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Research Article
Vitis shizishanensis, a new species of the grape genus from Hubei province, China
expand article infoZhi-Yao Ma§, Jun Wen§, Qiang Fu, Xiu-Qun Liu
‡ Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
§ National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Vitis shizishanensis (Vitaceae), a new species from Hubei, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to V. flexuosa and V. bryoniifolia, but differs in leaf lobing and pubescence. It can be easily distinguished from the two species based on its glabrous or with very sparse arachnoid tomentum on the abaxial mature leaf surface, and its unlobed to 3–7 lobed leaves. A detailed description, along with photographs for the new species, and a table for morphological comparisons with similar Vitis species, are also provided.

Keywords

Grape, phylogenomics, taxonomy, Vitaceae, Vitis

Introduction

The grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) represent one of the earliest domesticated and the most widely cultivated economic fruits in the world, as the source for grapes, raisins, and wine (Myles et al. 2011; Gerrath et al. 2015; Wen et al. 2018b). The grape genus Vitis L. contains ca. 70 species with an intercontinental disjunct distribution in North America (to northern South America), East Asia and Europe to West Asia (Galet 1988; Chen et al. 2007; Moore and Wen 2016; Wen et al. 2018a, 2018b). There are ca. 40 native species of Vitis in East Asia and most of them occur in China (Chen et al. 2007; Wan et al. 2008). Based on recent studies on molecular phylogeny and morphology of Vitis, a robust phylogenetic framework of Vitis has been reconstructed (Tröndle et al. 2010; Péros et al. 2011; Zecca et al. 2012; Aradhya et al. 2013; Wan et al. 2013; Liu et al. 2016; Ma et al. 2018a). However, due to rapid evolutionary radiations and extensive reticulate evolution of Vitis (Aradhya et al. 2013; Wan et al. 2013; Ma et al. 2018a, 2018b; Wen et al. 2018a), the species delimitation of Vitis is still controversial and the number of species of Vitis needs to be further assessed (Chen et al. 2007; Wan et al. 2008; Wen et al. 2018b; Ma et al. 2016, 2018b, 2020). Taxonomic challenges of some Vitis species are caused by their morphological similarity and overlapping geographic distribution (Chen et al. 2007; Moore and Wen 2016). A very complex group of Vitis is the V. bryoniifolia clade and its close allies (Ma et al. 2020). The phylogenetic relationships of the V. bryoniifolia clade have been reconstructed recently with robust support, which indicated that some samples previously difficult to identify need to be treated as a different species distinct from V. bryoniifolia based on molecular phylogenetic evidence (Ma et al. 2020) (Fig. 1). The leaf shape of this species shows a high level of phenotypic plasticity, varying from unlobed to 3–7 lobed, which caused problems for species identifications (Ma et al. 2020). After consulting relevant literature (Li et al. 1996; Wang et al. 2000; Chen et al. 2007; Wan et al. 2008) and our extensive field studies in East Asia, we herein propose to describe the new species, Vitis shizishanensis Z.Y.Ma, J. Wen, Q. Fu & X-Q. Liu.

Figure 1. 

Simplified phylogenetic relationships of the V. bryoniifolia clade based on Ma et al. 2020.

Material and methods

Descriptions and measurements of morphological characters of the new species were based on field observations of living plants at the type locality and specimens in the herbarium of Huazhong Agricultural University (CCAU) and the United States National Herbarium (US). We also examined herbarium specimens of Vitis comparatively from the following herbaria: CCNU, CSFI, HIB, HNNU, HUNST, HZU, JIU, JXCM, NYA, PE, and WH (abbreviations following Thiers 2020), and from images of type specimens and dried herbarium specimens on the Chinese Virtual Herbarium Website (http://www.cvh.ac.cn/), JSTOR Global Plants (http://plants.jstor.org), National Specimen Information Infrastructure (http://www.nsii.org.cn/), and Sharing Platform of IBK (http://www.gxib.cn/spIBK/).

Taxonomic treatment

Vitis shizishanensis Z.Y.Ma, J.Wen, Q.Fu & X.Q.Liu, sp. nov.

Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Type

China. Hubei: Wuhan City, Shizishan Mountain, 30°28'44"N, 114°21'48"E, 21 m, 6 May 2021, in fl., X.Q. LIU 755 (holotype: CCAU!; isotypes: CCAU!, US!).

Figure 2. 

Vitis shizishanensis Z.Y.Ma, J.Wen, Q.Fu & X.Q.Liu, sp. nov. A habit B individual with 5–7 deeply lobed leaves C a flowering branch with 3–5 deeply lobed leaves.

Diagnosis

Vitis shizishanensis is morphologically similar to V. bryoniifolia Bunge, V. flexuosa Thunb, V. sinocinerea W. T. Wang, and V. bellula (Rehder) W. T. Wang, but differs from the V. bryoniifolia, V. sinocinerea, and V. bellula in its glabrous to hirtellously pubescent abaxial mature leaf surface (vs. abaxially densely arachnoid tomentose in V. bryoniifolia, V. sinocinerea, and V. bellula). It differs from Vitis flexuosa in its leaves varying from unlobed to 3–7 lobed (vs. unlobed to slightly 3-lobed leaves in V. flexuosa), tendrils unbranched or bifurcate from upper half (vs. tendrils bifurcate from approximately midway in V. flexuosa), lack of arachnoid tomentum (vs. with sparse arachnoid tomentum to glabrescent in V. flexuosa), and subcordate to cordate or sometimes truncate leaf base (vs. subtruncate or slightly subcordate leaf base in V. flexuosa).

Figure 3. 

Branches and leaves of Vitis shizishanensis sp. nov. (X.Q. LIU 755) A branches with unlobed leaves B branches with unlobed to 3 lobed leaves C branches with 3–5 deeply lobed leaves D unlobed to 5–7 deeply lobed leaves.

Description

Woody climber, sprawling to moderately high climbing, sparsely branched. Branchlets terete, glabrous, with longitudinal ridges, tendrils unbranched or bifurcate from upper half. Leaves simple; stipules ovate-elliptic or lanceolate, 1–4 mm; petiole 2–6 cm, hirtellous or glabrous; blade 3–10 × 3–9 cm, unlobed to slightly 3-lobed, or 3–7 lobed, apex acute to acuminate, base subtruncate or subcordate to cordate, abaxial surface usually glabrous, veins and vein axils hirtellous, adaxial surface glabrous, basal veins 5, with lateral veins 4–6 pairs. veinlets inconspicuous, base subcordate to cordate, occasionally truncate. Margin with 8–16 obtuse teeth on each side. Inflorescences a panicle, 3.4–9 cm, leaf-opposed, peduncle 1–6.4 cm, pedicel 1–2.5 mm, usually glabrous. Calyx shallow and saucer-shaped, glabrous. Petals 5, occasionally 6, connate distally, forming calyptra. Berries black, globose, 5–8 mm in diam. Seeds obovoid or obovoid-elliptic, 3–4 × 2–3 mm, abaxial surface with a round to elliptic chalaza, adaxial surface with 2 furrows (ventral infolds) running ½ through seed length, endosperm M-shaped in transverse section.

Figure 4. 

Inflorescences of Vitis shizishanensis sp. nov. A male flowers B female flowers after anthesis.

Additional specimens examined

China. Hubei. Tianmen City, Mawan Town, 15 Jul 2020, fr, X.Q. Liu 944 (CCAU); Wuhan, Shizhishan, 26 m, May 6, 2021, in flower, X. Q. Liu 155 (CCAU) (see photos in Suppl. material 1: Fig. S1, Suppl. material 2: Fig. S2, Suppl. material 3: Fig. S3).

Figure 5. 

Seeds of Vitis shizishanensis sp. nov. A ventral view B dorsal view C lateral view D transverse section.

Phenology

Flowering from March to May, fruiting from July to October.

Etymology

The specific epithet is derived from the type locality, Shizishan, Wuhan, Hubei, China. The Chinese name is given as “狮子山葡萄”.

Figure 6. 

Holotype of Vitis shizishanensis sp. nov. Z.Y.Ma, J. Wen, Q. Fu & X-Q. Liu (X.Q. LIU 755).

Distribution and habitat

The new species is currently known from Wuhan and Tianmen in Hubei province, China (Fig. 7). It occurs on the scrubland and the roadside of farmland at an altitude of ca. 10–50 m.

Figure 7. 

Distribution of Vitis shizishanensis sp. nov. (triangle).

Vitis shizishanensis is morphologically similar to V. bryoniifolia, V. flexuosa, V. sinocinerea, and V. bellula. Detailed morphological comparisons among the three species are provided in Table 1. These characters were based on field observations, and herbarium and literature studies (Li et al. 1996; Chen et al. 2007; Wan et al. 2008).

Table 1.

Morphological comparisons among Vitis shizishanensis, V. bryoniifolia, V. flexuosa, V. sinocinerea, and V. bellula.

Characters V. shizishanensis V. flexuosa V. bryoniifolia V. sinocinerea V. bellula
tendrils unbranched or bifurcate in the upper half bifurcate to the middle bifurcate unbranched or bifurcate unbranched or bifurcate
Size of leaves ca. 3–10 × 3–9 cm ca. 5–12 × 3.5–10 cm ca. 2.5–8 × 2–5 cm ca. 3–8 × 3–6 cm ca. 3–7 × 2–4 cm
Leaf base subtruncate or subcordate to deeply cordate slightly subcordate or subtruncate, rarely cordate cordate or deeply cordate subcordate or subtruncate subcordate, subtruncate, or subrounded
Shape of leaves unlobed to 3–7 lobed unlobed to slightly 3-lobed unlobed to 3–7 lobed 3-lobed or inconspicuously divided unlobed
Abaxial mature leaf surfaces usually glabrous with sparse arachnoid tomentum to glabrescent with dense arachnoid tomentum with dense arachnoid tomentum with dense arachnoid tomentum
Size of fruits 5–8 mm in diam 8–10 mm in diam 5–8 mm in diam 6–10 mm in diam 6–10 mm in diam
Altitude 10–50 m 100–2300 m 100–2500 m 200–2800 m 400–1600 m
Distribution China (Hubei) China, India, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan) China (Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang) China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan)

Acknowledgements

We thank three master candidates (L. Yang, L. L. Gui and Y. H. Wang) in Huazhong Agricultural University for collecting some samples. This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 31870193).

References

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Supplementary materials

Supplementary material 1 

Figure S1

Zhi-Yao Ma, Jun Wen, Qiang Fu, Xiu-Qun Liu

Data type: Jpg file.

Explanation note: Isotype of Vitis shizishanensis Z.Y.Ma, J. Wen, Q. Fu & X-Q. Liu (X.Q. LIU 155) with 5–7 lobed leaves.

This dataset is made available under the Open Database License (http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). The Open Database License (ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the original source and author(s) are credited.
Download file (3.32 MB)
Supplementary material 2 

Figure S2

Zhi-Yao Ma, Jun Wen, Qiang Fu, Xiu-Qun Liu

Data type: Jpg file.

Explanation note: Isotype of Vitis shizishanensis Z.Y.Ma, J. Wen, Q. Fu & X-Q. Liu (X.Q. LIU 155) with male flowers.

This dataset is made available under the Open Database License (http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). The Open Database License (ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the original source and author(s) are credited.
Download file (3.33 MB)
Supplementary material 3 

Figure S3

Zhi-Yao Ma, Jun Wen, Qiang Fu, Xiu-Qun Liu

Data type: Jpg file.

Explanation note: Isotype of Vitis shizishanensis Z.Y.Ma, J. Wen, Q. Fu & X-Q. Liu (X.Q. LIU 944) with fruits.

This dataset is made available under the Open Database License (http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). The Open Database License (ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and use this Dataset while maintaining this same freedom for others, provided that the original source and author(s) are credited.
Download file (3.14 MB)