AM 165 (K), 176 (K), Hedberg O 972 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Helichrysum globosum Sch.Bip. – Habit: herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, riverine forest, bamboo glades, 1200–3100 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM 476 (EA), Tothill BH 2362 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0166 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Helichrysum kilimanjari Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed burnt alpine zone, 2800–4000 m. Vouchers: Åke Strid 3428 (S), Hedberg O 890 (S), Granvik H 113 (S), Holm Å 66 (S). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

EX Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Old World.

Helichrysum maranguense O.Hoffm. – Habit: Scrambling Shrub. Habitat: Montane rain forest, bamboo zone, 1950–3600 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 147 (EA), Beentje HJ 1997 (WAG), Agnew, ADQ 7260 (WAG), Dummer RA 3591 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0198, SAJIT-PR 0237 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: South Sudan to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

*Helichrysum meyeri-johannis Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, afro alpine grassland, 2250–4321 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 605, Tothill BH 2405, Thomas AS 2677, Mwangangi OM 322 (WAG, BR), Åke Strid 3427 (S), Hedberg O 130 (S), Gerh Lindblom (S), Arambourg C|Jeannel R|Chapuis PA 83 (P), Lisowski S 57256 (BR), Williams JG 74/19 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0255 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Helichrysum newii Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Alpine stony grassland, 3000–4321 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 968 (S, EA), Tweedie DR 94, 96, 107, 4020 (EA), Taylor G 3721 (EA), Mabberley DJ 453 (EA), Major EJ & Lugard C (EA), Gardner HM 2275 (EA), Bickford N 35 (EA), Gillett JB 18447 (EA), Knox EB 2626, 3758 (EA), Lisowski S 57278, 57279 (BR). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2900 m. Voucher: Holm Å 66 (S). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Africa, W Yemen.

Helichrysum nudifolium var. oxyphyllum (DC.) Beentje – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Irwin PH 15 (BR). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Uganda and S Africa.

Helichrysum odoratissimum Sweet – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, bushland, giant heat zones, forest margin, 1000–4000 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3607 (K), Granvik H 29 (S), Taiti S 5 (BR, EA), Taylor G 3790 (EA), Tweedie R 15 (EA), Joy Adamson 492 (EA), Katende T; Sheil D 980 (K), 2071 (K), Irwin PH 51 (S), Katende 916 (K), Tothill BH 2367 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

EX Helichrysum panduratum O.Hoffm. ex De Wild. & T.Durand – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, 1600–2900 m. Voucher: Aldasoro J AS-65 (BC). Native distribution range: Gabon to Rwanda and S Africa.

Helichrysum schimperi (Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich.) Moeser – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, secondary bushland, riverine forest, giant heath zones, 1600–3400 m. Vouchers: Dale 3416 (BR), Beentje HJ 1937 (WAG), Lisowski S 57312 (WAG, BR), Agnew ADQ; Agnew S 7255 (WAG), Taylor G 3741 (S), Snowden JD 812 (P), Mwangangi OM 474 (BR), Synge PM S871 (BR), Wood G 152 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0214 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Tropical Africa, Socotra, SW Arabian Peninsula.

EX Helichrysum setosum Harv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane Forest, 1900–2750 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR (BR, S), Mwangangi OM 415 (BR). Native distribution range: S Tropical & S Africa.

EX Helichrysum stenopterum DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, forest, bamboo and heath zone, 600–2800 m. Vouchers: Kisalye N; van Heist M 405 (K), Naiga 714 (K), Aldasoro J AS-50 (BC), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0167 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Bioko, S Tropical & S Africa.

Helichrysum traversii Chiov. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Woodland edges, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 142 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Hilliardiella smithiana (Less.) H.Rob. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland especially on regularly burnt regions, 1350–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Hoffmannanthus abbotianus (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob., S.C.Keeley & Skvarla – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Forest edges, riverine forest, 1000–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie (1976), Upland flowers and ferns. Native distribution range: Uganda to S Tropical Africa.

Inula mannii (Hook.f.) Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane Forest edge, afro-alpine bamboo, scrub, 1700–3350 m. Voucher: Maitland TD sn (BR). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

Kleinia abyssinica (A.Rich.) A.Berger – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees, wooded grassland, 1600–2800 m. Vouchers: Holm Å 60 (S), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0219 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Kleinia petraea (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, grassland, bushland, 1800–2450 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania.

Lactuca glandulifera Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane rain forest margin, grassland, bushland, giant heath, 1900–3600 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3542 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Lactuca inermis Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, disturbed ground along roadside, 500–3450 m. Voucher: Arambourg C|Jeannel R|Chappuis PA 109 (MNHN). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula.

Lactuca paradoxa Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, riverine vegetation, thickets, 1950–2650 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3639 (EA) Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi.

Laggera brevipes Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed upland grasslands and forest edges, 1050–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste ground, moist grassland, wooded grassland, 150–2550 m. Voucher: Tweedie 2507 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0156 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Laggera elatior R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet montane forest margins, bamboo zones, in Hagenia woodland, 1600–3300 m. Vouchers: Dummer 3694 (EA), Åke Strid 3414 (S), Hedberg O 152 (UPS). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Launaea cornuta (Hochst. ex Oliv. & Hiern) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, grassland, cultivations and ruderal sites, 1750–2300 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Eritrea and S Tropical Africa.

Launaea nana (Bak.) Chiov. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Burnt wooded grassland, wet grassland, 1800–2600 m. Voucher: Lugard & Lugard 518 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Linzia gerberiformis (Oliv. & Hiern) H.Rob. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Burnt grassland, 1100–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Linzia ituriensis (Muschl.) H.Rob. – Habit: Woody herb. Habitat: Forest, 1200–2550 m. Voucher: Lisowski S 57143 (BR). Native distribution range: Cameroon to South Sudan and Tanzania.

Lipotriche pungens (Oliv. & Hiern) Orchard – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1650–2300 m. Voucher: Tweedie 459 (BR, EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to Namibia.

Micractis bojeri DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streamside in grassland or forest, seasonally flooded grassland, 1700–2700 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3599 (S), Tweedie 884 (BR). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Malawi, Madagascar.

Microglossa densiflora Hook.f. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Disturbed forests, 1700–2800 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 84 (UPS), Dummer RA 3615 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: woodland, 1750–2650 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1532 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

EX Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L.Rob. – Habit: Shrub or subshrub, liane. Habitat: Riverine Forest, 0–3000 m. Voucher: Dawkins HC 780 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0184 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Old World.

Mikaniopsis bambuseti (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Montane forest, bamboo forest, 260–31500 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1982 (K), 474, 691 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to Uganda.

EX Mikaniopsis clematoides (Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich.) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia.

Monactinocephalus paniculatus Klatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded upland grassland, 1590–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1466 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Nidorella aegyptiaca (L.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2600 m. Voucher: Lugard C & Lugard EJ 210 (EA). Native distribution range: Africa to Indo-China.

Nidorella vernonioides Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Shrub or small weak tree. Habitat: Upper mountain steep slopes, bamboo zone, 3500–4000 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 555 (EA), Mwangangi OM 366 (EA), Taylor G 3670 (EA), Holm Å 52, 53 (S), Taylor G 3683 (S), Arambourg C|Jeannel R|Chappuis PA 157 158 (MNHN). Native distribution range: Djibouti to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Nidorella welwitschii S.Moore – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, alpine zone, moorland, 1800–4321 m. Voucher: Tweedie 20 (EA), Taylor 3521 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

Orbivestus karaguensis (Oliv. & Hiern) H.Rob. – Habit: Herb or weak shrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, grassland, forest margins, old cultivations, 1200–2850 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 1073 (UPS), Holm Å 72 (S). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Orbivestus turbinata (Oliv. & Hiern ex Oliv.) H.Rob. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, grassland, 1400–2400 m. Voucher: Irwin PH 56 (S, BR). Native distribution range: DR Congo to Ethiopia and Kenya.

Osteospermum vaillantii (Decne.) Norl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest edge, 600–3150 m. Vouchers: Bamps PRJ 6502 (BR), Tweedie (S). Native distribution range: S Jordan to NE & E Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Piloselloides hirsuta (Forssk.) C.Jeffrey ex Cufod. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, grasslands, woodlands, heath and moor, 1500–3700 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 847 (S), Irwin PH 1001 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to China and Indo-China, Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali).

*Senecio crispatipilosus C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bamboo Forest, heath zone, 2050–3050 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 601 (K), Tothill BH T2372 (K), T2290 (K), 2372 (K), Dummer RA 3598 (K). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya.

Senecio hadiensis Forssk. – Habit: Herb or shrub succulent trailer or climber. Habitat: Upland forest edges, 1000–2600 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 74 (S), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0031 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula.

Senecio hochstetteri Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb or shrub with woody ascending stems. Habitat: Grassland, forest margin, wooded grassland, 1200–3700 m. Vouchers: Major EJ; Lugard C 541 (K, EA), Irwin PH 141 (K), Tweedie 1175 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

**Senecio jacksonii S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine zone, outcrop rock, 3250–4150 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM 315 (WAG), (K), Wesche K 30 (K), Lye KA; Pocs T 23089 (K), Tweedie R 8 (K), Hedberg O 4485 (EA, K), Liebenberg LCC 1583 (EA, K) Ekkens DB 401 (EA), Adamson J 466 (EA), Tothill BH 2416 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya (Mt Elgon).

*Senecio moorei R.E.Fr. – Habit: Woody herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, forest clearing, 1800–3500 m. Vouchers: Wood G 153 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0236 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Kenya to Uganda.

**Senecio rhammatophyllus Mattf. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moorland with grassland and giant heath, forest edges, 3000–4150 m. Vouchers: Taylor G 3500 (EA), Wesche K 90 (K), Hedberg O 866 (K), (S), Lugard C 306 (EA, K), Osmaston HA 4000 (K), Saunder &Hancock 57, Osmaston 4000 (EA), Hedberg 4513 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya (Mt Elgon).

Senecio ruwenzoriensis S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, shallow soil among rocks, cultivations, 1700–3000 m. Vouchers: Polhill 401 (EA), Hedberg O 811 (UPS). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

**Senecio snowdenii Hutch. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Clearing from bamboo zone, grassland, 2700–4250 m. Vouchers: Lind EM 2086 (EA), Friedberg A 146 (EA), Gardner HM 2268 (K), Mwangangi OM 320 (K), Townsend CC 2328 (K), Smith SAL; Beentje, Muasya AM 175 (K), Wesche K 4 (K), Hedberg O 227 (K), Gillett 1867 (EA), Tothill BH 2314 (EA), Thomas AS 2681 (EA), Hedberg 4455 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya (Mt Elgon).

**Senecio sotikensis S.Moore – Habit: Woody herb or soft shrub. Habitat: Marshy grassland, 3000–4300 m. Vouchers: Lugard C; Lugard EJ 416 (EA, K), Adamson J 481 (EA), Hedberg O 871 (EA), Kokwaro JO 2464 (EA), Gillett JB 18435, (BR), Kokwaro JO 2464 (K), Gillett JB 18435 (K), Snowden JD 482 (K), Wesche K 207 (K), Hedberg O 4453 (UPS), Dummer RA 3324 (EA), Lye et al. 5726 (EA). Native distribution range: Uganda to Kenya (Mt Elgon).

Senecio syringifolius O.Hoffm. – Habit: Twining liana. Habitat: Montane forest, bamboo zone, 1500–3300 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 58 (S). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

Seriphium kilimandscharicum (O.Hoffm.) Koek. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Heath zone, moorland, upper forest edge, (1950–)2400–3900 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1297 (K), Lisowski S 54497 (BR), Dummer RA 3532 (P), Snowden JD 803 (P), Taiti S 582 (EA), Hedberg O 134 (S). Native distribution range: Uganda to N Malawi.

EX Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Succulent herb. Habitat: Upland forest, woodland edges, riverine and streams, 1000–2500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Mayotte, Madagascar, SW Arabian Peninsula.

EX Solanecio mannii (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Disturbed forest, 1400–2700 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 55 (S), Taylor G 3436 (S), Synge PM S 104 (S), Bamps PRJ 6501 (BR). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

Solanecio tuberosus (Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, 1200–2000 m. Voucher: Tweedie DR 162 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Uganda.

Sonchus afromontanus R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, along streamside, forest clearing, 2200–3700 m. Vouchers: Lye 5734 (EA), Tweedie 24 (EA), Tweedie R 25 (K), Tweedie 2550 (K). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

EX Sonchus asper (L.) Hill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, cultivation, 1750–2550 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1336 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia, N Africa to Sahel and Somalia.

Sonchus bipontini Asch. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, bamboo zone, 1700–3370 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 66 (K), Tweedie 888 (K), Mwangangi OM 392 (K), Kokwaro JO 2448 (K), Hooper SS; Townsend CC 1389 (K), Hemp A 5416 (W). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

*Sonchus camporum (R.E.Fr.) Boulos ex C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rare in upland burnt grassland, 1800–2300 m. Voucher: Lugard & Lugard 546 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Sonchus luxurians (R.E.Fr.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, grassland, montane forest, 1600–3800 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0155 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Burundi and Mozambique.

EX Sonchus oleraceus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, cultivations, 1500–2700 m. Voucher: Major EJ & Lugard C 457 (EA). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Europe to Mediterranean, Sahara to Arabian Peninsula.

Sonchus schweinfurthii Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, weed of cultivtion, roadside, 1700–2800 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM 392 (BR), Agnew ADQ; Agnew S 7250 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

*Sonchus stenophyllus R.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest glades, grassland, 1700–3300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Tanzania.

Sphaeranthus suaveolens DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Near fresh stream beds, wet savanna, 1200–2500 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 1963 (WAG), Hedberg O 1953 (S), Holm Å 74 (S), Small W 1184 (K). Native distribution range: N Sinai, Egypt to S Tropical Africa.

EX Tagetes minuta L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland arable land, wet savanna, 850–2750 m. Voucher: Hedberg O 6 (S). Native distribution range: Brazil to S South America.

Vernonella chthonocephala (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob. & Skvarla – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally burnt grasslands, 1050–2100 m. Voucher: James (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland edges, 800–2800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 726 (K), Lugard C; Lugard EJ 252 (K), Bridson DM 70 (WAG), Smith CE; Njoroge D 4640 (K). Native distribution range: Africa.

Vernonia holstii O.Hoffm. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest margin, secondary bushland, 1000–2100 m. Voucher: Tweedie 3729 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Kenya and Zimbabwe.

EX Vernonia schweinfurthii Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, short grassland, scattered tree grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1115 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Vernonia syringifolia O.Hoffm. – Habit: Woody herb or weak shrub. Habitat: Montane rain forest, forest margin, secondary woodland or bush, 2000–3050 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3500 (EA), Agnew ADQ; Agnew S 7283 (WAG), Taylor G 3794 (S), Irwin PH 45 (S). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

F44. BALSAMINACEAE

1 Genus, 10 species

**Impatiens digitata subsp. phlyctidoceras (Bullock) Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 3500–3700 m. Vouchers: Sheil|Musinguzi RD 1809 (MO), Dale IR, Dale in FD 3201 (MO), Lugard CE 313 (MO). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

*Impatiens digitata Warb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest floor, moorland, about 3500 m. Voucher: Lugard C 313 (K, EA). Native distribution range: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania (Mt Kilimanjaro).

Impatiens hochstetteri Warb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Stream banks in forest, woodland, 1000–2800 m. Vouchers: Knox EB 2633 (EA), Tweedie EM 3603 (K), Synge PM S1056 (BR), Synge PM S 1037 (WAG), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0004 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Impatiens meruensis Gilg – Habit: Herb. Habitat: streamside, marshes, forest, 1000–3550 m. Vouchers: Knox EB 2640, 3832 (EA), Bridson DM 72 (EA), Jack C 110 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0048 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: N Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan.

*Impatiens meruensis subsp. cruciata (T.C.E.Fr.) Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist shaded forest fringes, bushland, bamboo, 2250–3630 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 886 (K), Bridson DM 72 (K), Tweedie 365 (K), Tweedie 1437 (K). Native distribution range: Sudan to Kenya.

**Impatiens miniata Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, forest fringes, bamboo thickets, 2850–3700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 7A (EA), Thomas AS 510, 225 (EA), Lye 5748 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

Impatiens sodenii Engl. & Warb. ex Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Escarpment zones and waterfalls, 1000–2700 m. Voucher: Granvik H sn (S). Native distribution range: Kenya to N & E Tanzania.

Impatiens tinctoria A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waterfalls and stream banks, forests, 1800–3630 m. Vouchers: Knox EB 2639 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0043 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to N Uganda.

Impatiens tinctoria subsp. elegantissima (Gilg) Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, forest, 1800–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie (K), Lind EM 437 (K), Snowden JD 507 (K), Bridson DM 73 (K). Native distribution range: SE Uganda to Kenya.

**Impatiens tweedieae E.A.Bruce – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and forest floor, upland grassland, 3000–3750 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1926 (MO), Synge 891 (EA), Morrison MES 258a (MO), Tweedie 366 (MO, BR), 367 (K), Adamson 53 (EA), Adamson J 503 (MO), Thomas AS 2709 (MO), Thomas AS 585 (MO), 2709 (EA), Tweedie EM 367 (MO), Taylor 3737 (S). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

F45. BASELLACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

EX Basella alba L. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Riverine forest, forest edges, margins of cultivated land, 1500–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2043 (EA), Irwin PH 526 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Asia.

F46. BEGONIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Begonia wollastonii Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Spray of waterfall, forest, 1750–2900 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 2578 (EA), Wesche 600 (EA), Tweedie 1485 (EA), Synge PM 1036 (WAG). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to SW Tanzania.

F47. BIGNONIACEAE

3 Genera, 4 species

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa

Kigelia africana subsp. moosa (Sprague) Bidgood & Verdc. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, upland bushland, spray of waterfall, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 866 (EA, MO). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Markhamia lutea K.Schum. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ghana to South Sudan and Tanzania.

Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. – Habit: Tree or shrub. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Rwaburindore PK 5621 (MO). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

F48. BORAGINACEAE

6 Genera, 16 species

Cordia africana Lam. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 926 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, Comoros, Madagascar.

Cynoglossum aequinoctiale T.C.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, 1770–2870 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 12 (K), Saundy; Hancock 95 (EA, K). Native distribution range: Kenya to N Zambia.

Cynoglossum amplifolium Hochst. ex A.DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, forest, bamboo zonne, 1800–3430 m. Voucher: Tweedie 4097 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Cynoglossum amplifolium var. subalpinum (T.C.E.Fr.) Verdc. – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Upper forest edge, acacia woodland, bamboo forest, 1800–3200 m. Voucher: Tweedie 4097 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria, Cameroon, SE Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Cynoglossum cheranganiense Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland with scattered bamboo, Junipera-Hagenia clumps, 2400–3270 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1644 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Cynoglossum coeruleum Hochst. ex DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearing and pathside, 1100–3200 m. Vouchers: Symes YE 241 (EA), Lind EM 430 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0119 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Cynoglossum coeruleum subsp. johnstonii (Baker) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, overgrazed grassland, waste ground, 2400–3650 m. Voucher: Bei 66283 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to N Malawi.

Cynoglossum coeruleum subsp. kenyense Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, grassland with scattered trees, 1440–3150 m. Voucher: Symes 241 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to N Tanzania.

Cynoglossum coeruleum var. mannii (Baker & C.H.Wright) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Submontane forest, swamp, bamboo thickets, margins of cultivated land, 1740–3150 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3601 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Africa.

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed and in disturbed grasslands, 1100–3220 m. Vouchers: Lugard 175 (EA), Snowden JD 886 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0134 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

Ehretia cymosa var. silvatica (Gurke) Brenan – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest,1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ & Lugard C 554a, Jackson THE 305 (EA), Tweedie 2587 (EA), Jack C 166, 276 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Tropical Africa.

Lithospermum afromontanum Weim. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edges, moorland, upper Hagenia- Rapanea woodland, heath zone, 2100–4000 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3433 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to South Africa.

Myosotis abyssinica Boiss. & Reut. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, forest, grasslands, moorland zone, 2000–3960 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1898 (EA), Hedberg O 187, 4565 (EA). Native distribution range: Bioko to Cameroon, Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Myosotis keniensis T.C.E.Fr. – Habit: Mat-forming herb. Habitat: Grassland tussock in dendrosenecio associations, 3350–4320 m. Voucher: Bie SW 302 (EA). Native distribution range: S Central Ethiopia, Central Kenya.

Myosotis vestergrenii Stroh – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine and heath zone, 2000–4250 m. Vouchers: Bally J 472, Tweedie DR 4, 123 (EA), Trelawny BBR 4467 (EA), Adamson J 472 (EA), Gardner HM 2247 (EA), Hedberg O 215 (EA) Bickford N 6 (EA) Lind EM 2094 (EA), Forbes 259 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa

Trichodesma physaloides A.DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, bushland, 1050–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 138 (EA), Snowden JD 821 (EA), Webster MVB 8916 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to South Africa.

F49. BRASSICACEAE

11 Genera, 16 species

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland bushland and moor, disturbed alpine grassland, 1750–4250 m. Voucher: Sound & Hancock 39 (EA), Tothill BH 2450 (EA), Hedberg 943 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia to Tropical African Mountains.

Arabis alpina L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moor, stream banks, cliffs, 2450–4321 m. Vouchers: Taylor 3531 (EA), Wesche K 206 (K), 1247 (EA), Dummer RA 3438 (K), Hedberg O 1002 (EA, K), 969 (EA), Townsend CC 2323 (K), Bickford N 16, 43 (EA), Gardner HM 2244 (EA), Adamson J 473 (EA), Tweedie DR 108 (EA), Synge PM 943 (EA). Native distribution range: N and Central Europe to W Central Siberia, N & E Canada to Greenland.

Barbarea intermedia Boreau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moor, alpine zone, disturbed ground, streamside, 3000–3900 m. Vouchers: Adamson J 495 (K), Hedberg O 1013 (EA, K), Townsend CC 2331 (EA, K), Dale IR 3391 (EA, K), Major EJ; Lugard C 393 (K), Major EJ; Lugard C 419 (K), Ekkens DB 2476 (EA). Native distribution range: Central & S Europe to NW China and E Uganda.

EX Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivation, forest, 1650–2000 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1136A (EA). Native distribution range: North Caucasus, Transcaucus, a cultigen from China.

EX Brassica napus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shrubland, 1700–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1136 (EA). Native distribution range: A cultigen from S Europe.

EX Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated grounds, forest, woodland, 1500–2800 m. Vouchers: Stunrock BM 2207 (EA), Beentje HJ 1945 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia, N Africa.

Cardamine africana L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, stream side, 2200–3400 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 5081 (UPS), H 1048 (EA, S), Wesche K 480 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, India to W Malesia, Central & S Tropical America.

Cardamine hirsuta L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 500–4321 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 268 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0147 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Temperate & Subtropical Northern Hemisphere to Tropical African Mountains.

Cardamine obliqua Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine belt, montane forest, 2000–4321 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 862 (K), 4464 (EA), 4521 (EA, K), Bush RZ 249 (EA), Bickford N 57 (EA), Irwin PH 361 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 355 (EA), Synge 958 (EA), Tweedie DR 70 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania, Mexico to Ecuador.

Cardamine trichocarpa Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, forest clearings, 950–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Cameroon to Ethiopia and Tanzania, South Africa, India to Assam, Sri Lanka.

Crambe kilimandscharica O.E.Schulz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest clearing, weed in cultivated land, 1200–3400 m. Vouchers: Hedberg KO 4474 (EA, BR), Muthoka P & Kirika P 1178 (EA). Native distribution range: S Ethiopia to E DR Congo.

Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, 1750–3170 m. Voucher: Symes YE 119 (EA). Native distribution range: Egypt to Namibia, Arabian Peninsula.

Erucastrum elgonense Jonsell – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, ericaceous scrub, 3050–3400 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 586 (EA), Tothill BH 2346 (EA), Hedberg Olov 4475 (UPS, EA, K). Native distribution range: Uganda (Mt Elgon).

EX Mummenhoffia alliacea (L.) Esmailbegi & Al-Shehbaz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forests, upland moor, stream banks, bamboo, 3000–3600 m. Voucher: Hedberg 997 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central & S Europe to N Turkey.

Oreophyton falcatum O.E.Schulz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine zone, rock crevices, 3800–4321 m. Vouchers: Hedberg in Adamson J 500 & Hedberg 978 (EA), Tweedie 70 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical African Mountains.

Subularia monticola A.Braun ex Schweinf. – Habit: Tufted herb. Habitat: Upland rain-forest, moorland, ericaceous and alpine zone, 2750–4321 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 1016 (EA), Synge PM 886 (EA), Wesche K 1941 (EA). Native distribution range: Mountains of Ethiopia to E DR Congo and N Tanzania.

F50. CAMPANULACEAE

4 Genera, 24 species

Canarina abyssinica Engl. – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Forest, wooded grassland, along streams, 1925–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 860 (EA), Lind EM 262 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Tropical Africa.

Canarina eminii Asch. & Schweinf. – Habit: Climbing (or hanging if epiphyte) herb. Habitat: Montane Forest, Outcrop rocks, 1600–3200 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 158 (EA), Thomson 2253 (EA), Rwaburindore PK 469 (WAG), Norman EM 223 (K), Andersen 327 (S), Granvik H 331 (S). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Malawi.

*Lobelia aberdarica R.E.Fr. & T.C.E.Fr. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Swamps in the moorland, 1860–3500 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3200 (EA), Awich Y 607 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 434 (EA), Tweedie R 109 (EA), Knox EB 3769, 3768, 3767, 2615 (EA), Hedberg O 1045 (S), Thomas AS 654 (EA), Synge 872 (EA), Hedberg 4536 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Aberdare Range).

Lobelia cheranganiensis Thulin – Habit: Trailing herb. Habitat: Upland Forest and moor, 2750–3300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya.

Lobelia duriprati T.C.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet montane short grassland, 1700–3550 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0109 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Lobelia fervens Thunb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, upper forest edge, 1750–3150 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Lobelia flaccida A.DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest margin, 1220–3150 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 33 (EA), Knox EB 2607, 2631, 2638, 2643, 3833 (EA), Beentje HJ 1936 (EA), Webster MVB 8909 (EA), Gilbert MG & Tadesse M 6553 (EA), Symes YE 415 (EA), Bitsford N 49 (EA), Granvik H 254 (S). Native distribution range: Sudan to S Africa.

Lobelia flaccida subsp. granvikii (T.C.E.Fr.) Thulin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 1524 m. Vouchers: Lugard E 149 (K), Dummer RA 3722 (K). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Kenya.

Lobelia giberroa Hemsl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Disturbed places of montane forests, 1590–3000 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3575 (US). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Zambia.

*Lobelia gregoriana subsp. elgonensis (R.E.Fr. & T.C.E.Fr.) E.B.Knox – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, moorland, 3450–4200 m. Vouchers: Adamson J 499 (EA), Hedberg KO 922 (MO, EA), Synge PM 911 (EA, MO), Lindblom sn (K), Liebenberg LCC 1674 (EA, MO), Katende AB 318 (MO), Dale U70 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Cherangani Hills & Mt Elgon).

EX Lobelia heyneana Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, lower and upper forest edge, 1750–3150 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Zambia, Arabian Peninsula, China (Yunnan) to Tropical Asia.

Lobelia inconspicua A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short grassland and disturbed grounds, 1220–2400 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

*Lobelia lindblomii Mildbr. – Habit: Creeping/ mat-forming herb. Habitat: Alpine and subalpine grassland, 3100–4250 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 123, 4499 (EA), Major EJ; Lugard C 432 (K), 433 (K), Tweedie DR 4017 (K), Adamson J 502 (K), Mabberley DJ 468 (EA, K), Knox EB 3837 (EA), Williams Y & Beentje 1999 (EA), Rauh W 586 (EA), Bickford N 6 (EA), Thomas AS 602 (EA), Wood 111 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Aberdare Mountains, Mt Elgon).

Lobelia minutula Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, moorland, forest margin, 2125–3350 m. Voucher: Ekkens DB 415 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to E Tropical Africa.

Lobelia neumannii T.C.E.Fr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, 1850–2750 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to Kenya.

*Lobelia telekii Schweinf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet stony grounds in moorlands, 3000–5000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 26 (EA), Synge PM 5901 (EA, BR), Hedberg O 861 (EA) Mwangangi OM 338 (EA), Ekkens DB 776 (EA), Honore EJ 2519 (EA), Dale IR 3194 (EA), Knox EB 2624 (EA), Tothill BH 2412 (BR, EA), Eggeling WJ 5751 (EA), Dummer RA 3385 (US, UPS), Tweedie DR Mrs 8 (K), Liebenberg LCC 1617 (EA), Thomas AS 629 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Aberdare Range, Mt Kenya, Mt Elgon).

Monopsis stellarioides Urb. – Habit: Trailing herb. Habitat: Paddock, roadside, alpine grassland, 1650–3600 m. Vouchers: Symes YE 519 (EA), Hedberg O 909 (EA), Webster MVB 8912 (EA), Beentje HJ 1964 (EA), KnoX EB 3834 (EA), Tweedie EM 126 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros

Wahlenbergia capillacea A.DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bamboo zone, 2300–3500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Africa.

Wahlenbergia hirsuta (Edgew.) Tuyn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, waste land, roadside, 1650–2120 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Himalaya.

Wahlenbergia krebsii Cham. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, Lower alpine and heath zones, upper forest margins, 2130–3600 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3515 (US), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0143, SAJIT-PR 0265 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Bioko to Ethiopia and S Africa.

Wahlenbergia napiformis (A.DC.) Thulin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet savanna, grassland, old cultivations, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to Ethiopia and Namibia.

Wahlenbergia pusilla Hochst. ex A.Rich – Habit: Mat forming Herb. Habitat: Alpine and moor zone, 2800–4300 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 140 (K) 3250 (EA), Wesche K 329 (K), Taylor G 3536 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Wahlenbergia silenoides Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, moorland, forest margin, 2200–3350 m. Voucher: Tweedie 3534 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Wahlenbergia virgata Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasslands, 1680–2700 m. Voucher: Hedberg 26 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

F51. CANELLACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Warburgia ugandensis Sprague – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine, upland forest, wooded grassland, 1600–2400 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0013 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: SE Ethiopia to Malawi.

F52. CANNABACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Celtis africana Burm.f. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0042 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar.

F53. CAPPARACEAE

3 Genera, 3 species

Capparis fascicularis DC. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland, forest edge, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Maerua angolensis DC. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Grassland, forest edge, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Ritchiea albersii Gilg – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Upland forest margin, 2250–3000 m. Vouchers: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0066 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

F54. CAPRIFOLIACEAE

4 Genera, 5 species

Cephalaria pungens Szabo – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane and subalpine grassland, 2500–3000 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: W Kenya to S Africa.

Dipsacus pinnatifidus Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upper Forest, lower alpine zone, heath woodland, 2000–3950 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 1027 (EA), Lisowski S 11786 (BR), Liebenberg 1614 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0251 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Mountains of NE and E Tropical Africa to DR Congo, Cameroon.

Scabiosa columbaria L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, upland grassland, grass-moor rocky heathland, upper forest bushland, 2200–4000 m. Vouchers: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0135 (EA, HIB), Lisowski S 11788 (BR). Native distribution range: Europe to Iran and Arabian Peninsula, NW Africa, Tropical African Mountains.

*Valeriana kilimandscharica Engl. – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Upland moor, alpine zone, along streams, 2800–4500 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 1549 (EA), Siemens LA 2572 (EA), Adamson J 18226 (EA), 476 (K), Hedberg O 210, 961 (EA), Lugard C & Lugard EJ 2954 (EA), Tweedie DR 73, 119 (EA), Dale IR 3180 (EA, K), Battiscombe E 676 (EA), Lugard EJ 404 (K), Thomas 617 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical African Mountains.

Valeriana volkensii Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streamside, marshes, bamboo zone, upland forest and upland moor, 2300–3400 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 313, Hedberg O 257 (S), Synge PM 1872 (S), Tweedie EM 892 (K), Kisalye N; Heist M van 401 (WAG), Gillett JB 18414 (BR), Tothill BH 2357 (EA), Dummer RA 3577 (K). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical African Mountains.

F55. CARYOPHYLLACEAE

6 Genera, 12 species

Cerastium afromontanum T.C.E.Fr. – Habit: Prostrate herb. Habitat: Short grassland, upland moor, alpine zone, 2300–4000 m. Vouchers: Friis I & Hansen OJ 2564 (EA), Tweedie 36 (EA), Bickford N 47 (EA), Adamson J 494 (EA), Lugard C 324 (K), Beentje HJ 1981 (EA, WAG), Gillett JB 18455 (K), Dale IR 3203 (EA, K). Native distribution range: South Sudan (Imotong Mountains) to Tanzania.

Cerastium lanceolatum (Poir.) Volponi – Habit: herb. Habitat: Forest edge, wet grassland, 1500–3600 m. Vouchers: Hamilton & Perrott 76/524 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Réunion, S India, Sri Lanka, S Malesia to New Guinea.

Cerastium octandrum Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland, upland moor and bushland, 2500–4200 m. Vouchers: Rich A 58(EA), Hedberg O 188, 97(EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Eritrea and Tanzania.

EX Corrigiola litoralis L. – Habit: Prostrate herb. Habitat: Roadside, disturbed grounds, 2350–3600 m. Voucher: Mwangangi OM 448 (BR). Native distribution range: Europe, S Tropical & S Africa.

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult. – Habit: Straggling soft herb. Habitat: Forest edges, roadsides, 1350–2500 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 1927 (EA), Kahuho SK 3 (EA). Native distribution range: Mexico to S Tropical America, Tropical & S Africa.

Sagina abyssinica Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alpine belt, riverbank, upland moor, 2150–4250 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1820, 1689 (K), Hedberg O 4548 (EA), Horu PH 364 (EA), Rauh W 591 (EA), Hedberg 870 (S), Lisowski S 80258 (BR). Native distribution range: Bioko to Ethiopia and N Tanzania.

Sagina afroalpina Hedberg – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland moorland, 3150–4321 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Silene burchellii Otth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest, moorland, alpine zone, 1900–4050 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 951 (EA, K, S), Tweedie 72 (EA), Jeaudui DR 116 (EA), Bickford NB 44 (EA), Lisowski S 80284 (BR). Native distribution range: South Africa.

EX Silene gallica L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside and in cultivation, 1960–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, W Europe to Mediterranean.

**Silene syngei (Turrill) T.Harris & Goyder – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, upland moor 3750 m. Vouchers: Synge PM 1912 (K, MO, NHMUK). Native distribution range: Uganda (Mt Elgon).

EX Stellaria media (L.) Vill. – Habit: Trailing herb. Habitat: Montane forest floor, Introduced weed in cultivation, 1250–2520 m. Voucher: Wesche K 1692 (EA). Native distribution range: Temperate Eurasia, N & NE Tropical Africa.

Stellaria sennii Chiov. – Habit: Trailing herb. Habitat: Forest edges, path sides, 1750–3600 m. Voucher: Tweedie 107 (K). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

F56. CELASTRACEAE

5 Genera, 7 species

Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, woodland on rocky hills, 1100–1800(–2400) m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 872 (EA), Eggeling WJ 2478 (BR), Snowden JD 966 (BR), Styles B 302 (BR). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, Yemen.

Elaeodendron buchananii Loes. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Forest, 1070–2290 m. Vouchers: Jackson L 328, 318 (EA), Mathews PM 225 (EA), Dale IR 339 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Gymnosporia arbutifolia Loes. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Woodland and forest, 1750–3000 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 525 (BR), Dale IR U12 (BR). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Gymnosporia obscura Loes. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Riverine forest, forest margin, grassland, 2100–2550 m. Voucher: Lugard C 612 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Burundi and N Tanzania.

Gymnosporia senegalensis Loes. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Wet savanna and woodland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Harrington GN 509 (EA), Snowden JD 839 (EA), Dale IR 790(EA), Tnysnell CG 2370 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0011, SAJIT-PR 0188 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: woodland, forest, riverine forest, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Bridson D 78 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0044 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Pristimera goetzei (Loes.) R.H.Archer – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist forest, riverine forest, 90–3000 m. Voucher: St Clair Thompson in Eggeling 393 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Malawi.

F57. CLEOMACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Cleome gynandra L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grounds, cultivations, roadside, wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Cleome monophylla L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland/woodland, 20–2100 m. Voucher: Tweedie 668 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Sri Lanka.

F58. COMBRETACEAE

2 Genera, 5 species

Combretum collinum Fresen. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3098 (EA), Major C & Lugard EJ 524 (EA), Templer JC 8 (EA). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa.

Combretum collinum subsp. binderianum (Kotschy) Okafa – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1100–2300 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Combretum collinum subsp. elgonense (Exell) Okafa – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1100–2300 m. Vouchers: Bally 2481 (EA), Major EJ; Lugard C 524 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Zambia.

Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, woodland, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Brown ES 755 (EA), Snowden JD 837, 1063 (EA), Dale IR (3105), Major C & Lugard EJ 286 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Terminalia mollis M.A.Lawson – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, woodland, 1750–2170 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

F59. CONVOLVULACEAE

4 Genera, 14 species

Astripomoea grantii (Rendle) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, bushland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Chater-Jack 125 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Astripomoea malvacea var. parviflora (Rendle) Staples – Habit: Sub-shrubby herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, bushland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Convolvulus kilimandschari Engl. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland forest, woodland, bamboo thickets, upland moor, 1800–3750 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 155 (EA), Tweedie EM 1786 (K), 1785 (K) 1585 (K), Wesche K 778 (EA), Tweedie 1585 (EA), Dummer RA 3585 (EA), Lienberg 1612 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0176 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Cuscuta kilimanjari Oliv. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, 1500–1020 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 801 (K), Dawkins 783 (EA), Snowden JD 854 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, Madagascar.

Cuscuta planiflora Ten. – Habit: Twining herb. Habitat: Outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie 2055 (K). Native distribution range: Macaronesia, Mediterranean to NW India, Eritrea to S Africa, Madagascar.

Ipomoea biflora Pers. – Habit: Twinning Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, bushlands, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Kisalye N; van Heist M 284 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet – Habit: Twiner. Habitat: Forest, woodland, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula to Temperate E Asia

Ipomoea fulvicaulis Boiss. ex Hallier f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, outcrop rock, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 583, 672 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Botswana.

Ipomoea hildebrandtii Vatke – Habit: Sub-woody shrublet. Habitat: Grassland, 150–2000 m. Vouchers: Human observation (1.351001 N 34.507378 E). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Rwanda and Tanzania.

Ipomoea kituiensis Vatke – Habit: Shrublet. Habitat: Forest, grassland, bushlands, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Ipomoea oenotherae Hallier f. – Habit: Erect or prostrate herb. Habitat: Seasonally moist grassland, outcrop rock, 990–2190 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa.

Ipomoea polymorpha Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Erect or prostrate herb. Habitat: Grassland and moist bushland, 1750–1920 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Old World to Australia.

Ipomoea tenuirostris Choisy – Habit: Twinning or prostrate herb. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 1650–2710 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 146 (EA), Tweedie EM 350 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Ipomoea wightii Choisy – Habit: Twinning or prostrate herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, montane forest edges, 1040–2400 m. Vouchers: Howard S, Irwin PH 150 (EA, MO), Tweedie EM 384 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, Madagascar, India to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

F60. CORNACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland forest, 750–2000 m. Vouchers: Katende T; Sheil D 697 (K), Snowden JD 1079 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to SE Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

Cornus volkensii Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 2250–3150 m. Vouchers: Eggeling WJ 2458 (MO), Eggeling 1050 (EA), George Taylor 3468 (NHMK), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0228 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa

F61. CRASSULACEAE

4 Genera, 16 species

Crassula alata (Viv.) A.Berger – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, shallow soils, 1350–2700 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S & E Mediterranean to China (NW Yunnan).

Crassula alata subsp. pharnaceoides (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Wickens & M.Bywater – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Ethiopia to S Africa and Arabian Peninsula.

Crassula alba Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, rocky grassland, 1500–4000 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0094 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Crassula alsinoides Engl. – Habit: Sprawling or prostrate herb. Habitat: Montane forests, 1475–3600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1807B (K), Alan C Hamilton 6601 (MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0266 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar.

Crassula granvikii Mildbr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forests, 1650–4500 m. Vouchers: Lye 5721 (EA), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 422 (K), Beentje HJ 1993 (WAG), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0025 (EA, HIB), PK Rwaburindore 447 (MO). Native distribution range: Eritrea to N Malawi, to Yemen.

Crassula rhodesica (Merxm.) Wickens & M.Bywater – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, rocky grassland, 1200–2378 m. Voucher: Human observation sn (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya to Namibia.

Crassula schimperi C.A.Mey. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upper Forest edge, 3000–4100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 2767, Wood GH (K), Tweedie EM 21 (MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0092 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Himalaya.

Crassula schimperi subsp. phyturus (Mildbr.) R.Fern. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest on moist rocks in crevices, 1050–2400 m. Vouchers: Hedberg 4492 (EA), Tweedie 2767 (EA), Kisalye N et al. 04 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0138 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: NE & E Tropical Africa, and Yemen.

Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bushland, grassland, moist rocks, 1650–2300 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 1032 (EA), Tengecho B 383 (EA), Jack C 164 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Kalanchoe densiflora Rolfe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places, woodland, forest, upper foerest edge, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Bamps PRJ 6495 (EA), (BR), Symes YE 246 (EA), Jack C 398 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0221 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo and Tanzania.

EXKalanchoe integra Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

Kalanchoe lanceolata Pers. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland, wooded grassland, 950–2100 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Madagascar, SW Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.

Kalanchoe prittwitzii Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, outcrop rock, 1800–2400 m. Vouchers: Jack C 396 (EA), Snowden JD 943 (EA), Symes YE 245 (EA), Lugard C & Lugard EJ 115 (EA). Native distribution range: E Ethiopia to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Sedum meyeri-johannis Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, heathland, 3200–4300 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 2703 (EA), Dale U 848 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Sedum ruwenzoriense Baker f. – Habit: Succulent herb. Habitat: Upland heath and upland moor, in rock crevices in heath zone, 2400–4300 m. Vouchers: Wood GH 124 (EA), Mwangangi OM 3871, Mwangangi OM 318 (WAG, MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0132 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Rwanda.

Umbilicus botryoides Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock crevices montane forest, 2250–3900 m. Vouchers: Rose 10216 (EA), Wesche K 588 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon, Eritrea to Tanzania.

F62. CUCURBITACEAE

9 Genera, 13 species

Coccinia adoensis (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Cogn. – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Grassland, moist forest, woodland, 1600–2300 m. Vouchers: Bally 251 (EA), Polhill 400 (S), Norman EM 225 (K), Taylor G 3787 (S). Native distribution range: Ghana to Eritrea and S Africa.

Cucumis ficifolius A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland roadsides, 1200–2800 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1061 (EA). Native distribution range: Mauritania to Ethiopia and Tanzania, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Cucumis maderaspatanus L. – Habit: climber or trailer Herb. Habitat: Riverine margins, woodland, bushland, upland forest, 0–1800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 2247 (K, BR). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Lagenaria abyssinica (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Bushland, montane forest, 900–3000 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM 450 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0169 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to DR Congo and Tanzania.

Momordica cissoides Planch. ex Benth. – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Riverine and rainforest, 1190–1830 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1040 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Momordica foetida Schumach. – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Forest edges, old cultivations, disturbed regions, 1200–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1097 (K), Cheseny CM 40 (BR), Lind EM 114 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0075, SAJIT-PR 0173 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Momordica friesiorum (Harms) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Upland Forest edges, wet bushlands, 1700–2850 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 915 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Malawi.

Oreosyce africana Hook.f. – Habit: climber or trailer Herb. Habitat: Bamboo Forest, swamps, grassland edges, 1500–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1190 (EA). Native distribution range: Bioko to Ethiopia and South Africa, Madagascar.

Peponium elgonense N.Wei, G.W.Hu & Q.F.Wang – Habit: Vine. Habitat: Open grassland, moist rock wall of a steep cliff, 2565 m. Vouchers: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0121, SAJIT-PR 0152 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Kenya.

EX Sicyos polyacanthos Cogn. – Habit: climber or trailer Herb. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie DR 4133 (WAG). Native distribution range: Bolivia to Brazil and N Argentina.

Trochomeria macrocarpa Harv. – Habit: Trailing or climbing herb. Habitat: Tree grassland, woodland, 1000–2550 m. Vouchers: Lugard E 143 (K), Tweedie EM 1101 (K), Polhill 414 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Zehneria minutiflora (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Prostrate herb. Habitat: Upland moist forest edges, bamboo thickets, grassland, 1100–3350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Zehneria scabra Sond. – Habit: climber or trailer Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, old cultivated bushlands, wet savanna, riverine forest, grass thickets, 1000–3350 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1384 (BR), Tweedie DR 4073 (WAG), Tweedie EM 1384 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0030, SAJIT-PR 0079 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

F63. EBENACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane Forest, open bushland woodland, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Euclea divinorum Hiern – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Grassland, open bushland, montane forest, 1750–2700 m. Vouchers: Jackson THE 329a (MO), Taiti S 612 (BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0002 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Euclea racemosa subsp. schimperi (A.DC.) F.White – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Egypt to S Africa, S Arabian Peninsula, Comoros.

F64. ERICACEAE

2 Genera, 7 species

Agarista salicifolia G.Don – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Woodland, moist forest, heath zones, 1750–3150 m. Vouchers: Dummer RA 3619 (US), St Clair-Thompson GW 2/40 (BR), Wesche K 944 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0129 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, W Indian Ocean

Erica arborea L. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Heath, woodland, alpine, 1800–3900 m. Vouchers: Tweedie DR 2066 (EA), Wesche K 98 (EA), Kokwaro JO 2547 (EA), Taylor G de C 3448 (EA), Watere 10513 (EA), Gardner HM 2253 (EA), Leyard WC 2964 (EA), Tothill BH 2293 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0151 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Mediterranean to W Transcaucasus, Tropical African Mountains, Arabian Peninsula.

Erica filago (Alm & T.C.E.Fr.) Beentje – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Disturbed or burnt areas in alpine, heath, moorland zone, 2000–4321 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 124, 854 (EA), Major ES; Lugard C 483 (K), Adamson J 485 (K), Hedberg O 874 (K), Dale IR 3096 (K), Dale IR 3184 (K), Dummer RA 3355 (US), Thomas AS 606 (BR). Native distribution range: Kenya to N Malawi.

Erica mannii (Hook.f.) Beentje – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Upper forest edge, moorland, 3150–4050 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1154 (BR, K), Hedberg O 850 (K), Synge PM S986 (BR) Native distribution range: Nigeria to Cameroon, Bioko, Uganda to S Tropical Africa.

Erica silvatica (Engl.) Beentje – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Short grasslands, moorland, heath zones, bamboo clearing, forest edges, 1650–4321 m. Vouchers: Wesche K 1814 (EA), Dummer RA 3503 (K), 3509 (US), Hedberg KO 4555 (BR), 4535 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical African Mountains.

Erica trimera (Engl.) Beentje – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Moorland, rain forest, 3150–4321 m. Voucher: Taylor G 3524 (BR). Native distribution range: E Central Tropical Africa (Ruwenzori Mountains).

**Erica trimera subsp. elgonensis (Mildbr.) Beentje – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Moorland, 3450–3800 m. Vouchers: Saundy & Hancock 63 (EA), Hedberg 4529 (EA), Lye & Pocs 23079 (EA), Lindblom GSN (BR), Wesche K 1014 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon).

F65. EUPHORBIACEAE

8 Genera, 29 species

Acalypha polymorpha Müll.Arg. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed or burnt grassland, open woodland, 1700–2300 m. Voucher: James (EA). Native distribution range: Central & E Tropical Africa.

Acalypha psilostachya Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Moist rain forest, grassland, rocky woodland, 520–3050 m. Vouchers: Dawkins HC 779 (EA, BR). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

Acalypha volkensii Pax – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest undergrowth, bushland, 800–2700 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Burundi.

Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Upland forest and edges, bushlands, wooded grassland, riverine thickets, 1500–3150 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 2062 (WAG), Mwangangi OM 335 (BR), Cheseny CM 15 (RSA), Katende AB 3604 (MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0208, SAJIT-PR 0074 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Clutia abyssinica var. pedicellaris (Pax) Pax – Habit: Herb, shrub or small tree. Habitat: Forest, woodland, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi.

Clutia kilimandscharica Engl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, upper forest edge, moorland, 2250–3600 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 656 (EA), Tothill BH 2303 (EA), Eggeling 2461 (EA). Native distribution range: Somalia to Zimbabwe.

Clutia lanceolata subsp. robusta (Pax) M.G.Gilbert – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, upper forest edge, moorland, 2400–3350 m. Vouchers: Kokwaro JO 2439 (BR), Taylor PG 3621 (BR). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 869, 870 (A, EA, BR), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0076 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Euphorbia brevicornu Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist open forest, 2200–3600 m. Vouchers: Gillett 18429 (EA, BR), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 380 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0220 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Kenya, Uganda.

Euphorbia brunellii Chiov. – Habit: hairless from a fleshy tuber with apex at soil level. Habitat: Grassland, 1100–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 355 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Uganda.

Euphorbia crotonoides Boiss. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grounds, outcrop rock, open woodland, forest edge, 800–2400 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0077 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Euphorbia depauperata Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Shrub or herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1900–3200 m. Voucher: Tweedie DR 2521 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Euphorbia engleri Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane rain forest, 1500–2800 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM & Kanuri F. 342 (BR), Tweedie 494 (K), Dale IR U849 (K), Hedberg O 93 (K), Wesche K 1313 (K). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Euphorbia heterospina S.Carter – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, rock slopes, 550–1600 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 1046 (EA). Native distribution range: Kenya, Uganda.

EX Euphorbia hirta L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, cultivation, forest, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical America.

Euphorbia inaequilatera Sond. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, wooded grassland, 1750–2500 m. Voucher: Hedberg 41 (EA). Native distribution range: Africa to Pakistan.

EX Euphorbia murielii N.E.Br. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, rocky slopes, open wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Sudan.

EX Euphorbia prostrata Aiton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed lawns, grasslands, roadside, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Central & S USA to Tropical & Subtropical America.

EX Euphorbia rubella Pax – Habit: Tuber. Habitat: Wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia.

Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, montane forest edge, roadside, 1600–3760 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Euphorbia systyloides Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: wet savanna, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Uganda to S Tropical Africa.

*Euphorbia ugandensis Pax & K.Hoffm. – Habit: Woody herb or Shrub. Habitat: Bamboo zone, forest clearing, 1980–3350 m. Vouchers: Tothill BH 2275 (EA), Tweedie EM 2521 (K). Native distribution range: SW Uganda to N Malawi.

Euphorbia wellbyi N.E.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upper montane forest edge, moorland, 2300–4000 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 462 (EA), VC Hedberg E 3 (EA), Hedberg 214 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Euphorbia wellbyi var. glabra S.Carter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Heathland, forest edge, 3200–4080 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 4550 (K), Lisowski S 12913 (BR), Snowden JD 462 (EA), Liebenberg 1625 (EA), Wood G 150 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Tanzania.

Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen Forest, 10–3050 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 815 (EA). Native distribution range: Gabon to Kenya and S Africa.

Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 906 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Neoboutonia macrocalyx Pax – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 2250–3000 m. Vouchers: Styles B 306 (BR), Synge PM S789 (BR). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Uganda and S Tropical Africa.

EX Ricinus communis L. – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Woodland edges, 900–2000 m. Vouchers: Padwa JH 40 (EA), Jack C 184 (EA). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa.

Tragia brevipes Pax – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest, woodland, wooded grassland, 600–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Somalia and Zimbabwe.

F66. FABACEAE

48 Genera, 168 species

Adenocarpus mannii Hook.f. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane forest, grassland, rock outcrop on moorland, 2250–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical African Mountains to Namibia.

Aeschynomene abyssinica Vatke – Habit: Shrub or herb. Habitat: Grassland, scattered grassland, stream sides, swamp edges, bamboo edges, 1000–3000 m. Vouchers: Hedberg O 54 (UPS), Tweedie 1890 (EA), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0053 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Aeschynomene schimperi Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Shrubby herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, marshes, riverside, 670–2500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Afroamphica africana (Hook.f.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Montane Forest edge, woodland, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Mwangangi OM 485 (BR). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and Malawi.

Albizia amara subsp. sericocephala Brenan – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa.

Albizia grandibracteata Taub. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Bally 2498 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Tanzania.

Albizia gummifera C.A.Sm. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, forest clearing, 1750–2440 m. Vouchers: Lugard 511 (EA), Mrs C Jack 434 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Central Madagascar.

Alysicarpus glumaceus (Vahl) DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Flooded grassland, woodland, 1000–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 907 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Alysicarpus rugosus subsp. perennirufus J.Léonard – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Flooded grassland, 940–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie 907 (EA). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to Eritrea and S Africa.

Angylocalyx braunii Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understory of montane forest, riparian forest, 800 m. Voucher: Lugard C & Lugard EJ 334 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa. (Kenya, Tanzania)

Antopetitia abyssinica A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moorland, open bush land, 1700–3500 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0270 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Argyrolobium fischeri Taub. – Habit: Herb or subshrub. Habitat: Forest, bushland, grassland, 1700–2700 m. Voucher: Gerh Lindblom sn (S). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Tropical Africa.

Argyrolobium rupestre subsp. kilimandscharicum (Taub.) Polhill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest 2250–3300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to E Tropical Africa

Astragalus atropilosulus subsp. burkeanus (Benth. ex Harv.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, open bushland, forest margin, moorland, 3900 m. Voucher: Lugard 334 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

EX Biancaea decapetala (Roth) O.Deg. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Rainforest, tree grassland, bushlands, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Lugard 298 (EA). Native distribution range: India to S Central Japan.

Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Montane Forest, 1300–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1584 (EA). Native distribution range: Central African Republic to Eritrea and S Africa.

Chamaecrista falcinella (Oliver) Lock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded or bushy grassland, 1390–2650 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Chamaecrista falcinella var. parviflora (Steyaert) Lock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Namibia.

Chamaecrista kirkii Standl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally flooding grassland, 1600–2500 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest clearing, forest edge, grassland wooded grassland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie 4095 (K). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Tropical Asia to N Australia.

Chamaecrista stricta E.Mey. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed and pusture grounds, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Africa, N & Central Madagascar.

Chamaecrista usambarensis Standl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, grassland, near rocks and on roadsides, 1800–2590 m. Voucher: Mwangangi OM 481 (BR). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa.

Chamaecrista wittei (Ghesq.) Lock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, bushland, 1740–2590 m. Voucher: Humphreys 1123 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Eritrea and Mozambique.

Colutea abyssinica Kunth & C.D.Bouché – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, forest margin, bushlands, 2000–2800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 859 (K), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0241 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Rwanda to NE & E Tropical Africa.

Craibia brownii Dunn – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine, 1100–2200 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3241 (BR), Jackson THE 377 (BR), Dale IR MA-261214-1 (MA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Zambia.

Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf. ex Engl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, woodland, shrubland, 1170–2100 m. Vouchers: Taylor G 3857 (MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0083 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

*Crotalaria agatiflora subsp. engleri (Harms ex Baker f.) Polhill – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Forest, wet savanna, 2300–3500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Central Kenya to N Tanzania.

Crotalaria agatiflora subsp. imperialis (Taub.) Polhill – Habit: Woody herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, bushlands, 2000–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to E DR Congo.

Crotalaria anthyllopsis Welw. ex Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, rocky or wooded grasslands, 1200–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to South Africa.

Crotalaria brevidens Benth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, bushland, 1500–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to NE & E Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria cephalotes Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassland, woodland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Symes YE 232 (MO). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria chrysochlora Baker f. ex Harms – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky disturbed places, 1700–2900 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Kenya and S Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria cleomifolia Welw. ex Baker – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest, grassland, bushland, 1150–2600 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Crotalaria cylindrica A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, moorland, 2000–3550 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1418, 2088 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Kenya.

Crotalaria deserticola Taub. ex Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria dewildemaniana R.Wilczek – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 116 (EA, K), Tweedie EM 922 (MO). Native distribution range: Cameroon to E Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria glauca Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1150–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria hyssopifolia Klotzsch – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, roadside, outcrop rock, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 188. Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria incana subsp. purpurascens (Lam.) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, 1250–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula, SW India.

Crotalaria lebrunii Baker f. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Streamside, clearings and forest edge, 2200–2750 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0177 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eastern DR Congo to Central Kenya.

Crotalaria karagwensis Taub. – Habit: herb. Habitat: Open and wooded grasslands, bushlands, forest 1600–2300 m. Vouchers: Lugard EJ 197 (K), Lugard EJ; Lugard C 530 (K). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Crotalaria keniensis Baker f. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Streamside, forest edges, bushland, 1700–3200 m. Vouchers: Thomas AS 463 (MO), Mwangangi OM 465 (MO). Native distribution range: SW Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Crotalaria laburnifolia L. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Tropical Asia, N Australia.

Crotalaria lachnocarpoides Engl. – Habit: Bushy herb or small shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, bushland, 1300–3000 m. Vouchers: Snowden JD 956 (MO), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0080 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria lachnophora A.Rich. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Wooded grasslands, roadside, 1500–2200 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Crotalaria natalitia Meisn. – Habit: Herb or small shrub. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland, and wooded open grassland, 1600–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1355 (MO), Snowden JD 932 (MO). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Crotalaria petitiana (A.Rich.) Walp. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, 700–2200 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa to N Tanzania.

Crotalaria quartiniana A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rare in forest edges, 2340–2650 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1711 (K), Irwin PH 133A (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Crotalaria recta Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, swamp margins, cultivated grounds, woodland, 850–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 1317 (MO), Snowden JD 931 (MO). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Crotalaria spinosa Hochst. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Wet savanna, woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Crotalaria vallicola Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, 1300–2500 m. Voucher: Irwin PH 118 (MO). Native distribution range: Sudan to Tanzania.

Crotalaria vatkeana Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, and bushland, 2000–3300 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 535 (MO). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to N Tanzania.

Dalbergia lactea Vatke – Habit: Small tree or shrub. Habitat: Forest margin, riverine forest, bushland, grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Snowden JD 492 (NHMUK). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Dolichos compressus R.Wilczek – Habit: herb. Habitat: Wooded grasslands, bushlands, 1000–2000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Sudan to Kenya.

Dolichos sericeus subsp. formosus (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Verdc. – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1930 (EA), Tothill BH 2699 (EA), Tweedie EM 241 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Tropical Africa, Angola.

Dolichos sericeus subsp. pseudofalcatus Verdc. – Habit: Climbing or prostrate herb. Habitat: Montane Forest edges, clearings, woodland, grassland, 1150–2780 m. Voucher: Lugard 89 (EA). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa to DR Congo.

Dumasia villosa DC. – Habit: Climber herb or shrub. Habitat: Wet forest edge, woodland, 1800–2550 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Entada abyssinica Steud. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, 1750–2290 m. Vouchers: Lugard 600 (EA), Hedberg O 1066 (UPS), Tweedie DR 1444 (BR). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Eriosema cordifolium Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1750– 2290 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 198 (K). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Kenya and Angola.

Eriosema jurionianum Staner & De Craene – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, wet savanna, 1750–2800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Tanzania.

Eriosema macrostipulum Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, around 2100 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Eriosema montanum Baker f. – Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1500–3300 m. Voucher: Gerh Lindblom (S). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Eriosema nutans Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, wet savanna, forest edges, 1200–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria, Eritrea to S Africa.

Eriosema scioanum subsp. lejeunei (Staner & De Craene) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest clearings, upland grassland, 2100–2500 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 913 (K, EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to E Tropical Africa.

Eriosema sparsiflorum Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 1860–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Kenya and Angola.

Erythrina abyssinica Lam. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0096 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Botswana.

Flemingia grahamiana Wight & Arn. – Habit: bushy herb, shrub or small tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1170–2100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa to Arabian Peninsula, S India, S China (Yunnan) to Indo-China.

*Galega lindblomii (Harms) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grasslands, forest margins and bamboo area, 2000–3000 m. Vouchers: Bogdan A 4143 (K), Snowden 443 (EA), Gillett JB 18404 (US, WAG), BH Tothill 2375 (EA), Lugard 14 (EA), Beentje HJ 1938 (WAG), Lavranos JJ; Newton I 17768 A (WAG). Native distribution range: E Tropical Africa (Mt Elgon, Cherangani Hills).

Hylodesmum repandum (Vahl) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Forest, streamsides, roadsides, 1450–3000 m. Vouchers: Stein W Bie (UPS), Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0064 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Africa, Arabian Peninsula, China (S Yunnan) to Tropical Asia.

Indigofera ambelacensis Schweinf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, rocky grounds roadsides, 1000–2200 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1735 (EA). Native distribution range: Congo to Eritrea and Tanzania.

Indigofera arrecta Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, grassland and forest edge, 300–2700 m. Voucher: Rwaburindore PK 465 (WAG). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Indigofera atriceps Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, montane forest, 1000–3010 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 862 (EA), Mwangangi OM 446 (BR), Wood GHS 427 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Indigofera bogdanii J.B.Gillett – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland, roadside, rock outcrop, 1750–2750 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 1938 (EA), Tweedie MR 46 (EA), Bogdan A 4143 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Indigofera brevicalyx Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, 1200–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 861, Tweedie EM 765 (K). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central & E Tropical Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Indigofera circinella Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shallow soil grassland, roadside, Wooded grassland, 1100–2200 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Kenya to Zimbabwe.

Indigofera conjugata Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

EX Indigofera emarginella Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland, 900–2300 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Eritrea and S Tropical Africa.

EX Indigofera homblei Baker f. & Martin – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, 1600–3100 m. Voucher: Rono et al. SAJIT-PR 0097 (EA, HIB). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Tanzania and Eswatini.

Indigofera longistaminata Schrire – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, thickets, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Kenya and Malawi.

Indigofera mimosoides Baker – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, montane forest margin, 1150–2300 m. Voucher: Tweedie 874 (EA). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Africa.

Indigofera schimperi var. schimperi Jaub. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1000–3010 m. Voucher: Wood GHS 432 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

EX Indigofera schlechteri Baker f. – Habit: Woody herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, roadside, bamboo zone, forest margin, 1500–2700 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: S Africa.

Indigofera spicata Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed grassland and woodland, 0–2900 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

Indigofera subargentea De Wild. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, 1800–2000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and Zambia.

Indigofera subulata var. scabra (Roth) Meikle – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

Indigofera trita L.f. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, forest margin, 1700–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

Indigofera vohemarensis Baill. – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to N Mozambique, Comoros, Madagascar.

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Riverine forest edge, 0001–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Cape Verde, Tropical & S Africa, Madagascar, India.

Lathyrus hygrophilus Taub. – Habit: Straggling or climbing herb. Habitat: Swampy grassland, bamboo edges, 1800–4100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Malawi.

Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. – Habit: herb. Habitat: Open scrubs, upland forest grassland, 1950–3000 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: E Central Europe to Mediterranean and Afghanistan, Tropical African Mountains.

Lotus becquetii Boutique – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky hillside, 2000–2870 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: South Sudan to Burundi.

Lotus goetzei Harms – Habit: Woody herb. Habitat: Grassland, open bushland, forest margin, on young volcanic soil, 1750–3140 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Macrotyloma axillare (E.Mey.) Verdc. – Habit: Climbing or trailing herb. Habitat: Forest edges, bushlands, 0001–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula Sri Lanka, W Indian Ocean.

EX Macrotyloma axillare var. glabrum (E.Mey.) Verdc. – Habit: Climbing or trailing herb. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Gardner in FD 2855 (EA). Native distribution range: South Sudan to S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Mucuna stans Welw. ex Baker – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1370–1780 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM 924 (K). Native distribution range: Nigeria to W Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa.

Neonotonia wightii subsp. petitiana (A.Rich.) J.A.Lackey – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Forest edges, disturbed grounds, above 1500 m. Voucher: Kahuho S 5 (US). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, wet grassland, woodland, 1750–1900 m. Voucher: Padwa JH 29 (EA). Native distribution range: Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Pseudarthria confertiflora (A.Rich.) Baker – Habit: Woody herb or subshrub. Habitat: Grassland, thickets, bracken areas, 1750–2280 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1362 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Pseudarthria hookeri Wight & Arn. – Habit: Woody herb or shrub. Habitat: Wet grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, W Indian Ocean.

Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, Wooded grassland, grassland, bushland, 1750–2350 m. Voucher: Lugard 237 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Rhynchosia elegans A.Rich. – Habit: Climbing or trailing herb. Habitat: Woodland, 1750–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Malawi, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Rhynchosia ferruginea A.Rich. – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Uplands, subalpine grasslands, forest edges, 1750–3000 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1405 (EA). Native distribution range: Eritrea to E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Rhynchosia hirta (Andrews) Meikle & Verdc. – Habit: Climbing herb or shrub. Habitat: Grassland, forest edges, 0001–1800 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, India Sri Lanka.

Rhynchosia kilimandscharica Volkens ex Harms – Habit: Climbing or trailing herb. Habitat: Forest edges, grassland, bushland, 1750–2550 m. Voucher: Tweedie 721 (EA). Native distribution range: E Central & E Tropical Africa.

Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, 150–2100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropics & Subtropics.

EX Rhynchosia minima var. prostrata (Harv.) Meikle – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, woodland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, SW Arabian Peninsula.

Rhynchosia orthobotrya Harms – Habit: Herb or undershrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1000–2100 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1140 (K). Native distribution range: W Tropical Africa to Eritrea and Tanzania.

Rhynchosia resinosa (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Baker – Habit: Woody climbing herb. Habitat: Bushlands, 1530–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Rhynchosia usambarensis Taub. – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Uplands grasslands, forest, 1650–2400 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Rwanda and Tanzania.

Senegalia goetzei subsp. microphylla (Brenan) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to South Africa.

Senegalia persiciflora (Pax) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM 2120 (MO, BR), Eggeling WJ 2490 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to DR Congo.

EX Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Disturbed bushland/cultivation, grassland, roadside, 100–1900 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical America.

Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, woodland, 1750–2440 m. Vouchers: Jackson THE 304, 2940 (EA). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Tropical Africa.

Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Moist forest edge, wooded grassland, riverine forest, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Cameroon to Ethiopia and S Africa, Madagascar.

Senna singueana (Delile) Lock – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Dale IR 664, 684 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa to NW Namibia.

Sesbania dummeri E.Phillips & Hutch. – Habit: Shrub or small tree. Habitat: Swamps, 1100–2000 m. Vouchers: Chater-Jack 131 (EA). Native distribution range: SW Kenya to Rwanda.

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. – Habit: Shrub or tree. Habitat: Stream sides, 1750–2200 m. Voucher: Lugard 196 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.

Smithia elliotii Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamp in montane forest, 1170–2700 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1325 (EA). Native distribution range: Nigeria to Ethiopia and S Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

Sphenostylis stenocarpa Harms – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 50–2300 m. Voucher: Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Tephrosia emeroides A.Rich. – Habit: Woody herb. Habitat: Upland bushland, 1600–2600 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa to Uganda.

Tephrosia holstii Taub. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margin, grassland, 1750–2400 m. Voucher: Tweedie DR 718 (BR). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Tephrosia interrupta Hochst. & Steud. ex Engl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, thicket, 1400–3100 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Eritrea to S Tropical Africa.

Tephrosia nyikensis Baker – Habit: Herb or shrub. Habitat: Montane grassland, forest, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie 465 (K). Native distribution range: Kenya to S Tropical Africa.

Tephrosia paniculata Welw. ex Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, swamps, 1200–2400 m. Voucher: Lugard 229 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. – Habit: Woody herb. Habitat: Forest margin, old cultivations, grassland, 0–2300 m. Vouchers: Lugard in Nat. Hist. soc 6023, Lugard C & Lugard EJ 6023 (EA), Beekley 6023 (EA). Native distribution range: Tropical & S Africa.

Teramnus repens Baker f. – Habit: Climbing herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: NE Tropical Africa to Mozambique, Comoros, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan to India.

Teramnus uncinatus Sw. – Habit: Climber herb. Habitat: Forest, wooded grassland, 1700–2500 m. Vouchers: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF), Agnew ADQ (2013) (REF). Native distribution range: Mexico to Tropical America, Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

Teramnus uncinatus subsp. ringoetii (De Wild.) Verdc. – Habit: Climber or prostrate herb. Habitat: Forest, 1750–2250 m. Voucher: Tweedie EM (1976) (REF). Native distribution range: Tropical Africa.

*Trifolium acaule Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky alpine zone, 3300–4100 m. Voucher: Dummer RA 3309 (US). Native distribution range: Eritrea to Uganda.

Trifolium burchellianum Ser. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, moorland, 1700–3700 m. Voucher: Powles 33 (K). Native distribution range: Ethiopia to S Africa.

Trifolium cryptopodium Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest openings, alpine zone, moorland, 2100–4200 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 18412 (WAG), Tweedie DR 28, 29, 120 (