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An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Taita Hills, Eastern Arc Mountain
expand article infoBenjamin Muema Watuma§|, Solomon Kipkoech§|#, David Kimutai Melly§|¤, Veronicah Mutele Ngumbau§|«, Peninah Cheptoo Rono§|, Fredrick Munyao Mutie§|, Elijah Mbadi Mkala§|, John Mulinge Nzei§|, Geoffrey Mwachala«, Robert Wahiti Gituru, Guang-Wan Hu§|, Qing-Feng Wang§|
‡ Wuhan Botanical Garden, Wuhan, China
§ Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, Wuhan, China
| University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
¶ Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
# Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
¤ Bomet University College, Bomet, Kenya
« National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Open Access

Abstract

Taita Hills forests are an ecological island within the Tsavo plains and are the northern-most part of the Eastern Arc Mountains in southeast Kenya. They are highly fragmented forests embedded in a mosaic of human settlements and farms on the slopes and hilltops. Despite their intensive degradation, they exhibit a high degree of plant diversity and endemism, and therefore are regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. In spite of their distinct importance to the biodiversity of the region as well as supporting the livelihoods of the surrounding communities, floristic studies in these hills have been finite. Through repetitive floral expeditions, herbarium records from the East African Herbarium (EA), Global Biodiversity Information (GBIF), and the Integrated Digitized Biocollections (iDigbio) databases, as well as plant lists from literature and monographs, we provide a comprehensive checklist of 1594 taxa representing 159 families, 709 genera, 1530 species, 39 subspecies, 27 varieties, and 2 hybrids. Out of these, 75 are endemic or near-endemic, 59 are exotic, and 83 are listed as either endangered or near endangered as evaluated in the IUCN Redlist. Zehneria tuberifera G.W.Hu & Q.F.Wang, a new species to science, which has previously been described, was also discovered from the Ngangao forest fragment. Information on the habit(s), habitat(s), and altitudinal range of each taxon is provided in this study. This checklist is an updated inventory of the vascular plants of the Taita Hills. It confirms the high plant diversity of the hills and provides a clear baseline for strategic conservation and sustainable management of plant resources and diversity under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Keywords

Biodiversity, checklist, conservation, Eastern arc mountains

Introduction

Global biodiversity loss has been widely attributed to forest loss and fragmentation, which are considered as its two principal factors (Newmark 1998; Brooks et al. 2002). Fragmentation oftentimes is superseded by over-exploitation, degradation, and introduction of exotic species, thus decreasing indigenous plant diversity (Newmark 1998; Cordeiro and Howe 2001; Teucher et al. 2020). This ensuing biodiversity crisis has increased interest in conservation planning and prioritization strategies (Turner et al. 2007; Brooks 2010; Krupnick 2013; Habel et al. 2016; Ndang’ang’a et al. 2016; Conservation International 2021). Since the distribution and decline in species diversity are variable across the biomes, Myers (1988) proposed biodiversity hotspots for conservation prioritization (Mittermeier et al. 1998; Myers et al. 2000; Carrasco et al. 2020). The majority of hotspots are located in high densely populated areas and therefore are under high pressure due to demand for land and forest resources (Cincotta et al. 2000; Asongu and Jingwa 2012; Habel et al. 2016). The average population density within the hotspots has increased by 36% between the years 1995–2015 (Cunningham and Beazley 2018), and approximately two billion people live within the hotspots (CEPF 2021). Although a high human population does not directly guarantee habitat loss, the resulting human impact leads to it (Mittermeier et al. 2004; CEPF 2021). Twenty-two of the hotspots within the tropics are more affected, retaining a lesser proportion of their indigenous vegetation compared to those in temperate and subtropical zones (Hrdina and Romportl 2017).

Tropical montane cloud forests naturally have a small area of occupancy on moist ridge tops with a frequency of clouds (Lovett 1998a). These forests have been highlighted arguably as the world’s most important tropical forests and diversity hotspots (Myers 1993; Lovett 1998a). Due to the isolation of these ecological islands, they have a high endemic species richness (Hamilton et al. 1995; Lovett 1998a, 1998b). The lower elevations of these ecosystems have been highly transformed mainly due to the conversion of forest to farmlands and, therefore, the forests serve as refugia for endangered species (Hamilton et al. 1995; Lovett 1998a). Cloud forests have low resilience to disturbance and their regeneration is fairly slow (Lovett 1998a). These forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services for millions of people living in the tropics. They are major watershed areas, providing timber, food, and medicinal plants for the local communities, acting as carbon sinks, and preventing denudation of hilltops through soil erosion (Myers 1993; Hamilton et al. 1995; Medley and Kalibo 2007).

The Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) are part of the larger Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH) which is ranked 9th in terms of hotspot importance (Hrdina and Romportl 2017). They are ancient crystalline mountains uplifted 30 million years ago stretching from the Taita Hills in Kenya to the Udzungwa Mountains in Tanzania (Burgess et al. 2007; Thijis et al. 2013). The EAM have been the center of numerous studies over the years delineating them as a key center of endemism (Beentje 1996; Lovett 1998b; Mittermeier et al. 1998; Myers et al. 2000; Gereau et al. 2005; Isango 2007; Linder 2014). Their unique flora has evolved gradually under environmental stability and thus their vegetation is fragile and susceptible to large-scale disturbances (Lovett 1998a). Previously under the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya Hotspot, they were considered highly likely to suffer most extinction events from a given loss of habitat (Brooks et al. 2002). It’s estimated that 31% of the species in the EAM are extinct or in danger of extinction (Newmark 1998).

Taita Hills forests are one of the most endemic-rich montane forests of the Eastern Arc (Lovett 1998a), and the smallest in size, with only 6 km2 of natural forests remaining, having lost 98% of their original forest cover (Newmark 1998; Burgess et al. 2007). 50% of the indigenous vegetation has been cleared in the last 60 years (Pellikka et al. 2013). Despite their small size and a high degree of fragmentation and degradation, these forests host a high diversity of both vascular and non-vascular plants, amphibians, reptiles and are also an Important Bird Area (IBA) (Beentje 1988; Bytebier 2001; Enroth et al. 2013, 2019; BirdLife International 2021).

Plant collection records in the Taita Hills span from as early as 1877 by a German botanist, Johan Maria Hildebrandt (Beentje 1998). Subsequently, other botanical explorations have been conducted, yielding substantial herbarium collections but lacking sufficient literature on the flora and vegetation (Beentje 1988). In 1985, a team of multidisciplinary experts carried an expedition in the Taita Hills courtesy of the National Museums of Kenya, focusing on the indigenous forest patches to ascertain their remaining size, status, and threats. They recorded 475 plant taxa representing 110 families and 283 genera, providing the first floral checklist of the indigenous fragmented forests (Beentje 1988). Ecological and ethnobotanical surveys carried out in Mt. Kasigau from 2002–2006 recorded 338 wild woody plants of economical and medicinal value to the local communities (Medley and Kalibo 2007). Finally, Thijis et al. (2013) published a field guide to the woody plant species of the Taita Hills indigenous relics recording 184 species and their uses.

Studies on the vegetational structure and health monitoring of these forests indicated that, between the years 1955–2004 forest cover within Taita Hills has reduced by 50% and the notable increase of 2% has been due to a growth in exotic plantations. In the heavily disturbed sites, selective logging has led to the dominance of secondary successive species and there is also an indication of a loss of endemic species within forest patches due to fragmentation (Wilder et al. 1998; Chege and Bytebier 2005; Maria 2007; Rodgers et al. 2008; Spanhove and Lehouck 2008; Pellikka et al. 2009, 2013; Omoro et al. 2010; Aerts et al. 2011; Medley and Maingi 2014). The woodland vegetation along the slopes has unique floristic affinities and is an important source of renewable natural resources for the local community. By meeting the community’s needs, it helps in maintaining the evergreen forests for watershed protection (Rogo and Oguge 2000; Medley and Kalibo 2005; Himberg et al. 2009; Mwamidi et al. 2012; Medley et al. 2017). These hills exhibit a high biodiversity of both vascular and non-vascular plants (Enroth et al. 2013; 2019).

Floristic data for an area provides foundational tools for research, management, and policy making for the preservation, restoration, and use of biodiversity (Palmer et al. 1995). An unprecedented rate of extinction may exceed that of species recovery (Wheeler et al. 2012) and therefore prompting a crucial need for floristic inventories (Palmer et al. 1995). In Kenya, an updated flora checklist of several key areas of biodiversity importance such as Mount Elgon (Tweedie 1976), Shimba Hills (Luke 2005), Kakamega (Fischer et al. 2010), Mount Kenya (Zhou 2017), Cherengani Hills (Mbuni et al. 2019), Coastal forests of Kenya (Ngumbau et al. 2020), Aberdares Ranges Forest (Kipkoech et al. 2020), and South and North Nandi forests (Girma et al. 2015; Melly et al. 2020) have been documented.

This study aims to provide a broader description of the updated vascular plants of Taita Hills through a comprehensive species inventory. Our objectives were to document the vascular plants occurring in the entire Taita Hills area, to determine the range restricted taxa as well as the species of conservation concern and record the different life forms and habitats within the Taita Hills. The checklist will assist policy-makers to make more informed decisions and appropriate strategies in the conservation and management of biodiversity in the area, especially for the range-restricted taxa. It also provides a basis for further botanical studies in Taita Hills.

Materials and methods

Study area

The Taita Hills are located in the southeast part of Kenya within Taita Taveta county, forming the northernmost tip of the Eastern Arc Mountains. These ranges are divided into the Dabida, Mbololo, Sagala, and Kasigau massifs. Dabida and Mbololo are nearly intact, separated by a valley at 900 m a.s.l., while Sagala and Kasigau are isolated, 20 km and 50 km respectively, to the south (Pellikka et al. 2013; Medley and Maingi 2014). Adjacent to these main blocks are smaller hills, namely Maungu, Ndi, Maktau, and Mzinga, which have been included in this study (Fig. 1). This region lies between 38°08'E; 03°15'S and 38°45'E; 03°51'S, west of Voi town located along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway (A 109).

Figure 1. 

Location of the main Taita Hills blocks and adjacent hills showing the distribution of the forest patches.

The elevation of the surrounding plains ranges from 480–700 m a.s.l. (Medley and Kalibo 2005; Medley et al. 2010), from which there are steep rises within short distances forming a series of ridges peaking at 2228 m a.s.l. on Vuria summit (Beentje 1988; Thijis et al. 2013). The steepness of the rocks is due to the hardness of a quartzite cap overlaying soft metamorphic rocks (Beentje 1988; Conte 2010).

Forest fragments

The once intact montane forest on these hills has been reduced to 52 forest patches comprised of indigenous, mixed, and plantation forest vegetation (CEPF 2005). Administration of these forests is divided between two institutions, the Kenya Forest Service (KFS) overseeing 25 forest patches covering an area of 1310.41 ha, and the Taita Taveta County Council which oversees 24 forest patches (excluding Kitobo 160 ha, Salaita 40.5 ha, and Lotima 40.5 ha, which lie outside the scope of this study area) covering 7350.6 ha (CEPF 2005; Mwang’ombe 2005). Out of these, only 14 are indigenous relics varying greatly in size with the largest being Mbololo (220 ha) and the smallest Kituchenyi (<1 ha) (CEPF 2005; Thijis et al. 2013; Medley and Maingi 2014). Only three indigenous forests (Mbololo juu, Mwambirwa, and Ngangao) have been surveyed, leaving 11 forests lacking clear boundaries (Beentje 1988; CEPF 2005).

Climate

Due to their isolation, these hills form the first large barrier from the coastal strip trapping moisture-laden clouds. This moisture results in precipitation in the hilltop forests creating near permanent humid conditions all year round in areas with altitudes above 1400 m on the south-eastern slopes and 1700 m on the much drier north-western slopes (Pellikka et al. 2009). The climate of the area is under the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone creating two distinct rainy seasons. Long rains occur from March to June while short rains are experienced from October to December. The annual average rainfall varies from 500 mm on the foothills to 1910 mm in the hills (Beentje 1988; Salminen 2004; CEPF 2005). The mean annual temperature ranges from 16–18 °C in the hills and as high as 24.6 °C in the lower zones (Omoro et al. 2013).

Vegetation

Vegetation structure within the hills varies along the elevation gradient with the steep slopes providing very short transitional bands from one vegetational type to the other. Though there is a lack of continuous indigenous vegetative cover due to a matrix of forests, settlements, and farms, there are distinct changes in vegetation structure and phenology due to temperature and moisture variations (Medley and Kalibo 2007). In areas below ca. 650 m a.s.l., Acacia-Commiphora bushland vegetation forms a wildlife corridor in the plains between the Tsavo East and Tsavo West national parks around and on the foothills (Medley et al. 2017). Along the slopes, forest fragments and deciduous/evergreen montane woodland vegetation are nested within an agricultural rural landscape (Newmark 1998).

In the much drier north-western slopes, vegetation mostly comprises Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss. and Euphorbia bussei var. kibweziensis (N.E.Br.) S.Carter (Pellikka et al. 2013). On the hilltops, lies the isolated evergreen forest described as upland mist forest (Beentje 1988), Afromontane rainforest (Bytebier 2001; Aerts et al. 2011), or cloud forests (Pellikka et al. 2009; Medley and Maingi 2014). The potential natural vegetation community here is Ocotea-Podocarpus. However, these two species have undergone intensive selective harvesting and only a small number of mature individuals remain (Bytebier 2001).

Disturbance indicator species such as Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten, Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm., Maesa lanceolata Forssk., and Phoenix reclinata Jacq., are more common in these forest patches (Chege and Bytebier 2005; Omoro and Luukkanen 2011). Canopy species include Aningeria adolfi-friedericii (Engl.) Robyns & Gilbert, Albizia gummifera, Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms, Ocotea sp., Macaranga conglomerata Brenan, and Newtonia buchanannii (Baker) G.C.C.Gilbert & Boutique while understory species include Psychotria sp., Dracaena steudneri Engl., Rytigynia uhligii (K.Schum. & K.Krause) Verdc., Strombosia scheffleri Engl., Pauridiantha paucinervis (Hiern) Bremek. (Chege and Bytebier 2005; Thijis et al. 2013). Plantation forests of Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham., Hesperocyparis lusitanica (Mill.) Bartel, Eucalyptus saligna Sm, and Juniperus sp. exist within some of the indigenous fragments and in areas where denuded hilltops were reforested with exotic tree species (Beentje 1988; Omoro et al. 2013). Common invasive species found within Taita Hills include Maesopsis eminii Engl., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl, Lantana camara L., Biancae decapetala (Roth) O.Deg., and Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Spanhove and Lehouck 2008).

Land use

Increased demand for fertile land in the area due to a rise in human population over the past 250 years has led to the conversion of indigenous forests to agricultural land (Jaetzold et al. 2010; CEPF 2005). The bulk of farmlands are located in areas that have high agricultural potential or are forested between 800–1700 m (Bytebier 2001), with some farms extending to as low as 480 m in Kasigau (Medley and Kalibo 2005). The main cultivated crops are coffee, mangoes, cassava, banana, maize, and beans (Beentje 1988; Jaetzold et al. 2010). As a means to safeguard against crop failure due to changes in weather patterns, families own farmlands at different elevations and thus leading to more forest loss and fragmentation (Bytebier 2001; Madoffe et al. 2005).

Floristic survey, plant collection and nomenclature

Several field expeditions were carried out between the years 2015 and 2019 by the Sino-Africa Joint Research Center (SAJOREC) and Flora of Kenya Project (FOKP). The various forest fragments were surveyed in both the wet and dry seasons with an effort put to expand geographical coverage to areas where previous collections had been scarce. General walk-over surveys were carried out targeting fertile plant species which were thereafter photographed, tagged, and collected. The species habit, habitat, elevation, location, and collector’s details were recorded. The specimens were then pressed, dried, and deposited at the East African herbarium (EA) with duplicates deposited at the Hubei Institute of Botany herbarium (HIB). Identification of collected specimens was done using existing floral monographs (FTEA 1952–2012; Beentje 1994; Agnew 2013), as well as comparing collections with identified specimens in the EA.

Previous collections recorded from the Taita Hills were collated to supplement records from the field surveys. These were obtained from specimens in the EA, monographs, and published literature (FTEA 1952–2012; Beentje 1988, 1994; Medley and Kalibo 2007; Thijis et al. 2013), Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF 2021) (http://www.gbif.org) and the Integrated Digitized Biocollections (iDigBio 2021) (http://www.idigbio.org).

The conservation status of all vascular plants recorded was determined using the International Union for Conservation of Nature criterion (IUCN 2021) (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Existing range-restricted taxa were determined by searching all recorded species in the GBIF occurrence database (www.gbif.org), IUCN Red List (IUCN 2021) (https://www.iucnredlist.org) and the Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA 1952–2012). The current taxonomic circumscription, as well as the authorities for each taxon were determined through the Plants of the World Online (POWO 2019) (http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org), African Plant Database (http://africanplantdatabase.ch) (African Plant Database 2021), Tropicos (http://www.tropicos.org) (Tropicos 2021) and the Catalogue of Life (Roskov et al. 2021) (http://www.catalogueoflife.org).

Results

Species diversity

We recorded 1594 taxa (1530 species, 39 subspecies, 27 varieties, and two hybrids) representing 709 genera and 159 families of vascular plants within the Taita Hills. These constitute 60.89%, 42.78%, and 23.41% of all indigenous families, genera and species, and 35.48%, 16.89%, and 10.03% of all exotic families, genera and species represented in the flora of Kenya respectively (FTEA 1952–2012). Eighty-three, 17, 58 and 59 taxa represent threatened, endemic, near-endemic and exotic species in Taita Hills respectively. Diversity within the classes in sequence from the most to the least diverse was Magnoliopsida (75.91%), Liliopsida (14.95%), Polypodiopsida (8.22%), Lycopodiopsida (0.65%), Pinopsida (0.2%), and Cycadopsida (0.07%) (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. 

The classes of vascular plant species in Taita Hills.

The most speciose families are Fabaceae, 133 taxa (125 species), Rubiaceae, 88 (75), Asteraceae, 78 (77), and, Orchidaceae, 70 (69). Genera with 15 or more species include Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae), Asplenium (Aspleniaceae), Cyperus (Cyperaceae), Coleus (Lamiaceae) and, Ceropegia (Apocynaceae) (Table 1).

Table 1.

The largest families and genera of vascular plants in Taita Hills.

Family Genera Species Genus Species
Fabaceae 55 125 Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) 34
Asteraceae 46 77 Asplenium L. (Aspleniaceae) 31
Rubiaceae 41 75 Cyperus L. (Cyperaceae) 30
Orchidaceae 28 69 Coleus Lour. (Lamiaceae) 21
Apocynaceae 34 64 Ceropegia L. (Apocynaceae) 15
Malvaceae 21 58 Commiphora Jacq. (Burseraceae) 15
Euphorbiaceae 13 55 Crotalaria L. (Fabaceae) 15
Lamiaceae 20 50 Solanum L. (Solanaceae) 15
Poaceae 25 47 Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae) 14
Aspleniaceae 44 44 Ficus Tourn. ex L. (Moraceae) 14
Cyperaceae 9 42 Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) 13

Plant growth forms

The growth habit(s) of each species was recorded using a simple classification into six categories: trees, shrubs, lianas, subshrubs, climbers and herbs. Species that express variations in their growth habit are recorded in two or more categories. Herbs represented the highest percentage of life forms with 711 taxa (573 terrestrial and 138 epiphytic), followed by shrubs with 391 taxa, trees with 369 taxa, climbers with 123 taxa, subshrubs with 101 taxa, and lianas with 74 taxa. (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. 

Growth form of vascular plants in Taita Hills.

Plant species global conservation status

According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2021), a total of 484 of the plants found in Taita Hills were evaluated. Of these taxa, 63 are threatened while 20 are near threatened. Two taxa are recorded as Critically Endangered (CR), 27 as Endangered (EN), 34 as Vulnerable (VU), 20 as Near Threatened (NT), 399 as of Least Concern (LC) and two taxa as Data Deficient (DD) (Table 2, 3). The families with the most numbers of species in need of conservation concern are Rubiaceae (17 taxa), Orchidaceae (eight taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (six taxa). In terms of life forms, trees were the highest in number forming 35% of the total. They were followed by herbs 32%, shrubs 29%, subshrubs 2%, climbers and lianas 1% each (Table 7).

Table 2.

Number of plant taxa and their proportion in each IUCN category.

IUCN Category No. of taxa Percentage
Critically Endangered (CR) 2 0.13%
Endangered (EN) 27 1.70%
Vulnerable (VU) 34 2.13%
Near Threatened (NT) 20 1.25%
Least Concern (LC) 399 25.03%
Data Deficient (DD) 2 0.13%
Not Evaluated (N/A) 1110 69.63%
Total 1594 100%
Table 3.

List of threatened and near-threatened plant taxa found in Taita Hills, their IUCN category and current status.

Family Species Life form Category Status Version
Acanthaceae Crossandra friesiorum Mildbr. Herb VU Decreasing 3.1
Acanthaceae Dyschoriste keniensis subsp. glandulifera Malombe, Mwachala & Vollesen Subshrub VU Decreasing 3.1
Acanthaceae Isoglossa candelabrum Lindau Shrub EN Unknown 3.1
Acanthaceae Justicia galeata Hedrén Shrub VU Decreasing 3.1
Acanthaceae Neuracanthus tephrophyllus subsp. tsavoensis Bidgood & Brummitt Subshrub EN Decreasing 3.1
Araliaceae Astropanax myrianthus (Baker) Lowry, G.M.Plunkett & al. Liana/Tree NT Decreasing 3.1
Araliaceae Polyscias stuhlmannii Harms Tree EN Unknown 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe ballyi Reynolds Tree EN Decreasing 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe classenii Reynolds Herb CR Decreasing 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe deserti A.Berger Shrub NT Unknown 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe penduliflora Baker Shrub EN Unknown 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe volkensii Engl. subsp. volkensii Shrub NT Decreasing 3.1
Asteraceae Bothriocline glomerata (O.Hoffm. & Muschl.) C.Jeffrey Shrub EN Unknown 3.1
Asteraceae Brachylaena huillensis O.Hoffm. Shrub/Tree NT Unspecified 2.3
Asteraceae Solanecio mirabilis (Muschl.) C.Jeffrey Herb EN Decreasing 3.1
Aspleniaceae Thelypteris usambarensis (Holttum) Christenh. Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Burmanniaceae Gymnosiphon usambaricus Engl. Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Burseraceae Commiphora campestris Engl. Tree NT Unknown 2.3
Burseraceae Commiphora oblongifolia J.B.Gillett Shrub/Tree NT Unknown 3.1
Cucurbitaceae Gerrardanthus grandiflorus Gilg ex Cogn. Climber NT Decreasing 3.1
Cyperaceae Bulbostylis hispidula subsp. halophila (Lye) R.W.Haines Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Cyperaceae Cyperus purpureoviridis Lye Herb NT Stable 3.1
Dennstaedtiaceae Blotiella hieronymi (Kümmerle) Pic. Serm. Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia bussei Pax var. bussei Shrub EN Unknown 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia furcata N.E.Br. Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia petricola P.R.O.Bally & S.Carter Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia tenuispinosa Gilli var. tenuispinosa Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga conglomerata Brenan Tree VU Decreasing 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Milbraedia carpinifolia (Pax) Hutch. var. carpinifolia Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Fabaceae Craibia brevicaudata (Vatke) Dunn Tree NT Unspecified 2.3
Fabaceae Crotalaria ukambensis Vatke Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Fabaceae Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. Shrub/Tree NT Unspecified 2.3
Fabaceae Millettia oblata subsp. teitensis J.B.Gillett Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus teitensis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh. Herb CR Decreasing 3.1
Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus montanus Oliv. Herb NT Unknown 3.1
Iridaceae Gladiolus usambarensis Marais ex Goldblatt Herb NT Unknown 3.1
Lamiaceae Coleus triangularis (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton Herb NT Decreasing 3.1
Lamiaceae Vitex fischeri var. keniensis (Turrill) Meerts Tree EN Decreasing 3.1
Lauraceae Ocotea kenyensis (Chiov.) Robyns & R.Wilczek Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Loranthaceae Englerina drummondii Balle ex Polhill & Wiens Herb VU Decreasing 3.1
Lycopodiaceae Huperzia holstii (Hieron.) Pic.Serm. Herb NT Unknown 3.1
Malvaceae Hibiscus greenwayi Baker f. Shrub VU Unknown 3.1
Melastomataceae Memecylon teitense Wickens Tree VU Unknown 3.1
Moraceae Dorstenia goetzei Engl. Herb NT Decreasing 3.1
Moraceae Dorstenia warneckei Engl. Herb NT Decreasing 3.1
Moraceae Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.Berg Tree NT Unspecified 2.3
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Tree NT Stable 3.1
Myrtaceae Syzygium micklethwaitii Verdc. Tree VU Decreasing 3.1
Myrtaceae Syzygium subcordatum (Verdc.) Byng &N.Snow Tree VU Decreasing 3.1
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. Herb EN Decreasing 3.1
Ochnaceae Campylospermum scheffleri (Engl. & Gilg) Farron Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Orchidaceae Ansellia africana Lindl. Herb VU Decreasing 3.1
Orchidaceae Cynorkis buchwaldiana subsp. braunii (Kraenzl.) Summerh. Herb NT Decreasing 3.1
Orchidaceae Cynorkis uncata (Rolfe) Kraenzl. Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Orchidaceae Polystachya caespitifica subsp. latilabris (Summerh.) P.J Cribb & Podz. Herb VU Unknown 3.1
Orchidaceae Polystachya disiformis P.J. Cribb Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Orchidaceae Polystachya teitensis P.J.Cribb Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Orchidaceae Tridactyle cruciformis Summerh. Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Orchidaceae Ypsilopus tanneri (P.J.Cribb) D’haijère & Stévart Herb EN Unknown 3.1
Phyllanthaceae Meineckia ovata (E.A.Bruce) J.F.Brunel ex Radcl.-Sm. Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Podocarpaceae Afrocarpus usambarensis (Pilg.) C.N.Page Tree EN Decreasing 3.1
Rosaceae Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Canthium oligocarpum subsp. intermedium Bridson Shrub/Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Coffea fadenii Bridson Tree EN Unknown 3.1
Rubiaceae Coffea zanguebariae Lour. Shrub VU Unknown 3.1
Rubiaceae Empogona ovalifolia var. glabrata (Oliv.) Tosh & Robbr. Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Empogona ovalifolia var. taylorii (S.Moore) Tosh & Robbr. Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Oxyanthus pyriformis subsp. brevitubus Bridson Shrub/Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Oxyanthus pyriformis subsp. longitubus Bridson Shrub/Tree EN Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Pavetta sepium K.Schum. var. sepium Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Pavetta teitana K.Schum. Shrub VU Decreasing 3.1
Rubiaceae Psychotria alsophila K.Schum. Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Psychotria crassipetala E.M.A. Petit Tree EN Decreasing 3.1
Rubiaceae Psychotria cyathicalyx E.M.A.Petit Tree VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Psychotria pseudoplatyphylla E.M.A.Petit Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Psychotria petitii Verdc. Tree EN Decreasing 3.1
Rubiaceae Psychotria pseudoplatyphylla E.M.A.Petit Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rubiaceae Psychotria taitensis Verdc. Tree EN Unknown 3.1
Rubiaceae Psydrax polhillii Bridson Shrub VU Decreasing 3.1
Rubiaceae Rytigynia eickii (K.Schum. & K.Krause) Bullock Shrub VU Unspecified 2.3
Rutaceae Vepris fadenii (Kokwaro) Mziray Tree VU Decreasing 3.1
Salicaceae Bivinia jalbertii Tul. Tree NT Unspecified 2.3
Zamiaceae Encephalartos kisambo Faden & Beentje Tree EN Decreasing 3.1

Endemic and near-endemic species

Species with a geographic restricted range are treated in this checklist as either strict endemics (i.e. occurring only within Taita Hills forests) or as near endemics which are further subdivided into:

i. Eastern Arc endemics – Those taxa whose geographical scope of occurrence is limited to the Eastern Arc Mountain ranges.

ii. Taita-Taveta District endemics – Those taxa restricted to Taita Taveta district within the study area but not within the forest fragments.

iii. Regional Endemics – Those taxa that are extant in 10 or fewer locations, or are threatened and in decline according to the IUCN, or cover a small area of occupancy (<10, 000 km2) such that the population size in Taita Hills is significant for the survival of the species (Darbyshire et al. 2019).

This checklist contains 17 strict endemics and 58 near endemics (Fig. 4) (Tables 4, 5). These are distributed in 32 families and 55 genera. They represent 4.9% of the total species recorded in this area. The taxa-rich families are Rubiaceae (12 taxa), Orchidaceae (seven taxa), Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae (six taxa each) and Fabaceae (five taxa). In terms of life forms, herbs formed the bulk being 37% of the total, followed by shrubs 26%, trees 24%, climbers 8%, lianas 3% and subshrubs 2% (Table 7).

Table 4.

Number of endemic and near-endemic species found in the Taita Hills.

Region Number of species
Taita relicts 17
Eastern Arc Mountains (Excluding Taita Hills) 30
Taita district 2
Regional Endemics 26
Total 75
Table 5.

Endemic and near-endemic plants of Taita Hills.

Family Species Life form Distribution
Acanthaceae Dyschoriste keniensis subsp. glandulifera Malombe, Mwachala & Vollesen Subshrub K7, T2, 3
Acanthaceae Isoglossa candelabrum Lindau Shrub EAM
Apocynaceae Ceropegia distincta var. rostrata Masinde Climber Taita District
Apocynaceae Ceropegia konasita Masinde Climber K7
Apocynaceae Ceropegia verticillata Masinde Climber Mbololo
Apocynaceae Huernia andreaeana (Rauh) L.C.Leach Herb K7
Apocynaceae Orbea taitica Bruyns Herb K4, 7
Apocynaceae Tylophora sp. B of FTEA Climber Ngangao
Asphodelaceae Aloe classenii Reynolds Herb K7
Asphodelaceae Aloe penduliflora Baker Shrub K7
Asteraceae Bothriocline glomerata (O.Hoffm. & Muschl.) C.Jeffrey Shrub K4, 7, T3
Asteraceae Solanecio buchwaldii (O.Hoffm.) C.Jeffrey Shrub EAM
Balsaminaceae Impatiens engleri subsp. pubescens Grey-Wilson Herb Ngangao
Balsaminaceae Impatiens teitensis Grey-Wilson Herb Taita Hills
Burmanniaceae Gymnosiphon usambaricus Engl. Herb EAM
Cucurbitaceae Gerrardanthus grandiflorus Cogn. Climber K7, T3
Cucurbitaceae Zehneria tuberifera G.W.Hu & Q.F.Wang Climber Ngangao
Cyperaceae Cyperus scott-elliotii Govaerts Herb Taita District
Dennstaedtiaceae Blotiella hieronymi (Kümmerle) Pic.Serm. Herb EAM
Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum eickii Ruhland Shrub/Liana EAM
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia classenii P.R.O.Bally & S.Carter Shrub Kasigau
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia furcata N.E.Br. Herb K7, T2, 3
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia neoglaucescens Bruyns Shrub/Tree K7, T3, 5, 6
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia petricola P.R.O.Bally & S.Carter Herb K7
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha velutina Pax & K.Hoffm. Subshrub K7
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga conglomerata Brenan Tree EAM
Fabaceae Crotalaria lukwangulensis Harms Shrub/Liana EAM
Fabaceae Cynometra sp. A of FTEA Tree EAM
Fabaceae Millettia oblata Dunn subsp. burttii J.B.Gillett Shrub/Tree K7, T5
Fabaceae Millettia oblata subsp. teitensis J.B.Gillett Tree EAM
Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus kirkii Hook.f. Herb EAM
Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus saxorum Engl. Herb EAM
Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus teitensis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh. Herb Mbololo
Hymenophyllaceae Hymenophyllum sp. A of FTEA Herb EAM
Iridaceae Gladiolus rupicola Vaupel Herb EAM
Iridaceae Gladiolus usambarensis Marais ex Goldblatt Herb K7, T2, 3, 6
Lamiaceae Coleus triangularis (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton Herb EAM
Lamiaceae Leucas oligocephala var. usambarica Sebald Herb EAM
Linderniaceae Linderniella brevidens (Skan) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll. Herb EAM
Malphigiaceae Acridocarpus taitensis Mwadime, Ngumbau & Q.Luke Liana Ngangao
Malvaceae Abutilon mauritianum var. grandiflorum Verdc. Shrub EAM
Melastomataceae Memecylon greenwayi Brenan Tree EAM
Melastomataceae Memecylon teitense Wickens Shrub/Tree Ngangao/Mbololo
Moraceae Dorstenia christenhuszii M.W.Chase & M.F.Fay Herb Mbololo
Moraceae Dorstenia warneckei Engl. Herb K7, T3, 6
Myrtaceae Syzygium micklethwaitii Verdc. Tree K7, T2, 3, 6
Myrtaceae Syzygium subcordatum (Verdc.) Byng & N.Snow Tree EAM
Ochnaceae Campylospermum scheffleri (Engl. & Gilg) Farron Tree EAM
Orchidaceae Cynorkis buchwaldiana subsp. braunii (Kraenzl.) Summerh. Herb EAM
Orchidaceae Cynorkis uncata (Rolfe) Kraenzl. Herb EAM
Orchidaceae Microcoelia smithii (Rolfe) Summerh. Herb K7, T3, 6
Orchidaceae Polystachya teitensis P.J.Cribb Herb Maungu/Kasigau
Orchidaceae Rhipidoglossum leedalii (P.J.Cribb) Farminhão & Stévart Herb EAM
Orchidaceae Tridactyle cruciformis Summerh. Herb K6, 7, T3
Orchidaceae Ypsilopus tanneri (P.J.Cribb) D’haijère & Stévart Herb EAM
Orobanchaceae Harveya kenyensis Hepper Herb K7, 4
Phyllanthaceae Meineckia ovata (E.A.Bruce) J.F. Brunel ex Radcl.-Sm. Shrub Ngangao
Phyllanthaceae Phyllanthus mittenianus Hutch. Shrub K7
Rubiaceae Chassalia discolor subsp. taitensis Verdc. Shrub Taita Hills
Rubiaceae Coffea fadenii Bridson Tree EAM
Rubiaceae Galium brenanii Ehrend. & Verdc. Herb K7, T2, 3, 6
Rubiaceae Oxyanthus pyriformis subsp. longitubus Bridson Shrub/Tree K7
Rubiaceae Parapentas battiscombei Verdc. Herb Ngangao, K4
Rubiaceae Psychotria alsophila K.Schum. Shrub/Tree Ngangao, T2, 3
Rubiaceae Psychotria crassipetala E.M.A.Petit Shrub/Tree K7
Rubiaceae Psychotria petitii Verdc. Shrub/Tree Ngangao/Mbololo
Rubiaceae Psychotria pseudoplatyphylla E.M.A.Petit Shrub/Tree Taita, T2, 3
Rubiaceae Psychotria sp. B of FTEA Shrub Ngangao
Rubiaceae Psychotria taitensis Verdc. Tree Kasigau
Rubiaceae Rytigynia eickii (K.Schum. & K.Krause) Bullock Shrub/Tree EAM
Rutaceae Vepris fadenii (Kokwaro) Mziray Shrub/Tree Taita Hills
Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris usambarensis (Holttum) Christenh. Herb EAM
Thymelaeaceae Dicranolepis usambarica Gilg Shrub/Tree EAM
Vitaceae Cyphostemma braunii (Gilg & M.Brandt) Desc. Climber EAM
Zamiaceae Encephalartos kisambo Faden & Beentje Tree EAM
Table 6.

List of exotic plant species recorded in Taita Hills.

Family Species Habit Status
Amaranthaceae Alternanthera pungens Kunth Herb Introduced
Amaranthaceae Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC. Herb Imtroduced
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus graecizans subsp. thellungianus (Nevski) Gusev Herb Introduced
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus hybridus L. subsp. Hybridus Herb Introduced
Amaranthaceae Gomphrena celosioides Mart. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Amaranthaceae Guilleminea densa (Willd. ex Schult.) Moq. Herb Introduced
Annonaceae Annona cherimola Mill. Shrub Cultivated
Apiaceae Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P.Wilson Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Apocynaceae Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T.Aiton Shrub Naturalized-Introduced
Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don Tree Cultivated-Naturalized
Apocynaceae Gomphocarpus physocarpus E.Mey. Herb Introduced
Asteraceae Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. Herb Introduced
Asteraceae Erigeron karvinskianus DC. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Asteraceae Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C.Mohr Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Asteraceae Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Asteraceae Senecio vulgaris L. Herb Introduced
Asteraceae Tagetes minuta L. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Asteraceae Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray Subshrub Naturalized-Introduced
Asteraceae Tridax procumbens L. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Brassicaceae Lepidium bonariense L. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Cactaceae Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. Shrub Introduced
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe miniata Hilsenb. & Bojer ex Tul. Herb Cultivated
Cupressaceae Callitris preissii Miq. Tree Introduced-Cultivated
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia serpens Kunth Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha curcas L. Shrub/Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. Herb Naturalized-Cultivated
Fabaceae Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Fabaceae Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Fabaceae Biancaeae decapetala (Roth) O.Deg. Shrub Cultivated
Fabaceae Calliandra houstoniana (Mill.) Standl. Shrub Naturalized-Introduced
Fabaceae Indigofera tinctoria L. var. tinctoria Subshrub Introduced
Fabaceae Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Tree Cultivated
Fabaceae Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Shrub Introduced
Fabaceae Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Subshrub Naturalized-Introduced
Lamiaceae Mesosphaerum pectinatum (L.) Kuntze Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Lauraceae Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Malvaceae Callianthe megapotamica (A.Spreng.) Dorr Shrub Introduced-Cultivated
Malvaceae Hibiscus lunariifolius Willd. Herb Introduced
Malvaceae Malva verticillata L. Herb Introduced
Meliaceae Melia azedarach L. Tree Introduced
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Tree Cultivated-Naturalized
Myrtaceae Psidium cattleianum Sabine Tree Cultivated
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava L. Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Myrtaceae Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Tree Cultivated
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Climber Cultivated-Naturalized
Poaceae Coix lacryma-jobi L. Herb Introduced
Poaceae Setaria sulcata Raddi Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Proteaceae Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R.Br. Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Rosaceae Rubus niveus Thunb. Shrub Naturalized-Introduced
Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius Sm. Shrub Naturalized-Introduced
Solanaceae Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. Herb Cultivated
Solanaceae Nicotiana tabacum L. Herb Cultivated-Naturalized
Solanaceae Physalis peruviana L. Herb Naturalized-Introduced
Solanaceae Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. Shrub Introduced
Solanaceae Solanum mauritianum Scop. Shrub/Tree Naturalized-Introduced
Solanaceae Solanum seaforthianum Andrews Climber Naturalized-Introduced
Verbanaceae Lantana camara L. Shrub Naturalized
Verbanaceae Stachytarpheta urticifolia Sims Subshrub Naturalized-Introduced
Table 7.

Life form representatives of different categories of vascular plant species in Taita Hills.

Life forms Number of vascular plant species
Endemic and near-endemic Threatened and near-threatened Exotic
Trees 22 31 13
Shrubs 26 25 12
Lianas 3 1
Subshrubs 2 2 4
Herbs 31 29 28
Climbers 7 1 2
Figure 4. 

Some Taita Hills endemic and near endemic plant species A Chassalia discolor subsp. taitensis B-C Impatiens teitensis Grey-Wilson subsp. teitensis D Meineckia ovata E Impatiens engleri subsp. pubescens F Memecylon teitense G Streptocarpus teitensis.

Figure 5. 

Photographs of new plant species recorded from Taita Hills A Acridocarpus taitensis B Momordica calantha C Zehneria tuberifera.

Discussion and conclusion

The findings of this study validate Taita Hills as a floristically important area with a high diversity of plants as well as rare and endemic plant species. Its unique geographical position near the coastal strip and within an arid and semi-arid landscape provides for multiple habitats which subsequently support a wide range of taxa. The 1594 total taxa recorded represent 25.33% of all vascular plants found in Kenya (Zhou et al. 2017). This area also has a significant portion of lycophytes and pteridophytes representing 8.72% of all total records in this study.

The most species-rich families are Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae. These results concur with similar studies conducted in other tropical rainforests such as the Coastal forests of Kenya (Ngumbau et al. 2020) and the Nandi forests (Melly et al. 2020), as well as other forests in the Afromontane archipelago of East Africa such as the Aberdares forests (Kipkoech et al. 2020), Agama forest (Addi et al. 2016), Afromontane forests of Ethiopia (Senbeta et al. 2014), and the Jibat Afromontane forest (Burju et al. 2013). Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, and Rubiaceae are the most important families in Taita Hills in terms of species richness, endemism, and conservation status as all of them have substantial numbers in all three categories. Herbs were the most prevalent growth forms recorded in Taita Hills, especially in the forest habitats in both the understory and margins. However, woody plant life forms also formed a considerable amount of the total percentage of recorded plant life forms supporting the observation by Senbeta et al. (2014) that moist evergreen Afromontane forests sustain a high density of woody plants. Exotic species recorded in this study represent 3.85% of the total number of species. Solanaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae have the highest number of exotic species. This concurs with the study done by Ngumbau et al. (2020) on the coastal forests of Kenya. A large number of these exotic species have colonized natural habitats and have also been listed as invasive (Spanhove and Lehouck 2008; Thijis et al. 2013). Mitigating the introduction of exotic tree species and levels of disturbance within indigenous forests might increase the recruitment of indigenous tree seedlings and subsequently the restoration of the original native forest status (Omoro and Luukkanen 2011).

The hilltop mist forests have been of great botanical appeal owing to their unique flora with Afromontane and rainforest elements (Beentje 1988, Thijis et al. 2013). The discovery of a new species and a new record within the rainforest fragments show that these forests are a biodiversity reservoir with more potential for scientific exploration. However, the high human population within the Taita-Taveta district resides within the hills and the demand for more agricultural and settlement land has put additional anthropogenic pressures on the already severely fragmented landscape (Bytebier 2001; CEPF 2005). Threatened and near-threatened taxa in Taita Hills according to IUCN (2021) represent 4.11% and 1.31% of the total taxa recorded. Although these figures might be small compared to the total, the probable loss of the already small habitats puts these species at a higher extinction risk on a local scale. A high percentage of species from Taita Hills have not been assessed (69.63%). Out of those that are assessed, most have been evaluated to be of least concern and thus are not facing imminent risk. Nonetheless, some of the species, though evaluated to be of LC, are also indicated as decreasing in the wild, thus presenting a potential risk to such, in the absence of strict conservation measures. In some cases, the global assessment might not reflect the real picture in specific local sites. The populations of species such Kuloa usambarensis (Engl.) Trofimov & Rohwer and Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R.Br. ex Mirb., both evaluated as LC, and Mitragyna rubrostipulata (K.Schum.) Havil., whose status has not been evaluated according to IUCN, have decreased to critical levels due to selective harvesting (Beentje 1988; Thijis et al. 2013). Ngangao forest fragment was recorded to have the highest number of range restricted taxa while many of the lesser fragments were recorded to have single endemics. This poses a great risk as there have been indications of fragmentation leading to the loss of endemic species. There is a need for a localized Red List for the forests to determine the level of species threats.

The Taita Hills have been part of the local community’s culture and the people have utilized these forests for many years. More community-based conservation programs should be introduced to promote the sustainable utilization of renewable forest resources while promoting regeneration (Himberg 2004). The regeneration of indigenous forests will not only improve the quality of habitat for endemic plants but also increase habitable ecosystems for range-restricted birds within the different fragments (Mwang’ombe 2005). Previously restored indigenous forests have exhibited a high abundance in avifaunal species compared to exotic forests. Restorations especially between larger fragments can act as migration corridors for endemic bird species and subsequently increase indigenous vegetation cover while mitigating the extinction risk of range restricted species (Borghesio et al. 2017). In addition to an increase in natural forest cover, native tree regeneration will protect the plant diversity within the fragments as studies in Taita Hills have shown that indigenous forests tend to have a higher plant diversity compared to exotic forests (Omoro et al. 2010). The comprehensive listing of endemic and threatened species in this study will serve as a guideline to enable policy-makers to make more informed and appropriate decisions beneficial for the conservation and management of biodiversity in the area. It also sets a foundation for other floristic studies in these forests and updates the plant biodiversity records of the Taita hills ranges.

Checklist

This checklist records comprehensively the vascular plants of the Taita Hills in their respective families which have been listed alphabetically. The families are grouped into six classes namely Lycopodiopsida, Polypodiopsida, Cycadopsida, Pinopsida, Liliopsida and Magnoliopsida. Taxa of Lycopodiopsida and Polypodiopsida are classified based on the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group I system (PPG 1 2016), Pinopsida and Cycadopsida according to Christenhusz et al. (2011), while Liliopsida and Magnoliopsida are classified, based on the APG IV system (Chase et al. 2016). For each species recorded, information on its life form, habitat, altitudinal range of occurrence (in meters) and voucher number(s) is listed. Species names that are succeeded with a letter, (e.g. A), indicate that they have not been described yet. Those with a genus name succeeded by “sp” indicate that they were listed as such and cannot be identified further as the specimen material available is not sufficient to make a satisfactory identification to the specific level. In the case where no elevational information was available for a species; an elevation estimate of the named place locality was made using Google Earth. Exotic species are marked by an asterisk (*) before the species name, while species names preceded by (E) and (NE) signify endemic and near-endemic species respectively. Species of conservation concern are indicated as such using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Herbaria are listed according to their respective codes: EA (East African Herbarium, Nairobi, Kenya) and HIB (Hubei Institute of Botany, Wuhan, China). SAJIT means Sino-Africa Joint Investigation Team, NMK refers to the National Museum of Kenya and KEFRI stands for the Kenya Forestry Research Institute.

Part 1. Lycopodiopsida

F1. LYCOPODIACEAE

3 Genera, 6 species

Huperzia verticillata (L.f.) Trevis. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Intermediate and montane evergreen forest, 1440–1550 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 71/53 & 91 (EA).

Lycopodium clavatum L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, 1800–2200 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 648, Faden RB & Evans A 70/504, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4306, Gillett JB 17252 (EA).

Palhinhaea cernua (L.) Franco & Vasc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas in evergreen forest, loose sand, 1200–2200 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 416 & 1135, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1116 (EA), Faden RB & Evans A 70/508 (EA).

Phlegmariurus durus (Pic. Serm.) A.R.Field & Bostock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest, dry evergreen mist forest, intermediate wetter evergreen forest, 900–1500 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 5367, Faden RB, Evans A & Githui M 70/180, 478 & 740, Faden RB et al. 71/157, Dale IR 3788, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 963 (EA).

Phlegmariurus holstii (Hieron.) A.R.Field & Bostock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 1350–1875 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 5351B, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 294, 415 & 772, Faden RB et al. 69/831, 71/55 & 158 (EA). Near Threatened.

Phlegmariurus ophioglossoides (Lam.) A.R.Field & Bostock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Podocarpus upland evergreen forest, Newtonia, Macaranga mist forest, 1800–2200 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 619 & 650, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 108, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4321, Faden RB et al. 70/490 (EA).

F2. SELAGINELLACEAE

1 Genus, 4 species

Selaginella caffrorum (Milde) Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest on seepage areas on sandstone, 1050–1585 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 896, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/241, Schippers RR K312 (EA).

Selaginella goudotiana Spring – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest floor, rocks near stream sides, 1150–1250 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/985 (EA).

Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A.Braun – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist ground in forest, near streams, 1350–2200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004539 (EA, HIB), Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 6617, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4320, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 75 & 1133, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1089, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/324, Faden RB et al. 70/492 (EA).

Selaginella mittenii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet rocks of streams and waterfalls in semi-deciduous woodland and evergreen forest, 790–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 69/446, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/968 (EA).

Part 2. Polypodiopsida

F3. ADIANTACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Hemionitis doniana (J.Sm. & Hook.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland evergreen forest, woodland on damp banks, ca. 914 m. Hildebrandt JM 2477a (EA).

Hemionitis schweinfurthii (Hieron.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrops, pavements, shady gullies in woodland and bushland, 600–1875 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3187, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri M 70/965, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 309, Schippers RR K311 (EA).

F4. ANEMIACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Anemia caffrorum (L.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, ca. 2103 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K264, Gardner HM 2982 (EA).

Anemia vestita (Baker) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, roadside banks, 1500–2170 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 624, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/246, Faden RB, Evans A & Wolf T 69/833 (EA).

F5. ASPLENIACEAE

4 Genera, 44 species

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shaded areas in mist forest, rock crevices, road banks, 1900–2134 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 70/471 & 72/250, Schippers RR K270 (EA).

Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest undergrowth, 1400–2000 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 390, Mwachala G et al. EW3070A, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 608, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 260 & 270, Schippers RR K243, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 56, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 924, Faden RB & Evans A 69/325 & 838, Faden RB et al 71/11 (EA).

Asplenium albersii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 424 & 959, Faden RB, Evans A & Smeenk C 70/530 & 556 (EA).

Asplenium anisophyllum Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1500–1700 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4184, Faden RB et al. 69/826 (EA).

Asplenium barteri Hook. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, near river, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 445, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 634, NMK Taita Hills Exped. 778A, 782 & 1126, Faden RB et al. 71/3 (EA).

Asplenium boltonii Hook. ex Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1500–2175 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 402, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 272a & 312, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/327, Faden RB 69/874 & 70/465 (EA).

Asplenium buettneri Hieron. ex Brause – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shallow soil on rocks in forest, 1275–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 316, Faden RB et al. 70/526 (EA).

Asplenium christii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, stream banks, 1400–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 393, Schippers RR K240, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 261, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1091, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/321, Faden RB et al. 70/558 & 71/4 (EA).

Asplenium dregeanum Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, waterfalls, along streams, 1250–1433 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5362, Hemp A 5373, Schippers RR K323, Faden RB, Evans A, Rathbun G 69/468, Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F 70/993, Reichstein T 2894, Napper DM, Gillett JB, Bally PRO 2169 (EA).

Asplenium elliottii C.H.Wright – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Undergrowth in moist forest, 1425–2195 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 458, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al 592, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 272 & 389, Faden RB & Githui M 70/728, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/331, Schippers RR K280 (EA).

Asplenium erectum Bory ex Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest floor, along streams on banks, 1250–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 410, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 267 & 397, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/333, Schippers RR K245, K252, K296 & K322, Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F 70/534, 994 & 71/16, Joanna B 9087 (EA).

Asplenium friesiorum C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1425–2134 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 398, Schippers RR K266, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 314 & 968, Faden RB et al. 69/821 (EA).

Asplenium holstii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet evergreen forest on moist rocks, logs, under waterfalls, 1350–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 394 & 417, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4145, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 320, 418 & 966, Schippers RR K256 & 325, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17133, Faden RB et al. 69/834, 70/466 & 555 (EA).

Asplenium hypomelas Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist primary forest on tree ferns or terrestrial, 1350–2050 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 443, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 618, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1083, Faden RB et al. 69/820 (EA).

Asplenium inaequilaterale Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest on rocks in deep shade, streams banks, 1425–1925 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 459, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 409, Schippers RR K239 & 324, Faden RB et al. 69/863 (EA).

Asplenium linckii Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deeply shaded wet evergreen forest, 1425–1925 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 395, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 584, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 270 & 410, Schippers RR K238 & 255A, Faden RB & Faden AJ 69/865 & 77/329, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4340, Lubai lK HB 26 (EA).

Asplenium loxoscaphoides Baker. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, on rocks, along river, 1400–1800 m. Voucher: Kamau P, Christenhusz MJM, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 641 (EA).

Asplenium gemmiferum Schrad. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1700–1950 m. Voucher: Kamau P, Christenhusz MJM, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 590 (EA).

Asplenium macrophlebium Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Intermediate wet evergreen forest, 1425–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 424, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 583 & 589, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 321 & 960, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/323, Faden RB & Githui M 70/754 (EA).

Asplenium mannii Hook. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Epiphytic in moist forest, 1530–1630 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 70/488 (EA).

Asplenium megalura Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, often near streams, 1250–1950 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 436, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 598, Faden RB et al. 71/49 & 137, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 965 (EA).

Asplenium normale D.Don – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist primary forest, 1200–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 386, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4121b, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 375, Faden RB et al. 69/829 (EA).

Asplenium variabile Hook. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, along streams and waterfalls, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 403 & 425, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 640, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 366, Bytebier B 1179, Faden RB et al. 70/561 (EA).

Asplenium peteri Bech. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist or swamp forest, ca. 1480 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ et al. 5368 (EA).

Asplenium rutifolium (Bergius) Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist and dry evergreen forest, dry rocks in shade, river banks, 762–1780 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 434, Schippers RR K317A, Faden RB et al. 69/327 & 70/451, Hildebrandt JM 2470 (EA).

Asplenium sandersonii Hook. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Epiphytic on tree trunks in forest, 950–1400 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3166, Faden RB et al. 69/470, Joanna B 8844, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4374 (EA).

Asplenium simii A.F.Braithw. & Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Epiphytic in mist forest, 1500–1630 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 833, Faden RB et al. 70/484 (EA).

Asplenium smedsii Pic. Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist upland forest, ca. 1830 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/327 (EA).

Asplenium sp. A – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Epiphytic in forest, 1400–1800 m. Voucher: Kamau P, Christenhusz MJM, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 637 (EA).

Asplenium stuhlmannii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest on rock outcrops and crevices, 1275–1325 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 70/520 (EA).

Asplenium theciferum (Kunth) Mett. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Low to high epiphyte in forest, woodland or thicket, on rocks, 1067–1950 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 397, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 591, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 672, Schippers RR K251 & 292, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4396, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 197, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 826, Faden RB et al. 70/480 (EA).

Hymenasplenium unilaterale (Lam.) Hayata – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, near streams and waterfalls, 1440–1950 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 431, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 600, Faden RB et al. 70/470, 540 & 71/245, van Someren C 850, Faden RB et al. s.n. (EA).

Phegopteris cruciata (Willd.) Mett. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streambank in wet evergreen forest, moist sites, 1440–2200 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 70/500 & 577 (EA).

Thelypteris bergiana (Schltdl.) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest along rivulet and in wet places, 1219–2170 m. Vouchers: Reichstein & Bally PRO 2917, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1150, Schippers RR K275 & 301, Faden RB et al. 70/499 (EA).

Thelypteris chaseana Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest along stream sides, riverine forest, river valleys with Terminalia, Combretum, Acacia, 800–1525 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 631, Faden RB, Evans A, Githui M, Osborn R, Smeenk C 71/243 (EA).

Thelypteris confluens (Thunb.) C.V.Morton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy areas, 1800–1925 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Evans A 69/885 (EA).

Thelypteris dentata (Forssk.) E.P.St.John – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, usually riverine, 870–1550 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K235, 248 & 304, Faden RB et al. 70/463 & 71/222, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 830 (EA).

Thelypteris gueintziana (Mett.) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: By forest streams, rock faces above rivers, wet ditches along road, 870–1600 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K234, 236 & 299, Faden RB et al. 69/828, 70/448 & 450 (EA).

Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K.Iwats. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy area, riverine bushland, 1275–1282 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 440, Faden RB et al. 70/519 (EA).

Thelypteris madagascariensis (Fée) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen rainforest, forest edges, roadside, 1300–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 471, Schippers RR K247, Gillett JB et al. 18768, Faden RB et al. 70/468 (EA).

Thelypteris oppositiformis (C.Chr.) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest in moist places, 2000–2208 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 72/249 (EA).

Thelypteris pozoi (Lag.) C.V.Morton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, often by streams, 1900–2205 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 72/242 (EA).

Thelypteris pulchra (Bory ex Willd.) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, stream banks, 1425–2000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 71/236, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 925 (EA).

NE Thelypteris usambarensis (Holttum) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, ca. 1829 m. Voucher: Joanna B 9035 (EA). Endangered.

F6. ATHYRIACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

Deparia boryana (Willd.) M.Kato – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest by streams, 1740–2000 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 937 (EA).

Deparia zanzibarica (Baker) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet evergreen forest, 2000–2200 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 70/495 (EA).

Diplazium nemorale (Baker) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist gullies in intermediate wet evergreen forest, 1525–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 428, Faden RB et al. 70/756 (EA).

F7. BLECHNACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Blechnum bakeri C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Intermediate wet evergreen forest, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 71/178, Faden RB & Githui M 70/752 (EA).

Lomaridium attenuatum (Sw.) Gasper & V.A.O.Dittrich – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane and evergreen forest, rocky stream banks and waterfalls, 1755–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 426, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 623, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4124, Faden RB & Githui M 70/732 (EA).

F8. CYATHEACEAE

1 Genus, 3 species

Alsophila dregei (Kunze) R.M.Tryon – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest along streams, 1100–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 438, Mwachala G et al. EW3544, Faden RB et al. 70/518, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1166 (EA).

Alsophila humilis (Hieron.) Pic.Serm. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forest gullies, intermediate wet evergreen forest, 1950–2208 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 617, Faden RB & Githui M 70/757 (EA).

Alsophila manniana (Hook.) R.M.Tryon – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Hilltops, shaded and open slopes of evergreen forest, 1525–2205 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 628, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 757, Schippers RR K267, Faden RB & Githui M 70/716, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/256, Gillett JB 17246 (EA).

F9. DAVALLIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Davallia chaerophylloides (Poir.) Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 820–900 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 70/162B (EA).

F10. DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

4 Genera, 8 species

Blotiella glabra (Bory) R.M.Tryon – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, rainforest, ca. 1371 m. Voucher: Dale IR 3794 (EA).

NE Blotiella hieronymi (Kümmerle) Pic. Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest floor, margins in intermediate rainforest, 1450–2000 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 582 & 620, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 219, Hemp A 5368, Faden RB, Evans A & Smeenk C 70/563b & 563c, Faden RB, Evans A & Wolf 69/844, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17147 (EA). Endangered.

Blotiella stipitata (Alston) Faden – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, wet evergreen forest, 1000–1900 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 391, WRQ Luke & PA Luke 4142, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 271 & 815, Hemp A 5370, Faden RB et al. 69/458 & 71/175, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4355 (EA).

Blotiella stipitata (Alston) Faden subsp. nov – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 1400–1680 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 71/39, Faden RB, Evans A & Smeenk C 70/563A (EA).

Blotiella stipitata (Alston) Faden × Blotiella glabra (Bory) R.M.Tryon – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1400–1600 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 71/174 (EA).

Hypolepis sparsisora (Schrad.) Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet upland and evergreen montane forest, 1530–1785 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 599, van Someren HD 855, Faden RB et al. 70/469, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 469 (EA).

Hypolepis aff. rugosula subsp. africana (C.Chr.) Schwartsb. & J.Prado – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: NMK Taita Hills Exped. 401 (EA).

Microlepia speluncae (L.) T.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and plantation edges, ditch sides, stream sides, ca. 1766 m. Voucher: Kamau P 415 (EA).

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest clearings and margins, riparian forest, rocky places, 1275–1645 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 606, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 248, Schippers RR K237, Faden RB et al. 69/814, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Evans A & Smeenk C 70/522, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Evans A, Kariuki & Smeenk C 71/189 (EA).

F11. EQUISETACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riparian forest, 800–1000 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 836 (EA), Mwachala G et al. EW1684 (EA), Faden RB et al. 70/446 (EA).

F12. GLEICHENIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest, rocky banks by streams, 1067–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 419, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1041, Schippers RR K283, Bytebier B, Luke WRQ & Pakia M 5360, Goyder DJ, Masinde PS, Whitehouse C 4020, Faden RB et al. 69/817 & 71/190, Bally PRO et al. 2164, Gardner HM 2943, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17163 (EA).

F13. HYMENOPHYLLACEAE

2 Genera, 12 species

Hymenophyllum capillare Desv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest on tree trunks and moist cliff surfaces, 1450–1660 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 644, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4214, Faden RB & Faden AJ 71/1022 (EA).

Hymenophyllum kuhnii C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock faces in moist forest, 1200–1850 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4186, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 973, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 443, Faden RB & Githui M 70/705, Napper DM, Gillett JB & Bally PRO 2173, Faden RB, Evans A & Wolf T 69/845 & 849 (EA).

Hymenophyllum sibthorpioides (Bory ex Willd.) Mett. ex Kuhn – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady rocks in mist forest, 1200–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 419, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4095D, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 974, Faden RB, Evans A & Wolf T 69/848, Napper DM, Gillett JB & Bally PRO 2172, Faden RB et al. 70/546 (EA).

NE Hymenophyllum sp. A of FTEA – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist shady rocks in moist forest, 1788–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 456, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 644 (EA).

Hymenophyllum splendidum Bosch – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest near water, ca. 1200 m. Voucher: Napper DM, Gillett JB & Bally PRO 2175 (EA).

Trichomanes chevalieri Christ – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocks in moist forest, often on spray zone, 1400–1600 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 59 (EA).

Trichomanes cupressoides (Desv.) – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest in wet places, ca. 1067 m. Voucher: Schippers RR K293 (EA).

Trichomanes diaphanum Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In moist forest by streams, moss covered rocks, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4187 (EA), Faden RB et al. 70/702 (EA).

Trichomanes erosum Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest on rocks and tree ferns, 1423–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 635, Faden RB & Githui M 70/718, Schippers RR K327 (EA).

Trichomanes frappieri Cordem. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest near water or rock surfaces by falls, 1275–1325 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 70/524 (EA).

Trichomanes melanotrichum Schltdl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, waterfall sprays and streams, 820–2170 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K326, Faden RB & Githui M 70/172, 523, 547 & 753, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 139, Faden RB et al. 69/847, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 972 (EA).

Trichomanes rigidum Sw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, deeply shaded stream banks, under large rocks, 1150–1270 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 69/467, Faden RB et al. 70/571 & 984 (EA).

F14. MARATTIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Ptisana fraxinea (Sm.) Murdock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, along rivers, 1219–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 638, Schippers RR K306 & 320, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17168, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 788, Gardner HM 2990, Faden RB & Githui M 70/473 & 715 (EA).

F15. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Ophioglossum vulgatum L. subsp. africanum Pocock ex J.E.Burrows – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ecotone between grassland and evergreen montane forest, 1900–2000 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ et al. 72/245 (EA).

Ophioglossum vulgatum L. subsp. kilimandsharicum (Hieron.) J.E.Burrows – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland or scrub, path sides on forest edges, 1450–1525 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 71/240 (EA).

F16. OSMUNDACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Osmunda regalis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet evergreen forest, 2000–2170 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1152 (EA).

F17. POLYPODIACEAE

16 Genera, 23 species

Arachniodes webbiana (A.Braun) Schelpe subsp. foliosa (C.Chr.) Gibby, Rasbach, Reichst., Widén & Viane – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane and intermediate forest, 1372–2164 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 412, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 148, 782 & 1153, Faden RB et al. 69/472 & 70/998, Schippers RR K278 & 321 (EA).

Arachniodes webbiana (A.Braun) Schelpe subsp. webbiana – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, ca. 2050 m. Voucher: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 613 (EA).

Arthropteris orientalis (Gmel.) Posth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 910–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 596, Mungai GM et al. EW3278, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4393, Faden RB et al. 70/554, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 315, Joanna B 8881 (EA).

Ctenitis cirrhosa (Schumach.) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, often near streams, 1260–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 422, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 807, Faden RB et al. 70/549, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 792 (EA).

Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw.) J.Sm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest on stream sides and moist gullies, 1250–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 603, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 787, Gillett JB 18764, Faden RB et al. 69/464, 70/472 & 758, Joanna B 8983 & 9049 (EA).

Drynaria laurentii (Christ) Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Fringing forest and associated woodland, 600–1200 m. Vouchers: Archer PG 14368 & 15010 (EA).

Dryopteris inaequalis (Schltdl.) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, riverine forest, 1400–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 53, 422 & 1149, Faden RB & Evans A 69/844, Joanna B 9397 (EA).

Dryopteris kilemensis (Kuhn) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet montane forest, 2000–2200 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 164, Faden RB et al. 70/498, Schippers RR K265 & 273 (EA).

Dryopteris manniana (Hook.) C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist and riparian forests, 1425–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 588, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 273 & 391, Faden RB et al. 69/4281, 71/219 & 77/340, Hemp A 5245 (EA).

Dryopteris pentheri (Krasser) C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, riverine, woodland, 1425–2100 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 411 (EA), Bally PRO et al. 2972 (EA), Faden RB et al. 70/477 (EA), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped 422 (EA).

Elaphoglossum acrostichoides (Hook. & Grev.) Schelpe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocks and soil in moist montane forest, ca. 1700–1800 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 71/1018 (EA).

Elaphoglossum deckenii (Kuhn) C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, ca. 1480 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ et al. 5355B (EA).

Elaphoglossum lastii (Baker) C.Chr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1250–1550 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/462, Faden RB, Evans A, Kariuki B & Smeenk C 71/148, Gillett JB 18767 (EA).

Grammitis pygmaea (Mett.) Copel. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4149, Faden RB et al. 69/846, 70/717 & 71/185, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17166, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 964 (EA).

Grammitis strangeana (Pic.Serm.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Tree trunks in montane forest, 1500–1640 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4215, Faden RB, Evans A, Kariuki B & Smeenk C 71/186, Faden RB et al. 69/850 (EA).

Lepisorus excavatus (Bory ex Willd.) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland and montane evergreen forest, 1250–2170 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 399, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 607, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 33, 297, 958, 1151, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1094, Faden RB et al. 69/825, Faden RB et al. 70/507, 551 & 749, Schippers RR K242, 262, 281, 290 & 298 (EA).

Lepisorus schraderi (Mett.) Ching – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ravines and waterfalls, 1650–1800 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 72/212 (EA).

Lomariopsis warneckei (Hieron.) Alston – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist montane forests, 1150–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 643, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 319 & 390, Faden RB, Evans A, Wolf T 69/823 (EA), Faden RB & Githui M 70/532, 730, 755 & 999, Faden RB et al. 71/179, Gardner HM 2942 (EA).

Loxogramme abyssinica (Baker) M.G.Price – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, riverbanks and rocky places, 1400–2134 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 593, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 9, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 824, Faden RB et al. 69/873, Schippers RR K254 & 272, Gillett JB, Burtt BL, Osborn RM 17132 (EA).

Megalastrum lanuginosum (Kaulf.) Holttum – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, near water, 1440–1875 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 427 & 444, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 595, Schippers RR K249, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 468, Faden RB et al. 70/548, Bally PRO 9036 (EA).

Oleandra distenta Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, rocky caves, near water, rock faces, ca. 1250 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/465 (EA).

Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Willd.) Kaulf. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist evergreen forest, 1350–2195 m. Vouchers: Kamau P 392, Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 612 & 649, Schippers RR K253, 274, 277, 279 & 287, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 822 & 1093, Goyder DJ, Masinde PS & Whitehouse C 4022, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4395, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 7 (EA).

Polystichum sinense (Christ) Christ – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, near streams, 1500–2205 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 616, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 162 & 1148, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/255, Faden RB, Evans A & Wolf T 69/836 (EA).

Tectaria gemmifera (Fée) Alston – Habit: Herb. Habitat: 850–1900 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 601, Schippers RR K244 & 318, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 277 & 1168, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 825, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17144, Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/426 & 872, Joanna B 8908 & 9040 (EA).

F18. PSILOTACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Psilotum nudum (L.) P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry riverbeds, under cliff overhangs, rock crevices, 870–1097 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 8573 (EA), Faden RB, Glover PE & Evans A 70/445 (EA).

F19. PTERIDACEAE

5 Genera, 20 species

Actiniopteris dimorpha Pic.Serm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forests on granite outcrops and under boulders, 1350–1400 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005368 (EA, HIB).

Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) Link – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open deciduous woodland and bushland, rock crevices, 600–1150 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1190, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 654, Faden RB et al. 71/40, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/973 (EA).

Adiantum capillus-veneris L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waterfalls, on wet rock, 1205–1981 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K259, 288 & 303, Faden RB, Evans A & Wolf T 69/808, Hildebrandt JM 2537 & 8088 (EA).

Adiantum hispidulum Sw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Near waterfall and rivers, 825–1205 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3328, Faden RB & Evans A & Wolf T 69/809 (EA).

Adiantum incisum Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp rocks, crevices, disturbed forest, 610–1524 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW247 & 211, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 643, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1096, Schippers RR K316 & 285, Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17058, Bally PRO 12727, Hildebrandt JM 2473, Sacleux C 852, Abdullah et al. s.n. (EA).

Haplopteris guineensis (Desv.) E.H.Crane – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet evergreen mist forest, on rock faces, 1150–1400 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4183, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/987, Joanna B 8842 (EA).

Haplopteris volkensii (Hieron.) E.H.Crane – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Epiphytic and on boulders in upland and mist forests, 1700–1800 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 71/1024 (EA).

Hemionitis bergiana (Schltdl.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Intermediate to montane evergreen forest, mist forest, 1700–1925 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Evans A 69/867, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 550 (EA).

Hemionitis concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet and dry forest floors and edges, moist bushland, 870–1875 m. Vouchers: Schippers RR K286, Faden RB et al. 70/460, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 538 (EA).

Hemionitis farinosa (Forssk.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest remnants and edges, rock crevices, 1800–2170 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 627, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1146 (EA).

Hemionitis multifida (Sw.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest wet and dry habitats, 1400–1981 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM 625, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 52 & 513, Schippers RR K250, 260 & 309, Faden RB et al. 70/476 (EA).

Hemionitis quadripinnata (Forssk.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riparian forests, roadside banks, 1275–2200 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 605 & 629, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1128, Faden RB & Evans A 70/503 & 514, Schippers RR K261 (EA).

Hemionitis viridis (Forssk.) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, riverbanks, rocky crevices and outcrops, Acacia-Commiphora woodland, roadsides, 914–1768 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW2570, Goyder DJ, Masinde PS & Whitehouse C 4021, Schippers RR K264 & 294, Hildebrandt JM 2477, Sacleux C 1365, Faden RB et al. 70/525 & 71/30, Reichstein T & Bally PRO 2916 (EA).

Pteris catoptera Kunze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet evergreen forest, stream sides, forest clearings, 1158–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 585, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 279, Schippers RR K233, 289 & 295, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 411 & 892, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4379, Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17128, Faden RB et al. 69/330, 449, 827, 70/464, 988 & 71/2 (EA).

Pteris friesii Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 1829 m. Voucher: Joanna B 9042 (EA).

Pteris dentata Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: 1400–1500 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 610, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1086, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 58, Joanna B 8954 & 9047, Faden RB et al. 69/436, 871 & 71/34 (EA).

Pteris pteridioides (Hook.) F.Ballard – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland evergreen forest floor, stream sides, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 639, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 781, Joanna B 8991 & 9041, Faden RB et al. 71/1006 (EA).

Pteris usambarensis Hieron. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edges and roadside banks, 1000–1925 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM, Mwangangi OM & Dunn B 363, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4141, 5336 & 5495, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 274 & 412, Gillett JB 18765, Hemp A 5248 & 5371, Gardner HM 2944, Joanna B 9033, Faden RB et al. 69/473, 853, 868, 70/729 & 77/330 (EA).

Pteris vittata L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forested hillslopes, cliffs, rocky areas, 800–1500 m. Vouchers: Kamau P & Christenhusz MJM et al. 646, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 609, Schippers RR K232, Joanna B 8934 (EA).

Vittaria isoetifolia Bory – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen and mist forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al NMK Exped 962, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Evans A & Wolf T 69/851, Faden RB et al. 71/1023 (EA).

Part 3. Cycadopsida

F20. ZAMIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

NE Encephalartos kisambo Faden & Beentje – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Low canopy dry evergreen mist forest, 900–1025 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Faden AJ, Smeenk C, Smeenk N & Kichoi D 71/965, Archer PG 606 & 614, Willing TD & Robertson IJ 85/1 (EA). Endangered.

Part 4. Pinopsida

F21. CUPRESSACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

*Callitris preissii Miq. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Shrubland, ca. 1371 m. Vouchers: Dyson WG 334 & 535 (EA).

F22. PODOCARPACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Afrocarpus usambarensis (Pilg.) C.N.Page – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Montane forest, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 540 (EA). Endangered.

Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R.Br. ex Mirb. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rainforest, 1550–2170 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0309 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 101, Bytebier B 2329, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 84 & 313, Drummond RB & Hemsley HJ 4353 (EA).

Part 5. Liliopsida

F23. AMARYLLIDACEAE

3 Genera, 3 species

Cryptostephanus haemanthoides Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen woodland, deciduous bushland on granitic rocks, 720–1250 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005364 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ et al. 5523 & 6424, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/252, Bjørnstad A 270, Ossent J 165, Hildebrandt JM 2578 (EA).

Cyrtanthus sanguineus (Lindl.) Walp. subsp. wakefieldii (Sealy) Nordal – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sandy soils in deciduous woodland, rocky slopes, ca. 1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 69/444, Archer PG 564 (EA).

Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf. subsp. multiflorus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest undergrowth, 1400–1763 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0025 & W0051 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 48, Faden RB et al. 71/216 (EA).

F24. ARACEAE

4 Genera, 4 species

Culcasia falcifolia Engl. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Moist evergreen forest, 1425–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0124 (EA, HIB), Joanna B 8774, NMK Taita Hills Exped. 260, Gardner HM 3009 (EA).

Stylochaeton salaamicum N.E.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland evergreen forest, wooded grassland, 700–1000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1357, Faden RB, Evans A & Githui M 70/155 (EA).

Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Horkel ex Wimm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ditches and pools, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1052 (EA).

Zamioculcas zamiifolia (G.Lodd.) Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Humid to dry evergreen forest, often on rocks, 900–1100 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 71/956 (EA).

F25. ARECACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Phoenix reclinata Jacq. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Disturbed forest sites, open rocky hillsides, 1000–1850 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0137 (EA, HIB), Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4369 (EA), Raler I 0019 (EA), Faden RB et al. 71/242 (EA).

F26. ASPARAGACEAE

5 Genera, 26 species

Albuca abyssinica Jacq. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, soils on rocks and inselbergs, ca. 1794 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004520 (EA, HIB).

Albuca donaldsonii Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland, ca. 862 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004623 (EA, HIB), Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 954 (EA).

Albuca virens (Lindl.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt subsp. virens – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, woodland and woodland edges, 800–1000 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005366 (EA, HIB).

Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Mist forest remnants, forest on basement complex, 1440–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004517 & 006371 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 686, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 103 & 368, Joanna B 9024, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4322, Faden RB et al. 70/533, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 1712 (EA).

Asparagus buchananii Baker – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland, woodland, grassland, ca. 960 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005380 (EA, HIB), Bally JB 13528 (EA).

Asparagus falcatus L. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry forest margins, deciduous or evergreen bushland, 500–1610 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0272 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW184, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4272, Bally JB 13408 (EA).

Asparagus flagellaris (Kunth) Baker – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, dry bushland, regularly burned areas. Vouchers: Hucks M 450, Bally PRO 232 (EA).

Asparagus racemosus Willd. – Habit: Climber/Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, wooded grassland, secondary bushland, ca. 856 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006417, Watuma BM W0082 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 1002 (EA).

Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop – Habit: Climber/Shrub. Habitat: Forest and forest margins, 900–1875 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 346, Mwachala G et al. EW820, Mungai GM et al. EW3198, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 211 & 436, Medley KE 991, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6623 (EA).

Chlorophytum andongense Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland, forest margins, riverine thicket, termite mounds, ca. 930 m. Vouchers: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 975, Bally 12699A (EA).

Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Undergrowth in rainforest, riverine, woodlands, 859–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005333 & 006415, Watuma BM W0020 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 357, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4335, Faden RB et al. 70/750 (EA).

Chlorophytum sparsiflorum Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist clearings in forest, forest margins, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 949, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4335 (EA).

Chlorophytum suffruticosum Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky wooded bushland, 800–1100 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005363 (EA, HIB).

Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, seasonally flooded areas, 487–1000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW026, Greenway PJ & Kanuri 12718, Rauh W 12471 (EA).

Dracaena arborescens (Cornu ex Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, ca. 548 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 8651 (EA).

Dracaena afromontana Mildbr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understorey in rainforest, 1740–2203 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006362 (EA, HIB), Christenhusz MJM et al. 6646 (EA), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 915, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1130, Kimeu JM et al. KEFRI 502 (EA).

Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forest near streams, 1300–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004604 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4166, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 199 & 1049, Luke WRQ et al. 5348, Gardner HM 3014, Dale IR 3766 (EA).

Dracaena laxissima Engl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist and riverine forests, dry forest near water, 1200–1800 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1076, Beentje HJ 2149, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/268, Raler I 0017, Breteler FJ 7507, Bally PRO 8702, Battiscombe E 860, Gardner HM 11415 (EA).

Dracaena parva N.E.Br. Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry forest, rocky bushland, termite hills, 600–1371 m. Vouchers: Joanna B 8898, Bally PRO 13416 (EA).

Dracaena powellii N.E.Br. Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland, scattered tree grassland, 590–700 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/403A (EA).

Dracaena raffillii N.E.Br. Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry forest, woodland, bushland, ca. 1010 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW1858 (EA).

Dracaena serpenta Byng & Christenh. var. humbertiana (Guillaumin) Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland in rocky sites, thicket, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 13416 (EA).

Dracaena singularis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.– Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland. Vouchers: Powell 10, Pfenning 1019 (EA).

Dracaena steudneri Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist or dry forest margins, 1000–1640 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0128 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. 69/459, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Dracaena volkensii Gürke Byng & Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora-Euphorbia bushland, 600–800 m. Vouchers: Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4420, Bos JJ 10419 (EA).

Drimiopsis botryoides Baker subsp. botryoides – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist shaded thickets, ca. 840 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/505 (EA).

F27. ASPHODELACEAE

2 Genera, 10 species

Aloe ballyi Reynolds – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland & Acacia with succulents, 609–865 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 8115, Mrs Robertson SA 3589, Reynolds GW 6378 (EA). Endangered.

NE Aloe classenii Reynolds – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky outcrops in deciduous bushland, ca. 792 m. Vouchers: Archer PG 565 & 566 (EA). Critically Endangered.

Aloe deserti A.Berger – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland edges on sandy soils, 548–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 589, Bally PRO 8652 & 13571 (EA). Near Threatened.

Aloe lateritia Engl. var. lateritia – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky places, grassy hillsides, 1500–1250 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 21 & 293, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4289, Bally PRO 8790 (EA).

NE Aloe penduliflora Baker – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Rocky slabs, deciduous dry forest, thick bush edges, 700–1640 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 5400, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 9439, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 21, Newton LE 3543 & 3241, Bally PRO 13303, Gillett JB 18739, Chase s.n. (EA). Endangered.

Aloe rabaiensis Rendle – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, open bushland and sandy soil, ca. 1600 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1136 (EA).

Aloe ruspoliana Baker – Habit: Herb. Deciduous bushland on sandy and rocky soils, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 8791 (EA).

Aloe secundiflora Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open deciduous woodland. Vouchers: Rauh W Ke871, Reynolds 6374 (EA).

Aloe volkensii Engl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry forest on steep slopes, dense riverine woodland, ca. 1200 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 5513, Bally PRO 12713 (EA). Near Threatened.

Kniphofia thomsonii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane bushland and grassland on watercourse edges, 2000–2195 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006378 (EA, HIB), Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 6651, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 93, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2719 (EA), Gardner HM (EA).

F28. BURMANNIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

NE Gymnosiphon usambaricus Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habit: Evergreen forest floor among leaf mould, 1300–1900 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003290 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4136, Bytebier B 1200 & 1217, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 484, Faden RB et al. 71/9, 50 & 155, Gillett JB et al 17141 & 18759, Bally PRO 8747 (EA). Endangered.

F29. COLCHICACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Gloriosa superba L. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest, forest edges and glades, open Acacia-Commiphora woodland, 1000–1875 m. Vouchers: Mungai G et al. EW2821, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 590, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2745 (EA).

F30. COMMELINACEAE

4 Genera, 13 species

Aneilema aequinoctiale (P.Beauv.) G.Don – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest undergrowth and edges, 1500–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 69/839, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 245 (EA).

Aneilema hockii De Wild. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland, 520–1180 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW242, Faden RB et al. 74/502 (EA).

Aneilema johnstonii K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora woodland, scrub, 985–1100 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW229, Faden RB, Evans A & Siggins 69/323, Faden RB et al. 74/490 (EA).

Aneilema leiocaule K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, shaded areas near streams, 1530–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 78, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 904, Faden RB et al. 70/485, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn 17077 (EA).

Commelina africana L. var. villosior (C.B.Clarke) Brenan – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest undergrowth and edges, woodland, grassland, roadside banks, cultivated lands, 2000–2200 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 70/497 (EA).

Commelina benghalensis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, forest edges and clearings, disturbed areas, weed of cultivation, 1400–1640 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 23 (EA).

Commelina bracteosa Hassk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edge, moist thickets, woodland, grassland, bushland, cultivated grounds, 590–700 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/409 (EA).

Commelina latifolia Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and thicket edges, disturbed places, roadsides, weed in cultivated lands, 1240–1830 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW2813, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/317 (EA).

Commelina lukei Faden – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges and clearings, moist thickets, bushland, grassland, roadsides, 680–750 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/412, Faden RB et al. 70/149 (EA).

Cyanotis arachnoidea C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock crevices, exposed rock faces over shallow soil on hilltops, 1700–2100 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0111 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/62, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/316, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 256, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4301, Bally PRO 13635 (EA).

Cyanotis lanata Benth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock outcrops in open grasslands, bushlands and woodlands, ca. 850 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW175 & 754 (EA).

Murdannia semiteres (Dalzell) Santapau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest near on rocky outcrops, ca. 1603 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0223 (EA, HIB).

Murdannia simplex (Vahl) Brenan – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky outcrops, forest clearings, woodland, grassland, 1676–1838 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0108 & W0262 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 813, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/315 (EA).

F31. CYPERACEAE

9 Genera, 42 species

Abildgaardia ovata (Burm.f.) Kral – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Hilltop grasslands, wooded grassland, grazed fallow areas, ca. 1100 m. Voucher: Sacleux C 2560 (EA).

Bulbostylis coleotricha (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) C.B.Clarke var. coleotricha – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shallow soil overlaying rock outcrops and crevices, 800–1050 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW586 & 3297 (EA).

Bulbostylis hensii (C.B.Clarke) R.W.Haines – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry grassland in hilly areas, roadside banks, 1400–1600 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS 82/108 (EA).

Bulbostylis hispidula (Vahl) R.W.Haines subsp. filiformis (C.B.Clarke) R.W.Haines – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, Acacia scrub, roadsides, seasonal pools and wet rock crevices, ca. 500 m. Vouchers: Muasya AM 2091, 2092 & 2093 (EA).

Bulbostylis hispidula (Vahl) R.W.Haines subsp. halophila (Lye) R.W.Haines – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short grasslands, abandoned cultivations, ca. 850 m. Voucher: Gillett JB & Napper DM 2170 (EA). Endangered.

Bulbostylis hispidula (Vahl) R.W.Haines subsp. hispidula – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees, shrubs, roadside, seasonally water-logged soils, 1030–1875 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW809, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 229 & 433 (EA).

Bulbostylis hispidula (Vahl) R.W.Haines subsp. pyriformis (Lye) R.W.Haines – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open Commiphora-Acacia-Sterculia-Delonix-Euphorbia scrub, ca. 564 m. Voucher: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 953 (EA).

Carex castanostachya K.Schum. ex Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Intermediate wet evergreen forest, 1500–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Githui M 70/736, Luke WRQ et al. 4190 (EA).

Coleochloa abyssinica (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Gilly – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet rock surfaces, hilly grasslands, ca. 1295 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. 3091A (EA).

Coleochloa setifera (Ridl.) Gilly – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shallow soil overlaying rocky outcrops and crevices, 610–700 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4172, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 947 (EA).

Cyperus alternifolius L. subsp. flabelliformis Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Streambanks, swampy areas, 950–1371 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/31, Mwachala G et al. EW237 & 2808 (EA).

Cyperus amabilis Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet habitats, ca. 500 m. Voucher: Muasya AM 2089 (EA).

Cyperus amauropus Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and wooded grassland on rocky slopes, 500–579 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2713, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12802, Muasya AM 2095 & 2102 (EA).

Cyperus bulbosus Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassy places in mist forest, ca. 1873 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003297 (EA, HIB), Fleuret A 25 (EA).

Cyperus cyperoides (L.) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, path sides, grassland, woodland, stream sides, 1040–1100 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW239 & 600 (EA).

Cyperus difformis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Temporary pools, seasonally wet grasslands, along water edges, roadside ditches, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 704 (EA).

Cyperus distans L.f – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, moist shaded bushland, woodland, forest zones, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 711 (EA).

Cyperus dubius Rottb. var. macrocephalus (C.B.Clarke) Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, riverine, dry bushland, grassland, thin soils over rock, 850–1875 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW154, Mbale M et al. NMK 965, Muasya AM 2100, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 496, Verdcourt B 2741 (EA).

Cyperus elegantulus Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet forest margins, grasslands and riverine margins. Voucher: Kirika P et al. 01/2006/17 (EA).

Cyperus ferrugineoviridis (C.B.Clarke) Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and forest clearings, weed of cultivated lands, 900–1050 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW602 (EA).

Cyperus fischerianus G.W.Schimp. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, secondary areas in forest zone, stream sides, 998–1400 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW153 & 993, Mungai GM et al. EW3104/A (EA).

Cyperus glaucophyllus Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, secondary areas in forest zone, stream sides, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 429 (EA).

Cyperus grandibulbosus C.B.Clarke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet habitats, wooded grasslands and grasslands, 487–600 m. Vouchers: Hucks M 575, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12716, Scott-Elliot 6284 (EA).

Cuperus hemisphaericus Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open and wooded grassland, ca. 1626 m. Voucher: Kirika P et al. 01/2006/32 (EA).

Cyperus hortensis (Salzm. ex Steud.) Dorr – Habit. Herb. Habitat: Riverine, 800–1750 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 709, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 607 (EA).

Cyperus latifolius Poir. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy areas, roadside ditches and stream sides, 600–1350 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/1, McDonald J 840, Bally B 13597 (EA).

Cyperus longus L. subsp. longus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Temporary pools in grassland and bushland, ca. 500 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Faden AJ & Holland P 72/151 (EA).

Cyperus maranguensis K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, swampy grassland, weed of cultivation, roadsides, 1404–1875 m. Vouchers: Mbale M et al. NMK 963, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 431 & 585, Gilbert M & Gilbert C 6108 (EA).

Cyperus microstylus (C.B.Clarke) Mattf. & Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shallow soil over rock, bushland, scattered tree grassland, 840–1020 m. Vouchers: Mbale M, Muthoka P, Chesire C & Hay F NMK 972, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/510 (EA).

Cyperus mollipes (C.B.Clarke) K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, open woodland, bushed grassland, ca. 450–600 m. Vouchers: Muasya AM 2086, 2103 & 2107 (EA).

Cyperus pectinatus Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Floating on shallow waters, ca. 1573 m. Voucher: Mbale M et al. NMK 969 (EA).

Cyperus plateilema (Steud.) Kük. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides in rainforest, montane grassland, swampy sides, stream banks, 1400–1640 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/52, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 18 (EA).

Cyperus purpureoviridis Lye – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forests, steep rocky slopes, swampy habitats edges, ca. 1573 m. Voucher: Mbale M et al. NMK 971 (EA). Near Threatened.

Cyperus richardii Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland in damp sites, roadsides, ca. 1515 m. Voucher: Mbale M, Muthoka P, Chesire C & Hay F NMK 966 (EA).

Cyperus rohlfsii Boeckeler – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky outcrops, scattered tree grassland, 610–1326 m. Vouchers: Mbale M et al. NMK 959, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 946 (EA).

Cyperus rotundus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest glades, damp sites, riverbanks, ca. 998 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW116 (EA).

Cyperus rubicundus Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet habitats, temporary pools or swamps, 453–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 596, Muasya AM 2106 (EA).

Cyperus schimperianus Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sandy or stony riverbanks, ca. 450 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Faden AJ & Holland P 72/145 (EA).

NE Cyperus scott-elliotii Govaerts – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shallow soil over rock, swampy grassland, ca. 500 m. Voucher: Muasya AM et al. 2090 (EA).

Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. subsp. sesquiflorus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open forest, forest margins, open grassland, 1371–2103 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/26, Osborn RM 8, Joanna B 8817 (EA).

Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) J.Presl & C.Presl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonal pools and seepage areas, ca. 500 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Faden AJ & Holland P 72/149 (EA).

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverbanks, grasslands, cultivated areas, 950–1371 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0249 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/22, Mwachala G et al. EW770 (EA).

Fuirena pubescens (Poir.) Kunth var. pubescens – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet grasslands, swamp and stream edges, ca. 1150 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3551 (EA).

Fuirena stricta Steud. subsp. chlorocarpa (Ridl.) Lye – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet grasslands, swamp and stream edges, 1371 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS 82/23 (EA).

Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady and open places in evergreen forest, 1030–1150 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW607 & 792 (EA).

F32. DIOSCOREACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Dioscorea asteriscus Burkill – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rain-forest, dry evergreen forest, forest edges, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1098 (EA).

F33. HYPOXIDACEAE

1 Genus, 3 species

Hypoxis schimperi Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, swampy grassland, ca. 2050 m. Voucher: Gillett JB 17261 (EA).

Hypoxis rigidula Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassland or woodland. Voucher: Joanna B 9023 (EA).

Hypoxis urceolata Nel – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open bushland, disturbed woodland, grassland, 600–800 m. Voucher: Hildebrandt JM 2542 (EA).

F34. IRIDACEAE

1 Genus, 4 species

Gladiolus candidus (Rendle) Goldblatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist highlands in rock outcrops, woodland and bushland, 610–1000 m. Vouchers: Sacleux CJ 2279, Johnston HH s.n. (EA).

Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel subsp. dalenii – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassland on rocky outcrops, 1800–1850 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0066 (EA, HIB).

NE Gladiolus rupicola Vaupel – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mountains in grasslands or in rocky outcrops, 1280–2230 m. Vouchers: Lavranos JJ & Newton 17640, Dale IR 3802, Gardner HM 2957 (EA).

NE Gladiolus usambarensis Marais ex Goldblatt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane habitats, rocky sites and cliffs, ca. 1219 m. Vouchers: Archer PG 547, Bally PRO 13579, Joanna B 8840 (EA). Near Threatened.

F35. MUSACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland evergreen forests, ravines, riverbanks, drier lowland forests, 1000–2100 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 456, Medley p.r. (EA).

F36. ORCHIDACEAE

27 Genera, 69 species

Aerangis confusa J.Stewart – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, dry forest and bush, woodland, ca. 1180 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW240 (EA).

Aerangis kotschyana (Rchb.f.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, humid wooded grassland, ca. 1050 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW1660 (EA).

Aerangis somalensis (Schltr.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland along streams, 700–969 m. Vouchers: van der Laan FM 419 (EA), van der Laan FM & Wubben JM 1286 (WAG), Piers F s.n. (K).

Aerangis thomsonii (Rolfe) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1818–2200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004538 (EA, HIB), Osborn RM 15 (EA).

Angraecum eburneum Bory subsp. giryamae (Rendle) Senghas & P.J.Cribb – Habit: Herb. Habitat: On trees and rocks in forest, ca. 929 m. Vouchers: Archer PG 605, Mr. & Mrs. Stewart DRM 1292, Wakefield TG & Grant s.n. (EA).

Angraecum sacciferum Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense mist forest, 1480–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004163 (EA, HIB), Bytebier B 1148 & 1189, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 457, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4155 (EA).

Angraecum cf. sacciferum Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: High epiphyte in montane evergreen forest, 1650–1800 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 72/205 (EA).

Ansellia africana Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense mist forest, ca. 1524 m. Voucher: van Someren CGR 827 (EA). Vulnerable.

Brachycorythis pleistophylla Rchb.f. var. pleistophylla – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland edges, glades in forest, ca. 1325 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 71/987, Joanna B 8919, van Someren CGR 115 (EA).

Bolusiella iridifolia (Rolfe) Schltr. subsp. iridifolia – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and savannah trees, ca. 1600 m. Voucher: Bytebier B 1188 (BR, EA).

Bulbophyllum intertextum Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Intermediate to montane evergreen forest, mist forest, 1640–1730 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/263, Faden RB et al. 70/778, Bytebier B 1211 & 1324 (EA).

Bulbophyllum josephi (Kuntze) Summerh. var. josephi – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 1560–1640 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4163, Bytebier B 1210, Faden RB, Evans A & Smeenk C 70/565 (EA).

Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 995 (EA), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 764 (EA).

Cheirostylis lepida (Rchb.f.) Rolfe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest floor in leaf mounds, 1440–1680 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004267 (EA, HIB), Faden RB, Evans A, Smeenk C 70/545, Bytebier B 1678 (EA).

NE Cynorkis buchwaldiana Kraenzl. subsp. braunii (Kraenzl.) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest in open grassland, heath zone, 1643–2195 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 636, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 859, Bytebier B 1661 & 1675, Dale IR 3778, Archer PG 571 & 725, Napper DM et al. 2166, Gardiner N s.n. (EA). Near Threatened.

NE Cynorkis uncata (Rolfe) Kraenzl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Secondary forest in humus layer, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005324 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3573, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 360, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 997 & 1067, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/260, Bytebier B 1153, 1161 & 1753, Archer PG 611, Campbell H s.n. (EA). Vulnerable.

Cyrtorchis arcuata (Lindl.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, bushland on trees and rocks, ca. 1050 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW1661 (EA).

Diaphananthe fragrantissima (Rchb.f.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, gallery forests, 868–900 m. Voucher: Archer PG 603 (EA).

Diaphananthe lorifolia Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In montane and riverine forest. No voucher seen. Recorded in Orchids of Kenya (Stewart and Campbell 1996).

Diaphananthe odoratissima (Rchb.f.) P.J.Cribb & Carlsward – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Primary and secondary forest on rocks or trees, ca. 1219 m. Voucher: Archer PG 582 (EA).

Disperis kilimanjarica Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shaded evergreen forest, ca. 1700–2200 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004288 (EA, HIB).

Disperis nemorosa Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mossy places and leaf litter on floor of evergreen and mist forest, 1730–1900 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0105 (EA, HIB), Bytebier B 1662, Beentje HJ 2184, Faden RB & Evans A 69/883, Dale IR 3790 (EA).

Disperis reichenbachiana Welw. ex Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest epiphyte, ca. 1350–2100 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004195 (EA, HIB).

Eulophia mechowii (Rchb.f.) T.Durand & Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and wooded grassland, ca. 1524 m. Voucher: Gardner HM 3018 (EA).

Eulophia schweinfurthii Kraenzl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, thicket, bushland, woodland, 1220–1525 m. Voucher: Joanna B 8773 (EA).

Eulophia speciosa (R.Br.) Bolus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In grassland, deciduous bushland and woodland, ca. 609 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1038 (EA).

Eulophia streptopetala Lindl. var. streptopetala – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and grasslands, 1580–1730 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. 3068A, Beentje HJ 2185 (EA).

Eulophia streptopetala Lindl. var. stenophylla (Summerh.) P.J.Cribb – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shade of bushes, open grasslands, rocky hillsides, 1430–2000 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004582 (EA, HIB), Friis I & Hansen OJ 2685, Bally PRO 8703, 8772 & 8779 (EA).

Eulophia taitensis Pfennig & P.J.Cribb – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia thicket on sandy soils, woodland, 1000–1348 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0235 (EA, HIB), Pfennig H 1113, Meyer H 1432 (EA).

Habenaria huillensis Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland without trees, rock crevices on basement complex, 1643–2110 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004551, 006407 & 006412 (EA, HIB), Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17079, Archer PG 581 (EA).

Habenaria humilior Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short grassland over rocks, ca. 1219 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1144 (EA).

Habenaria ndiana Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In Themeda, Hyparrhenia grassland, with or without Acacia or Combretum scrub, ca. 1000 m. Voucher: Gregory s.n. (BM).

Habenaria peristyloides A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short upland grassland, open scrub, ca. 1850 m. Voucher: SAJIT–006369 (EA, HIB).

Habenaria thomsonii Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edge, among rocks, swampy grassland. Voucher: Bally PRO 13638 (EA).

Microcoelia corallina Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mixed woodland near river. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5572 (K).

Microcoelia exilis Lindl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, woodland, secondary forest, plantations, 670–945 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/470, Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/410, Archer PG 624 (EA).

Microcoelia globulosa (Hochst.) L.Jonss. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Margins of evergreen forest, relict rainforest forest, riverine forest, ca. 1180 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW245 (EA).

Microcoelia obovata Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, riverine forest, ca. 1097 m. Voucher: Archer PG 660 (EA).

NE Microcoelia smithii (Rolfe) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest, ca. 540 m. Voucher: Bytebier B 424 (EA).

Microcoelia stolzii (Schltr.) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest, dry evergreen and riverine forest, 627–1100 m. Vouchers: Miyawa D et al. NMK 961, Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F 70/979 (EA).

Oberonia disticha (Lam.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest, dry evergreen mist forest, 700–1050 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Faden AJ & Smeenk C 71/960 (EA).

Oeceoclades decaryana (H.Perrier) Garay & P.Taylor – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky outcrop, in leaf mold under bushes, 975–1006 m. Voucher: Archer PG 530 (EA).

Platylepis glandulosa (Lindl.) Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocks in forest, shady, marshy places on river banks, 1200–1300 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 70/522a & 72/258 (EA).

Polystachya albescens Ridl. subsp. kraenzlinii (Rolfe) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 1219–2100 m. Voucher: Archer PG 569 (EA).

Polystachya caespitifica Kraenzl. subsp. latilabris (Summerh.) P.J.Cribb & Podz. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1490–2100 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F & Smeenk C 71/57A, Faden RB et al. 70/776, Friis I & Hansen OJ 2678 (EA). Vulnerable.

Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H.R.Sweet – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest epiphyte, ca. 1097 m. Voucher: Archer PG 601 (EA).

Polystachya cultriformis (Thouars) Lindl. ex Spreng. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest, 1425–2100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005328 (EA), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 794 & 1175, Bytebier B 1180, 1323 & 1516, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4388, Polhill RM & Verdcourt B 2735, Gillett JB, Burtt BL, Osborn RM 17100, Bally PRO 8793 (EA).

Polystachya dendrobiiflora Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Growing on Vellozia and on rocks, Philippia bushland, 609–1700 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005341, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 949, Faden RB et al. 71/214, van Someren C 66, Gardner HM 2904, Joanna B 8901, Bally PRO 13373, Uhlig C 1a (EA).

Polystachya disiformis P.J.Cribb – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, 1400–1450 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5568, Bytebier B 1155, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4386 (EA). Endangered.

Polystachya golungensis Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen, riverine forest. Voucher: None. Recorded in Orchids of Kenya (Stewart and Campbell 1996).

Polystachya lindblomii Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense forests and forest margins, 1350–1470 m. Vouchers: Bytebier B 1158, Seki T 85, Faden RB et al. 70/777 (EA).

Polystachya modesta Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, woodland, bushland, wooded grassland, 500–700 m. Voucher: Archer PG 601 (EA, K).

Polystachya polychaete Kraenzl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest, ca. 1097 m. Voucher: Archer PG 599 (EA).

Polystachya spatella Kraenzl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, drier woodland, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 195 (EA).

E Polystachya teitensis P.J.Cribb – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, 800–975 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 9438A, Faden RB, Evans A & Githui M 70/166, Archer PG 612, Stewart J 1347 (EA). Endangered.

Polystachya transvaalensis Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest and mist forest, 1425–2195 m. Vouchers: Bytebier B 1515, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 159 & 947, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2724, Friis I & Hansen OJ 2677, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/254, Faden RB et al. 70/774 (EA).

Porpax repens (Rolfe) Schuit., Y.P.Ng & H.A.Pedersen var. repens [Stolzia repens (Rolfe) Summerh.] – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mossy trunks and branches in forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004262 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1020, Faden RB et al. 71/57b (EA).

NE Rhipidoglossum leedalii (P.J.Cribb) Farminhão & Stévart [Margelliantha leedalii P.J. Cribb] – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane or mist forest on mossy branches, ca. 1524 m. Voucher: Archer PG 548 (EA).

Rhipidoglossum rutilum (Rchb.f.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane and riverine forest, 820–1000 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. s.n. (EA).

Rhipidoglossum xanthopollinium (Rchb.f.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lower areas of montane forest, ca. 884 m. Voucher: Archer PG 608 (EA).

Satyrium crassicaule Rendle – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest glades, near streams, 1360–1573 m. Vouchers: Miyawa D et al. NMK 970, Mwachala G et al. EW3601 (EA).

Solenangis wakefieldii (Rolfe) P.J.Cribb & J.Stewart – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland bushland, ca. 945 m. Voucher: Archer PG 625 (EA).

Sphyrarhynchus brevilobus (Summerh.) Bytebier [Angraecopsis breviloba Summerh.] – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest, light forest on hills, 807–1332 m. Vouchers: Miyawa D et al. NMK 962, Archer PG 631 (EA).

Tridactyle anthomaniaca (Rchb.f.) Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine and lower montane forest, ca. 914 m. Voucher: Archer PG 715 (EA).

Tridactyle bicaudata (Lindl.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland to montane forest, riverine forest, ca. 1400 m. Voucher: Bally J 8863 (EA).

NE Tridactyle cruciformis Summerh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest, 1440–1680 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003294 (EA, HIB), Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F & Smeenk C 71/46, Faden RB et al. 70/568, Bytebier B 1137, 1146, 1152 & 1198 (EA). Endangered.

Tridactyle filifolia (Schltr.) Schltr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest, 1873 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004185 (EA, HIB).

Vanilla roscheri Rchb.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open evergreen scrub, 550–700 m. Vouchers: Hucks M 456, Jex-Blake M 6872 (EA).

Ypsilopus amaniensis (Kraenzl.) D’haijère & Stévart – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Juniperus procera montane forest, open bushland, ca. 1829 m. Vouchers: SAJIT-004125 (EA, HIB), Joanna B 9052 (EA).

NE Ypsilopus tanneri (P.J.Cribb) D’haijère & Stévart [Tridactyle tanneri P.J. Cribb] – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane evergreen forest, 1480–1641 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4159, Bytebier B 1143, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Smeenk C, Smeenk N & McNee J 71/971, Archer PG 580 & 595 (EA). Endangered.

F37. POACEAE

25 Genera, 47 species

Andropogon heterantherus Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and scrub, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 674 (EA).

Andropogon schirensis Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, wooded grassland, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1194 (EA).

Aristida adscensionis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry soils and waste ground, 548–945 m. Vouchers: Kirika P et al. EW306 & 921, Kirika P et al. 2188 & 8648B (EA).

Aristida stenostachya Clayton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous thicket and bushland, 485–600 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 16115, Leuthold W 122 (EA).

Cenchrus ciliaris L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, wooded grassland ca. 500–700 m. Vouchers: Muasya AM & Archibald S 2077, Bally PRO 8645, Greenway PJ 12631 (EA).

Cenchrus massaicus (Stapf) Morrone – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland on alluvial black soils, ca. 548 m. Voucher: Bogdan A 3614 (EA).

Cenchrus trachyphyllus (Pilg.) Morrone – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Glades, semi-shaded and wet sites in rainforest, pathsides, 1550–2000 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 890 & 941 (EA).

Chloris gayana Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine woodland, scattered tree grassland, open grassland. Voucher: Rauh W Ke951 (EA).

*Coix lacryma-jobi L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Stream sides and swampy places, occasionally cultivated, 579–1350 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1244, Kabuye CHS 82/127, Faden RB, Evans A, Glover PE 70/459, Napier ER 998, McDonald J 864 (EA).

Digitaria abyssinica (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ruderal sites, grazed lands, weed of cultivated areas, 1524–1646 m. Vouchers: Mrs. Robertson SA 2179, Frowd BH 2 (EA).

Digitaria aridicola Napper – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry open deciduous bushland, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Leuthhold W 123 (EA).

Digitaria pearsonii Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and open weedy places, 1400–1640 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 19, Mrs. Robertson SA 2182 (EA).

Digitaria pennata (Hochst.) T.Cooke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry open deciduous bushland, ca. 487 m. Voucher: Archer PG 627 (EA).

Digitaria rivae (Chiov.) Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Terminalia-Commiphora open bushland, 457–609 m. Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12779 & 12796, Leuthold W 113, Sheldrick D NP21, Bogdan A 3902, FitzGerald V 4971 (EA).

Ehrharta erecta Lam. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest glades, margins and pathsides, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 572 (EA).

Eleusine africana Kenn.-O’Byrne – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed ground, along roadsides, old cultivations, ca. 1000 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW2835 (EA).

Enteropogon macrostachyus (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Munro ex Benth. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 600–950 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW71 & 860, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 683, Bally PRO 8648, Brown E 2139G, Frowd BH 11 (EA).

Enteropogon rupestris (J.A.Schmidt) A.Chev. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Scattered tree grassland on black clay, ca. 548 m. Voucher: Bogdan A 3613 (EA).

Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Farmlands, clearings, overgrazed areas, trodden weedy places, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 703 (EA).

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland and deciduous bushland, ca. 1600 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1189 (EA).

Hyparrhenia cymbaria (L.) Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open hillsides bordering upland evergreen forest, 1740–2000 m. Voucher: Beenje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 939 (EA).

Isachne mauritiana Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In forest shade, 1500–1800 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 2131, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1105, Bytebier B 1220, Bally PRO 8704 (EA).

Megathyrsus infestus (Andersson) B.K.Simon & S.W.L.Jacobs – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland, grassland, ca. 550–600 m. Voucher: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12726 (EA).

Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K.Simon & S.W.L.Jacobs – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, riverbanks and damp sites, roadsides, cultivations, 518–1010 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW51, 70, 342 & 950, Vesey-Fitzgerald LD 4963, Mrs. Robertson SA 2198, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12784 (EA).

Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open hillsides, forest edges, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1179, Bally PRO 8581 (EA).

Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of disturbed places and old farmlands. Voucher: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12972 (EA).

Microchloa kunthii Desv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open places with bare and shallow soil in bushland or grassland, 1040–1100 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW238 (EA).

Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: In forest shade, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 231 (EA).

Panicum calvum Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest shade and margins, 1040–2170 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW219, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 102 (EA).

Panicum hirtum Lam. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, wooded grassland on poor sandy soils, 610–980 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW2653, Napper DM 1965 (EA).

Panicum hochstetteri Steud. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest shade, ca. 1400 m. Voucher: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 659 (EA).

Panicum trichocladum Hack. ex K.Schum. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bush or forest edge on sandy soils, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 17 & 441 (EA).

Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest shade and disturbed sites, 1425–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 351 & 442 (EA).

Pseudobromus africanus (Hack.) Stapf – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest floor grass near forest margin, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 234 & 558 (EA).

*Setaria sulcata Raddi – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and woodland shades, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ 2132, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 574, Bally PRO 13618 (EA).

Sporobolus natalensis (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, roadsides, disturbed and grazed places, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 265 (EA).

Tetrapogon bidentatus Pilg. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland, 549–853 m. Vouchers: Bogdan A 3903, Greenway PJ Kanuri K 12638 (EA).

Tetrapogon roxburghiana (Schult.) P.M.Peterson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, bushland and disturbed habitats, on dry or stony sandy soils, 548–945 m. Vouchers: Trapnell CG 2226, Frowd BH F13, MacDonald J 850, Graham MD 5, Mrs. Robertson SA 2186 (EA).

Themeda triandra Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open deciduous bushland, 1040–1100 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW349 (EA).

Urochloa brizantha (A.Rich.) R.D.Webster – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, wooded grassland, upland grassland, ca. 1780 m. Voucher: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 748 (EA).

Urochloa deflexa (Schumach.) H.Scholz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Margins of riverine forest, deciduous bushland, weedy places, 600–823 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 8646, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 963 (EA).

Urochloa dictyoneura (Fig. & De Not.) Veldcamp – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, deciduous bushland, ca. 998 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW301 (EA).

Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q.Nguyen – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, weedy places. Voucher: Greiling 48 (EA).

Urochloa lachnantha (Hochst.) A.M.Torres & C.M.Morton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp soils, ca. 487 m. Voucher: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12717 (EA).

Urochloa leersioides (Hochst.) A.M.Torres & C.M.Morton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Path sides, weedy places, old farmland, 600–1300 m. Vouchers: Muasya AM & Archibald S 2072, Christiaensen AR 205, Bally PRO 8643, Ciba-Geigy 2, Mrs. Robertson SA 2192, Hitchcock AS 24681 (EA).

Urochloa nigropedata (Munro ex Ficalho & Hiern) A.M.Torres & C.M.Morton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry rocky and sandy soils in deciduous bushland, wooded grassland. Voucher: Rauh W Ke957 (EA).

Urochloa xantholeuca (Hack.) H.Scholz var. leucacrantha (K.Schum.) Sosef – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, sandy soils in disturbed places, 550–700 m. Vouchers: Leuthold W 121, Vesey-FitzGerald LDEF 4966 (EA).

F38. SMILACACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Smilax anceps Willd. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest edges, clearings and secondary associations of bushland, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Gardner HM 1207 (EA).

F39. VELLOZIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Xerophyta spekei Baker – Habit: Herb/Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Rocky slopes and outcrops, 600–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/449, Gardner HM 2924, Medley KE p.r. (EA).

F40. ZINGIBERACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Aframomum angustifolium (Sonn.) K.Schum – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, swampy places, 1260–1450 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 801, Bally PRO 8799, Faden RB et al. 71/1001 (EA).

Part 6. Magnoliopsida

F41. ACANTHACEAE

20 Genera, 37 species

Barleria acanthoides Vahl – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside vegetation in savanna with many tall Euphorbia trees, 1400–1800 m. Voucher: Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 6677 (EA).

Barleria eranthemoides R.Br. ex C.B.Clarke var. eranthemoides – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Open dry bushland, grassland on rocky slopes, disturbed and grazed areas, 800–1000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0005 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 746, Medley KE 507 (EA).

Barleria eranthemoides R.Br. ex C.B.Clarke var. agnewii I.Darbysh. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Open and dense dry bushland, grassland, degraded areas, ca. 823 m. Voucher: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 961 (EA).

Barleria prionitis L. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Open Euphorbia-Acacia-Commiphora forest, rocky outcrops, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 868 (EA).

Barleria submollis Lindau – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland, roadside, 800–1350 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 605, Mungai GM et al. EW3576 (EA).

Barleria taitensis S.Moore – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Terminalia-Combretum woodland, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, rocky hillsides and sandy soils, 640–1206 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0013 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 512, Polhill RM & Paulo S 935, Hucks M 894, Hildebrandt JM 2457 (EA).

Barleria volkensii Lindau – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia bushland, drier parts of montane forest, ca. 1220 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1080 (EA).

Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) B.Heyne ex Roth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed and secondary vegetation, woodland and forest habitats, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 652 (EA).

Brillantaisia cicatricosa Lindau – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Mist forest margins, ca. 1557 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0214 (EA, HIB).

Crabbea velutina S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine vegetation, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 715 (EA).

Crossandra friesiorum Mildbr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist and dry evergreen mist forest, 820–1850 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 996, Faden RB, Evans A, Githui M 70/173 (EA). Vulnerable.

Crossandra mucronata Lindau – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora woodland and bushland on sandy soils and rocky outcrops, 609–750 m. Vouchers: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 942, Napier ER 890, Gillett JB 17223, McDonald JM 878 (EA).

Crossandra tridentata Lindau – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Undergrowth in upland rainforest, 1400–2135 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003293, Watuma BM W0022 & W0053 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 262, 393 & 688, De Block P et al. 256, 257 & 259, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 191, Faden RB et al. 69/860, Bally PRO 8753 & 13519 (EA), Joanna B 9067 (EA).

NE Dyschoriste keniensis Malombe, Mwachala & Vollesen subsp. glandulifera Malombe, Mwachala & Vollesen – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Combretum, Acacia & Terminalia woodland, wooded grassland and bushland, old cultivation, 800–1370 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0156 (EA, HIB), Malombe I et al. EW4004, 4013, 4041, 4047 & 4065, Mwachala G et al. EW756 & 846, Luke WRQ et al. 5389, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2738, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4409, Napier ER 1089 (EA). Vulnerable.

Ecbolium subcordatum C.B.Clarke var. glabratum Vollesen – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, riverbanks and riverbeds, 500–1000 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005392 (EA, HIB), Napier ER 960 (EA).

Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, 609–1850 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 591, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 446, Hildebrandt JM 2563, Johnston HH s.n. (EA).

NE Isoglossa candelabrum Lindau – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist lowland and mid-altitude forest, 1220–1350 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4137, Hemp A 5375, Archer PG 570 (EA). Endangered.

Isoglossa gregorii (S.Moore) Lindau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, ericaceous bushland, 1800–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 112, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4311, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17098 (EA).

Isoglossa lactea Lindau ex Engl. subsp. saccata I.Darbysh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Undergrowth and margins of moist forest, 1200–1980 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al 4129, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 871, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4373, Bally PRO 8771, Napier ER 1118 (EA).

Isoglossa laxa Oliv. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Montane forest understorey, clearances and secondary growth, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 349 (EA).

Isoglossa punctata (Vahl) Brummitt & J.R.I.Wood – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest undergrowth, pathways and margins, ca. 1728 m. Voucher: SAJIT–006355 (EA, HIB).

Isoglossa substrobilina C.B.Clarke – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Montane forest undergrowth, glades, margins and disturbed places, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 298 (EA).

Justicia flava (Forssk.) Vahl – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, ca. 609 m. Voucher: Johnston HH s.n. (EA).

Justicia galeata Hedrén – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Semi-deciduous lowland forest, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 880–1200 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al EW984 & 1449, Luke WRQ 5515 & 6236 (EA). Vulnerable.

Justicia heterocarpa T.Anderson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, forest margins, roadsides, ca. 880 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW959, Verdcourt B 5316 (EA).

Justicia pseudorungia Lindau – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane evergreen forest, riverine forest, 1300–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 530, Faden RB et al. 71/260 (EA).

Lepidagathis scariosa Nees – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Dry Acacia-Commiphora-Grewia-Combretum-Euphorbia bushland and woodland, 600–720 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 993, Mrs Robertson SA 6536 (EA).

Monechma debile (Forssk.) Nees – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed forest, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, roadsides, weed of cultivation, 609–1602 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0275 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 625, Mwachala G et al. EW916, Hilderbrandt JM 2397, Johnston HH s.n. (EA).

Neuracanthus tephrophyllus Bidgood & Brummitt subsp. tsavoensis Bidgood & Brummitt – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia and Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 590 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/519 (EA). Endangered.

Nicoteba betonica (L.) Lindau – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest clearings, disturbed areas ca. 1584 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0135 (EA, HIB).

Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edges, secondary scrub, clearings and disturbed places, 1400–1850 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3197, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 999, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4381 (EA).

Pseuderanthemum hildebrandtii (C.B.Clarke) Lindau – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Riverine forest, thicket and bushland, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 733 (EA).

Rhinacanthus angulicaulis I.Darbysh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense or open Acacia-Commiphora bushland, dry semi-evergreen forest, 900–1250 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005376 (EA, HIB).

Ruellia prostrata Poir. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland and grassland, ca. 800 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3301 (EA).

Ruttya fruticosa Lindau – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Disturbed bushland, woodland, 620–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 548, 551 & 711 (EA).

Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Wet forest margins, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, disturbed places, 1100–1925 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 724, Faden RB & Evans A 69/856, 857 & 887, Bally PRO 13506 & 14203, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 255, Kluguess LM 25 (EA).

Thunbergia guerkeana Lindau – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 450–550 m. Vouchers: Medley KEM 980 (EA), Verdcourt B 1112, Holm K & Holm L 10, Dale IR K2048, Gillett JB 17214, Scott Elliott GF 6166 (EA).

Thunbergia schimbensis S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora, Combretum-Terminalia woodland, bushland, ca. 890 m. Voucher: Faden RB, Faden AJ & Smeenk C 71/988 (EA).

F42. ACHARIACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Dasylepis integra Warb. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understorey in rainforest, 1400–1925 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003291 & 006356 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1445, Faden RB & Evans A 69/879, Faden RB et al. 71/19, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 242 & 1050, Medley KE 1006a, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4341, Gardner HM 1212 & 2937, Gardiner N 2949, Joanna B 8918 & 8759, Raler I 0011 (EA).

Rawsonia lucida Harv. & Sond. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understorey and shrub layer in upland rainforest, 1000–1750 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4100 & 5489, Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/479, Medley KE 1015 (EA).

F43. AIZOACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

Trianthema ceratosepalum Volkens & Irmsch. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia bushland on alkaline soils, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Hucks M 440 (EA).

Trianthema portulacastrum L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of cultivation, disturbed places, sandy soils, 600–900 m. Vouchers: Hucks M 729, Mrs Robertson SA 3612 & 3680 (EA).

Zaleya pentandra (L.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland and bushland, cultivation and roadside weed, 480–900 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 1000, Hildebrandt JM 2400, Mrs Robertson SA 3673, Leuthold W 109 (EA).

F44. ALISMATACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy places, water drainage, ca. 1200 m. Voucher: Lubai IK HB14 (EA).

F45. AMARANTHACEAE

15 Genera, 25 species

Achyranthes aspera L. var. aspera – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open areas in mist forest patches, along paths, weed of cultivation or disturbed ground, 600–1957 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0266 (EA, HIB), Hucks M 885 & 1050 (EA).

Achyranthes aspera L. var. sicula L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest edges, 1450–1780 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM, Mwangangi OM & Dunn B 300, 387 & 744, Bally JB 13613 (EA).

*Alternanthera pungens Kunth – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed in trodden places, along tracks and roadsides, 500–950 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. in EW502, Mrs Robertson SA 3678, Bally PRO B13249a, Robel B 125, Geigy Ciba 10, Ivens GW 2611 (EA).

*Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Along river, damp forests, ca. 1372 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS 82/42 (EA).

*Amaranthus graecizans L. subsp. thellungianus (Nevski) Gusev – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed in disturbed and grazed lands, 550–610 m. Voucher: Napier ER 911 (EA).

*Amaranthus hybridus L. subsp. hybridus – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivations and ruderal lands, roadsides and forest edges, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 620 (EA).

Celosia anthelminthica Asch. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushes on forest edges, roadside, 800–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0258 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 604, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 534, Hucks M 738 (EA).

Celosia hastata Lopr. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, 900–1875 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/69, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 232, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 352, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 402, Faden RB, Evans A 71/119 (EA).

Celosia schweinfurthiana Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, rocky scrubland, wooded grassland, 1150–1250 m. Vouchers: Mungai G et al. EW1409, Luke WRQ et al 2 (EA).

Celosia trigyna L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, short grassland, weed of cultivation, 610–1580 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/111, Napier ER 995 (EA).

Centemopsis kirkii (Hook.f.) Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, waste ground, roadsides. Vouchers: Bally PRO 8657, Hittu 45 (EA).

Chenopodiastrum fasciculosum Aellen – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of forest margins, roadside, waste places, ca. 1700 m. Voucher: Gillett JB, Burtt BL, Osborn RM 17073 (EA).

Cyathula cylindrica Moq. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest, riverside, woodland, open bushland and rocky places, 998–2170 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW48 (EA), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 720, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 130 & 432, Klungness LM 60 (EA).

Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense forest, open bush, short grassland, disturbed places, near water, 1200–1780 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 751, Napier ER 1115, Gillett JB 23890 (EA).

Digera muricata (L.) Mart. var. macroptera C.C.Towns. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 700–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 736, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/265 (EA).

Digera muricata (L.) Mart. subsp. trinervis C.C.Towns. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, dry seasonal beds, ca. 900 m. Vouchers: Gardner H 2988, MacDonald J 869, Bally PRO 8803, ERV 906, Mrs Robertson SA 3674 (EA).

*Gomphrena celosioides Mart. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Trodden paths, roadsides, weed of cultivation, 520–1100 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW912, Mungai GM et al. EW2837, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/475, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12783, Hucks M 1023 (EA).

*Guilleminea densa (Willd. Ex Schult.) Moq. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Trodden and waste ground, roadside, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 682 (EA).

Ouret lanata (L.) Kuntze – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed in open habitats, 800–1450 m. Vouchers: Mwachala et al. EW943, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 294, Msafiri F & Ojiambo L 326 (EA).

Psilotrichum cyathuloides Suess. & Launert – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassy areas in forest, disturbed places. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4233 (EA).

Psilotrichum elliotii Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Semi-evergreen bushland and thicket, 960–1873 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004562 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/152, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5520, Gillett JB 19568 (EA).

Psilotrichum scleranthum Thwaites – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Riverine forest and scrub, secondary vegetation, roadsides, 650–1050 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 632, Mwachala G et al. EW3296, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/488, Medley KE 563, 690 & 756, Bally PRO 13587, Gilbert MG 6109 (EA).

Psilotrichum majus Peter – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest floor and margins, ca. 1746 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0056 (EA, HIB).

Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss. var. argyrophylla C.C.Towns – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, clearings, bushland, abandoned cultivations, 600–1766 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0282 (EA, HIB), Mungai GM et al. EW2836, Napier ER 924, Hucks M 787 (EA).

Sericocomopsis hildebrandtii Schinz – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Semi-desert scrub and deciduous bushland, 500–800 m. Vouchers: Hildebrandt JM 2584, Ossent JR 26 (EA).

Sericocomopsis pallida (S.Moore) Schinz – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Semi-desert scrub and deciduous bushland, ca. 500–650 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 1006, Rauh W 30 (EA).

Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Open bushland and scrub, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Hucks M 872 (EA).

F46. ANACARDIACEAE

5 Genera, 11 species

Lannea alata (Engl.) Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, rocky hill outcrops, 518–1700 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 509, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/279, Friis I & Hansen OJ 2660, Dale IR 14565, Bally PRO 20505, Hucks M 455, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12687 (EA).

Lannea rivae (Chiov.) Sacleux – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, deciduous bushland, rocky lava areas, 500–1000 m. Vouchers: Sacleux C 2353, Medley KE 973, Uhlig C 39 (EA).

Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, river valleys, 950–1100 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0321 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW187, Medley KE 426 & 851, Bally PRO 17117, Cheseny CMC 28/72, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 8866, Gillett JB 19574 (EA).

Ozoroa insignis Delile subsp. reticulata (Baker f.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wetter deciduous woodland and bushland, wooded grassland, 650–1200 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW152, Mungai GM et al. EW1457, Medley KE 797 (EA).

Searsia crenulata (A.Rich.) Moffett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous and evergreen woodland and bushland, 650–1200 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW1293, Medley KE 447 & 574 (EA).

Searsia longipes (Engl.) Moffett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland evergreen bushland, forest edges, 650–1836 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0115 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 646 & 790, Heller E s.n. (EA).

Searsia pyroides (Burch.) Moffett var. pyroides – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland evergreen bushland, forest edges, 1700–2000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 301, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 933 (EA).

Searsia quartiniana (A.Rich.) A.J.Mill. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, wooded grassland, riverine, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 601 (EA).

Searsia tenuinervis (Engl.) Moffett – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, wooded grassland, riverine, 800–1800 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 661, Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 6680 (EA).

Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 953, Mungai GM et al. EW s.n. (EA).

Sorindeia madagascariensis DC. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland evergreen forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 381 & 653, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 381, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 880, Faden RB et al. 71/1012 (EA).

F47. ANNONACEAE

5 Genera, 7 species

*Annona cherimola Mill. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Cultivated, 700–900 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3281, Bally PRO 8598 (EA).

Artabotrys monteiroae Oliv. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest edges in evergreen forest, 900–925 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW902, Mungai GM et al. EW3540 (EA).

Monanthotaxis buchananii (Engl.) Verdc. – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Riverine and hillside thicket, 1040–1100 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW201 (EA).

Uvaria acuminata Oliv. – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Wet evergreen forest, scrubby forest, woodland, 600–1075 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005397 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 615, Mwachala G et al. EW194, 512 & 3324, Muasya J et al. 02/2006/06, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/465, Medley KE 505 & 872, Faden RB et al. 70/956 & 957, Gillett JB 19566, Bally PRO 13589 (EA).

Uvaria lucida Bojer ex Benth. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist montane forest, rocky outcrops, 1450–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 560, Faden RB, Faden AJ & Smeenk C 71/1008 (EA).

Uvaria scheffleri Diels – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Forest, evergreen thicket and scrub, 650–1350 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0010 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 622, Mwachala G et al. EW50, 112, 135, 280, 397 & 1297, Mungai GM et al. EW2824 (EA), Medley KE 742 (EA).

Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen and deciduous bushland, riverine associations, ca. 1078 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004635 (EA, HIB).

F48. APHLOIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Montane evergreen forest, 1000–1950 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006351 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 249 & 369, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4362, Raler I 0060, Faden RB & Faden AJ 71/1007, Gardner HM 2953, Joanna B 8939, Medley KEM s.n. (EA).

F49. APIACEAE

8 Genera, 8 species

Afroligusticum linderi (C.Norman) P.J.D.Winter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest remnants, margins and glades, 2000–2170 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped.155 (EA).

*Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P.Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of cultivated and waste ground, ca. 1316 m. Voucher: Kirika P et al. GBK 47990 (EA).

Daucus incognitus (C.Norman) Spalik, Reduron & Banasiak – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest margins and clearings, cultivated areas, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 477, Lubai lK HB19 (EA).

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, damp grasslands, ca. 1200 m. Voucher: Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17056 (EA).

Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham. & Schltdl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Montane forest margins, open woodland, rocky hill slopes, 650–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005336 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. in EW3524, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 6434, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 258, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 394, Raler I 0102, Medley KE 489, 644 & 821 (EA).

Lefebvrea longipedicellata Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland evergreen forest and margins, roadside, 810–1550 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/90, Mwachala G et al. EW3561, Muasya J et al. GBK4799, Napier ER 1146 (EA).

Sanicula elata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, secondary forest, 1400–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005322 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ et al. 4193B, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6645, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 99 & 417, Faden RB et al. 71/246, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17083 (EA).

Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry woodland, deciduous bushland, rocky hillslopes, 720–1000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW566 & 967, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4413, Medley KE 750, Kluguess LM 46 (EA).

F50. APOCYNACEAE

34 Genera, 64 species

Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest edges, dry forest, woodland, 1195–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004529 & 006398, Watuma BM W0274 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3057a, Medley KE 939, Taita Hills NMK Exped. 305, Joanna in CM 8902 (EA).

Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry woodland and bushland, 487–800 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005404 (EA, HIB), Archer PG 622, Bally PRO 8675b, Alof E 318 (EA).

Ancylobothrys petersiana (Klotzsch) Pierre – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Woodland and bushland, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 553 (EA).

Baseonema gregorii Schltr. & Rendle – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland, evergreen forest on rocky outcrops, ca. 850 m. Voucher: Gilbert M & Gilbert C 6122 (EA).

*Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T.Aiton – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bare red soils near roads and villages, 600–700 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005337 & 005388 (EA, HIB).

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen bushland and scrub on red soils, roadside, ca. 622 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005360 (EA, HIB).

Caralluma arachnoidea (P.R.O.Bally) M.G.Gilbert – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grass or succulent dominated communities, in the open or in between shrubs, 600–750 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005411 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4173, Newton LE 5589 (EA).

Caralluma turneri E.A.Bruce subsp. tuneri – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Sparse grassland, succulent bushland on sandy to loamy soil, ca. 1350 m. Voucher: Goyder DJ, Masinde PS, Ulrich M & Christopher WM 4033 (EA).

Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Merxm. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry forest, 1000–1180 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. in EW248, Mungai G et al. in EW1330 (EA).

Carissa spinarum L. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Roadside, bushland, forest edge, 650–1786 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0264 (EA, HIB), Omino EA 73 & 86, Medley KE 511, 767 & 850 (EA).

Carissa tetramera (Sacleux) Stapf – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane woodland, thicket and bushland, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 483 & 850 (EA).

Carvalhoa campanulata K.Schum. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist and evergreen forest, riverine forest, 1000–1640 m. Voucher: Medley KE 437 (EA).

*Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Cultivated in villages, ca. 670 m. Voucher: Medley KE 424 (EA).

Ceropegia affinis Vatke – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora woodland, ca. 500 m. Vouchers: Archer PG 110 & 397 (EA).

Ceropegia affinis Vatke × Ceropegia racemosa N.E.Br. subsp. racemosa – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest, bushland and thicket, rocky slopes, 800–1060 m. Vouchers: Masinde PS 844, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 587, Gilbert M & Gilbert C 6120 (EA).

Ceropegia albisepta Jum. & H.Perrier var. albisepta – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland forest patches and riverine areas, 900–1300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5529, Archer PG 468 (EA).

Ceropegia ampliata E.Mey. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland on rocky ground, ca. 914 m. Voucher: Archer PG 558 (EA).

Ceropegia aristolochioides Decne. subsp. aristolochioides– Habit: Climber. Habitat: Semi-evergreen scrub, thickets and dry forests, 800–1000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3345, Gillett JB 19563, Napier ER 940, Mrs Robertson SA 3588 (EA).

Ceropegia ballyana Bullock – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest patches, wooded bushland, riverine, 850–1250 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006421 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 681, Mungai GM et al. EW1296 & 1375, Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/456, Napier ER 1145, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4419 (EA).

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest clearings and glades, wooded grassland, ca. 1873 m. Voucher: SAJIT–003299 (EA, HIB).

Ceropegia denticulata K.Schum. var. denticulata – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges and bushland, 862–1100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004620, Watuma BM W0191 (EA, HIB), Masinde PS and Meve 820 & 870 (EA).

NE Ceropegia distincta N.E.Br. var. rostrata Masinde – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges and clearings, near streams and rivers, ca. 985 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/494 (EA).

Ceropegia inornata P.R.O.Bally ex Masinde – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rocky deciduous bushland, 700–1050 m. Vouchers: Masinde PS, Goyder DJ, Meve U, Christopher MW 838, 839 & 853, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/493, Archer PG 391 & 587, Gillett JB 19565 (EA).

NE Ceropegia konasita Masinde – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and thickets, sandy soil with high humus content, 985–1050 m. Vouchers: Masinde PS & Meve U 819 & 854, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/492, Archer PG 428 (EA).

Ceropegia meyeri-johannis Engl. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges and clearings, thickets on hills, 800–1000 m. Voucher: Masinde PS & Meve U 936, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 748, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4109 (EA).

Ceropegia nilotica Kotschy – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, forest edges, 1000–1220 m. Vouchers: Masinde PS 836 & 840, Mwachala G et al. EW3267, Faden RB et al. 69/405, Napier ER 1137, Unknown collector KEN1002 (EA).

Ceropegia speciosa H.Huber – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Moist forest, 1795–1800 m. Voucher: Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 6671 (EA).

E Ceropegia verticillata Masinde – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dense and open evergreen forest, 1600–1800 m. Vouchers: Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Mbale M, Chase MW & Kyaa J 6671, Bytebier B 1160, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/277, Joanna B 8790 & 8988 (EA).

Cryptolepis nigrescens (Wennberg) L.Joubert & Bruyns – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Gallery forests, thickets, 800–1200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005387 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G, Mungai GM & Lusweti A 261, Verdcourt B 3598A (EA).

Cynanchum gerrardi (Harv.) Liede subsp. gerrardi – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia scrub, dry bushland, 850–930 m. Voucher: Goyder DJ & Masinde PS 3964 (EA).

Cynanchum gerrardi (Harv.) Liede subsp. lenewtonii (Liede) Goyder – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 610–1300 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1064 (EA).

Cynanchum insipidum (E.Mey.) Liede & Khanum – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland rainforest, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, open grassland, 750–1850 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 17228, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6658, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1048 (EA).

Cynanchum stoloniferum (B.R.Adams & R.W.K.Holland) Goyder – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rocky ground, ca. 1400 m. Voucher: Gilbert MG 5824 (EA).

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. crassicaule Liede & Meve – Habit: Herb/Climber. Habitat: Montane forest margins over rocks, ca. 1150 m. Vouchers: Goyder DJ, Masinde PS, Meve U & Whitehouse C 4029, Joanna B 9015 (EA).

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. odontolepis (Balf.f.) Goyder – Habit: Herb/Climber. Habitat: Dry Acacia-Commiphora woodland. Voucher: Bally PRO 16663 (EA).

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. suberosum (Meve & Liede) Goyder – Habit: Herb/Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, sandy soils, rocky ground, ca. 1050 m. Voucher: Godyer DJ, Masinde PS, Meve U & Whitehouse C 4031 (EA).

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. viminale – Habit: Herb/Climber. Habitat: Commiphora bushland, 487–950 m. Vouchers: Watuma W0189 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW769, Gillett JB 19585, Bally PRO 13566, Ossent JR 125, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12679 (EA).

Desmidorchis retrospiciens Ehrenb. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat. Semi-arid, open overgrazed lands, 600–800 m. Voucher: Hucks M 1045 (EA).

Desmidorchis speciosa (N.E.Br.) Plowes – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland and wooded grassland, ca. 590 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/521 (EA).

*Gomphocarpus physocarpus E.Mey. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet pastures and disturbed lands, ca. 1400 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW1323 (EA).

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Schult. – Habit: Liana/Shrub. Habitat: Riverine forest margins, thicket and dry bushland, 900–1200 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005395 (EA, HIB).

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Riverine forest, woodland, evergreen bushland, 650–1400 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 810 & 948, Mungai GM et al. EW2815, Medley KE 459, Bally PRO 13610 (EA).

NE Huernia andreaeana (Rauh) L.C.Leach – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry deciduous bushland on rocky ground, ca. 480 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5576 (EA).

Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex Thwaites – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine and evergreen forest, 1500–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 217, Faden RB et al. 69/881 (EA).

Landolphia buchananii (Hallier f.) Stapf – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Upland rainforest margins, riverine forest, 1200–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004606 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ 2192, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 509, Medley KE 687 (EA).

Marsdenia abyssinica (Hochst.) Schltr. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest margins, montane woodland, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 771 (EA).

Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist habitats, riverine and disturbed forests, 1200–1300 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005352 (EA, HIB).

Orbea semota (N.E.Br.) L.C.Leach – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland on steep slope, rocky places, ca. 1200 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Mrs. Robertson SA 5511 (EA).

Orbea subterranea (E.A.Bruce & P.R.O.Bally) Bruyns – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bare ground, thin grassland, succulent communities, 600–680 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Evans A & Rathbun G 69/480B, Joanna s.n. in Bally S20 (EA).

NE Orbea taitica Bruyns – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky outcrops and inselbergs, ca. 1300 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5561 (EA).

Pachycarpus lineolatus (Decne.) Bullock – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open deciduous woodland, seasonally waterlogged grasslands, ca. 1158 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 8577 (EA).

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. subsp. daemia – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland, 450–1200 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0026 (EA, HIB), Goyder DJ & Masinde PS 3956 & 3957, Gillett JB 17210 & 17221 (EA).

Pleiocarpa bicarpellata Stapf – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Moist evergreen forest, 1465–1616 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006384 (EA, HIB), Omino EA 82 & 157, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4202 (EA).

Rauvolfia caffra Sond. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forest, riverine forest, 650–1640 m. Voucher: Medley KEM s.r. (EA).

Rauvolfia mannii Stapf – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Moist forest, 1000–1925 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005347, Watuma BM W0049 (EA, HIB), Omino EA 52 & 81, Harvey YB, Mwachala G & Vollesen KB 32, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 172 & 354, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 851, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/325, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4329, Faden RB & Evans A 69/876, Raler I 0042, Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F & Smeenk C 71/20, Lubai lK HB27, Medley KE 700 & 882 (EA).

Saba comorensis (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist forest, forest edges, secondary forest, woodland, rocky places, 500–1350 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0153 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/131, Mwachala G et al. EW583 & 910, Muasya J 2096, Omino EA 87, Kluguess LM 45, Bally PRO 1940, 1949, 8580, 13612, Greenwayi PJ 8771, Skinner FE & Mcgough JM s.n. (EA).

Sacleuxia newii (Benth.) Bullock – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora-Euphorbia deciduous bushland on rocky outcrops, 600–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB and Faden AJ 74/450, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 16117, Goyder et al. 4030, Medley KE 895, Gillett JB 16877 & 17237 (EA).

Secamone alpini Schult. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Montane forest, 1400–1875 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 665, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 552 (EA).

Secamone punctulata Decne. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, riverine and thickets, 800–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005357 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 723B, Mwachala G et al. EW81, Mungai GM et al. EW1666, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1012, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 563, Medley KE 753 (EA).

Secamone schweinfurthii K.Schum – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland and woodland, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 611 & 723A, Mwachala G et al. EW948, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/463, Medley KE 488, 500 & 864 (EA).

Strophanthus mirabilis Gilg – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 653 & 785 (EA).

Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Montane forest, 1400–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004597, Watuma BM W0125 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 869, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 235 & 278, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4368, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17102, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Smeenk C 71/980, Raler I 0001 (EA).

Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A.DC. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest margins, riverine and grassy areas. Voucher: Omino EA 85 (EA).

Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Mist forest patches, stream sides, 1800–2000 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004583 (EA, HIB).

Tacazzea conferta N.E.Br. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Podocarpus afromontane forest, moist bushland, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 339 (EA).

Telosma africana (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Margins of wet forest, 800–850 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3338 (EA).

Vincetoxicum fleckii (Schltr.) Meve & Liede – Habit: Liana. Habit: Dry forest remnants, 800–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 594, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2737 (EA).

E Vincetoxicum sp. B of FTEA [Tylophora sp. B of FTEA] – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Montane forest, ca. 1760 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5494 (EA).

F51. AQUIFOLIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rainforest, dry evergreen forest, derived thicket, 1350–1850 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4220, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 620 & 624, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 377, Medley KE 923, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1102, Raler I 0123 (EA).

F52. ARALIACEAE

3 Genera, 5 species

Astropanax myrianthus (Baker) Lowry, G.M.Plunkett & al. – Habit: Liana/Tree: Habitat: Wet upland forest edges, 1400–2195 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004578 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 140, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 884, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4323, Raler I 0052, Medley KE 926, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2720, Gillett JB, Burtt BL, Osborn RM 17090, Dale IR 11539, Gardner HM 2931, Faden RB et al. s.n. (EA) Near Threatened.

Cussonia holstii Harms ex Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland dry evergreen forest, evergreen montane woodland, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 1009 (EA).

Cussonia spicata Thunb. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rainforest and dry evergreen forest, 1200–1640 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0127 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 1007, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM EAH11987, Raler I 0018 (EA).

Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms – Habit: Tree. Habit: Upland and lowland rainforest, 1400–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 264, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4378, Raler I 0023, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Polyscias stuhlmannii Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Rain- and mist-forest, 1425–1981 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0305 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 630, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 288, 374 & 461, Raler I 0048, Faden RB & Githui M 70/745, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/266 & 77/320, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Smeenk C 71/1004, Dale IR 1130, Gardner HM 2922 (EA). Endangered.

F53. ASTERACEAE

46 Genera, 77 species

Acmella caulirhiza Delile – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, riverbanks, seasonally wet areas, cultivated areas, 1000–1560 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17069, Sacleux C 1386 (EA).

*Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp moist forest zone, grassland near rivers ca. 1100–1200 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW570 (EA).

Adenostemma mauritianum DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Margins of pathways through forest, forest edges, 1371–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006372 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 292 & 954, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4383, Dale IR 3808, Napier ER 1117 (EA).

Ambassa hochstetteri (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) Steetz – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest and forest margins, 1500–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004106 (EA, HIB), Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4297, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 144 (EA).

Anisopappus chinensis Hook. & Arn. subsp. oliverianus (Wild) S.Ortíz, Paiva & Rodr.Oubiña – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and ruderal sites, 1100–2000 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5357, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4347, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 439, Sacleux C 1397, Lewis WH 5933, Dale IR 3805 (EA).

Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margins, woodland, bushland and grassland, ruderal sites, 500–1359 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0250 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 900 (EA).

Baccharoides lasiopus (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest clearings or margins, secondary bush derived from forest, ca. 700–1121 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 831, Hildebrandt JM 2551 (EA).

Bidens hildebrandtii O.Hoffm. – Habit. Subshrub. Habitat: Scrub on hillsides, rock crevices, 609–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 649, Hildebrandt JM 2432, Napier ER 1016, Verdcourt B 3890A (EA).

Bidens holstii Sherff – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margins, disturbed forests, open bushland next to forest, 1000–2195 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4168, Ojiambo 31, Beentje HJ 2136, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 14, Hildebrandt JM 2432a, Sacleux C 2503, Gillett JB 18769, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2718, Napier ER 1321, Faden RB et al. 71/130, Lewis WH 5934, Lynes H 282 (EA).

Bidens kilimandscharica (O.Hoffm.) Sherff – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, wooded grassland, 750–1582 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0255 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3141, Kirika P et al. 1/2006/07, Muasya J & Medley KE 817, Sacleux C 2424 (EA).

Blepharispermum zanguebaricum Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry forest, forest margins, woodland, bushland, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0027 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 543 & 570, Gillett JB 17225 (EA).

Bothriocline argentea (O.Hoffm.) Wild & G.V.Pope – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane forest in rock crevices, 1700–2000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 291, Bally PRO 13510, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4348 (EA).

NE Bothriocline glomerata (O.Hoffm. & Muschl.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1600–2000 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4209, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4361 (EA). Endangered.

Bothriocline longipes (Oliv. & Hiern) N.E.Br. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, disturbed places, 1650–1850 m. Vouchers: Wakanene K, Mwangangi & Dunn B 388, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4287, Kluguess LM 1 (EA).

Brachylaena huillensis O.Hoffm. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Dry evergreen and semi-deciduous forest, bushland on sandy soils, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/467, Medley KE 921 (EA). Near Threatened.

Conyza newii Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margins and grassy clearings, 1500–2057 m. Vouchers: Lewis WH 5935, Murray High School 25, Klungness LM 57 (EA).

Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest margins, secondary vegetation, disturbed places, cultivation weed, 1000–2000 m. Vouchers: Sacleux C 894 & 2506 (EA).

Crassocephalum montuosum (S.Moore) Milne-Redh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist and evergreen forest in edges and clearings, 1350–1400 m. Voucher: Joanna B 8866 (EA).

Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Secondary vegetation, margins of cultivated lands, ca. 1800 m. Voucher: Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4318 (EA).

Emilia discifolia (Oliv.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, disturbed areas, roadside, cultivated areas, 900–1300 m. Voucher: Sacleux C 2606 (EA).

Emilia somalensis (S.Moore) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Short grassland on rocky slopes, mountain summits, 1330–1750 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3149, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 561, Hilderbrandt JM 2557 (EA).

*Erigeron karvinskianus DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, roadside banks and clearings, 1150–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 85, Friis I & Hansen OJ 2668, Bally PRO 13629, Kluguess LM 62 (EA).

Eriosema nutans Schinz – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, grassland with Acacia, 1675–1725 m. Voucher: SAJIT–003298 (EA, HIB).

Erythrocephalum marginatum (O.Hoffm.) S.Ortíz & A.P.Cout. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Subshrub. Dry forest, riverine forest margins, rocky slopes, deciduous woodland, 800–1700 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 623, Mwachala G et al. EW521, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 447, Gillett JB, Burtt B & Osborn RM 17162, Hildebrandt JM 2559 (EA).

Eschenbachia subscaposa (O.Hoffm.) G.L.Nesom – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, rocky areas, 1300–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 152, Gilbert MG 7094 (EA).

*Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C.Mohr – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste ground, weed of cultivation, 800–1500 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004121 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 710, Bally PRO 13905 (EA).

*Galinsoga parviflora Cav. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, roadside, waste places, weed of cultivation. Voucher: Cheseny CMC 24/72 (EA).

Gutenbergia cordifolia Benth. ex Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins and roadsides, grassland, rocky hillsides, cultivated lands, 950–1700 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al EW98, 331, 339, 804, 917 & 3121, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17074, Klungness LM 3 (EA).

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. – Habit: Liana/Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Forest margins, woodland, secondary bushland, ca. 1400 m. Voucher: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 657 (EA).

Gymnanthemum auriculiferum (Hiern) Isawumi – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest clearings and margins, woodland, secondary bush, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 330 (EA).

Gymnanthemum myrianthum (Hook.f.) H.Rob. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest clearings and margins, cultivated areas, 1676–1700 m. Vouchers: Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4371, Klungness LM 54 (EA).

Helichrysum forskahlii (J.F.Gmel.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest margins and secondary vegetation, 610–2000 m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM et al. KEFRI 500, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 437b, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4308, Knox EB 2693 & 2712, Sacleux C 2428, Lisowski S 7301 (EA).

Helichrysum glumaceum DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland in dry bushland on hillsides, 450–950 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1275, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 16119, Kokwaro JO 2601, Napier ER 942, Bremer K 13, Gillett JB 21003B, Leuthold W 65 (EA).

Helichrysum luteoalbum (L.) Rchb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, streambanks, cultivation weed, 1150–1800 m. Vouchers: Joanna B & Opiko B 8994, Fleuret A 15 (EA).

Helichrysum kilimanjari Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland, shallow rocky soil on exposed hilltops, ca. 1676 m. Voucher: Joanna B 9004 (EA).

Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less. var. oxyphyllum (DC.) Beentje – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland or scattered tree grassland, 1100–1500 m. Voucher: Sacleux C 2378 (EA).

Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane grassland or bushland, forest margins, 1100–1900 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006403 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1188, Knox EB 2708 (EA).

Helichrysum panduratum O.Hoffm. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland or forest margins, secondary bush, 1400–1600 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ et al. 4212 (EA).

Helichrysum stenopterum DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margin, montane bushland in rocky sites, cultivations, 1100–2000 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 437a, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4307, Sacleux C 2501, Klungness LM 10, Joanna B s.n. (EA).

Hoffmannanthus abbotianus (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob., S.C.Keeley & Skvarla – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry forest margins, riverine forests, secondary bushland derived from forest, 610–1584 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0136 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 726 & 888, Hildebrandt JM 2466 & 2499 (EA).

Jeffreycia usambarensis (O.Hoffm.) H.Rob., S.C.Keeley & Skvarla – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Secondary bushland, grassland, roadside, abandoned cultivations, 900–1875 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/9, Mwachala G et al. EW798, 817 & 1249, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 389 & 529, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 490A & 490B, Napier ER 1126, Freidberg A & Kaplan 91/45, Murray High School 30 (EA).

Kleinia abyssinica (A.Rich.) A.Berger var. hildebrandtii (Vatke) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, dry grassland, woodland, open forest, 609–950 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004618, Watuma BM W0184 (EA, HIB), Bally PRO 13953, Napier ER 898A (EA).

Kleinia grantii Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open bushland on stony sites, scattered tree grassland, ca. 609 m. Voucher: Napier ER 899 (EA).

Kleinia implexa (P.R.O.Bally) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, sandy or rocky sites, ca. 775 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/314 (EA).

Kleinia odora (Forssk.) DC. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia bushland on rocky hillsides, overgrazed sites, 560–700 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 761, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/271 (EA).

Kleinia squarrosa Cufod. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry and moist bushland, 609–1750 m. Vouchers: Joanna B 8984, Archer PG 563, Gillett JB, Burtt BL, Osborn RM 17108 & 20730, Napier ER 1057, Bally J 13524 (EA).

Lactuca glandulifera Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, derived bushland, roadsides, ca. 1591 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0219 (EA, HIB).

Lactuca inermis Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open forest path sides, grassland, weed of cultivation, ca. 1814 m. Voucher: SAJIT–006400 (EA, HIB).

Laggera brevipes Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest edges, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 440 (EA).

Lipotriche scandens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Orchard subsp. madagascariensis (Baker) D.J.N.Hind – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamp and swamp margins, ca. 1200 m. Voucher: Lubai lK HB11 (EA).

Microglossa densiflora Hook.f. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins and clearings, 1773–2170 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0285 (EA, HIB), Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4313, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 158 (EA).

Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Drier forest margins, secondary bushland, abandoned cultivations, ca. 1818 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004541 (EA, HIB).

Microglossa pyrrhopappa (Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich.) Agnew – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, secondary bushland, grassland, 750–2024 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006359 (EA, HIB), Hildebrandt JM 2508, Bally PRO 8714, Sacleux C 134 (EA).

Mikania chenopodiifolia Willd. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, stream banks, ca. 1632 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004590 (EA, HIB).

Orbivestus cinerascens (Sch.Bip.) H.Rob. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 834 (EA).

Osteospermum vaillantii (Decne.) Norl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane heath and scrub, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ruderal sites, 1000–1500 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1187, Sacleux C 2368 (EA).

Piloselloides hirsuta (Forssk.) C.Jeffrey ex Cufod. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous forest, open deciduous woodland, grassland, ca. 1400–1800 m. Vouchers: Kirika P et al. 01/2006/33, Gillett JB 17256 (EA).

Pseudoconyza viscosa (Mill.) D’Arcy – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist sites along river, weed of cultivation, ca. 610 m. Voucher: Napier ER 981 (EA).

Psiadia punctulata (DC.) Vatke – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, dry forest margins, secondary bushland, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 539, Gardner HM 3005 (EA).

Senecio deltoideus Less. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist forest margins, secondary bushland in forest margin, 1500–1900 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004115 (EA, HIB), Knox EB 2713, Sacleux C 2430 (EA).

Senecio hadiensis Forssk. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Dry forest or forest margins, evergreen or semi-deciduous bushland, 800–1200 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW197, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 6426, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4418, Sacleux C 2417, Medley KE 808 (EA).

Senecio syringifolius O.Hoffm. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen forest, forest margins, 1500–2170 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0140 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 645 & 723, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 134, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1110 (EA).

*Senecio vulgaris L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: N/A. Voucher: Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 1418 (EA).

Sigesbeckia orientalis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ruderal sites, weed of cultivation, 1200–1400 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 8788 (EA).

Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Riverine forest, bushland and thicket, 800–1583 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0194 & W0254 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 726 (EA).

NE Solanecio buchwaldii (O.Hoffm.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forest, rock outcrops and crevices, 700–1875 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4222, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17108, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 331, Newton LE 3247, Archer PG 563 & 14092, Bally PRO 13524 (EA).

Solanecio mannii (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest glades and margins, near cultivated areas, 1400–1937 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0092 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ 2140, Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 6630, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 22 (EA).

Solanecio mirabilis (Muschl.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist upland forest, 1525–1850 m. Vouchers: Bytebier B 1279, Faden RB & Githui M 70/712 (EA). Endangered.

Sonchus oleraceus L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ruderal sites, roadsides, weed of cultivation, ca. 1295 m. Voucher: Murray High School 101 (EA).

Sphaeranthus kirkii Oliv. & Hiern – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet sites, ditches in bushland, 500–600 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Faden AJ & Holland P 72/143, Rauh W Ke68 (EA).

*Tagetes minuta L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of cultivated lands, ruderal sites, 600–1200 m. Vouchers: Cheseny CMC 104, Rauh W KE69a (EA).

*Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Roadside, waste ground, hedge plant, 1524–1950 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0216 (EA, HIB), Kluguess LM 39 (EA).

*Tridax procumbens L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of cultivation and waste ground, 503–800 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 704, Bremer K 14, Gardner HM 3003, Ciba-Geigy 8, Napier ER 934, Hucks M et al. 90, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 13023 (EA).

Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less. subsp. galamensis – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, secondary bushland, 1624–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004126 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 570 (EA).

Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less. subsp. mutomoensis M.G.Gilbert – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland and woodland, rocky outcrops, 609–1150 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0007 (EA, HIB), Gilbert MG & Gilbert CI 6107, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 955, Hildebrandt JM 2455 & 2847 (EA).

Vernonia holstii O.Hoffm. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Margins and clearings of dry evergreen forest, secondary bushland, 650–1440 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005344 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1101, Medley KE 596, Gillett JB 18757 (EA).

Vernonia wakefieldii Oliv. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest, deciduous bushland and thicket on rocky slopes, 600–1450 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 745, Mwachala G et al. EW3117A & 3310, Kokwaro JO 2602, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/479, Medley KE 701, Gardner HM 3007, Gillett JB 16873 & 19576, Gilbert MG 6111, Parker I 552H (EA).

Vernoniastrum aemulans (Vatke) H.Rob. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, old cultivations, 500–1524 m. Vouchers: Kluguess LM 3A, Hucks M 680 & 762, Bremer K 7 (EA).

F54. BALSAMINACEAE

1 Genus, 8 species

E Impatiens engleri Gilg subsp. pubescens Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Densely shaded forests, 1425–2134 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–05335 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 687, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 279, 481, 767 & 946, Faden RB et al. 70/709 & 71/973, Bally PRO 8769, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4356, Knox EB 2689 (EA).

Impatiens nana Engl. & Warb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist and shaded places in upland rainforest, ca. 1750 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 370, Stella W 173 (EA).

Impatiens pseudoviola Gilg – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp shaded upland rainforest, on mossy river banks, 1000–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004534 & 004542, Watuma BM W0021 & W0116 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. 1051 & EW1340, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4156, De Block P et al. 497, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1, 97 & 395, Beentje HJ 2138, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 850, Bally PRO 8699, Faden RB & Githui M 70/734, Knox EB 2638, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17082 & 18760 (EA).

Impatiens sodenii Engl. & Warb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest in damp shaded or open areas, 1400–2200 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G, Nyaboke & Saidi S 1052 (EA), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4192, Bytebier B 1676, De Block P et al. 307, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 36 & 289, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4294, Knox EB 2699, Gardner HM 2908 (EA).

Impatiens stuhlmannii Warb. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp areas in upland rainforest, 1650–1900 m. Voucher: Knox EB 2697 (EA).

E Impatiens teitensis Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest, 1425–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005316 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5492, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 215 & 373, Beentje HJ 2137, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 60 & 361, De Block P et al. 300, 313 & 496, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4339, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17097, Knox EB 2697, Faden RB et al. 71/972, Bally PRO 8584, 12714 & 18714, Gardner HM 2941, Joanna B & Opiko 8775 (EA).

Impatiens tinctoria A.Rich. subsp. elegantissima (Gilg) Grey-Wilson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest in moist shaded places, ca. 1500 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 13606 (EA).

Impatiens walleriana Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp shaded places in upland rainforest, 1000–1450 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1341, Luke WRQ & Bytebier B 5328, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1065, Knox EB 2715, Faden RB, Faden AJ, Smeenk C, Smeenk N & Kichoi D 71/963, Bally PRO 8700, Archer PG 661 (EA).

F55. BASELLACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

Basella alba L. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest and cultivation margins, forest-grassland transitions, 1500–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0071 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 721, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 562 & 847 (EA).

Basella paniculata Volkens – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Margins of dry evergreen forest and bushland, ca. 1371 m. Voucher: Joanna B 8878 (EA).

F56. BEGONIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Begonia johnstonii Oliv. ex Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist sites in rock crevices, 800–1515 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 588, Mbale M et al. NMK 967, Luke WRQ et al. 4181, Faden RB, Evans A & Smeenk C 71/32, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/989, Faden RB et al. 71/215 (EA).

F57. BIGNONIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. subsp. africana – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees, woodland, remnants in farmed lands, 800–950 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0202 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 671 (EA).

F58. BORAGINACEAE

6 Genera, 10 species

Bourreria teitensis (Gürke) Thulin – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 500–1367 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0232 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. 69/423, Medley KE 429 & 492, Hildebrandt JM 2359 (EA).

Ehretia bakeri Britten – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Mist forest on rocky slopes, deciduous woodland and bushland, 550–1450 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1410, Gardner HM 2986, Medley KE 520 & 728, Faden RB et al. s.n. (EA).

Ehretia cymosa Thonn. var. silvatica (Gürke) Brenan – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Rainforest, riverine forest, derived grassland and bushland, 1425–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 491 & 564, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 855 & 957 (EA).

Cordia monoica Roxb. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia woodland, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 524 & 533, Verdcourt B 3895B (EA).

Cordia sinensis Lam. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora open bushland, riverine, 550–650 m. Voucher: Medley KE 497 (EA).

Cynoglossum coeruleum Hochst. ex A.DC. var. mannii (Baker & C.H.Wright) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Submontane forest edges, 1700–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 118 & 322, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4315 (EA).

Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edge, grassland, bushland, ca. 1581 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0218 (EA, HIB), Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17053 (EA).

Heliotropium steudneri Vatke subsp. steudneri – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Combretum, Acacia and Commiphora bushland, grassland, 500–750 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Dunn B 17172 & 17190, Bally PRO 8649, Thulin M 295 (EA).

Heliotropium steudneri Vatke subsp. bullatum Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland and woodland, roadside, 970–1180 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW380 (EA).

Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.f.) Lam. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, roadsides and cultivation, 950–1050 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW1446 (EA).

Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br. var. zeylanicum – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Commiphora-Grewia bushland, disturbed ground and cultivations, 1750–1800 m. Voucher: Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Chase MW, Mbale M & Kyaa J 6678 (EA).

F59. BRASSICACEAE

5 Genera, 6 species

*Brassica rapa L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated land, abandoned fields, ca. 1524 m. Voucher: Klungness LM 9 (EA).

Cardamine africana L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Montane forest, clearings, along road and paths, 1700–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 151 & 332 (EA).

Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places in upland forest, ca. 1295 m. Voucher: Murray High School 103 (EA).

Farsetia stenoptera Hochst. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open bushland, overgrazed and cultivated lands. Voucher: Cheseny CMS 33/73 (EA).

Farsetia stenoptera Hochst. subsp. boivinii (E.Fourn.) Jonsell – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Open grassland on sandy soils, ca. 487 m. Voucher: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12722 (EA).

Farsetia undulicarpa Jonsell – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and wooded grasslands on volcanic soils, ca. 925 m. Voucher: Kuchar P 11069 (EA).

*Lepidium bonariense L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassland, roadside, waste places, settlements, 1585–1814 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004655, Watuma BM W0252 (EA, HIB).

F60. BURSERACEAE

2 Genera, 12 species

Boswellia neglecta S.Moore – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 400–850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005400 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 966, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/250, Engler A 1973, Davey PRA 36 Dale IR 3897 (EA).

Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, bushed grassland, 660–950 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005384, Watuma BM W0176 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW151, 338, 526 & 1177, Cheseny CMC 49/75, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/282, Medley KE 526, Gillett JB 19584, Bally PRO 16895, Dale IR 2000 (EA).

Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Engl. var. glaucidula (Engl.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushed grassland, Acacia-Commiphora open bushland, 540–990 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB & Glover PE 16857, 19577, 19592, 19624 & 19632, Dale IR 2002, Leippert H 5645, Ivens GW 410 (EA).

Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Engl. var. venosa (Mattick) Govaerts – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushed grassland, ca. 600 m. Vouchers: Cheseny CMC 44/74, Mrs. Robertson SA 6552 & 6556 (EA).

Commiphora baluensis Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and dry forest, often on rocky ground, 650–990 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 970, Gillett JB & Glover PE 19643, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2743 (EA).

Commiphora campestris Engl. subsp. campestris – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medlely KEM 775 (EA), Gillett JB & Glover PE 19623 (EA), Dale IR 3881 & 3894 (EA), Hildebrandt JM 2516 (EA), Bally PRO 8551 (EA). Near Threatened.

Commiphora campestris Engl. var. heterophylla (Engl.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree: Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland. Voucher: Gilbert MG & Gilbert CI 6096 (EA).

Commiphora edulis (Klotzsch) Engl. subsp. boiviniana (Engl.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora and semi-evergreen bushland, 600–770 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005399 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1513, Medley KE 84, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/278, Verdcourt B 3895, Leakey PH s.n. (EA).

Commiphora edulis (Klotzsch) Engl. subsp. holosericea (Engl.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 762 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3880, Verdcourt B 1113 (EA).

Commiphora eminii Engl. subsp. trifoliolata (Engl.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest and forest margins, 650–1250 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005372, Watuma BM W0243 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4099, Medley KE 446 & 600, Faden RB, Evans A, Smeenk C & Kariuki B 131 (EA).

Commiphora kataf (Forssk.) Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Montane woodland, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 550–1024 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0317 (EA, HIB), Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/276, Medley KE 525, 721 & 774, Dale IR 3892, Engler A 1945 (EA).

Commiphora kua (R.Br. ex Royle) Vollesen – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, rocky places, bushed grassland, 550–940 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005398, Watuma BM W0185 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 523, 550 & 723, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12658, 12893 & 12894, Hucks M 892 (EA).

Commiphora oblongifolia J.B.Gillett – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland in rocky places, 600–840 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 16116, Cheseny CMC 11/72, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12661, Gillett JB & Glover PE 17233 & 19644, Verdcourt B 3889, Napier ER 1015 (EA). Near Threatened.

Commiphora paolii Chiov. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Verdcourt B & Polhill R 2709 (EA).

Commiphora samharensis Schweinf. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland and woodland, 750–870 m. Voucher: Medley KE 815 (EA).

Commiphora schimperi (O.Berg) Engl. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora open deciduous woodland and bushland, 600–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 684, Gillett JB & Glover PE 19582, 19588 & 19639 (EA).

F61. CACTACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

*Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry deciduous bushland and thicket, 1019–1600 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0316 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1144 (EA).

Rhipsalis baccifera (J.S.Muell.) Stearn – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland rainforest, evergreen bushland, rocky cliffs, 650–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0203 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/155, Mungai G et al. EW2830, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 272, Mbale M et al. NMK 964, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 227, 450 & 779, Bally PRO 8794 & 16662, Faden RB, Evans A, Smeenk C 71/1013, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17101 (EA).

F62. CAMPANULACEAE

2 Genera, 5 species

Lobelia giberroa Hemsl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland secondary forest, forest edges, streamsides, 1500–2170 m. Vouchers: Kirika P et al. NMK 814, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6659, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 88 & 243, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17076, Bally PRO 8757, Knox EB 2694 & 2696, Dale IR 3797 (EA).

Lobelia holstii Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest edges, rocky or disturbed places, 1425–2100 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0017 (EA, HIB), Christenhusz MJM et al. 6631, Beentje HJ 2146, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 290 & 438, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4303, Hildebrandt JM 2463, Knox EB 2692, 2695 & 2702 (EA).

Lobelia trullifolia Hemsl. subsp. trullifolia – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest margins, stream sides, roadsides, 1600–1640 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. 71/188 (EA).

Wahlenbergia krebsii Cham. subsp. arguta (Hook.f.) Thulin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, upland grassland, ca. 1250 m. Voucher: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 443 (EA).

Wahlenbergia napiformis (A.DC.) Thulin – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, grassland, old cultivations, roadsides, ca. 1600 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1141 & 1158 (EA).

F63. CANELLACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Warburgia ugandensis Sprague subsp. ugandensis – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, secondary bushland and grassland, ca. 1219 m. Vouchers: Kishewitsch S s.n., Stephen K s.n. (EA).

F64. CANNABACEAE

3 Genera, 4 species

Celtis africana Burm.f. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understorey in mist forest, riverine, 1050–1875 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW2567, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 528 (EA).

Celtis gomphophylla Baker – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Mist forest, by forest streams in valleys, 1170–1850 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3205, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 775, Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F, Smeenk C 71/58 (EA).

Chaetachme aristata Planch. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Lowland and upland forest, 1000–1640 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW2579, Medley KE 619 (EA).

Trema orientale (L.) Blume – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland and lowland rainforest margins, 800–2000 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005343, Watuma BM W0081 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW2573, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 398, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 940, Raler I 0089, Medley KE 629 (EA).

F65. CAPPARACEAE

6 Genera, 27 species

Boscia coriacea Pax – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland with scattered trees, 500–690 m. Vouchers: Muasya J et al. KEFRI 82, Ochung HO 63/BE, Medley KE 657, Zùmer M 38, Hildebrandt JM 2478 (EA).

Boscia integrifolia J.St.-Hil.– Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, 500–1000 m. Vouchers: Muaysa J & Medley KE 655 & 769, Gardner HM 2911 (EA).

Boscia salicifolia Oliv. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, ca. 900 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW900 (EA).

Cadaba carneoviridis Gilg & Gilg-Ben. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, grassland with scattered trees, 500–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 503, 685, 842 & 876, Ossent JR 113 (EA).

Cadaba farinosa Forrsk. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia thornbush, bushland, grassland with scattered trees, 500–650 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW198, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4250, Ossent J 46, Gillett JB 16872, Medley KE 502 & 838 (EA).

Cadaba glandulosa Forssk. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland with scattered trees. Vouchers: Njoroge T 21, Rauh W s.n. (EA).

Cadaba linearifolia (J.Graham) M.R.Almeida – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia bushland. Vouchers: Greenway PJ & Kanuri 9786, Ossent JR 40 (EA).

Cadaba mirabilis Gilg – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and semi-desert scrub, Voucher: Ochung H H012 (EA).

Cadaba ruspolii Gilg – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland with scattered trees. Vouchers: Wamukoya OW 103, Greenway PG & Kanuri 10 (EA).

Cadaba stenopoda Gilg & Gilg-Ben. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, riverine forest, ca. 600 m. Vouchers: Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4276, Ossent JR 112 (EA).

Capparis cartilaginea Decne. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, exposed rocks. Voucher: Ossent JR 702 (EA).

Capparis erythrocarpos Isert var. rosea (Klotzsch) DeWolf – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland and secondary scrub, ca. 925 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW3585 (EA).

Capparis fascicularis DC. var. fascicularis – Habit: Liana/Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland with scattered trees, 500–1180 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW259, Medley KE 951 (EA).

Capparis fascicularis DC. var. scheffleri (Gilg & Gilg-Ben.) DeWolf – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland dry evergreen forest, deciduous bushland and secondary scrub. Voucher: Ossent JR 136 (EA).

Capparis sepiaria L. var. fischeri (Pax) DeWolf – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland with scattered trees. Voucher: Gillet JB 19579 (EA).

Capparis sepiaria L. var. stuhlmannii (Gilg) DeWolf – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, riverine forest. Voucher: Napper D 1469 (EA).

Capparis tomentosa Lam. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, 500–650 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005410 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 611, 725 & 762, Gardner N 2923, Bally PRO 8640 (EA).

Maerua angolensis DC. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, edges of upland rainforest, 550–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 504b, 827, 871 & 933 (EA).

Maerua crassifolia Forssk. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, thicket and semi-desert scrub, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 512 & 957, Ossent JR 66 (EA).

Maerua decumbens (Brongn.) DeWolf – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, 550–865 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0200 (EA, HIB), Kimeu JM et al. KEFRI 506, Chepkwony & Esilaba 29, Medley KE 857, Bally PRO 13370, Gardner HM 3011, Ossent JR EAH 1092S & 11468 (EA).

Maerua denhardtiorum Gilg – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, termite mounds. Voucher: Hucks M 119 (EA).

Maerua endlichii Gilg & Gilg-Ben. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and grassland with scattered trees or shrubs, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 765 & 786, Leuthhold W 89, Gillett JB 16871, Bally J 13392 (EA).

Maerua grantii Oliv. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland, grassland with scattered trees, 450–600 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 13298 (EA).

Maerua holstii Pax – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous woodland in dry sandy places, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 734 & 779, Ossent JR 110 (EA).

Maerua kirkii (Oliv.) F.White – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: High altitude bushland, riverine forest, 600–1180 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW286 & 1506, Kokwaro JO 2614, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/435, Medley KE 848, Bally PRO 8746, Ossent JR 41 & 11470 (EA).

Maerua triphylla A.Rich. var. calophylla (Gilg) DeWolf – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous and evergreen bushland, riverine forest on rocky ground, 1080–1250 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 488, Faden RB & Evans A 71/123 (EA).

Maerua triphylla A.Rich. var. johannis (Volkens & Gilg) DeWolf – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, grassland with scattered trees, termite mounds, 650–1371 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005386 & 005394 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/33, Medley KE 578, 599, 685, 731, 739 & 896 (EA).

Ritchiea albersii Gilg – Habit: Tree. Habit: Upland rainforest, often at margins, 1000–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006385, Watuma BM W0132 (EA, HIB), Raler I 0087, Faden RB et al. 71/127 & 72/208, Medley KE 1011 (EA).

Thilachium africanum Lour. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland and thicket, 550–1180 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004633 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW273, 2591 & 3312, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 713, Medley KE 431, 853 & 964, Joanna B 9017, Gardner HM 2995, Dyson WG 538, Forest Dept. 2995 (EA).

Thilachium thomasii Gilg – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, 550–1000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G, Nyaboke B & Matheka K 1031, Kirika 1, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/235, Agnew ADQ & Part 1 Botany 7341, Mildbraed 17, Murray High School 106, Medley KEM s.n. (EA).

F66. CARYOPHYLLACEAE

4 Genera, 4 species

Cerastium lanceolatum (Poir.) Volponi – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins & glades, bushland, roadsides, weed of cultivated areas, 1371–2100 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 1130, Kluguess LM 59, Drummond RB Hemsley JH 4283, Lavranos JJ 11921 (EA).

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and bushland margins, roadsides, cultivated lands, 1160–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006366, Watuma BM W0107 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3552, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 40, 126 & 435, Beentje HJ 2141, Napier ER 1113, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17068 (EA).

Pollichia campestris Aiton – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Open woodland, bushland, waste places, ca. 1400 m. Voucher: Gilbert MG 5823 (EA).

Silene macrosolen Steud. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, rocky places, 1430–1829 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3095A, Gardner HM 2952 (EA).

F67. CELASTRACEAE

8 Genera, 15 species

Elaeodendron buchananii (Loes.) Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, deciduous woodland, sometimes secondary forest, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 544, Raler I 0126 (EA).

Elaeodendron schlechterianum (Loes.) Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry deciduous woodland, fringing forest, 640–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 642, 718, 773, 825, 837 & 1039 (EA).

Elaeodendron schweinfurthianum (Loes.) Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous and semi-evergreen woodland, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0003 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 791 & 915 (EA).

Gymnosporia gracilis Loes. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest margins, thickets, 600–1402 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 5284, Faden RB, Evans A, Msafiri F et al. 70/960, Medley KE 451, 452 & 472, Joanna B 8868 (EA).

Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: 650–1300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005351 & 005405 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. 71/118, Medley KE 522, 525, 526, 626 & 720 (EA).

Gymnosporia putterlickioides Loes. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry deciduous woodland, wooded grassland often in rocky places, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 738 (EA).

Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, thickets and scrub, 650–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006354 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW384, 523, 773, 909, 3145, Mungai GM et al. EW3579, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 460, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 122, Medley KE 510, 586 & 636, Hucks M 820 (EA).

Loeseneriella africana (Willd.) R.Wilczek – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist evergreen forest, forest margin, riverine forest. 900–1300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005393 (EA, HIB), Mungai G et al. EW1406, Hildebrandt JM 2581 (EA).

Maytenus acuminata (L.f.) Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understorey and margin of upland of riverine forest, 1605–1902 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005330 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G, Nyaboke & Saidi S 1044, Faden RB et al. 71/52, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4357 (EA).

Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, evergreen bushland and woodland, 800–1050 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004631 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 717, 748, 803, 866 & 891 (EA).

Mystroxylon aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, fringing forest, open woodland. 800–1875 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 543, Raler I 0128, Medley KE 632, 668, 898 & 932 (EA).

Pleurostylia africana Loes. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest margins, deciduous woodland, termite mounds on rocky hillsides, 800–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 612, Mungai GM et al. EW1294 (EA).

Pristimera goetzei (Loes.) R.H.Archer– Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1400–1814 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004515 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 5, Faden RB & Faden AJ 71/1011, Raler I 0036 (EA).

Salacia madagascariensis (Lam.) DC. – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Lowland evergreen forest, deciduous woodland, 1350–1450 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005339 (EA, HIB).

Salacia stuhlmanniana Loes. – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Rainforest, riverine, deciduous woodland, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Cheseny CMC 72/1, Medley KE 946, 947 & 975 (EA).

F68. CLEOMACEAE

1 Genus, 6 species

Cleome briquetii Polhill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and thickets on rocky ground, 500–823 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 978, Gillett JB 17231, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 958 (EA).

Cleome gynandra L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, waste, disturbed and cultivated lands. Voucher: Hucks M 711 (EA).

Cleome hirta (Klotzsch) Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and grassland, 550–700 m. Vouchers: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 934, Rauh W Ke 57, Ossent JR 24, MacDonald J 866, Hucks M 707 (EA).

Cleome monophylla L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, deciduous woodland and bushland, roadside, disturbed areas, 1371–1580 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/112, Napier ER 1102 (EA).

Cleome silvatica Gilg & Gilg-Ben. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest clearings, rocky grasslands & roadsides. Voucher: Gardiner N 2932 (EA).

Cleome usambarica Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and thicket, streamside, cultivated ground. Voucher: Joanna B 8843 (EA).

F69. CLUSIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Garcinia volkensii Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Understorey in evergreen forest, 1000–1900 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003292 & 005320, Watuma BM W0162 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/52, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 304 & 400, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1115, De BlocK P et al. 243, 299, 316 & 490, Faden RB et al. 71/129, 226, 979 & 77/319, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4344, Medley KE 793 & 997, Bally PRO 13624, Gardner HM 2967, Joanna B 9401, Raler I 0026 (EA).

F70. COMBRETACEAE

2 Genera, 12 species

Combretum aculeatum Vent. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, grassy slopes, 580–750 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 457, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/260, Hooper SS & Townsend CC 1260 (EA).

Combretum exalatum Engl. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, thicket and wooded grassland, 575–1000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0028 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 740, Mwachala G et al. EW554, Mungai G et al. EW1767, Kuchar P, Msafiri F & Karime N 5695, Medley KE 1019, Hildebrandt JM 2561 (EA).

Combretum hereroense Schinz subsp. hereroense – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 700 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3298 (EA).

Combretum hereroense Schinz var. parvifolium (Engl.) Wickens – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, wooded grassland. Voucher: Ossent JR 133 (EA).

Combretum hereroense Schinz subsp. volkensii (Engl.) Wickens – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, wooded grassland, 600–950 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW858, Medley KE 547, Ossent JR 145 (EA).

Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland and bushland, 600–1250 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0008 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW220 & 283, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 450, Medley KE 637 & 780, Bally PRO 17123 (EA).

Combretum mossambicense (Klotzsch) Engl. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous and secondary bushland, wooded grassland, 610–950 m. Vouchers: Mungai G et al. EW1765, Lavranos JJ 12340A, Gardner HM 1198 (EA).

Combretum psidioides Welw. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, rocky hill slopes, ca. 1300 m. Voucher: Mungai G et al. EW1322 (EA).

Terminalia brownii Fresen. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland, grassland, riverine forest, 650–1200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005367, Watuma BM W0009 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW72, 949 & 1556, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 483, Medley KE 419 & 854 (EA).

Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland and wooded grassland, rocky outcrops, 548–1200 m. Vouchers: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12779, Small R 823 (EA).

Terminalia orbicularis Engl. & Diels – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 520–914 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/245 & 515, Dale IR 3896, Agnew ADQ & Part 1 Botany 7316, Verdcourt B Ke19, Rauh W 12521, Ossent JR 147 & 1195 (EA).

Terminalia parvula Pamp. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 426–853 m. Vouchers: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12641 & 12919 (EA).

Terminalia prunioides M.A.Lawson – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora and Acacia-Combretum bushland, 550–1067 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW975, Mungai GM et al. EW1769, Musya J & Safary 28, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/473, Medley KE 427, 652 & 841, Napier ER 897, Dale IR 2005, Ossent JR 158, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12640, Mr & Mrs Hucks HP 318 (EA).

Terminalia spinosa Engl. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 500–620 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 710, 759 & 840, Bally PRO 17121 (EA).

F71. CONNARACEAE

2 Genera, 2 species

Agelaea pentagyna (Lam.) Baill. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Upland rainforest, riparian forest, 1275–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006383 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1869, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4367, Bally PRO 8783, Joanna B 9079, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 866 & 1014, Raler I 0137 (EA), Faden RB et al. 71/44 (EA).

Rourea thomsonii (Baker) Jongkind – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Montane forest remnants, upland rainforest, 1400–2000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0143 (EA, HIB), Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4337 & 4375, Joanna B 8998 (EA).

F72. CONVOLVULACEAE

7 Genera, 19 species

Astripomoea hyoscyamoides (Vatke) Verdc. var. hyoscyamoides – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, roadside, cultivated or disturbed ground, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Hucks M 576 (EA).

Cuscuta planiflora Ten. var. holstii Baker & Rendle – Habit: Climber. Habitat: On herbs in grasslands, ca. 1710 m. Voucher: Gardner HM 2964 (EA).

Hildebrandtia sepalosa Rendle – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora-Euphorbia-Sanseveria bushland, 500–650 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/461, Ossent JR 10, 50 & 54, Lubai lK HB20 (EA).

Ipomoea biflora (L.) Pers. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bush, woodland, grassland, cultivated lands, 1056 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0158 (EA, HIB).

Ipomoea bullata Oliv. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland, 548–914 m. Vouchers: Joanna B 8877, Ossent JR 126, Bally PRO 74 & 8613, Rauh W 840 (EA).

Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, hedgerows, cultivated lands, ca. 610 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1049 (EA).

Ipomoea hartmannii Vatke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora deciduous bushland, 600–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 603, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2763, Hildebrandt JM 2564, Ossent JR 10952 (EA).

Ipomoea hildebrandtii Vatke subsp. hildebrandtii – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora deciduous bushland, 914–1371 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0151 (EA, HIB), Napier ER 1078, Bally PRO 8117, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2739 & 2744, Irwin PH 156 (EA).

Ipomoea involucrata P.Beauv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, secondary forest, abandoned cultivations, 2000–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006360 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 120, Gillett JB et al. 17096 (EA).

Ipomoea kituiensis Vatke var. kituiensis – Habit: Herb/Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, 650–950 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0001 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW847, Medley KE 420 (EA).

Ipomoea mombassana Vatke var. mombassana – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Commiphora, Combretum bushland and woodland, secondary bushland, ca. 610 m. Vouchers: Ossent JR 11003, Jeffrey GW 815 (EA).

Ipomoea ochracea (Lindl.) G.Don – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest clearings, thickets, rocky places, ca. 950 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW766 (EA).

Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. var. pes-tigridis – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, bushland and plantations, ca. 610 m. Voucher: Napier ER 970 (EA).

Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. var. longibracteata Vatke – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and thickets. Vouchers: Hildebrandt JM 2420, Bally PRO 8801 (EA).

Ipomoea sp. A of FTEA – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 866 m. Voucher: Mwachala G, Nyaboke B & Matheka K 1059 (EA).

Ipomoea stenosiphon Hallier f. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora deciduous bushland, rocky areas, ca. 1219 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1125 (EA).

Ipomoea wightii (Wall.) Choisy var. kilimandschari (Dammer) Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Open forest and scrub, 800–1550 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 613, Mwachala G et al. EW3055A, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 845, Klungness LM 5 (EA).

Lepistemon owariensis (P.Beauv.) Hallier f. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest, riverine forest, 1100–1220 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW2572, Napier ER 1138 (EA).

Metaporana densiflora (Hallier f.) N.E.Br. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Secondary evergreen bushland, abandonded cultivated ground, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM, Meso M & Wafula A KEFRI 507, Medley KEM 636 (EA).

Stictocardia incomta (Hallier f.) Hallier f. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Terminalia-Combretum-Acacia bushland on rocky slopes, 500–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 613, Hucks M 1074 (EA).

F73. CRASSULACEAE

3 Genera, 13 species

Cotyledon barbeyi Schweinf. ex Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky slopes, termite mounds in Acacia bushland, 1000–1330 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3092A, Bally PRO 13404 (EA).

Crassula alata (Viv.) A.Berger subsp. pharnaceoides (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Wickens & Bywater – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist rock crevices, stream banks, ca. 1600 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3136 (EA).

Crassula alba Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock crevices and rocky outcrops, 1270–1600 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3158, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1139 (EA).

Crassula alsinoides (Hook.f.) Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland forest margins, moist grounds, streams, 1700–1950 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004543 & 006405 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 899, Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17066, Mwachala G s.n. (EA).

Crassula globularioides Britten – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock crevices. Vouchers: Bally PRO 13525, Joanna B 9062 (EA).

Crassula schimperi Fisch. & C.A.Mey. subsp. phyturus (Mildbr.) R.Fern. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocks in upland forest and grassland, 1400–1640 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 2 (EA).

Crassula schimperi Fisch. & C.A.Mey. subsp. schimperi – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist rocks, rock crevices, epiphyte on tree trunks, ca. 1800 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS 82/61 (EA).

Crassula volkensii subsp. coleae (Baker) Wickens & Bywater – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist thicket, volcanic rock crevices, 980–1371 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW2650, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/486, Napier ER 756 (EA).

Crassula volkensii Engl. subsp. volkensii – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady rocky ground, 950–2000 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/65, Mwachala G et al. EW1274, Luke WRQ & Luke PA 6413, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 324, Bally PRO 13414, Gardner HM 3013 (EA).

Kalanchoe × auriculata (Raadts) V.V.Byalt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense or open bushland on rocky slopes, ca. 914 m. Voucher: Magius in EA Polhill RM 404 (EA).

Kalanchoe densiflora Rolfe – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest margins, glades and riverbanks, 1450–1800 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/106, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 236 & 641, Bytebier B 1280, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 495 (EA).

Kalanchoe lateritia Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous and semi-deciduous woodland and forest, 760–1150 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 651, Mungai G et al. EW2659, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/535, Faden RB, Evans A & Githui M 70/150 (EA).

Kalanchoe miniata Hilsenb. & Bojer ex Tul. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland, bushland and scrub, ca. 1060 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 13533 (EA).

Kalanchoe nyikae Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, 760–1040 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW2657, Faden RB et al. 70/151 (EA).

Kalanchoe prittwitzii Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, open bush and grassland, ca. 1350 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW2666 (EA).

F74. CUCURBITACEAE

13 Genera, 29 species

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, old plantations and cultivation, 610–1150 m. Voucher: Ogola B & Mwangangi OM et al. 25 & 26 (EA), Napier ER 1048 (EA).

Coccinia grandiflora Cogn. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland rainforest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0209 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 423 & 799, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 879, Bally 13759 (EA).

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, woodland & wooded grassland, riverine, 600–1250 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 423, Muchelle WN HB 16/94, Sanganyi SK HB 14, Joanna B 8929 (EA).

Coccinia microphylla Gilg – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous dry bushland and Combretum wooded grassland, ca. 950 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW1318 & 1319 (EA).

Coccinia trilobata (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Wooded grassland, deciduous bushland, 685–823 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005338 (EA, HIB), Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 962, Verdcourt B 3888 (EA).

Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottler) Hook.f. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Margins of upland forest, wooded grassland, deciduous bushland, 600–800 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt B 1111 (EA), Hucks M 554 (EA).

Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, wooded grassland, weed of cultivation, 610–1540 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 331, Bernard O & Mwangangi OM et al. 8, 21 & 23, Napier ER 967 (EA).

Cucumis ficifolius A.Rich. – Habit: Climber: Habitat: Upland grassland, 1250–1600 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1154, Greenway PJ 8951 (EA).

Cucumis maderaspatanus L. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Riverine margins, seasonal swamps, damp woodland and bushland. Vouchers: Lubai lK HB13, Muchelle WN HB14/94 (EA).

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rain and ground water forest, seasonal swamp grasslands, ca. 1170 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3208 (EA).

NE Gerrardanthus grandiflorus Cogn. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland and lowland rainforest, 640–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004628 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 16118, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1121B & 1216, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/234 (EA). Near Threatened.

Gerrardanthus lobatus (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, woodland and wooded grassland. 600–850 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3307, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/446, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 939, Archer PG 567 (EA).

Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest margins, semi-evergreen woodland and bushland, wooded grassland, 600–950 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0173 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW262, 1171 & 1225, Verdcourt B 3887, Napier ER 922, Hucks M 795 (EA).

Kedrostis leloja (J.F.Gmel.) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, thicket woodland, 600–700 m. Vouchers: Ossent JR 118, Hucks M 560 (EA).

Kedrostis pseudogijef (Gilg) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, 609–800 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/253, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4414, Verdcourt B 3888A, Gardner HM 2587, Hucks M 444 (EA).

Lagenaria sphaerica (Sond.) Naudin – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Riverine, ground water forest, old cultivations, 1000–1665 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0117 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW267, Ogola B & Mwangangi OM 3, Napier ER 969, Joanna B et al. 9104 (EA).

Momordica boivinii Baill. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, 998–1370 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004626 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/8 & 144, Mwachala G et al. EW3162, Mungai GM et al. EW3170 & 3583, Cheseny CMC 72/3, Napier ER 1095, Joanna B 9100, Fleuret A 7 (EA).

Momordica calantha Gilg – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Secondary forest undergrowth and margins on steep rocky hill, 1550–1580 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0257 (EA, HIB).

Momordica foetida Schumach. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges and clearings, riverine forests, secondary thickets, 1270–1814 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006409, Watuma BM W0118 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3193 & 3203, Ogola B & Mwangangi OM et al. 23 (EA).

Momordica friesiorum (Harms) C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland rainforest, margins and clearings, 1851–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006368 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 121 (EA).

Momordica rostrata Zimm. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, thicket, woodland and wooded grassland, 579–1039 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0312 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW265, Muasya J et al. KEFRI 78, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2736, Ossent JR 27 & 45, Napier ER 1023 (EA).

Momordica spinosa (Gilg) Chiov. – Habit: Shrub/Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, 420–600 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/285, Napier ER 1026, Hucks M 698 & 876, Joanna B 9070 (EA).

Oreosyce africana Hook.f. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Disturbed rainforests, edges and clearings, 1500–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004525 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 95, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 926, Joanna B 9103 (EA).

Peponium vogelii (Hook.f.) Engl. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland rainforest, ground water forest, woodland and bushland near open water, 750–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006394, Watuma BM W0209 & W0267 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 221 & 463, Gillett JB 17230 (EA).

Trochomeria macrocarpa (Sond.) Hook.f. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, 859–1200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006420 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1443, Joanna B & Opiko 9122 (EA).

Zehneria emirnensis (Baker) Keraudren – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17103 (EA), Faden RB et al NMK Exped 259 (EA).

Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest, moist places in deciduous bushland, roadside, cultivations, 1115–2000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0265 (EA, HIB), Mungai GM et al. EW1320, Luke WRQ & Luke PA et al. 5306 & 5385, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4326, Klungness LM 41 (EA).

Zehneria oligosperma C.Jeffrey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest, moist places in deciduous bushland, 1800–1950 m. Voucher: Drummond RB & Hemsely JH 4333 (EA).

E Zehneria tuberifera G.W.Hu & Q.F.Wang – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Understorey and at forest edges of moist forests, 1700–1950 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006350, Watuma BM W0044, W0298 & W0299 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 553 (EA).

F75. DICHAPETALACEAE

1 Genus, 2 species

NE Dichapetalum eickii Ruhland – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Upland wet evergreen forest, 1400–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005327 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 84/73, Mwachala G & Nyaboke 1042, Breteler FJ 7508, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6635, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 324 & 489, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 951, Faden RB et al. 71/21 & 891, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4330, Raler I 0097 (EA).

Dichapetalum ruhlandii Engl. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, secondary regrowth on rocky sites, bushland, 1500–1600 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0137 (EA, HIB), Breteler FJ 7506, Bally PRO 8775 (EA).

F76. DIDIEREACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Calyptrotheca taitense (Pax & Vatke) Brenan – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, open woodland and grassland with Acacia, 500–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 877, Hilderbrandt JM 2577 (EA).

F77. EBENACEAE

2 Genera, 7 species

Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White subsp. abyssinica – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Fringing and dry evergreen forest, open montane bushland and woodland, 900–1875 m. Vouchers: Christenhusz MJM et al. 6660, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 241, Kimuzi D 4, Medley KE 675, Raler I 0056 (EA).

Diospyros consolatae Chiov. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Evergreen dry forest, Acacia, Terminalia, Combretum woodland, 600–1200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005401 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 626, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 523, Medley KE 430 & 847, Dale IR 3883 (EA).

Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Fringing forest, Combretum woodland, deciduous bushland, 550–650 m. Voucher: Medley KE 460 (EA).

Diospyros natalensis (Harv.) Brenan – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist semi-deciduous forest, 650–1400 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 71/136, Medley KE 892, Joanna B 8865 (EA).

Diospyros zombensis (B.L.Burtt) F.White – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Euphorbia, Terminalia, Combretum and Acacia woodland, rocky slopes, 800–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 624, Joanna B 8766 (EA).

Euclea divinorum Hiern – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest margins on rocky slopes, secondary forest, open bushland, 450–1900 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW509, 1246 & 3254, Mungai GM et al. EW1430, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 451, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6681, Medley KE 471, 615 & 912, Bally PRO 13297 (EA).

Euclea racemosa L. subsp. schimperi (A.DC.) F.White – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Bushland, grassland with scattered trees, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 435 & 763 (EA).

F78. ERICACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

Agarista salicifolia (Lam.) G.Don – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest remnants and margins, 1400–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004576 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 664, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 31 & 92, Joanna B 9091, Faden RB et al. 70/573, Gardner HM R2977 (EA).

Erica arborea L. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Above forest on mountains, open forest especially in rocky areas, 1450–1750 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 312 & 637 (EA).

Erica mannii (Hook.f.) Beentje subsp. usambarensis (Alm & T.C.E.Fr.) Beentje – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Rocky forest edges, hill forest clearings and secondary association, 1000–2170 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3559, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 27 & 107, Medley KE 1018, Gillett JB et al. 17095, Raler I 0070, Joanna B 8874 (EA).

F79. ERYTHROXYLACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Erythroxylum emarginatum Thonn. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Evergreen and mist forest, 900–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005417 (EA, HIB), Faden RB, Evans A & Githui M 70/178, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 516, Medley KE 475, 623, 645 & 908, Dale IR 3822 (EA).

F80. EUPHORBIACEAE

13 Genera, 55 species

Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. var. eglandulosa Radcl.-Sm. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Montane forest and associated woodland, deciduous bushland, 580–1776 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW29, Medley KE 983, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6637 (EA).

Acalypha paniculata Miq. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forests, clearings and edges, disturbed areas, ca. 1250 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW2582 (EA).

Acalypha volkensii Pax – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest undergrowth, edges and associated bushland, montane woodland, 650–1750 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0226 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 306 & 562, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 30, Medley KE 994, Mbale M et al. NMK 960 (EA).

Argomuellera macrophylla Pax – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest undergrowth, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1043, Gardner 2948, Raler I 0091 (EA).

Croton dichogamus Pax – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Dry forest, bushland and thicket, 970–1150 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW208, Mungai GM et al. EW2652, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12825, Morawetz JJ 406, Hucks M 915 (EA).

Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Secondary forests and forest edges, 1250–1550 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. 1257, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 852 (EA).

Croton megalocarpus Hutch. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1644–2000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0261 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 77, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 527, Raler I 0062 (EA).

Croton menyharthii Pax – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and thicket, 550–650 m. Voucher: Medley KE 544b (EA).

Croton pseudopulchellus Pax – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest, deciduous woodland, bushland and thicket, 550–1110 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005414 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1289, Mungai GM et al. EW1372, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/483, Medley KE 545, 722 & 754, Joanna B 8835 (EA).

Croton sylvaticus Hochst. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest edges and secondary forests, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0284, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 546 (EA).

Erythrococca bongensis Pax – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest edges and associated bushland along rivers, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 694 (EA).

Erythrococca kirkii (Müll.Arg.) Prain – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and thicket along streams, ca. 1050 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0152 (EA, HIB), Bally PRO 12694 (EA).

Euphorbia bicompacta Bruyns – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open deciduous bushland and woodland on rocky slopes, 800–1826 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0104 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ et al. 5344, Medley KE 965, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 743, Napier ER 1322 (EA).

Euphorbia breviarticulata Pax var. breviarticulata – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry open Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 465–600 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Kamau P & Ndiege C GBK 44, Leach LC & Bayliss R 10241 (EA).

Euphorbia buruana Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 500–1150 m. Vouchers: Engler 1930a (EA), Bally C 14138 (EA), Bally PRO 13407 (EA), Morawets JJ & Wabuyele E 405 (EA), Leach LC 10301 (EA).

Euphorbia bussei Pax var. bussei – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open deciduous bushland, rocky slopes, sandy soils, ca. 953 m. Voucher: Mwachala G, Nyaboke, Saidi S 1033 (EA). Endangered.

Euphorbia bussei Pax var. kibwezensis (N.E.Br.) S.Carter – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, steep rocky slopes, 570–1067 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW501, Morawets JJ & Wabuyele E 400, Dyson WG 537, Leach LC et al. 10299, Bally PRO 14158, 14210, 14211 & 14214, Baslev H 50, Robertson SA 6774, Polhill RM & Paulo S 472 (EA).

E Euphorbia classenii P.R.O.Bally & S.Carter – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Exposed rock faces with deciduous woodland, 700–800 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4169, Classen SA 70 (EA).

Euphorbia crotonoides Boiss. subsp. crotonoides – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland, scattered bushland, ca. 874 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0178 (EA, HIB).

Euphorbia cryptospinosa P.R.O.Bally – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Open dry deciduous bushland, 426–600 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 21004, Hucks M 604, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12665 & 13021 (EA).

Euphorbia cuneata Vahl subsp. spinescens (Pax) S.Carter – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry sandy soils in open Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 460–750 m. Vouchers: Geldermalsen-de Jongh, E van 131, Hucks M 842, Bally PRO 13444, Morawetz JJ & Wabuyele E 408 (EA).

Euphorbia cuneata Vahl var. pumilans S.Carter – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grasslands, open Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 950–1400 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 19589, Bally PRO 13412 & 13812, Gilbert MG 5818 (EA).

Euphorbia engleri Pax – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest undergrowth and dense bushland, 1425–2164 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0089 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/75, Mwachala G & Nyaboke 1041, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 41, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6627, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 206, 380 & 557, Faden RB & Faden AJ 71/1027 & 77/ 338, Beentje HJ 2129, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4359, Gillett JB et al. 17105, Heller E s.n. (EA).

NE Euphorbia furcata N.E.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia bushland in dry rocky sandy soils, ca. 700 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4180 (EA). Vulnerable.

Euphorbia guentheri (Pax) Bruyns – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Amongst grass in open scrubland, 915–1000 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO E92 & 13405, Uhlig C 48 (EA).

Euphorbia heterochroma Pax subsp. heterochroma – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 600–900 m. Voucher: Lubai IK HB23 (EA).

Euphorbia heterochroma Pax subsp. tsavoensis S.Carter – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, rocky outcrops, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Morawetz JJ & Wabuyele E 402, Bally PRO 13351, Hucks M 978, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open wooded grasslands, rocky slopes, 550–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE p.r. (EA).

NE Euphorbia neoglaucescens Bruyns – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry deciduous woodland, rocky slopes, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 743 (EA).

Euphorbia nyikae Pax ex Engl. var. neovolkensii (Pax) S.Carter – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open deciduous woodland, Commiphora scrub, 570–900 m. Vouchers: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 472, Balslev H 50, Dyson WG 537 (EA).

NE Euphorbia petricola P.R.O.Bally & S.Carter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry Acacia-Commiphora forest on rocky hillside, ca. 1050 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 6448 (EA). Endangered.

Euphorbia polyacantha Boiss. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shrub. Habitat: Commiphora-Sansevieria bushland thicket, ca. 520 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/477 (EA).

Euphorbia polyantha Pax – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Dry deciduous bushland on sandy stony soils, ca. 540 m. Voucher: Gillett JB 17211 (EA).

Euphorbia pseudomollis Bruyns – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open deciduous woodland on slopes, succulent thicket, 700–900 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 6432, Bally PRO 12725, Leach LC & Bayliss R 10258 (EA).

Euphorbia quinquecostata Volkens – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Mixed deciduous woodland on rocky hillsides, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt B 3891, Bally PRO 8658, Dyson WG 536 (EA).

Euphorbia robecchii Pax – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 457–650 m. Vouchers: Morawetz JJ & Wabuyele E 409, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12831, Bally PRO E15, Leach LC & Bayliss B 10225, Medley KE p.r. (EA).

Euphorbia scheffleri Pax – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Open Acacia-Commiphora bushland on sandy stony soils, 640–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 521, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 933, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4415, Gillett JB 17207 (EA).

Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele var. pubescens (N.E.Br.) S.Carter – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest clearings and edges, in grass, ca. 1000 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW2564 (EA).

*Euphorbia serpens Kunth – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Roadsides, ca. 560 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 13250 (EA).

Euphorbia systyloides Pax – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland, disturbed sites in grass, ca. 970 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW20 (EA).

Euphorbia tenuispinosa Gilli var. robusta P.R.O.Bally & S.Carter – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry deciduous bushland in rock sandy soils, 550–800 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ et al. 4256, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Euphorbia tenuispinosa Gilli var. tenuispinosa – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, open evergreen forest, 609–1100 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 988, Bally PRO 13415 & 14139, Gilbert MG 5816, Tweedie 86 (EA). Vulnerable.

Euphorbia tirucalli L. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Grassland, thin woodland, homesteads, 998–1219 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0318 (EA, HIB), Bally PRO & Carter S 14136, Napier ER 1147, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Euphorbia transvaalensis Schltr.– Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dense bushland, light woodland near stream beds, 450–500 m.Voucher: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12678 (EA).

Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) Bruyns – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Rocky slopes with dry open woodland, 1700–1875 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 340 (EA).

Euphorbia usambarica Pax subsp. usambarica – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Understorey in open montane forest, 950–1850 m. Vouchers: Morawetz JJ & Wabuyele E 401, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17105, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 1000, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1072, Bally PRO 8776 & 13599 (EA).

*Jatropha curcas L. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Hedge plant escaping into the wild. Voucher: Otieno GO 77A (EA).

Jatropha spicata Pax – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and thicket, shallow soil on rocky hillsides, 487–1000 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4175, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/434, Medley KE 479, 508 & 805, Hildebrandt JM 2428, Napier ER 920, Bally PRO 8674, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2710, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12657 & 12719, Verdcourt B 5320, Mrs. Robertson SA 7503 (EA).

NE Jatropha velutina Pax & K.Hoffm. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland and mixed thicket, 550–700 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4171, Medley KE 504 (EA).

Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1200–1850 m. Vouchers: Raler I 0015, Faden RB et al. 70/515, NMK Taita Hills Exped. 1183 (EA).

NE Macaranga conglomerata Brenan – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland evergreen forest, 1350–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0062 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 213 & 623, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4372, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 202 & 462, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1097, Faden RB et al. 71/18, 247, 72/200 & 77/318, Raler 0147 (EA). Vulnerable.

Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, secondary forest, 1000–1800 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW3557, Bally PRO 13601 (EA).

Mildbraedia carpinifolia (Pax) Hutch var. carpinifolia – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest undergrowth and edges, riverine, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 617 (EA). Vulnerable.

Neoboutonia macrocalyx Pax – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest edges, openings and regrowth, 1700–2000 m. Vouchers: Raler I 0136, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 346 & 500, Gillett JB 17244, Heller E s.n. (EA).

*Ricinus communis L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, roadsides, near homesteads, 1040–1778 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0286 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1219 & 1360 (EA).

Spirostachys africana Sond. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, 650–1000 m. Voucher: Medley KE 914 (EA).

Suregada zanzibariensis Baill. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, woodland and bushland, 650–1150 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW1654, Medley KE 536, 538, 542, 598, 676 & 712, Faden RB et al. 69/447 (EA).

Tragia brevipes Pax – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges and thickets, riverine, disturbed sites, 1048–1250 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0161 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW2576 (EA).

Tragia impedita Prain – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Roadsides, rocky or disturbed deciduous bushland and wooded grassland, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/453 (EA).

F82. FABACEAE

55 Genera, 125 species

Abrus precatorius L. subsp. africanus Verdc. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, grassland with scattered thicket, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004528 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 614, Medley KE 584 (EA).

Abrus fruticulosus Wall. ex Wight & Arn. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia woodland, bushland on rocky slopes, forest edge, 700–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 728, Mwachala G et al. EW780, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 957, Bally J 12705 (EA).

*Acacia mearnsii De Wild. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and forest remnant margins, 1830–2170 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0094 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 90 (EA).

*Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Remnant forest patches, 2000–2170 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 91 (EA).

Adenocarpus mannii (Hook.f.) Hook.f. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Margins of upland rainforest, ca. 1814 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004549 (EA, HIB).

Aeschynomene schimperi Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Riverine vegetation, 800–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 698, Mwachala G et al. EW1683 (EA).

Afroamphica africana (Hook.f.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Evergreen forest in open areas and path sides, 1100–1980 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004571 & 006363 (EA, HIB), Mungai GM et al. EW1307, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4288 (EA).

Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W.Wight var. intermedia (De Wild. & T.Durand) Villiers – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, deciduous woodland, ca. 900 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW1689 (EA).

Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boivin – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Edge of deciduous bushland near stream, bushed grassland, ca. 1059 – 1070 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0150 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1367 (EA).

Albizia anthelmintica (A.Rich.) Brongn. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, 550–650 m. Voucher: Medley KE 943 (EA).

Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1220–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0291 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 328, Joanna 8945 & 8961, Faden RB et al. 71/1003, Medley KE 919 (EA).

Albizia harveyi E.Fourn. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, 500–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 1004, Medley KE s.n. (EA).

Albizia petersiana (Bolle) Oliv. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Ground water forests, bushland, ravines in deciduous woodland. Voucher: Joanna B 8796 (EA).

Albizia zimmermannii Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Secondary bush near lowland rainforest, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley 689 & 716, Joanna B 8905 (EA).

Antopetitia abyssinica A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings, roadsides, weed in cultivations, 1817–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004550 & 006401 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 110 (EA).

Bauhinia taitensis Taub. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, dry scrub with trees, 457–640 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi 7, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/444, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12728, Bally PRO 8852, Hildebrandt JM 2603, Ossent JR 148 (EA).

Bauhinia tomentosa L. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, deciduous bushland and thicket along river, 800–1061 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005358, Watuma BM W0163 (EA, HIB), Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/468, Medley KE 486 & 818, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4407, Sacleux C 2366 (EA).

* Biancaea decapetala (Roth) O.Deg. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Mist forest margin next to cultivated lands, pathside, ca. 1851 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0091 (EA, HIB).

*Calliandra houstoniana (Mill.) Standl. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Margins of relict montane forest, cultivated lands, ca. 1348 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0228 (EA, HIB).

Cassia abbreviata Oliv. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and dry scrub with trees, 500–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 69/417, Medley KE 1020, Friis I & Hansen OJ 2663, Vesey-FitzGerald LDEF 41, Hucks M 431, Bally PRO 13283, Tim C & Oakley s.n. (EA).

Chamaecrista kirkii (Oliv.) Standl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges and clearings, grassland, ca. 1500 m. Voucher: SAJIT–004116 (EA, HIB).

Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest clearings and margins, wooded grassland, cultivated and waste grounds, ca. 1220 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1073 in CM 2242 (EA).

Chamaecrista zambesica (Oliv.) Lock – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, grassland, 914–1600 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1156, Hildebrandt JM 2464 (EA).

Craibia brevicaudata (Vatke) Dunn – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, semi-deciduous woodland, dry forest on rocky slopes, riverine, 487–1640 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5526, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/958, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2715, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 13027, Medley KE 556, 581, 719 & 995 (EA). Near Threatened.

Craibia zimmermannii (Harms) Dunn – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 1425–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0270 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 877, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 384 & 537, Faden RB et al. 70/529, 748 & 71/970, Raler I 0013 (EA).

Crotalaria axillaris Aiton – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margins, deciduous woodland and bushland, abandoned cultivations, 1250–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005342 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3526, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 347 & 436, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 188 (EA).

Crotalaria barkae Schweinf. subsp. barkae – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and grassland, ca. 900 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW2810 (EA).

Crotalaria barkae Schweinf. subsp. cordisepala Polhill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside in bracken zone, sandy places in grassland and stream sides, 900–1360 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/146, Faden RB & Faden AJ 72/257, Flauret A 13 (EA).

Crotalaria barkae Schweinf. subsp. teitensis (Sacleux) Polhill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, grassland, 530–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 653, Muasya S 45, Sacleux C 2406, Soest LU EA16062 (EA).

Crotalaria distantiflora Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest clearings and margins, 1371–1780 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 613a & 740, Napier ER 1100 (EA).

Crotalaria goodiiformis Vatke – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Margins and clearings of upland rainforest, dry evergreen forest, deciduous woodland, 720–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 735, Gillett JB 18744, Hildebrandt JM 2548 (EA).

Crotalaria greenwayi Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, deciduous bushland, persisting on cultivated ground, 620–853 m. Vouchers: Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 10428, Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17175 (EA).

Crotalaria incana L. subsp. incana – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: 950–1580 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004109 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW2806 & 3066A (EA).

Crotalaria laburnifolia L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, bushland, secondary scrub, grassland, roadsides, 700–1773 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005369, Watuma BM W0263 (EA, HIB), Kirika P, Rory M, Mbale M NMK 594, Luke WRQ et al. 4230, Gillett JB 17219 (EA).

NE Crotalaria lukwangulensis Harms – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Rainforest margins and clearings, 1425–2195 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 375, Mwasaru G 24, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 129 & 950, Faden RB et al. 71/1005, Lavranos JJ & Newton 17642, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2716, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4358, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17088 (EA).

Crotalaria natalitia Meisn. var. rutshuruensis De Wild. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Margins of upland rainforest and grassland, deciduous bushland and woodland, 1350–2000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW2665, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 883 & 927, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4300 (EA).

Crotalaria polysperma Kotschy – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, Acacia-Commiphora scrub, 600–701 m. Vouchers: Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 967, Mrs. Robertson SA 6542 (EA).

Crotalaria scassellatii Chiov. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, deciduous bushland and grassland, rocky outcrops, 610–950 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Rory M & Mbale M NMK 593, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 936 (EA).

Crotalaria ukambensis Vatke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and scattered tree grassland, 609–1100 m. Vouchers: Cheseny CMC 32/72, Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 932, Gillett JB 17232, Napier ER 930, Rauh W KE71 (EA). Endangered.

Crotalaria vallicola Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and secondary bushland, rock outcrops, cleared and cultivated lands, 1371–1480 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 1129 (EA), Hemp A 4566 (EA).

NE Cynometra sp. A of FTEA – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. 70/564, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 783, Raler I 0014 (EA).

Dalbergia lactea Vatke – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland forest, forest margins and evergreen bushland, 1425–1851 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006341, Watuma BM W0087 (EA, HIB), Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 425, Hildebrandt JM 2439, Gardner HM 2945 (EA).

Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, rocky slopes and valleys, 650–1400 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/95, Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 680, Mwachala G et al. EW104, 964, 1237, 1326, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 457, Medley KE 865 & 916 (EA). Near Threatened.

Dalbergia microphylla Chiov. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland, 710–960 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 559 & 860, Gillett JB 19564, Joanna B 8834 (EA).

Dalbergia vacciniifolia Vatke – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, 600–850 m. Voucher: Medley KE 858b (EA).

Delonix elata (L.) Gamble – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous thickets and bushland, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 415, Napier ER Bax TNP/E/36 (EA).

Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. subsp. cinerea – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, grassy slopes near forest, 944–1150 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0004 (EA, HIB), Mungai GM et al. EW1392 & 1668 (EA).

Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. subsp. forbesii (Benth.) Brenan & Brummitt – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, clump grassland, 550–1250 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 439, Medley KE 464 (EA).

Dolichos sericeus E.Mey. subsp. glabrescens Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and dry evergreen forest, 1219–1400 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW3108A, Napier ER 1085 & 1088, Animal Husbandry Division EA 14194 (EA).

Entada leptostachya Harms – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, dry scrub with trees, 550–884 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0177 (EA, HIB), Medley KE 519, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/267, Braun K 1540 (EA).

Eriosema montanum Baker f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland, grassland, 914–2000 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4221, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 907, Hildebrandt JM 2445 (EA).

Eriosema psoraleoides (Lam.) G.Don – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland with scattered Acacia-Commiphora, bushland, cultivation margins, 1050–1259 m. Vouchers: Kirika P et al. 01/2006/09, Mungai GM et al. EW1754, Bally PRO 8576, Napier ER 1075 (EA).

Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Scattered tree grassland, open woodland, 600–1563 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0280 (EA, HIB), Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4403, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Erythrina burttii Baker f. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora-Combretum woodland, derived grassland, ca. 960 m. Voucher: Gillett JB 19561 (EA).

Erythrina melanacantha Taub. ex Harms – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 420 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/286 (EA).

Faidherbia albida (Delile) A.Chev. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine, ground water forest and woodland. Voucher: Grenfell (EA).

Gelrebia trothaei (Harms) Gagnon & G.P.Lewis– Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, dry scrub with trees, ca. 487 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 8681 (EA).

Grona barbata (L.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and grassland, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 445 (EA).

Hylodesmum repandum (Vahl) H.Ohashi & R.R.Mill – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Mist forest in clearings and margins, 920–2170 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0038 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW1691, 2594 & 3064A, Napier ER 1112 (EA).

Indigastrum costatum (Guill. & Perr.) Schrire subsp. goniodes (Hochst. ex Baker) Schrire – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Terminalia-Sansevieria bushland, grassland, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/244 (EA).

Indigofera arrecta Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margins, secondary growth, deciduous and upland evergreen bushland, 2000–2170 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 123 (EA).

Indigofera atriceps Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, forest margins, along rivers, 900–2000 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1694, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4298 (EA).

Indigofera kaessneri Baker f. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Grassland, bushland and forest margins, 1250–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 124, Napier ER 1087 (EA).

Indigofera lupatana Baker f. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and thicket on rocky slopes, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0170 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 642, Mrs. Robertson SA 3587, Medley KE 453, 756 & 810 (EA).

Indigofera sisalis J.B.Gillett – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, sisal plantations, cultivated lands, 600–762 m. Vouchers: Sampson HC 97 (EA), Hucks M 686 (EA).

Indigofera spicata Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, cultivated areas and waste places, ca. 550 m. Voucher: Medley KE 517 (EA).

Indigofera subulata Vahl ex Poir. var. scabra (Roth) Meikle – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Bushland, secondary growth, 550–650 m. Vouchers: Medley KEM s.n., Grenfell (EA).

Indigofera swaziensis Bolus var. perplexa (N.E.Br.) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland evergreen bushland and forest margins, 900–1200 m. Voucher: Gillett JB 18751 (EA).

NE Indigofera tanganyikensis Baker f. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora open bushland, 600–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/451, Uhlig C 33 (EA).

*Indigofera tinctoria L. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bush margins, cultivations and secondary growth, ca. 1130 m. Voucher: Medley KE 649 (EA).

Kotschya aeschynomenoides (Welw. ex Baker) Dewit & P.A.Duvign. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland forest, evergreen bushland, rocky outcrops on hills, 1371–1800 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. 82/55, Dale in FD 3782, Bally PRO 13639, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4328 (EA).

Kotschya africana Endl. var. bequaertii (De Wild.) Verdc. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest edges, fringing forest, thicket, scrub, 1500–1550 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 885 (EA).

*Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest edges, roadside, settlements, ca. 1567 m. Voucher: Watuma W0208 (EA, HIB).

Macrotyloma axillare (E.Mey.) Verdc. var. axillare – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees, thicket, 1000–1550 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al EW3056A (EA), Mungai G et al EW1339 (EA).

Macrotyloma axillare (E.Mey.) Verdc. var. glabrum (E.Mey.) Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, open forest, ca. 2050 m. Voucher: Gillett JB 17250 (EA).

Macrotyloma maranguense (Taub.) Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees, 1220–1371 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 1090, Bally PRO 12736 (EA).

Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. var. uniflorum – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Old cultivations, ca. 1240 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW3194 (EA).

Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. var. stenocarpum (Brenan) Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia bushland and thicket, old cultivations, ca. 450–610 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 1011, Gillett JB 21009 (EA).

NE Millettia oblata Dunn subsp. burttii J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous thicket, ca. 890 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW1680, Lubai lK HB17 (EA).

NE Millettia oblata Dunn subsp. teitensis J.B.Gillett – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland evergreen forest and scrub, 1225–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–003296 & 006386, Watuma BM W0072 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 546, Maina 17, Bytebier B 1430, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 39, 276, 420 & 485, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1184, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4390, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17118, Dale IR 3781, Bally PRO 8587, Raler I 0022, Gardner HM 1201, Heller E s.n. (EA). Vulnerable.

Millettia usaramensis Taub.– Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 630 (EA).

Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland, forest edges along river, ca. 1056 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0159 (EA, HIB).

Mundulea sericea (Willd.) A.Chev. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland on rocky hills, 650–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KEM 468, 745 & 858a (EA).

Neonotonia wightii (Wight & Arn.) J.A.Lackey var. mearnsii (De Wild.) J.A.Lackey – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, grassland with scattered trees and secondary grassland, ca. 900 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW2809 (EA).

Newtonia buchananii (Baker f.) G.C.C.Gilbert & Boutique – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rainforest near steams, ground water and riverine forests, 1200–1640 m. Vouchers: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1078, Raler I 0005, Medley KE 940 (EA).

Newtonia hildebrandtii (Vatke) Torre – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine forests, dry areas with high water table, 600–800 m. Vouchers: Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4275, Hildebrandt JM 2492, Medley KE 869 & 959, Bally PRO 8777 (EA).

Ormocarpum kirkii S.Moore – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, grassland, 750–980 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/506, Medley KE 639 (EA).

Philenoptera eriocalyx (Harms) Schrire – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Dry evergreen forest, deciduous bushland, 550–650 m. Voucher: Medley KE 781 (EA).

Platycelyphium voense (Engl.) Wild – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora deciduous bushland, 500–670 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 969, Engler A 1958, Bally PRO 8851 (EA).

Pleurolobus salicifolius (Poir.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Wet areas in grassland, near rivers, ca. 1000 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW2819 (EA).

Pseudarthria hookeri Wight & Arn. var. hookeri – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees and thicket, old cultivations, 1030–1220 m. Vouchers: Mwachala G et al. EW795, Napier ER 1098 (EA).

Pseudarthria hookeri Wight & Arn. var. A – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, ca. 1000 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW1569 (EA).

Rhynchosia hirta (Andrews) Meikle & Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges, hillside bushland, cultivation margins, ca. 1000 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al EW3558 (EA).

Rhynchosia nyasica Baker – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland with scattered trees, woodland, ca. 1200 m. Voucher: Napier ER 1094 (EA).

Rhynchosia pulchra (Vatke) Harms – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, open woodland, 600–1100 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5507, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12585, Hildebrandt JM 2528 (EA).

Rhynchosia usambarensis Taub. var. usambarensis – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland, riverine thicket, 1500–1750 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004112 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW3054 (EA).

Senegalia brevispica (Harms) Seigler & Ebinger – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, thickets and scrubs, 850–1200 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 732, Mwachala G et al. EW222 & 1201, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 481, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/481, Medley KE 423 & 458, Joanna B 8867 (EA).

Senegalia mellifera (Vahl) Seigler & Ebinger subsp. mellifera – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, dry scrub with trees, 457–700 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/273, Hucks M 871, King AL 14/82 & 13/83 (EA).

Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) Seigler & Ebinger subsp. campylacantha (Hochst. ex. A.Rich.) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Grassland and riverbank, sandy soil, 600–800 m. Voucher: Jeffery GW K808 (EA).

Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, dry scrub with trees, 485–950 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/269, Medley KE 425, Muasya AM & Safary 64 & 65, Hildebrandt JM 2486, Bally PRO 17124, Leippert H 5643, Friis I & Hansen OJ 2661 (EA).

*Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, old cultivations, 600–1250 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM et al. EW1403, Bally PRO 8744 (EA).

Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0067 (EA, HIB), Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 718, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 475 (EA).

Sennia longiracemosa (Vatke) Lock – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry scrub with trees, deciduous bushland, 600–750 m. Vouchers: Hildebrandt JM 2506, Lubai IK HB 6 (EA).

*Senna occidentalis (L.) Link – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Riverine vegetation, weed of cultivation, roadside and waste ground, 600–950 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 731, Napier ER 971 (EA).

Senna singueana (Delile) Lock – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, bushland, 1200–1371 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 494, Napier ER 1123 (EA).

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen bushland along streams, ca. 1206 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0012 (EA, HIB).

Spathionema kilimandscharicum Taub. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Mixed deciduous bushland, 450–660 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/277, Napier ER 900, Kuchar P et al. 5697, Ossent J 98, Gillett JB 16874 & 21003 (EA).

Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Bushland, grassland with scattered Acacia, old cultivations, 700–1100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005382 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW94, Jongh EG 129 (EA).

Tamarindus indica L. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Remnant in cleared farmland, open woodland and bushland, ca. 859 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0197 (EA, HIB).

Tephrosia aequilata Baker – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland grassland, heathland and scrubland, 1676–2000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 257, Dale IR 3779, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17139 (EA).

Tephrosia villosa (L.) Pers. subsp. ehrenbergiana (Schweinf.) Brummitt – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open places in Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 700–865 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0172 (EA, HIB), Jongh EG 130 (EA).

Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Forest margin, waste grounds, old cultivations, 1350–1550 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS 82/188 (EA).

Tylosema fassoglense (Kotschy ex Schweinf.) Torre & Hillc. – Habit. Climber. Habitat: Wooded grassland, deciduous bushland, 600–865 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0198 (EA, HIB), Polhill RM & Kibuwa SP 960, Bally PRO 8591 (EA).

Vachellia ancistroclada (Brenan) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry scrub with trees, 550–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 729 & 909 (EA).

Vachellia bussei (Harms ex Y.Sjöstedt) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and dry scrub, 460–650 m. Vouchers: Dale IR 3884, King A 16/83, Medley KEM p.r. (EA).

Vachellia etbaica (Schweinf.) Kyal. & Boatwr. subsp. platycarpa (Brenan) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, dry scrub with trees, 550–1000 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/268, Medley KE 845 (EA).

Vachellia gerrardii (Benth.) P.J.H.Hurter var. gerrardii – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland and wooded grassland, ca. 914 m. Voucher: Watuma BM W0324 (EA, HIB).

Vachellia gerrardii (Benth.) P.J.H.Hurter var. calvescens (Brenan) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Riverine forest, wooded grassland. Voucher: Bally PRO 12013 (EA).

Vachellia hockii (De Wild.) Seigler & Ebinger – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Secondary forest, Acacia-Commiphora woodland and bushland, 950–1371 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/6, Mwachala G et al. EW776 & 2804, Mungai GM et al. EW1978 (EA).

Vachellia horrida (L.) Kyal. & Boatwr. subsp. benadirensis (Harms ex Y.Sjöstedt) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, open grassland, 609–1370 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS 82/122, Dale IR 3891 (EA).

Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. subsp. subalata (Vatke) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, open and clump bushland, 500–700 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 639, Chemusto 9, Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/272, Medley KE 433, Hildebrandt JM 2591, Greenway PJ & Kanuri K 12958 (EA).

Vachellia reficiens (Wawra & Peyr.) Kyal. & Boatwr. subsp. misera (Vatke) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry Acacia bushland, 500–650 m. Voucher: Medley KE 758 (EA).

Vachellia robusta (Burch.) Kyal. & Boatwr. subsp. usambarensis (Taub.) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine forest, woodland and bushland, 640–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 972, Hucks M 967, Fagg CW 594 (EA).

Vachellia stuhlmannii (Taub.) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Wooded grassland, deciduous bushlands, ca. 500 m. Voucher: Medley KE 733 (EA).

Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi subsp. spirocarpa (Hochst. ex. A.Rich.) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland on red sandy soil, 500–700 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/267, Medley KE 428 (EA).

Vachellia zanzibarica (S.Moore) Kyal. & Boatwr. – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: In wooded grassland, 457–650 m. Vouchers: Kakande M 36, King AL 12/83, Medley KE p.r. (EA).

Vigna kirkii (Baker) J.B.Gillett – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Sandy soils by rivers in semi-desert bushland, old cultivations, ca. 579 m. Voucher: Napier ER 994 (EA).

Vigna membranacea A.Rich. subsp. caesia (Chiov.) Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 600 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt B 5265, Friis F 97, Ossent JR 159, Leuthold W 116 (EA).

Vigna parkeri Baker subsp. maranguensis (Taub.) Verdc. – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, thicket, weed of cultivation, homesteads, 914–2000 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004524, Kabuye CHS 82/101 & 115, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 32, Napier ER 1110, Bally PRO 8778, Gillett JB & Burtt BL 17070, Agriculture Dept. B867 (EA).

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. dekindtiana (Harms) Verdc. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, grassland, 1100–1550 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 329, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 841, Fleuret A 8 (EA).

Vigna vexillata (L.) A.Rich. var. vexillata – Habit: Climber. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, grassland, cultivations, 1040–1372 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0149 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW376, Osborn RM 1 (EA).

Wajira praecox (Verdc.) Thulin & Lavin – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Dry Acacia, Terminalia, Commiphora bushland, ca. 640 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Faden AJ 74/236, Mr & Mrs Hucks M 449 & 840 (EA).

Zornia capensis Pers. subsp. tropica Milne-Redh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky places in dry scrub on shallow soil, ca. 500 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Luke PA 5577 (EA).

F82. FRANCOACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Bersama abyssinica Fresen. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Secondary evergreen rainforest, 1140–1850 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0241 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 555 (EA).

F83. GELSEMIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Mostuea brunonis Didr. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland rainforest. Voucher: Bally PRO 8710 (EA).

F84. GENTIANACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Anthocleista grandiflora Gilg – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest, riverine forest, 1225–1550 m. Vouchers: Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 690, Mwachala G et al. EW1868, Beentje et al. NMK Exped. 1171, Faden RB et al. 70/521 (EA).

F85. GERANIACEAE

2 Genera, 3 species

Geranium arabicum Forssk. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest margins, bushland and grassland, 1400–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 6, Faden RB et al. 70/506, Christenhusz MJM, Kamau P, Mbale M & Chase MW 6654 (EA).

Pelargonium multibracteatum Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland rainforest edges, wooded and open grassland, bushland, 875–1800 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0192 (EA, HIB), Bally PRO 8758 (EA).

Pelargonium quinquelobatum Hochst. ex A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland and thicket in rocky slopes, cultivated ground, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 744 (EA).

F86. GESNERIACEAE

1 Genera, 6 species

Streptocarpus caulescens Vatke – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist areas in forest and forest margins, 914–2195 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004124, 006381, 006390 & 006397, Watuma BM W0016 & W0095 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4110 & 5549, Kirika P et al. NMK 589, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 259 & 409, Christenhusz MJM et al. 6650, Beentje HJ 2150, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 4, 194 & 393, Bytebier B 1936 & 1941, Faden RB et al. 69/439, 71/38 & 47, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17049, Verdcourt B & Polhill RM 2727, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4295, Burtt BL 3823, Hildebrandt JM s.n. (EA).

Streptocarpus glandulosissimus Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp shaded areas in forest and forest margins. Vouchers: Joanna B 8997, Bally PRO 13513 (EA).

NE Streptocarpus kirkii Hook.f. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 1425–1850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006393 & 006424 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4154, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 360, Bytebier B 1938, Faden RB et al. 71/38A, Burtt BL 3831, Faden RB & Githui M 70/751, Bally PRO 13605 (EA).

Streptocarpus montanus Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shaded areas in wet montane or sub-montane forest, 1000–2170 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006347 & 006414 & 006425 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Luke PA 4200, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 83 & 196, Bytebier B 1937 & 1940, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4319, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17091, Faden RB et al. 69/480A & 71/151, Lavranos J 11806, Burtt BL 3830 (EA). Near Threatened.

NE Streptocarpus saxorum Engl. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Semi-deciduous woodland thicket on cliff faces with constant mist, 600–1070 m. Vouchers: Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 70/972, Knox EB 2716, Gardner HM 3006, Glover 2648, Burtt BL 4824 (EA).

E Streptocarpus teitensis (B.L.Burtt) Christenh. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest rock crevices, cliff faces, 1400–1750 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005323 & 006426, Watuma BM W0024 (EA, HIB), Simiyu 174, Joanna B 8982, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1170 (EA). Critically Endangered.

F87. GISEKIACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Gisekia pharnaceoides L. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ruderal sites, roadsides, cultivated lands, bushland, woodland, 600–914 m. Vouchers: Napier ER 941, Hucks M 708 & 786, MacDonald J 858 (EA).

F88. HAMAMELIDACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Trichocladus ellipticus Eckl. & Zeyh. subsp. malosanus (Baker) Verdc. – Habit: Tree. Habitat: Upland rainforest, often by streams, 900–1200 m. Voucher: Medley KE 648 (EA).

F89. HYDNORACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry woodland, wooded grassland, bushland, 800–1150 m. Vouchers: Mkala EM 0001 (EA, HIB), Mrs. Robertson SA 6537 (EA).

F90. HYPERICACEAE

1 Genus, 3 species

Hypericum bequaertii De Wild. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Upland evergreen bushland, ca. 1250 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW3201 (EA).

Hypericum conjungens N.Robson – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, grassland, dry bush, ca. 1240 m. Voucher: Mwachala G et al. EW3191 (EA).

Hypericum peplidifolium A.Rich. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland grassland, streams and marshes, roadside banks, 1466–1814 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006399 (EA, HIB), Kabuye CHS 82/109, Mwachala G et al. EW210 (EA).

F91. ICACINACEAE

1 Genus, 1 species

Pyrenacantha malvifolia Engl. – Habit: Liana. Habitat: Dry Acacia-Commiphora or semi-evergreen bushland and scrub, 500–1650 m. Vouchers: Muchiri J 245, Semlingwa J 20, Leeuwenberg AJM 10783, Hucks M 458, Jeffrey C et al. EPK269, Hildebrandt JM 2355 (EA).

F92. LAMIACEAE

20 Genera, 50 species

Aeollanthus densiflorus Ryding – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Rock crevices, 1700–1875 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 18750, Drummond & Hemsley 4389, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 300 (EA).

Aeollanthus repens Oliv. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest edges, shallow soils on rocks, 810–1875 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006395, Watuma BM W0113 (EA, HIB), Mwachala G et al. EW757 & 1327, Wakanene KM & Mwangangi OM 739, Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 814 & 858, Medley KE 463, Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 488 (EA).

Clerodendrum cephalanthum Oliv. subsp. cephalanthum – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 1425–1850 m. Voucher: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 359 (EA).

Clerodendrum hildebrandtii Vatke var. hildebrandtii – Habit: Shrub/Tree. Habitat: Forest edges, bushland, thickets in scattered tree grassland, 600–1000 m. Vouchers: Medley KE 704 & 945, Hildebrandt JM 2389 (EA).

Clerodendrum johnstonii Oliv. subsp. johnstonii – Habit: Shrub/Liana. Habitat: Moist forest edges, secondary growth, 1600–1875 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0130 (EA, HIB), Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 216 & 505, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4366, Raler I 0028 (EA).

Clinopodium abyssinicum (Hochst. ex Benth.) Kuntze var. abyssinicum – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Upland evevrgreen bushland and grassland, ca. 1600 m. Voucher: Beentje HJ et al. NMK Exped. 1160 (EA).

Coleus aegyptiacus (Forssk.) A.J.Paton – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Rocky Acacia-Commiphora bushland, abandoned cultivations, 800–950 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS et al. NMK Exped. 713 (EA).

Coleus sp. nr. amboinicus Lour. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry open scrub on red sandy soils, ca. 777 m. Voucher: Kirika P, Rory M, Mbale M NMK 592 (EA).

Coleus autranii Briq. – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, secondary forest, Philippia bushland, 1900–2170 m. Vouchers: Faden RB et al. NMK Exped. 135, Gillett JB, Burtt BL & Osborn RM 17094, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4312 (EA).

Coleus barbatus (Andrews) Benth. ex G.Don – Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, moist bushland, cultivations, 650–1792 m. Vouchers: Watuma BM W0100 (EA, HIB), Sacleux C 2580, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4370, Medley KE 824, Kluguess LM 2, Bally J 13531, Nattrass MS B1158 (EA).

Coleus caninus (B.Heyne ex Roth) Vatke subsp. flavovirens (Gürke) A.J.Paton – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Base of rock outcrops, eroded grassland and Commiphora scrub, ca. 1220 m. Voucher: Mungai GM et al. EW3196 (EA).

Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Gürke – Habit: Subshrub. Habitat: Philippia heath, rock crevices, cliffs, 2000–2070 m. Vouchers: Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4305, Bjørnstad IN IB733 (EA).

Coleus cylindraceus (Hochst. ex Benth.) A.J.Paton. – Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora and dry evergreen bushland on rocky outcrops, 609–777 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Rory M, Mbale M NMK 591, Warao M 63 (EA).