Research Article
Research Article
Allium sunhangii – a new species from section Brevidentia F.O.Khass. & Iengal. (Amaryllidaceae) from Southern Pamir-Alay, Uzbekistan
expand article infoFurkat O. Khassanov, Sardorjon Pulatov, Temur Asatulloev§|, Ibrokhimjon Ergashov|§, Komiljon Sh. Tojibaev, Ziyoviddin Yusupov|
‡ Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
§ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
| Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
Open Access


A new species, Allium sunhangii sp. nov., of the Middle Asiatic section Brevidentia F.O.Khass. & Iengal., (subgenus Allium, tribe Allioideae, Amaryllidaceae) is described. The species is a small plant from the Babatag Ridge in the Surkhandarya province of Uzbekistan. It is morphologically close to Allium brevidens Vved. in having initially dark violet filaments and three-cuspidate inner filaments, but differs by its small size and visibly unequal tepals as well as in the phylogenetic analysis based on ITS data.


Allium, Brevidentia, Middle Asia, new taxon, phylogeny, taxonomy


Allium Linnaeus (1753), one of the largest genera in the Amaryllidaceae (Friesen et al. 2006; Li et al. 2010), has more than 1100 species worldwide (Govaerts et al. 2021). Members of the genus, such as garlic, leek, onion and shallot, are used as food, medicine and ornament (Herden et al. 2016) and are characterized by bulbs enclosed in a membranous, fibrous or reticulate tunic, free or basally connate tepals and often a subgynobasic style (Friesen et al. 2006). Allium has two probable diversity centers, one in South-Western and Middle Asia and in the Mediterranean region, and a smaller center is in western North America (Friesen et al. 2006; Nguyen et al. 2008). The most recent classification of Allium, by Friesen et al. (2006), based on molecular phylogenetic analyses, includes 15 subgenera and 72 sections.

Subgenus Allium, with more than 375 species and 35 subspecies, is the largest subgenus within Allium, and is one of three main evolutionary lines within the genus (Friesen et al. 2006; Fritsch and Friesen 2002). Subgenus Allium consists of two main groups (Hanelt 1992; Friesen et al. 2006); one has simple inner filaments while the other has three-cuspidate inner filaments. The newly described sections are supported by nuclear molecular data (Friesen et al. 2006) and have revealed the presence of centers of recent speciation in the Middle Asia, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and the Middle East (Khassanov 2018). Also, results from whole chloroplast genome analyses are continuing and being compared with morphology to determine whether morphology-based taxonomy corresponds well to molecular data (Munavvarov et al. 2022)

Section Brevidentia F.O.Khass. & Iengal. was previously treated as a part of section Allium of subgenus Allium. Khassanov et al. (1997) divided section Allium into six sections (Allium s. str., Crystallina F.O.Khass. & Iengal., Filidentia F.O.Khass. & Iengal., Brevidentia F.O.Khass. & Iengal., Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch and Multicaulea F.O.Khass. & Iengal.). According to the last revised and updated classification of subgenus Allium (Khassanov 2018), section Brevidentia includes 12 species, most of which are in Middle Asia and adjacent areas. The main characteristics are purple filaments, the inner ones three-cuspidate, as well as a rounded purplish ovary with pocket-like mounds of the nectary tubes. Most species show S-to U-type, U-type anticlinal walls and (globular) convex periclinal walls of seeds (Yusupov et al. 2022).

In 2021, during grid mapping of the flora of the Surkhandarya province (Babatag Ridge, Zarkasa peak in Uzbekistan), we collected an interesting species of Allium. Comparisons of molecular and morphological characteristics showed it as a member of sect. Brevidentia. Morphologically, it resembles A. brevidens in its purple, three-cuspidate inner filaments, but differs in unequal tepals, which showed that it was a previously unknown characteristic for the species of Allium. Here, we propose it as new species and provide a comprehensive description based on morphological and molecular approaches.

Materials and methods

Plant material

A total of 14 specimens were collected in the summer of 2021. Material from the new species was collected in the Zarkasa (Babatag Ridge) peak, Surkhandarya province, Uzbekistan.

DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing

Leaves for molecular analysis were dried in silica gel upon collecting. Total DNA was isolated by the CTAB protocol (Doyle and Doyle 1987) from 1 g of well-dried leaves. ITS1 and ITS4 primers were from White et al. (1990). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed under the following conditions: 5 min of initial denaturation at 94 °C, 35 cycles of denaturation for 45 secs at 94 °C, annealing for 45 secs at 55 °C, and extension for 1–1.5 min at 72 °C, then a final extension at 72 °C for 5 min. PCR products were visualized using electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose TAE gel and sent to Beijing Genomics Institute (Shenzhen, China) for sequencing.

Phylogenetic analyses

To assemble and edit complementary strands, we used Sequencher 4.1.4 software (Burland 2000). Clustal X (Jeanmougin et al. 1998) was used to align DNA sequences, which were then manually adjusted using MEGA 7.0 (Kumar et al. 2016). Analysis of parsimony was conducted in PAUP* 4.0b10 (Swofford and Sullivan 2003) using heuristic searches with TBR and 1000 random addition sequence replicates. Bootstrap support (BS) was estimated with 1000 replicates, each with 100 random addition sequence searches according to Felsenstein (1985). The major consensus trees constructed from a maximum of 1000 trees were saved. RAxML v 8.2.8 (Stamatakis 2014). The best-fitting nucleotide substitution model GTR + G model was determined for each dataset and 1000 bootstrap replicates were used for performing Maximum Likelihood (ML) analyses. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) implemented in jModelTest2 on XSEDE ( For Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, MrBayes version 3.1.2 (Huelsenbeck and Ronquist 2001) was utilized, with 10,000,000 generations with random trees sampled every 1000 generations. In the latter analysis, after discarding the first 25% of trees as burn-in, and in order to estimate posterior probabilities (PP) we constructed a 50% majority-rule consensus tree from the remaining trees.

A total of 28 ITS sequences were downloaded from NCBI and used for phylogenetic reconstruction. In order to confirm the systematic position of the new species we selected 8 sections of subgen. Allium and two species from subgen. Rhizirideum (see Appendix 1). The classification system in this study follows the nuclear-based molecular phylogenetic classification of Friesen et al. (2006).


Taxonomic treatment

Allium sunhangii F.O.Khass., Tojibaev & Yusupov, sp. nov.

Figs 1, 2, 3


Uzbekistan. Surkhandarya province, Babatag Ridge, Zarkasa peak, 37.986537, 68.166650, 2251 m a.s.l., 22 June 2021, S.O. Pulatov and O.A.Turdiboev 22062021001. (TASH109001!, holotype; TASH109002! and TASH111001!, isotypes).


Bulbs 0.4–0.8 cm wide, 0.7–0.9 cm long, ovoid, solitary tunics reticulate, light brown, bulblets several, smooth, brownish. Scape terete, erect, 4.5–10 cm high, 1.0–1.2 mm wide. Spathe bivalved, persistent, ca 4 mm long, with short beak. Leaves 2–4, narrowly linear, longer than inflorescence, 6–12 cm long, 1.0–1.5 mm wide, semi-terete. Inflorescence lax, umbellate, hemispheric, 10 to 15-flowered. Flowers widely cup-shaped, nearly star-like, ca 5 mm long. Pedicels 2–3 times longer than tepals, at base with bracts. Tepals lanceolate-ovate, smooth, whitish with a dirty greenish-purple midvein, 2.5–4 mm long, outer tepals slightly longer than inner ones. Filaments 1.5–2.0 times longer than tepals, inner ones 3-cuspidate, filament bearing cusp 2 times longer than basal teeth. Style exerted from flowers. Capsule 2 mm in diam.


This species is most similar to Allium brevidens Vved. (Fig. 1), from which it differs in a more compact habit, remaining small spathe with a short beak, unequal tepals and strongly exserted, dark violet filaments (Fig. 2).

Figure 1. 

Holotype of Allium sunhangii F.O.Khass., Tojibaev & Z.Yuss., sp. nov.

Figure 2. 

Allium sunhangii A–A1 whole and longitudinal section of flower with teeth B view of single flower C cross section of pistil D–D1 bulb tunic and bulb E general view of species without leaves.

Distribution and habitat

Allium sunhangii is known from one population occurring to the south in the northwestern part of the Zarkasa peak, at 2251 m a.s.l. (Figs 3, 4). New species grows in continental and drier Juniperus forests (Fig. 4B1– B2) (Juniperus seravschanica Kom.) primarily on loamy soil, with shrubs (Cotoneaster nummularius Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Lonicera nummulariifolia Jaub. & Spach, Rosa canina L., Rosa ecae Aitch.), perennial (Convolvulus lineatus L., Dianthus tetralepis Nevski & Schischk., Eremurus olgae Regel, Gentiana olivieri Griseb., Hypericum scabrum L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Phlomis olgae Regel, Primula baldshuanica B. Fedtsch., Ziziphora pamiroalaica Juz.), annual and biennial (Cousinia candicans Juz., C. microcarpa Boiss., Daucus carota L., Lactuca serriola L., Lappula microcarpa (Ledeb.) Giirke, Veronica cardiocarpa (Kar. & Kir.) Walp.,) herbs and is always with dominance by Carex pachystylis J.Gay.

Figure 3. 

Distribution of Allium sunhangii, A. brevidens, A. nikolai and A. pshikharvicum.

Figure 4. 

A1–A2 inflorescence and general view of growing Allium sunhangii B1–B2 Zarkasa peak and habitat landscape.


Allium sunhangii is named after Prof. Sun Hang, one of the leading botanists at the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, who actively promotes several projects within Central Asia.


Allium sunhangii was flowering (Fig. 4 A1–A2) on 22 June, 2021 when we found its fruits began to mature at the same time. It is supposed that flowering starts in about late May and/or early June. As we visited this area only once, we are not sure when fruiting finishes.

Conservation status

Allium sunhangii is so far only known from two closely spaced localities. The total distribution area of this species is around 5 km2. The total number of individuals does not exceed 41. However, the new species is categorized as ‘Data Deficient’ (DD) according to IUCN (2019) criteria.

Phylogenetic analysis

Allium sunhangii was placed in the section Brevidentia (subgen. Allium) in all phylogenetic analyses (MP, ML and BI) (Fig. 5). Phylogenetic tree based on ITS data suggests that the new species closely related to A. brevidens.

Figure 5. 

Phylogenetic tree inferred from MP, ML and BI (bootstrap support and posterior probabilities are given on branches, respectively), showing location of the Allium sunhangii.


Allium sunhangii is morphologically close to A. brevidens in having initially dark violet filaments. However, it differs in a more compact habit, remaining small spathe with a short beak, unequal tepals and strongly exserted, dark violet filaments. Compared to all known species of Allium sect. Brevidentia, the new species differs by having leaves longer than scape, spathe with rather small beak ca. 3 mm long; tepals whitish with greenish midvein. Most significantly, the new species has lax (vs dense) and umbellate (vs globose) inflorescence, and also fewer flowers, 10–25 (vs 30–50) (Table 1). In phylogenetic tree the new species and A. brevidens were placed along with the species of sect. Allium. Similarly, according to some unsolved reasons, species of the section Allium were placed in different positions in the previous studies (Friesen et al. 2006; Li et al. 2010). Accordingly, our phylogenetic analysis was also consistent with those phylogenetic analyses. However, A. sunhangii can be distinguished morphologically and geographically from the representatives of sect. Allium. In consistence of morphologic evidence, the position of A. sunhangii and A. brevidens in the phylogenetic tree supports that they are most relative and the new species belongs to sect. Brevidentia. Also, the distribution of the new species and the related species may also slightly support this arrangement. Thus, current molecular and morphological data support the recognition of A. sunhangii as a new species of Allium sect. Brevidentia.

Table 1.

Comparison in morphology between Allium sunhangii sp. nov. and A. brevidens.

Characters A. sunhangii A. brevidens
Bulb smooth reticulate
Scape 4.5–10 cm 20–30 cm
Leaf longer than scape shorter than scape
Pedicels 2–3 times longer than tepals 3–8 times longer than tepals
Spathe remaining falling
Tepals unequal (inners – 2 mm lg., outers – 3 mm lg.) equal (inners and outers – 3.5–4.0 mm lg.)
Filaments 1.5–2.0 times longer than tepals slightly longer than tepals

Key for determination of species belonging to sect. Brevidentia

1 Inner filaments simple, triangular-subulate A. miserabile
Inner filaments 3 (or 5) cuspidate, the lateral sterile cusps shorter than the median anther- bearing cusp 2
2 Outer filaments with two obtuse teeth at base A. hedgei
Outer filaments simple 3
3 Leaves normally twisted 4
Leaves normally straight 6
4 Perianth (6)7 mm long A. ophiophyllum
Perianth 3.0–4.5 mm long 5
5 Perianth lilac with purple midvein; filaments violet, twice as long as tepals A. circumflexum
Perianth lilac-greenish with green midvein; filaments whitish, shorter than tepals A. michaelis
6 Filaments ciliate at the base, bracteoles present 7
Filaments glabrous, bracteoles absent 11
7 Bulblets with subcrystalline tunic A. brevidentiforme
Bulblets without subcrystalline tunic 8
8 Plants to 60–80 cm tall; inflorescence dense, globose, flowers 30–50 9
Plants 10–30 cm tall; inflorescence lax, umbellate, flowers 10–25 10
9 Scape ca 80 cm tall; inflorescence dense, tepals greenish red with green midvein, A. pshikharvicum
Scape ca 30 cm tall; inflorescene loose, tepals white with purple midvein A. brevidens
10 Leaves shorter than scape; spathe with beak to 1 cm long; tepals rose colored, with purple midvein A. nikolai
Leaves longer than scape; spathe with beak ca 3 mm long; tepals whitish with greenish midvein A. sunhangii
11 Outer tunic reticulate-fibrous; perianth urceolate-campanulate, whitish A. ionandrum
Outer tunic coriaceous; perianth, widely bell-shaped, purple or viole A. micranthum

Members of Allium sect. Brevidentia

Sect. Brevidentia F.O.Khass. & Yengal. in Ozturk, Sećmen & Gork (Eds.) Plant Life in South West Asia. Ege Univ. Press, Izmir:147 (1996).

Figure 6. 

The species of section Brevidentia A A. brevidens B A. pshikharvicum C A. michaelis D A. nikolai.

  1. A. brevidens Vved. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada R.S.F.S.R. 5: 89 (1924). Holotype: Uzbekistan. Bukhara Khanate, Hissar distr., hills on the southern slopes of Hissar range, near Karatag, (in Russian). 20 May 1913, A.I. Michelson 1721 (lectotype LE; designated by Khassanov in Flora of Uzbekistan 1: 61 (2017)). Distribution: Middle Asia (Southern Pamir-Alai): Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (Fig. 6A).
  2. A. brevidentiforme Vved. in Opred. Rast. Sred. Azii 2: 315, 78 (1971). Holotype: Uzbekistan. Kashkadarja valley, Igri-su river, right bank, Juniper forests (in Russian), 6 July 1955, fl., Pjataeva, Tsukerwanik 1617 (TASH000341!). Distribution: Western Pamir Alay (Hissar Range): Uzbekistan.
  3. A. circumflexum Wendelbo in Acta Horti Gothob. 28: 22 (1966). Type: Iran. Prov. Bamian, Band-e-Amir, rich limestone steppe vegetation, 2900 m, 29 June 1962, leg. Hedge & Wendelbo 4803 (holotype BG, isotypes E; TASH000348!). Distribution: Afghanistan.
  4. A. hedgei Wendelbo in Acta Horti Gothob. 28: 20 (1966). Type: Afghanistan. Prov. Mazar-i-Sharif, Takht-i-Rustam, near Samangan (Aybak), dry slopes, 1200 m, 10 June 1962, leg. Hedge & Wendelbo 3990 (holotype BG, isotypes E; TASH000390!). Distribution: Afghanistan.
  5. A. ionandrum Wendelbo in Bot. Not. 121: 270 (1968). Type: Afghanistan, Urgun. 35 km NW Urgun, 32°27'N, 69°07'E, versus Surmat, 33°27'N, 69°02'E, 2200–2400 m. 10 June 1967, Per Wendelbo 35915 (holotype W, isotype B, MUN). Distribution: Afghanistan.
  6. A. michaelis F.O.Khass. & Tojibaev in Linzer Biol. Beitr. 41(2): 1059 (2009). Holotype: Uzbekistan. Western Tian-Shan, Kurama Range, near Ujgursaj village, 40°54'54"N, 71°03'27"E, 563 m, 24 May 2009, Khassanov, Tojibaev, Keusgen (TASH000424!). Distribution: Ferghana valley (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan) (Fig. 6C).
  7. A. micranthum Wendelbo in Biol. Skr. 10, No. 3 (Symb. Afghan. 4): 178 (1959) (as cited in Nasir 1975, 22. p). Type: Afghanistan. Kurram valley, Afghanistan, December 1879, Dr. J.R.T. Aitchison 228, (holotype K). Distribution: Afghanistan.
  8. A. miserabile Wendelbo in Nytt Mag. Bot., Oslo xiv. 104 (1967). Type: Pakistan. Flora of West Pakistan, Kohat, Kohat to Thal, c. 20 km from Kohat, Rocky slope on a small hillock, c. 675 m. 26 May 1965, Jennifer Lammond 1549 (holotype E). Distribution: Afghanistan.
  9. A. nikolai F.O.Khass. & Achilova in Opred. Rast. Sred. Azii 11: 497 (2015). Neotype: Uzbekistan. 25 km eastern Bajssun town, gypsaceous slopes under the shrubs, 23 July 2013, Yusupov et al. s. n. (TASH). Distribution: Uzbekistan (Kelif-Sherabad mountain range). Uzbekistan (Fig. 6D).
  10. A. ophiophyllum Vved. in Trudy Sredne-Aziatsk. Gosud. Univ., Ser. 8b, Bot. 3: 8 (1928) (as cited in Khassanov and Yusupov 2022, 415. p). Type: Uzbekistan. Montes Meridionales: Sogdiano-transoxanae. Ad declivia argilloso-arenosa gypsacea, elevationis Chaudak-tau haud procul a pago Dzharkurgan, 30 April 1928, Vvedensky s. n. (TASH000440!, isotype K, W, MBG, LE, MW). Distribution: Southern Pamir-Alay (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan).
  11. A. pshikharvicum (R.M. Fritsch & F.O.Khass.) F.O. Khass & Z.Yuss. in M.Ozturk et al. Biodiversity, Conservation and Sustainability in Asia. Volume 2: Prospects and Challenges in South and Middle Asia. Springer, 2022, p. 415. Type: Tajikistan, Darvaz Range, the road from pass Khoburabot between Robot and soldier post, steep stony-loamy slopes, in SE to SW exposition; 2200 m, 38°33'17"N, 70°48'07"E, leg. Fritsch, Keusgen, Hissoriev, Kudratov 6199, (Holotype GAT!, isotypes GAT!, TAD!). Distribution: Southern Pamir Alay (Darwaz Range): Tajikistan (Fig. 6B).
  12. A. sunhangii F.O.Khass., Tojibaev & Yusupov sp. nov. Holotype: Uzbekistan. Surkhandarya province, Babatag Ridge, Zarkasa peak, 37.986537, 68.166650, 2251 m, 22 June 2021, S.O. Pulatov and O.A. Turdiboev 22062021001 (TASH109001!, Holotype). Distribution: Middle Asia: Southern Pamir-Alay (Babatag ridge). Uzbekistan.


We thank David Boufford from Harvard University Herbaria, USA who checked and revised the manuscript. This work was supported by the State Project “Tree of life: Monocots of Uzbekistan (PFI-5)” and “Grid mapping of the flora of mountainous regions of southern Uzbekistan” funded by the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan.


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Appendix 1

Table A1.

List of the GenBank accession numbers of the ITS sequences of sampled species in this study. Sequences generated in this study are marked with asterisks (*).

Species Location, collector, herbarium voucher /Reference GenBank Accession Number
Allium ampeloprasum L. Spain, collected by C. M. Messiaen,BF-ALL-015/Hirschegger et al. 2009 EU626292
Allium ampeloprasum L. Argentina, BF-ALL-001/ Hirschegger et al. 2009 EU626293
Allium atroviolaceum Boiss. Iran: N khorasan. collected by Yousef Saeedi/ Ghorbani et al. 2015 (unpubl. res.) KR150145.1
Allium dregeanum Kunth South Africa, Tax 5772/Friesen et al. 2016 AJ411962.1
Allium iranicum (Wendelbo) Wendelbo Iran:Elburz range, Karaj valley, Asara, Tax 3969/Friesen et al. 2016 AJ411961
Allium macrostemon Bunge China: Shanxi, collected by Li Qinqin, He Xingjin, Hexj0473/Li et al. 2011 JF975842
Allium macrostemon Bunge China: Yunnan, Hutiaoxia, collected by D.Q Huang, H11100509/He X and Huang D 2013 (unpubl. res.) KF693240
Allium macrostemon Bunge China: Yunnan, Kunming, collected by Q.Q Li, L20081102/He and Huang 2013 (unpubl. res.) KF693242
Allium porrum L. NVRS 01 4549/Ricroch et al. 2005 AY427543.1
Allium sativum L. Iran: Hamadan/Fakhrfeshani et al. 2021 (unpubl. res.) MZ233628.1
Allium sativum L. Iran: Hamadan/Fakhrfeshani et al. 2021 (unpubl. res.) MZ233632.1
Allium scorodoprasum L. Slovenia, collected by P. Hirschegger, BF-ALL-042/Hirschegger et al. 2009 FJ664290.1
Allium scorodoprasum L. Slovenia, collected by P. Hirschegger, BF-ALL-044/Hirschegger et al. 2009 FJ664291.1
Allium umbilicatum Boiss. Iran:Teheran, Tax 2646/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412719.1
Allium brevidens Vved. Uzbekistan:Hissar Mts, Tax 5037/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412721
Allium caeruleum Pall. Russia:B. G. Moscow, Tax 1525/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ411903
Allium caeruleum Pall. Kazakhstan:Chu-Ili Mts., Tax 3735/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412729
Allium caeruleum Pall. Collected by He XJ & Zhang XL, 97609/Li et al. 2010 GQ181064
Allium caeruleum Pall. Kazakhstan, ipbb_2.1.12.1/Turuspekov et al. 2018 (unpubl. res.) MG772547.1
Allium filidens Regel Kazakhstan:Karatau Mts., Tax 3674/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412723.1
Allium filidentiforme Vved. Tajikistan:Schakhristan Pass, Tax 2573/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412722.1
Allium crystallinum Vved. Uzbekistan:Chakchar Mts., Tax 3662/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412724.1
Allium parvulum Vved. Kyrgyzstan:Tallas Mts., Tax 5055/Friesen et al. 2001 (unpubl. res.) AJ412720.1
Allium pallasii Murray Collected by He XJ & Zhang XL, 97603/Li et al. 2010 GQ181077
Allium pallasii Murray 654026120714039/Li and Fan 2013 (unpubl. res.) KF454638
Allium pallasii Murray 654026120714039/He and Huang 2013 (unpubl. res.) KF693249
Allium senescens L. Collected by H.J.Choi, 070001 (KH)/Jang et al. 2009 (unpubl. res.) GQ412235
Allium senescens L. Collected by H.J.Choi et al., 010009 (CBU)/Jang et al. 2009 (unpubl. res.) GQ412236
Allium sunhangii F.O.Khass., Tojibaev & Yusupov sp. nov. Uzbekistan, Babatag Ridge: Zarkasa peak, collected by S.O. Pulatov and O. Turdiboev, 22062021001 OP642456*
Allium sunhangii F.O.Khass., Tojibaev & Yusupov sp. nov. Uzbekistan, Babatag Ridge: Zarkasa peak, collected by S.O. Pulatov and O. Turdiboev, 22062021002 OP642457*
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