Research Article
Print
Research Article
New combinations in Neotropical Thelypteridaceae
expand article infoAlexandre Salino, Thais Elias Almeida§, Alan Smith|
‡ Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
§ Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Santarém, Brazil
| University of Califonia at Berkeley, , United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

288 new combinations of Neotropical Thelypteridaceae taxa are proposed in order to recognize monophyletic genera, based on the results of the most recent molecular phylogeny of the family, as well as the morphological uniformity of characters for each genus. The new nomenclatural combinations correspond to 186 Amauropelta taxa, 77 species of Goniopteris, and 25 Steiropteris taxa. A key to all native Neotropical genera of the family is also presented.

Keywords

Amauropelta, ferns, Goniopteris, Steiropteris, Thelypteris

Introduction

The Thelypteridaceae, comprising approximately 1,000 species, is one of the largest families of ferns (Smith et al. 2006). It has a cosmopolitan distribution, with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions (Smith 1992, Smith et al. 2006, 2008). The family is monophyletic as usually construed (Smith and Cranfill 2002, Schuettpelz and Pryer 2007, He and Zhang 2013, and Almeida et al. 2015). However, the classification within the family is controversial, with authors recognizing different numbers of genera: 32 (Pichi Sermolli 1977), 25 (Holttum 1971, 1982, Old World only), 20 (Ching 1978), 5 (Smith 1990a, Smith et al. 2006, 2008), or only one (Morton 1969, Tryon and Tryon 1982).

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have recovered two main groups in the family: the phegopteroid and the thelypteroid lineages (Smith and Cranfill 2002, He and Zhang 2012, and Almeida et al. 2015). The phegopteroid lineage includes two paleotropical genera, Macrothelypteris (H.Itô) Ching (ca. 10 spp.), Pseudophegopteris Ching (ca. 20 spp.), and one north-temperate genus, Phegopteris Fée (4 spp.). In the thelypteroid lineage, Thelypteris s.s. (Thelypteris palustris Schott, T. confluens (Thunb.) C.V.Morton) is the basal group and sister to a clade that includes all other non-phegopteroid Thelypteridaceae. This confirms the status of Thelypteris s.s. as a small, isolated segregate genus of two species. The sister group to Thelypteris s.s. comprises two well supported, much larger clades: the amauropeltoid clade, comprising the genera Amauropelta Kunze, Parathelypteris (H. Itô) Ching, Coryphopteris Holttum, and Metathelypteris (H.Itô) Ching, and the cyclosoroid clade, comprising several genera from the Old World and the New World (He and Zhang 2012, and Almeida et al. 2015). Inside the cylosoroid clade, several groups in the Paleotropics are still ill-defined and probably not monophyletic (He and Zhang 2012, Almeida et al. 2015). Thus, the current infrafamilial classification for Thelypteridaceae is not in accordance with growing phylogenetic evidence and principles of monophyly.

The following native Neotropical genera of Thelypteridaceae are recognized: Amauropelta, Christella Lév. (a more precise circumscription still pending), Cyclosorus Link, Goniopteris (C.Presl) Duek., Meniscium Schreber, Stegnogramma Blume, Steiropteris C.Chr., and Thelypteris Schmidel, based on the recent molecular phylogenetic data for this family (Almeida et al. 2015) and the morphological uniformity recognized in previously proposed classifications (Holttum 1971, Pichi Sermolli 1977, Smith 1980, 1990a). With the exception of Amauropelta and Thelypteris, the other six genera belong to the cyclosoroid clade. In the most recent published floras for Neotropical areas, these monophyletic groups of Thelypteridaceae were treated as subgenera of Thelypteris. In the most recent fern classifications (Smith 1990a; Smith et al. 2006, 2008; Christenhusz et al. 2011), Amauropelta was treated within the genus Thelypteris, and Christella, Cyclosorus, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris within the genus Cyclosorus.

Utilizing our most recent results on molecular phylogeny of the family (Almeida et al. 2015), the monophyletic genera accepted here have strong support. They are also easily defined morphologically by characters in the key below.

Amauropelta, predominantly Neotropical, is most closely related to several Old World genera: Coryphopteris, Metathelypteris, and Parathelypteris. Amauropelta is recognized mainly by the laminar base usually gradually or abruptly reduced with one to many pairs of auriculiform or glanduliform pinnae, and by the veins from adjacent segments usually meeting the blade margins above the sinuses on pinnatifid pinnae.

Our results (Almeida et al. 2015) confirm that Steiropteris is monophyletic and sister to all remaining cyclosoroid genera except Stegnogramma. These results include an interesting novelty: Thelypteris polypodioides (Raddi) C.F.Reed and T. villosa (Link) C.F.Reed, from southern Brazil (previously incertae sedis), nest in Steiropteris with strong support. These two species were treated by Christensen (1913) as belonging to Dryopteris subg. Leptogramma (J.Sm.) C.Chr. (= Stegnogramma).

Goniopteris has long been recognized as a natural group (Christensen 1913, Tryon and Tryon 1982, Smith 1990a). It is also monophyletic (Smith and Cranfill 2002, Schuettpelz and Pryer 2007) and has been accorded generic status, e.g., by Copeland (1947), Brade (1972) and Pichi Sermolli (1977). The presence of furcate or stellate hairs on the blades and/or rhizome apex scales is a useful diagnostic character for Goniopteris (Salino 2002), but this character has apparently been secondarily lost in a few species: G. mollis Fée (Mexico and Central America; Mickel and Smith 2004; Smith 1995a), G. macrotis (Hook.) Pic.Serm., G. semihastata (Kunze) Salino & T.E.Almeida (both endemic to Peru; Smith 1992), G. holodictya (K.U.Kramer) Salino & T.E.Almeida (French Guiana; Smith 1993), and G. clypeata (Maxon & C.V.Morton) Salino & T.E.Almeida (Panama, Peru; Smith 1995a, and Colombia).

The narrow circumscription of Cyclosorus used here has already been adopted by some authors (e.g., Pichi Sermolli 1977, Holttum 1971, 1982). This clade (pantropical, with two species, only one of which, C. interruptus (Willd.) H.Itô, occurs in the Neotropics) is supported as monophyletic in the results of our molecular phylogeny (Almeida et al. 2015). Most native species previously considered in Thelypteris subg. Cyclosorus (Link) C.V.Morton in some floras (Mickel and Beitel 1988, Mickel and Smith 2004, Proctor 1977, 1985, 1989, Salino and Semir 2002, Smith 1981a,b, 1983, 1988, 1992, 1995a,b) are now treated in the genus Christella, as done by Pichi Sermolli (1977) and Holttum (1974, 1982). However, it appears likely that Christella sensu Holttum is not monophyletic (see Smith and Cranfill 2002; Schuettpelz and Pryer 2007; He and Zhang 2012).

Following Smith (1990a) and Smith et al. (2006, 2008), Mazumdar and Mukhopadhyay (2013) proposed new combinations in Cyclosorus for many species nested in the cyclosoroid clade. However, if this clade is to be considered as a single genus, the oldest generic name is Meniscium (Schreber 1791). In order to retain all the names recombined by Mazumdar and Mukhopadhyay (2013), Mazumdar (2015) subsequently proposed conservation of Cyclosorus against Meniscium. However, we believe conservation is unnecessary, because the cyclosoroid clade, considered by Mazumdar (2015) as a genus, corresponds to at least 10 genera according to recent molecular phylogenetic results (Almeida et al. 2015). We think it preferable that Cyclosorus sensu stricto be construed as comprising only two species (see above). At the same time, we interpret phylogenetic evidence to best support Meniscium as a genus comprising 26 species (Fernandes et al. 2014).

Meniscium, wholly Neotropical, appears to be monophyletic and more closely related to Cyclosorus s.s. (Cyclosorus interruptus), Mesophlebium Holttum, and Ampelopteris Kunze (Almeida et al. 2015). Meniscium is morphologically uniform and characterized by short-creeping rhizomes, pinnate leaves each with a conform apical pinna, and by regularly anastomosing veins resulting in parallel rows of areoles that include either a single free vein or a bisecting vein. Fernandes et al. (2014) made five new combinations for Meniscium species; combinations are already available for other recognized menisciums. Similarly, combinations are available for 38 species of Amauropelta, for nearly 40 species of Goniopteris, as well as for nine species of Steiropteris. New combinations in Amauropelta, Goniopteris, and Steiropteris are established for most remaining Neotropical species, those that appear commonly recognized in existing floras and monographs. We refrain from addressing further Christella sensu Holttum in the Neotropics, because (as mentioned above) existing evidence suggests that it is not monophyletic – most of the neotropical species (sect. Pelazoneuron Holttum) appear to comprise a clade separate from the paleotropical species (sect. Christella). However, sampling of Christella in both the Old World and New World, as well as affiliated cyclosoroid genera circumscribed by Holttum (1982) in the Paleotropics, is still far too meager to construct a viable taxonomy.

Key to the native Neotropical Thelypteridaceae genera

1 Forked or stellate hairs present at least on the rachises and costae, and/or on the scales at apices of rhizomes, and may be present in other parts of the frond Goniopteris
All hairs unbranched (hairs fasciculate, i.e., basally clustered, in some species of Amauropelta)
2 Laminae 1-pinnate, rarely simple; pinnae entire or with an serrate or undulate margin, rarely shallowly lobed; veins regularly anatomosing, areoles 3–25-seriate between costae and pinna margins 3
Laminae 1-pinnate-pinnatifid, rarely 2-pinnate; pinnae incised 1/3 their width or more; veins meeting the margins above sinuses, or connivent at sinuses, or with 1 or 2 pairs of anastomosing below sinuses 4
3 Sori usually in a single row between adjacent costules (except Meniscium andreanum, which often has a double row of sori between main lateral veins), oblong or linear, rarely round; sori exindusiate Meniscium
Sori usually in a double row between adjacent costules, usually round (except G. holodictya, which sometimes has only one row of somewhat elongate sori between costules); sori indusiate (indusial may be small, or hidden in mature sori!) or exindusiate Goniopteris
4 Sporangia setose; sori elongate, exindusiate 5
Sporangia not setose, or if setose (in eight species of Amauropelta) then sori round; sori round, oblong, or rarely elongate; sori indusiate or exindusiate 6
5 Pinnae broadly adnate and decurrent onto rachises in the distal half of laminae; proximal pinnae not cuneate at bases Stegnogramma (S. pilosa, S. burksiorum)
Pinnae neither adnate nor decurrent onto rachises, sometimes one distal pair adnate to rachises; proximal pinnae short- to long-cuneate at bases Steiropteris (S. polypodioides, S. villosa)
6 Laminae with all veins usually meeting margins above the sinuses 7
Laminae with at least some of the proximal veins running to the sinuses or forming an excurrent vein to the sinuses 9
7 Laminae narrowed proximally with (1-) 2−20 pairs of greatly reduced pinnae, the proximal pinnae usually auriculiform or glanduliform, rarely proximal pinnae not reduced Amauropelta
Laminae usually not narrowed proximally, or only slightly so, usually lacking greatly reduced pinnae 8
8 Rhizomes long-creeping; laminae 1-pinnate-pinnatifid to 2-pinnate; veins of sterile laminae 1- or 2-forked, sometimes simple in the fertile laminae Thelypteris
Stems ascending to erect, rarely short-creeping; laminae 1-pinnate-pinnatifid; veins of sterile and fertile laminae simple.. Steiropteris (subg. Glaphyropteris)
9 Rhizomes long-creeping to 3 m or more, blackish, scaleless or nearly so Cyclosorus
Rhizomes short-creeping to ascending or erect, light brown, with conspicuous scales, at least at apices 10
10 Cartilaginous keel (false vein) present below pinna sinuses, keels extending toward costa but not meeting it; aerophores (tuberculate or often threadlike) at pinna bases usually present, absent in a few species; indusia present or absent Steiropteris (subg. Steiropteris)
Cartilaginous keel absent below pinna sinuses; aerophores at pinna bases absent; indusia present, persistent Christella

New combinations

The names proposed as needing new combinations were obtained from taxonomic and floristic sources such as floras, monographs, or isolated published papers. All names were checked in IPNI.ORG and TROPICOS.ORG. The main floras consulted were ones for Mexico (Smith 1981a, 1988; Mickel and Beitel 1988, Mickel and Smith 2004), Lesser Antilles (Proctor 1977), Jamaica (Proctor 1985), Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989), Cuba (Sánchez et al 2006), Mesoamerica (Smith 1995a), Guatemala (Smith 1981b), Venezuela (Vareschi 1969; Smith 1995b), Guianas (Smith 1993), Ecuador (Smith 1983), Peru (Smith 1992), Argentina (Ponce 1987), and from Brazil (Brade 1971, Sehnem 1979, Salino and Semir 2002, 2003, 2004, Ponce 2007, Salino and Almeida 2010). The monographs of reference were the works of Christensen (1907, 1913, 1920) and Smith (1980). In addition, the following works describing new species were consulted: Smith and Lellinger (1985), Smith (1990b), Salino (2002), Salino and Melo (2000), Smith and Kessler (2008), Matos et al. (2010), and Salino et al. (2011, 2014). The authorship of new combinations was established as follows: species in Venezuela are credited to Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino and Thais Elias Almeida are credited with authorship of the remaining species. We choose to cite only the basionym and the name in Thelypteris (when available) for all new combinations; this avoids citation of the often extensive synonymy, information that is available in many recent floristic and taxonomic studies.

New combinations in Amauropelta

Amauropelta achalensis (Hieron.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium achalense Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22: 371. 1896.

Thelypteris achalensis (Hieron.) Abbiatti, Darwiniana 13: 566. 1964.

Amauropelta aculeata (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris aculeata A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 15. F. 1A, 1B. 1983.

Amauropelta acunae (C.Sánchez & Zavaro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris acunae C.Sánchez & Zavaro, Fontqueria 31: 223. f.1. 1991.

Amauropelta aliena (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris aliena C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16: 23. 1937.

Amauropelta altitudinis (Ponce) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris altitudinis Ponce, Darwiniana 28 (1-4): 345. 1987.

Amauropelta amambayensis (Ponce) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris amambayensis Ponce, Candollea 55: 310.

Amauropelta amphioxypteris (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium amphioxypteris Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 51. 1883.

Thelypteris amphioxypteris (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 17. 1983.

Amauropelta andicola (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris andicola A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 16. 1992.

Amauropelta appressa (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris appressa A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 19. 1983.

Amauropelta araucariensis (Ponce) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris araucariensis Ponce, Darwiniana 33: 270. 1995.

Amauropelta arborea (Brause) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Dryopteris arborea Brause, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 294. 1914.

Thelypteris arborea (Brause) A.R.Sm., Acta Bot. Venez. 14 (3): 7. 1984.

Amauropelta arenosa (A.R.Sm.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris arenosa A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 21. 1983.

Amauropelta argentina (Hieron.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium argentinum Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22: 367. 1896.

Thelypteris argentina (Hieron.) Abbiatti, Revista Mus. La Plata, Secc. Bot. 9 (36-37): 19. 1958.

Amauropelta arrecta (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris arrecta A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 36. 1992.

Amauropelta atrorubens (Mett. ex Kuhn) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium atrorubens Mett. ex Kuhn, Linnaea 36. 112. 1869.

Thelypteris atrorubens (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 29: 24. 1992.

Amauropelta atrovirens (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris atrovirens C.Chr., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 7 (4): 263. 1907.

Thelypteris atrovirens (C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17 (4): 261. 1968.

Amauropelta aymarae (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris aymarae A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60 (1): 49. 2008.

Amauropelta balbisii (Spreng.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Polypodium balbisii Spreng., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 10: 228. 1821.

Thelypteris balbisii (Spreng.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 250. 1941.

Amauropelta barvae (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris barvae A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77 (1): 118. f. 2A-C. 1990.

Amauropelta basisceletica (C.Sánchez, Caluff & O.Alvarez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris basisceletica C.Sánchez, Caluff & O.Alvarez, Amer. Fern J. 95 (1): 30. f. 1. 2005.

Amauropelta binervata (A.R.Sm.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris binervata A.R.Sm., Acta Bot. Venez. 14 (3): 6. 1984.

Amauropelta bonapartii (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris bonapartii Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 303–304. 1909.

Thelypteris bonapartii (Rosenst.) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48: 233.1958.

Amauropelta brachypoda (Baker) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Nephrodium brachypodum Baker, Timehri 5: 213. 1886.

Thelypteris brachypoda (Baker) C.V.Morton, Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 10. 1951.

Amauropelta brachypus (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium brachypus Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 43. 1883.

Thelypteris brachypus (Sodiro) R.M.Tryon & A.F.Tryon, Rhodora 84: 128. 1982.

Amauropelta brausei (Hieron.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Dryopteris brausei Hieron., Hedwigia 46: 337, t. 6, f. 11. 1907.

Thelypteris brausei (Hieron.) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48: 233. 1958.

Amauropelta burkartii (Abbiatti) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris burkartii Abbiatti, Darwiniana 13: 550, f. 4, t. 2. 1964.

Amauropelta campii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris campii A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 27. 1983.

Amauropelta canadasii (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium canadasii Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 48. 1883.

Thelypteris canadasii (Sodiro) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci 48: 234. 1958.

Amauropelta caucaensis (Hieron.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Nephrodium caucaense Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 34: 444. 1904.

Thelypetris caucaensis (Hieron.) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci 48: 233. 1958.

Amauropelta chaparensis (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris chaparensis A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60 (1): 51. 2008.

Amauropelta chiriquiana (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris chiriquiana A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77 (1): 120. f. 3A-C. 1990.

Amauropelta christensenii (Christ ex C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris christensenii Christ ex C.Chr., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 7 (4): 263. 1907.

Thelypteris christensenii (Christ ex C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17 (4): 267. 1968.

Amauropelta cinerea (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Nephrodium cinereum Sodiro, Sert. Fl. Ecuad. II. 26. 1908.

Thelypteris cinerea (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Phytologia 34: 233. 1976.

Amauropelta cochaensis (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris cochaensis C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 152. 1913.

Amauropelta cocos (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris cocos A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98 (4): 918. f. 3. 1985.

Amauropelta comptula (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris comptula A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 23. 1992.

Amauropelta conformis (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium conforme Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 45. 1883.

Thelypteris conformis (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 37. 1983.

Amauropelta consanguinea (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium consanguineum Fée, Mém. Foug. 11 (Hist. Foug. Ant.): 76, t. 20, f. 3). 1866.

Thelypteris consanguinea (Fée) Proctor, Rhodora 61 (732): 306. 1959.

Amauropelta cooleyi (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris cooleyi Proctor, Rhodora 68: 468. 1966.

Amauropelta corazonensis (Baker) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium corazonense Baker, J. Bot. 15: 163. 1877, as carazanensis”.

Thelypteris corazonensis (Baker) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 38. 1983.

Amauropelta cornuta (Maxon) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris cornuta Maxon, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 19 (12): 245. f. 1. 1929.

Thelypteris cornuta (Maxon) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 251. 1941.

Amauropelta correllii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris correllii A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 39. 1983.

Amauropelta crassiuscula (C.Chr. & Maxon) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris crassiuscula C.Chr. & Maxon, Amer. Fern J. 23: 75. 1933.

Thelypteris crassiuscula (C.Chr. & Maxon) Lellinger, Amer. Fern J. 67(2): 60. 1977.

Amauropelta ctenitoides (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris ctenitoides A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 37. 1992.

Amauropelta decrescens (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris decrescens Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 71(2): 57. 1981.

Asplenium decurtatum Link Fil. sp. 94. 1841.

Amauropelta deflectens (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris deflectens C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 25, t. 3, f. 9-11. 1937.

Amauropelta delasotae (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris delasotae A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 919. f. 5. 1985.

Amauropelta demissa (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris demissa A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 21. 1992.

Amauropelta denudata (C.Sánchez & Caluff) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris denudata C.Sánchez & Caluff, Willdenowia 35: 159. 2005.

Amauropelta dodsonii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris dodsonii A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 41. 1983.

Amauropelta dudleyi (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris dudleyi A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 33. 1992.

Amauropelta elegantula (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium elegantulum Sodiro, Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 243. 1893.

Thelypteris elegantula (Sodiro) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48: 233. 1958.

Amauropelta enigmatica (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris enigmatica A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 16. 1992.

Amauropelta eriosorus (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium eriosorus Fée, Crypt. Vasc. Brésil, 2. 73. T. 101. 1873.

Thelypteris eriosorus (Fée) Ponce (as T. eriosora), Novon 8: 275. 1998.

Amauropelta euchlora (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Polypodium euchlorum Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 58. 1883.

Thelypteris euchlora (Sodiro) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 275. 1968.

Amauropelta euthythrix (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris euthythrix A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 44. 1983.

Amauropelta exuta (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris exuta A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 44. 1983.

Amauropelta fasciola (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris fasciola A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60 (1): 51. 2008.

Amauropelta fayorum (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris fayorum A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 53. 2008.

Amauropelta firma (Baker ex Jenman) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium firmum Baker ex Jenman., J. Bot. 17: 260. 1879.

Thelypteris firma (Baker ex Jenman) Proctor, Bull. Inst. Jamaica, Sci. Ser. 5: 60. 1953.

Amauropelta fluminalis (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris fluminalis A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 46. 1983.

Amauropelta frigida (Christ) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Aspidium frigidum Christ, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2., 6: 160. 1906.

Thelypteris frigida (Christ) A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Amer. Fern J. 75(1): 31. 1985.

Amauropelta funckii (Mett.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Aspidium funckii Mett., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 5, 2: 246. 1864.

Thelypteris funckii (Mett.) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48: 233. 1958.

Amauropelta furfuracea (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris furfuracea A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 34. 1992.

Amauropelta furva (Maxon) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris furva Maxon, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 34: 24. 1944.

Thelypteris furva (Maxon) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69: 6. 1977.

Amauropelta germaniana (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris germaniana Fée, Mém. Foug. 11 (Hist. Foug. Ant.): 55. 1866.

Thelypteris germaniana (Fée) Proctor, Rhodora 61: 306. 1959.

Amauropelta glandulosolanosa (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris glandulosolanosa C.Chr., Dansk Bot. Ark. 9(3): 61. 1937.

Thelypteris glandulosolanosa (C.Chr.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69: 6. 1967.

Amauropelta glutinosa (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris glutinosa C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 18. 1937.

Thelypteris glutinosa (C.Chr.) C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 53(2): 66. 1963.

Amauropelta gomeziana (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris gomeziana A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 921. f 6. 1985.

Amauropelta gracilenta (Jenman) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium gracilentum Jenman, Bull. Bot. Dept. Jamaica 4. 129. 1897.

Thelypteris gracilenta (Jenman) Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 71(2): 60. 1981.

Amauropelta gracilis (Heward) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Gymnogramma gracilis Heward, Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s, 2: 457. 1838.

Thelypteris gracilis (Heward) Proctor, Bull. Inst. Jamaica, Sci. Ser. 5: 60. 1953.

Amauropelta grayumii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris grayumii A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 122. f 2D-E. 1990.

Amauropelta harrisii (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris harrisii Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 71: 59. 1981.

Amauropelta hastiloba (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris hastiloba C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 20. t 4, f 4-5. 1937.

Amauropelta heineri (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris heineri C.Chr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 6: 380. 1909.

Thelypteris heineri (C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 282. 1968.

Amauropelta hutchisonii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris hutchisonii A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 29. 1992.

Amauropelta hydrophila (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris hydrophila Fée, Mém. Foug. 11 (Hist. Foug. Ant.): 56. pl 13, f 3. 1866.

Thelypteris hydrophila (Fée) Proctor, Rhodora 61: 306. 1959.

Amauropelta illicita (Christ) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris illicita Christ, Bull. Soc. Bot. Genève sér. 2, 1(5): 225. 1909.

Thelypteris illicita (Christ) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4) : 284. 1968.

Amauropelta inabonensis (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris inabonensis Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 75(2): 61. f 3. 1985.

Amauropelta inaequans (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris euchlora (Sodiro) C.Chr. var. inaequans C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 150. 1913.

Thelypteris inaequans (C.Chr.) Lellinger, Amer. Fern J. 67(2): 60. 1977.

Amauropelta inaequilateralis (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris inaequilateralis A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 53. 2008.

Amauropelta insignis (Mett.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium insigne Mett., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 5, 2: 247. 1864.

Thelypteris insignis (Mett.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 242. 1941.

Amauropelta intromissa (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris intromissa C.Chr., Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3., 16(2): 22. t 4, f 9-10. 1937.

Amauropelta ireneae (Brade) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris ireneae Brade, Sellowia 17: 57. f 4. 1965.

Thelypteris ireneae (Brade) Lellinger, Amer. Fern. J. 74(2): 60. 1984.

Amauropelta jimenezii (Maxon & C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris jimenezii Maxon & C.Chr., Amer. Fern J. 4: 79. 1914.

Thelypteris jimenezii (Maxon & C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 285. 1968.

Amauropelta juergensii (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium juergensii Rosenst., Festschrift Albert von Bamberg 63. 1905.

Thelypteris juergensii (Rosenst.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 286. 1968.

Amauropelta jujuyensis (de la Sota) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris jujuyensis de la Sota, Darwiniana 18: 222. f 3, 8c. 1973.

Amauropelta laevigata (Mett. ex Kuhn) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris laevigata Mett. ex Kuhn, Linnaea 36. 112. 1869.

Thelypteris laevigata (Mett. ex Kuhn) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69: 6. 1967.

Amauropelta leoniae (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris leoniae A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 18. 1992.

Amauropelta lepidula (Hieron.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Dryopteris lepidula Hieron., Hedwigia 46. 328, t. 4, f. 4. 1907.

Thelypteris lepidula (Hieron.) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48: 233. 1958.

Amauropelta longicaulis (Baker) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium longicaule Baker, J. Bot. 19: 204. 1881.

Thelypteris longicaulis (Baker) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 289. 1968.

Amauropelta longipilosa (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium longipilosum Sodiro, Anales Univ. Central Quito Ecuador 22(160): 103. 1908.

Thelypteris longipilosa (Sodiro) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 290. 1968.

Amauropelta longisora (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris longisora A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 123. f 3D-E. 1990.

Amauropelta loreae (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris loreae A.R.Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 88: 629–630. f 303A-E, 2004.

Amauropelta loretensis (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris loretensis A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 30. 1992.

Amauropelta lumbricoides (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris lumbricoides A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 54. 2008.

Amauropelta macra (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris macra A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 54. 1983.

Amauropelta madidiensis (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris madidiensis A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 54. 2008.

Amauropelta malangae (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris malangae C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 21. t. 4(6−8). 1937.

Thelypteris malangae (C.Chr.) C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 53(2): 66. 1963.

Amauropelta melanochlaena (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris melanochlaena C.Chr., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 52(3): 384. 1909.

Thelypteris melanochlaena (C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 292. 1968.

Amauropelta mertensioides (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris mertensioides C.Chr., Kongel. Danske.Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 4: 328, f. 50. 1907.

Thelypteris mertensioides (C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 292. 1968.

Amauropelta metteniana (Ching) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris metteniana Ching, Bull. Fan mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 252. 1941.

Amauropelta micula (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris micula A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 33. 1992.

Amauropelta minima (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris minima A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 55. 2008.

Amauropelta minutula (C.V.Morton) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris minutula C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 43(4): 173. 1953.

Amauropelta mombachensis (L.D.Gómez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris mombachensis L.D.Gómez, Phytologia 52(3): 155–156. 1982.

Amauropelta mortonii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris mortonii A.R.Sm., Amer. Fern J. 63(3): 125. f 11. 1973.

Amauropelta mosenii (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris mosenii C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 4: 300. f 27. 1907.

Thelypteris mosenii (C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 294. 1968.

Amauropelta muscicola (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris muscicola Proctor, Rhodora 63: 33. 1961.

Amauropelta namaphila (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris namaphila Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 75(2): 56. f 1. 1985.

Amauropelta neglecta (Brade & Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris neglecta Brade & Rosenst., Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro 7(3): 142, t.1, f 3, t. 7. 1931.

Thelypteris neglecta (Brade & Rosenst.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 10: 253. 1941.

Amauropelta negligens (Jenman) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium negligens Jenman, Bull. Bot. Dept. 3: 21. 1896.

Thelypteris negligens (Jenman) Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 71(2): 58. 1981.

Amauropelta nephelium (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris nephelium A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 57. 2008.

Amauropelta nitens (Desv.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium nitens Desv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 240. 1827.

Thelypteris nitens (Desv.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 7. 1967.

Amauropelta novaeana (Brade) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris novaeana Brade, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veg. 3: 2, t. 2, 4(4-6), 6(4-5). 1936.

Thelypteris novaena (Brade) Ponce, Novon 8(3): 275. 1998.

Amauropelta nubicola (de la Sota) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris nubicola de la Sota, Darwiniana 18: 225. pl 4, 8b. 1973.

Amauropelta nubigena (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris nubigena A.R.Sm., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 40(8): 229. f 7C. 1975.

Amauropelta oaxacana (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris oaxacana A.R.Sm., Amer. Fern J. 63(3): 125. f 7-8. 1973.

Amauropelta ophiorhizoma (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris ophiorhizoma A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 925. f 8. 1985.

Amauropelta oviedoae (C.Sánchez & Zavaro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris oviedoae C.Sánchez & Zavaro, Fontqueria 31: 225. f 2. 1991.

Amauropelta pachyrhachis (Kunze ex Mett.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium pachyrhachis Kunze ex Mett., Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 2: 367. 1858.

Thelypteris pachyrhachis (Kunze ex Mett.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 253. 1941.

Amauropelta paleacea (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris paleacea A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 62. 1983.

Amauropelta patula (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Gymnogramma patula Fée, Crypt. vasc. Brésil 1: 59, t. 14, f. 3. 1869.

Amauropelta pavoniana (Klotzsch) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium pavonianum Klotzsch, Linnaea 20. 386. 1847.

Thelypteris pavoniana (Klotzsch) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 7. 1967.

Amauropelta pelludia (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris pelludia A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 58. 2008.

Amauropelta peradenia (A.R.Sm.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris peradenia A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(2): 272, f. 11. 1990.

Amauropelta peruviana (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris peruviana Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 298-299. 1909.

Thelypteris peruviana (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 7. 1967.

Amauropelta phacelothrix (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris phacelothrix Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 56. 1912.

Thelypteris phacelothrix (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 7. 1967.

Amauropelta physematioides (Kuhn & Christ ex Krug) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium physematioides Kuhn & Christ ex Krug, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 24: 115. 1897.

Thelypteris physematioides (Kuhn & Christ ex Krug) C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 43(4): 174. 1953.

Amauropelta piedrensis (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris piedrensis C.Chr., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 52: 372. 1909.

Thelypteris piedrensis (C.Chr.) C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 53(2): 69. 1963.

Amauropelta pilosissima (C.V.Morton) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris pilosissima C.V.Morton, Fieldiana, Botany 28: 11. 1951.

Amauropelta pilosohispida (Hook.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Nephrodium pilosohispidum Hook., Spec. Fil. 4: 105. 1862.

Thelypteris pilosohispida (Hook.) Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48(7): 233. 1958.

Amauropelta pleiophylla (Sehnem) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris pleiophylla Sehnem, Fl. Ilustr. Catarin. 1(Aspid.): 245. f 61. 1979.

Thelypteris pleiophylla (Sehnem) Ponce, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 270. 1995.

Amauropelta podotricha (Sehnem) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris podotricha Sehnem, Fl. Ilustr. Catarin. 1(Aspid.): 232. f 57. 1979.

Thelypteris podotricha (Sehnem) Ponce, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 270. 1995.

Amauropelta proboscidea (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris proboscidea A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 36. 1992.

Amauropelta proctorii (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris proctorii A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 925. f 9. 1985.

Amauropelta prolatipedis (Lellinger) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris prolatipedis Lellinger, Amer. Fern J. 67(2): 60, 1977.

Dryopteris coarctata var. longipes C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 4: 292. 1907.

Amauropelta ptarmiciformis (C.Chr. & Rosenst. ex Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris ptarmiciformis C.Chr. & Rosenst. ex Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 472. 1913.

Thelypteris ptarmiciformis (C.Chr. & Rosenst. ex Rosenst.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 307. 1968.

Amauropelta pteroidea (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Polypodium pteroideum Klotzsch, Linnaea 20. 389. 1847.

Thelypteris pteroidea (Klotzsch) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 8. 1967.

Amauropelta pusilla (Mett.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Aspidium pusillum Mett., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 5, 2: 245. 1864.

Thelypteris pusilla (Mett.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 254. 1941.

Amauropelta raddii (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris raddii Rosenst., Hedwigia 56: 367. 1915.

Thelypteris raddii (Rosenst.) Ponce, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 266. 1995.

Amauropelta randallii (Maxon & C.V.Morton ex C.V.Morton) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris randallii Maxon & C.V.Morton ex C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 53(2): 69. 1963.

Amauropelta recumbens (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris recumbens Rosenst., Hedwigia 46. 123. 1906.

Thelypteris recumbens (Rosenst.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17: 308. 1968.

Amauropelta reducta (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris reducta C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 18, t. 2, f. 1-3. 1937.

Amauropelta regnelliana (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris regnelliana C.Chr., Kongel. Danske.Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 4: 284, f. 12. 1907.

Thelypteris regnelliana (C.Chr.) Ponce, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 264. 1995.

Amauropelta retrorsa (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium retrorsum Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 51. 1883.

Thelypteris retrorsa (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 71. 1983.

Amauropelta rheophyta (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris rheophyta Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 75(2): 58. f 2. 1985.

Amauropelta rigescens (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium rigescens Sodiro, Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 239. 1893.

Thelypteris rigescens (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 72. 1983.

Amauropelta rivularioides (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium rivularioides Fée, Crypt. Vasc. Brésil 1: 145, t. 50, f. 1. 1869.

Thelypteris rivularioides (Fée) Abbiatti, Revista Mus. La Plata, Secc. Bot. 9(36-37): 19. 1958.

Amauropelta roraimensis (Baker) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Polypodium roraimense Baker, Timehri 5: 214. 1886.

Thelypteris roraimensis (Baker) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 310. 1968.

Amauropelta rosenstockii (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris rosenstockii C.Chr., Kongel. Danske.Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 4: 304, f. 30. 1907.

Thelypteris rosenstockii (C.Chr.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 8. 1977.

Amauropelta rosulata (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris rosulata A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 60. 2008.

Amauropelta rudiformis (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris rudiformis C.Chr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 19(9): 305. 1941.

Thelypteris rudiformis (C.Chr.) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 74. 1983.

Amauropelta rufa (Poir.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium rufum Poir., Encycl. 5: 532. 1804.

Thelypteris rufa (Poir.) A.R.Sm. Fl. Ecuador 18: 77. 1983.

Amauropelta ruiziana (Klotzsch) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium ruizianum Klotzsch, Linnaea 20: 385. 1847.

Thelypteris ruiziana (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm. Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 29: 35. 1992.

Amauropelta rupestris (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Leptogramma rupestris Klotzsch, Linnaea 20. 415. 1847.

Thelypteris rupestris (Klotzsch) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 310. 1968.

Amauropelta rupicola (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris rupicola C.Chr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 24. 1917.

Thelypteris rupicola (C.Chr.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 254. 1941.

Amauropelta rustica (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris rustica Fée, Mém. Foug. 11 (Hist. Foug. Ant.): 55, t. 13, f. 1. 1866.

Thelypteris rustica (Fée) Proctor, Rhodora 61(732): 306. 1959[1960].

Amauropelta sanctae-catharinae (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris sanctae-catharinae Rosenst., Hedwigia 46: 126. 1906.

Thelypteris sanctae-catharinae (Rosenst.) Ponce, Darwiniana 33(1-4): 280. 1995.

Amauropelta saxicola (Sw.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium saxicola Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1817: 59, t. 3, f. 5. 1817.

Thelpyteris saxicola (Sw.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 312. 1968.

Amauropelta scalpturoides (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris scalpturoides Fée, Mém. foug. 11 (Hist. foug. Ant.): 51. 1866.

Thelypteris scalpturoides (Fée) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 312. 1968.

Amauropelta sellensis (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris sellensis C.Chr., Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 24. t. 3(7−8). 1937.

Amauropelta semilunata (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium semilunatum Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 46. 1883.

Thelyteris semilunata (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 79. 1983.

Amauropelta shaferi (Maxon & C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris shaferi Maxon & C.Chr., Amer. Fern J. 4: 77. 1914.

Thelypteris shaferi (Maxon & C.Chr.) Duek, Adansonia, sér. 2, 11: 719. 1971 [1972].

Amauropelta soridepressa (Salino & V.A.O.Dittrich) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris soridepressa Salino & V.A.O.Dittrich, Amer. Fern J. 98(4): 199. f 1. 2009.

Amauropelta steyermarkii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris steyermarkii A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 79. 1983.

Amauropelta stierii (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Gymnogramma stierii Rosenst., Festschrift Albert von Bamberg 64. 1905.

Thelypteris stierii (Rosenst.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 316. 1968.

Amauropelta straminea (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium stramineum Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 43. 1883.

Thelypteris chimboracensis A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 34. 1993.

Amauropelta strigillosa (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris strigillosa A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 927. F 10. 1985.

Amauropelta struthiopteroides (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris struthiopteroides C.Chr., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 52(3): 388. 1909.

Thelypteris struthiopteroides (C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 316. 1968.

Amauropelta subscandens (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris subscandens A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 123. f 4. 1990.

Amauropelta subtilis (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris subtilis A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 80. 1983.

Amauropelta supina (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium supinum Sodiro, Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 241. 1893.

Thelypteris supina (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 82. 1983.

Amauropelta tablana (Christ) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium tablanum Christ, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 5: 727. 1905.

Thelypteris tablana (Christ) A.R.Sm., Amer. Fern J. 63(3): 127. 1973.

Amauropelta tamandarei (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris tamandarei Rosenst., Hedwigia 56. 365. 1915.

Thelypteris tamandarei (Rosenst.) Ponce, Novon 8(3): 277. 1998.

Amauropelta tapantensis (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris tapantensis A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): f 11. 927. 1985.

Amauropelta tenerrima (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium tenerrimum Fée, Crypt. Vasc. Brésil 1: 134. t 43, f 1. 1869.

Thelypteris tenerrima (Fée) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 319. 1968.

Amauropelta trelawniensis (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris trelawniensis Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 71(2): 58. 1981.

Amauropelta uncinata (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris uncinata A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 86. 1983.

Amauropelta vattuonei (Hicken) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris vattuonei Hicken, Darwiniana 1: 100. 1924.

Thelypteris vattuonei (Hicken) Abbiatti, Darwiniana 13: 566. 1964.

Amauropelta venturae (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris venturae A.R.Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 88: 638. f 302A-C. 2004.

Amauropelta vernicosa (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris vernicosa A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 929. f 12. 1985.

Amauropelta villana (L.D.Gómez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris villana L.D.Gómez, Rev. Biol. Trop. 17(1): 106. f 1-4. 1970.

Amauropelta yungensis (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris yungensis A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 61. 2008.

Amauropelta zurquiana (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris zurquiana A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 929. f 13. 1985.

New combinations in Goniopteris

Goniopteris abdita (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris abdita Proctor. Amer. Fern J. 75(2): 63. f 4. 1985.

Goniopteris abrupta (Desv.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Polypodium abruptum Desv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 239. 1827.

Thelypteris abrupta (Desv.) Proctor, Rhodora 61: 305. 1960.

Goniopteris alan-smithiana (L.D.Gómez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris alan-smithiana L.D.Gómez, Phytologia 50(7): 458. 1982.

Goniopteris amazonica (Salino & R.S.Fernandes) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris amazonica Salino & R.S.Fernandes, Nordic J. Bot. 29(5): 611. f 1-2. 2011.

Goniopteris ancyriothrix (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris ancyriothrix Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 305-306. 1909.

Thelypteris ancyriothrix (Rosenst.) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 140. 1983.

Goniopteris anoptera (Kunze ex Kuhn) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium anopteron Kunze ex Kuhn, Linnaea 36. 113. 1869.

Thelypteris anoptera (Kunze ex Kuhn) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 260. 1968.

Goniopteris aureola (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris aureola A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 118. f 1D-E. 1990.

Goniopteris beckeriana (F.B.Matos, A.R.Sm. & Labiak) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris beckeriana F.B.Matos, A.R.Sm. & Labiak, Brittonia 62(2): 149. f 1. 2010.

Goniopteris berlinii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris berlinii A.R.Sm., Novon 16: 431. 2006.

Goniopteris bibrachiata (Jenman) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium bibrachiatum Jenman, Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 15: 230. 1894.

Thelypteris bibrachiata (Jenman) Proctor, Ferns Jamaica 337. 1985.

Goniopteris biformata (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris biformata Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 300-301. 1909.

Thelypteris biformata (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 5. 1967.

Goniopteris blanda (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris blanda Fée, Mém. Foug. 8: 91. 1857.

Thelypteris blanda (Fée) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 264. 1968.

Goniopteris calypso (L.D.Gómez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris calypso L.D.Gómez, Brenesia 8: 98. 1976.

Goniopteris chocoensis (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris chocoensis A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 916. f 1. 1985.

Goniopteris clypeata (Maxon & C.V.Morton) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris clypeata Maxon & C.V.Morton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 52. 1939.

Thelypteris clypeata (Maxon & C.V.Morton) K.U.Kramer, Acta Bot. Neerl. 18: 141. 1969.

Goniopteris cordata (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris cordata Fée, Mém. Foug. 5 (Gen. filic.): 244. 1852.

Thelypteris cordata (Fée) Proctor, Bull. Inst. Jamaica, Sci. Ser. 5: 59. 1953.

Goniopteris costaricensis Salino & T.E.Almeida, nom. nov.

Thelypteris crenata A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 919. f 4. 1985.

This needs a new name in Goniopteris because of the prior Goniopteris crenata C. Presl, 1836.

Goniopteris crassipila (Caluff & C.Sánchez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris crassipila Caluff & C.Sánchez, Willdenowia 34: 513. 2004.

Goniopteris croatii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris croatii A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 122. f 1A-C. 1990.

Goniopteris curta (Christ) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Dryopteris curta Christ, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 7(4): 263. 1907.

Thelypteris curta (Christ) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 270. 1968.

Goniopteris dissimulans (Maxon & C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris dissimulans Maxon & C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 215. 1913.

Thelypteris dissimulans (Maxon & C.Chr.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 273. 1968.

Goniopteris equitans (Christ) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium equitans Christ, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6(2): 163. 1906.

Thelypteris equitans (Christ) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 275. 1968.

Goniopteris erythrothrix (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris erythrothrix A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 59. 1992.

Goniopteris gonophora (Weath.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris gonophora Weath., Lloydia 2: 164. f. 1(1−3). 1939.

Thelypteris gonophora (Weath.) A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 203. 1990.

Goniopteris hildae (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris hildae Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 75(2): 67. f 6. 1985.

Goniopteris holodictya (K.U.Kramer) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris holodictya K.U.Kramer, Acta Bot. Neerl. 18: 140. f. 2. 1969.

Goniopteris hondurensis (L.D.Gómez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris hondurensis L.D.Gómez, Phytologia 50(7): 458. 1982.

Goniopteris imitata (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris imitata C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 29, t. 6, f. 1-4. 1937.

Thelypteris imitata (C.Chr.) Alain, Moscosoa 3: 46. 1978.

Goniopteris indusiata (Salino) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris indusiata Salino, Phytotaxa 156(5): 280. f 1-3. 2014.

Goniopteris jamesonii (Hook.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium jamesonii Hook., Sp. fil. 4: 66. 1862.

Thelypteris jamesonii (Hook.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 6. 1967.

Goniopteris jarucoensis (Caluff & C.Sánchez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris jarucoensis Caluff & C.Sánchez, Willdenowia 34: 515. 2004.

Goniopteris killipii (A.R.Sm. & Lellinger) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris killipii A.R.Sm. & Lellinger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98(4): 923. f 7. 1985.

Goniopteris leonina (Caluff & C.Sánchez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris leonina Caluff & C.Sánchez, Willdenowia 34: 517. 2004.

Goniopteris levyi (E.Fourn.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium levyi E.Fourn., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 19: 255. 1872.

Thelypteris levyi (E.Fourn.) C.V.Morton, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 38: 37. 1967.

Goniopteris liebmannii (Maxon & C.V.Morton) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium meniscioides Liebm., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 5, 1: 211. 1849.

Dryopteris liebmannii Maxon & C.V.Morton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 65: 348. 1938.

Thelypteris meniscioides (Liebm.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17: 292. 1968.

The earliest species ephitet, meniscioides, has been used already in GoniopterisG. meniscioides Fée, a synonym of Ampelopteris prolifera (Retz.) Copel., a Paleotropical species.

Goniopteris littoralis (Salino) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris littoralis Salino, Brittonia 54(4): 332. f 1. 2002.

Goniopteris lugubriformis (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris lugubriformis Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 299. 1909.

Thelypteris lugubriformis (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69(777): 7. 1967.

Goniopteris martinezii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris martinezii A.R.Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 88: 654-655. f 308I. 2004.

Goniopteris minor (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris nicaraguensis (E.Fourn.) C.Chr. var. minor C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 252. 1913.

Thelypteris minor (C.Chr.) A.R.Sm., Phytologia 34(4): 232. 1976.

Goniopteris minutissima (Caluff & C.Sánchez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris minutissima Caluff & C.Sánchez, Willdenowia 34: 511. 2004.

Goniopteris montana (Salino) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris montana Salino, Brittonia 54(4): 334. f 2D-F. 2002.

Goniopteris multigemmifera (Salino) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris multigemmifera Salino, Brittonia 54(4): 336. f 3. 2002.

Goniopteris munchii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris munchii A.R.Sm., Amer. Fern J. 63(3): 120. f 9-10. 1973.

Goniopteris nicaraguensis (E.Fourn.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris nicaraguensis E.Fourn., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 19: 252. 1872.

Thelypteris nicaraguensis (E.Fourn.) C.V.Morton, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 38(2): 55. 1967.

Goniopteris nigricans (Ekman & C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris nigricans Ekman & C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 31, t. 7, f. 1-2. 1937.

Goniopteris oroniensis (L.D.Gómez) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris oroniensis L.D.Gómez, Amer. Fern J. 68(1): 9. f 1. 1978.

Goniopteris paranaensis (Salino) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris paranaensis Salino, Brittonia 54(4): 337. F 2A-C. 2002.

Goniopteris paucijuga (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Aspidium paucijugum Klotzsch, Linnaea 20: 368. 1847.

Thelypteris paucijuga (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 59: 98. 1971

Goniopteris paucipinnata (Donn.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium fendleri D.C.Eaton var. paucipinnatum Donn.Sm., Bot. Gaz. 12: 134. 1887.

Thelypteris paucipinnata (Donn.Sm.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 302. 1968.

Goniopteris pellita (Willd.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Aspidium pellitum Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4. 5: 242. 1810.

Thelypteris pellita (Willd.) Proctor & Lourteig, Bradea 5(40): 384. 1990.

Goniopteris peripae (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium peripae Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 52. 1883.

Thelypteris peripae (Sodiro) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 303. 1968.

Goniopteris pilonensis (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris pilonensis A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 58. 2008.

Goniopteris pinnatifida (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris pinnatifida A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 110. 1983.

Goniopteris praetermissa (Maxon) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris praetermissa Maxon, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 57: 20. 1944.

Thelypteris praetermissa (Maxon) A.R.Sm., Phytologia 34(3): 232. 1976.

Goniopteris redunca (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris redunca A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 123. f 1F-H. 1990.

Goniopteris resiliens (Maxon) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris resiliens Maxon, Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 17: 302. 1938.

Thelypteris resiliens (Maxon) A.R.Sm., Amer. Fern J. 63(3): 121. 1973.

Goniopteris retroflexa (L.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium retroflexum L., Sp. Pl. 1089. 1753.

Thelypteris retroflexa (L.) Proctor & Lourteig, Bradea 5(40): 385. 1990.

Goniopteris rhachiflexuosa (Riba) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris rhachiflexuosa Riba, Amer. Fern J. 79(3): 122. f 1. 1989.

Goniopteris ×rolandii (C.Chr.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Dryopteris ×rolandii C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 258. 1913.

Thelypteris ×rolandii (C.Chr.) R.M.Tryon, Rhodora 69: 8. 1967.

Goniopteris sapechoana (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris sapechoana A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 60. 2008.

Goniopteris schaffneri (Fée) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium schaffneri Fée, Mém. Foug. 8: 108. 1857.

Thelypteris schaffneri (Fée) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 312. 1968.

Goniopteris schippii (Weath.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris schippii Weath., Amer. Fern J. 25: 52. 1935.

Thelypteris schippii (Weath.) A.R.Sm., Phytologia 34(3): 233. 1976.

Goniopteris schomburgkii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris schomburgkii A.R.Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77(1): 202. f 1. 1990.

Goniopteris schunkei (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris schunkei A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 63. 1992.

Goniopteris semihastata (Kunze) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium semihastatum Kunze, Linnaea 9: 91. 1834.

Thelypteris semihastata (Kunze) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 254. 1941.

Goniopteris semirii (Salino & L.C.N.Melo) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris semirii Salino & L.C.N.Melo, Novon 10(1): 74. f 1A-e. 2000.

Goniopteris septemjuga (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris septemjuga C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 32, t. 7, f. 4-5. 1937.

Goniopteris skinneri (Hook.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium skinneri Hook., Icon. Pl. 10: t. 924. 1854.

Thelypteris skinneri (Hook.) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 17(4): 314. 1968

Goniopteris stephanii (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris stephanii A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 61. 2008.

Goniopteris stolzeana (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris stolzeana A.R.Sm., Phytologia 34(3): 231. 1976.

Goniopteris subsagittata (Maxon & C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris subsagittata Maxon & C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 28, t. 6, f. 5–6. 1937.

Goniopteris tenebrica (Jenman) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium tenebricum Jenman, J. Bot. 20: 326. 1882.

Thelypteris tenebrica (Jenman) Proctor, Bull. Inst. Jamaica, Sci. Ser. 5: 65. 1953.

Goniopteris tryoniorum (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris tryoniorum A.R.Sm., Fieldiana, Bot., n.s., 29: 62. 1992.

Goniopteris tuxtlensis (T.Krömer, Acebey & A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris tuxtlensis T.Krömer, Acebey & A.R.Sm., Amer. Fern J. 97(3): 137–139. 2007.

Goniopteris urbani (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium urbani Sodiro, Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 301. 1893.

Thelypteris urbani (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Fl. Ecuador 18: 116. 1983

Goniopteris verecunda (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris verecunda Proctor, Amer. Fern J. 75(2): 65. f 5. 1985.

Goniopteris yaucoensis (Proctor) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris yaucoensis Proctor, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 53: 208. 1989.

New combinations in Steiropteris

Steiropteris subg. Glaphyropteris (Fée) A.R.Sm., comb. et stat. nov.

Glaphyropteris C.Presl ex Fée, Crypt. Vasc. Brésil, 2. 40. 1873.

Dryopteris subg. Glaphyropteris (C.Presl. ex Fée) C.Chr., Biol. Arb. Til. Eug. Warming 80. 1911.

Thelypteris subg. Glaphyropteris (C.Presl. ex Fée), Alston, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48: 234. 1958.

Steiropteris buchtienii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris buchtienii A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 10. 1980.

Steiropteris clypeolutata (Desv.) Pic.Serm. var. holmei (Baker) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Nephrodium holmei Baker, Ann. Bot. 5: 317. 1891.

Thelypteris clypeolutata (Desv.) Proctor var. holmei (Baker) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 11. 1980.

Steiropteris comosa (C.V.Morton) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris comosa C.V.Morton, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28: 528. 1938.

Thelypteris comosa (C.V.Morton) C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 51(1): 38. 1961.

Steiropteris decussata (L.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Polypodium decussatum L., Species Plantarum 2: 1093. 1753.

Thelypteris decussata (L.) Proctor, Bull. Inst. Jamaica, Sci. Ser. 5: 59. 1953.

Steiropteris decussata (L.) A.R.Sm. var. brasiliensis (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris decussata var. brasiliensis C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 161. 1913.

Thelypteris decussata var. brasiliensis (C.Chr.) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 15. 1980.

Steiropteris decussata var. costaricensis (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris decussata var. costaricensis A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 16. 1980.

Steiropteris decussata var. mapiriensis (Rosenst.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris mapiriensis Rosenst., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 6: 313. 1909.

Thelypteris decussata var. mapiriensis (Rosenst.) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 16. 1980.

Steiropteris decussata var. velutina (Sodiro) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium velutinum Sodiro, Recens. Crypt. Vasc. Quit. 59. 1883.

Thelypteris decussata var. velutina (Sodiro) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 17. 1980.

Steiropteris fraseri (Mett. ex Kuhn) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Aspidium fraseri Mett. ex Kuhn, Linnaea 36: 109. 1869.

Thelypteris fraseri (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 32. 1980.

Steiropteris glandulosa (Desv.) Pic.Serm. var. brachyodus (Kunze) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Polypodium brachyodus Kunze, Linnaea 9: 48. 1834.

Thelypteris glandulosa var. brachyodus (Kunze) A.R.Sm., Phytologia 34: 233. 1976.

Steiropteris glandulosa (Desv.) Pic.Serm. var. longipilosa (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris glandulosa (Desv.) Proctor var. longipilosa A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 22. 1980.

Steiropteris hatschbachii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris hatschbachii A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 22. 1980.

Steiropteris hottensis (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris hottensis C.Chr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsacad. Handl., ser. 3, 16(2): 26. t 2(4-6). 1937.

Thelypteris hottensis (C.Chr.) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 23. 1980.

Steiropteris leprieurii (Hook.) Pic.Serm. var. costalis (Baker) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Nephrodium costale Baker, Syn Fil, 2. 495.1874.

Thelypteris leprieurii (Hook.) R.M.Tryon var. costalis (Baker) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 25. 1980.

Steiropteris leprieurii (Hook.) Pic.Serm. var. glandifera (A.R.Sm) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris leprieurii (Hook.) R.M.Tryon var. glandifera A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 25. 1980.

Steiropteris leprieurii (Hook.) Pic.Serm. var. incana (Christ) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Aspidium incanum Christ, Hedwigia 44: 367. 1905.

Thelypteris leprieurii (Hook.) R.M.Tryon var. incana (Christ) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 26. 1980.

Steiropteris leprieurii (Hook.) Pic.Serm. var. subcostalis (A.R.Sm.) A.R.Sm., comb. nov.

Thelypteris leprieurii (Hook.) R.M.Tryon var. subcostalis A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 26. 1980.

Steiropteris mexiae (C.Chr. ex Copel.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris mexiae C.Chr. ex Copel., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot., 17: 32. 1932.

Thelypteris mexiae (C.Chr. ex Copel.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 10: 252. 1941.

Steiropteris parva (A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris parva A.R.Sm. & M.Kessler, Brittonia 60(1): 57. 2008.

Steiropteris pennellii (A.R.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Thelypteris pennellii A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 28. 1980.

Steiropteris polyphlebia (C.Chr.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Dryopteris polyphlebia C.Chr., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Naturvidensk. Math. Afd., ser. 7, 10: 161. 1913.

Thelypteris polyphlebia (C.Chr.) C.V.Morton, Amer. Fern J. 51(1): 38. 1961.

Steiropteris polypodioides (Raddi) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Ceterach polypodioides Raddi, Opusc. Sci. 3: 284. 1819.

Thelypteris polypodioides (Raddi) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 7: 305. 1968.

Steiropteris seemannii (J.Sm.) Salino & T.E.Almeida, comb. nov.

Phegopteris seemannii J.Sm., in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald. 228. 1854.

Thelypteris seemannii (J.Sm.) A.R.Sm., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 76: 30. 1980.

Gymnogramma villosa Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 51. 1833.

Thelypteris villosa (Link) C.F.Reed, Phytologia 7: 323. 1968.

Acknowledgments

We thank the curators and the staff of the following herbaria: B, BHCB, BM, COL, F, GH, HUA, K, MO, NY, P, PMA, PR, PRC, QCA, QCNE, QPLS, S, UC, and US. Thanks also to CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for productivity grants and financial support to A. Salino, and to Fapemig (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais) for financial support and grants. We thank the two reviewers for helpful comments.

References

  • Almeida TE, Hennequin S, Schneider H, Smith AR, Batista JAN, Ramalho AJ, Proite K, Salino A (2015) Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution.
  • Brade AC (1972) O gênero Dryopteris (Pteridophyta) no Brasil e sua divisão taxonômica. Bradea 1: 191−261.
  • Christenhusz MJM, Zhang XC, Schneider H (2011) A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7−54.
  • Ching RC (1978) The Chinese fern families and genera: systematic arrangement and historical origin. Acta Botanica Sinica 16(3): 1–37.
  • Christensen C (1907) The American species of Dryopteris of the group of Dryopteris opposita. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selksabs Skrifter, Naturdidenskabeliger og Mathematisk Afdeling, ser. 7, 4: 248–336.
  • Christensen C (1913) A monograph of the genus Dryopteris. Part I. The tropical American pinnatifid-bipinnatifid species. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk Afdeling, ser. 7, 10: 55−282.
  • Christensen C (1920) A monograph of the genus Dryopteris. Part II. The tropical American bipinnate-decompound species. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Naturvidenskabelige og Mathematiske Afdeling, ser. 8, 6: 9−130.
  • Copeland EB (1947) Genera Filicum. Annales Cryptogamici et Phytopathologici 5: 1–247.
  • Fernandes RS, Yesilyurt JC, Salino A (2014) New species and combinations in Meniscium (Thelypteridaceae). Phytotaxa 184: 01–011. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.184.1.1
  • He LJ, Zhang XC (2012) Exploring generic delimitations within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757−764. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.021
  • Holttum RE (1971) Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae III. A new system of genera in the Old World. Blumea 19: 2−52.
  • Holttum RE (1974) Thelypteridaceae of Africa and adjacent islands. Journal of South African Botany 40: 123–168.
  • Holttum RE (1982) Thelypteridaceae. In: Flora Malesiana, ser. II. Pteridophyta 1(5): 331–560. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
  • Matos FB, Smith AR, Labiak PH (2010) A new sepcies of Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from southern Bahia, Brazil. Brittonia 62: 149–152. doi: 10.1007/s12228-009-9121-9
  • Mazumdar J, Mukhopadhyay R (2013) Nomenclatural notes on some members of Thelypteridaceae. II. Bionature 33: 13−34.
  • Mazumdar J (2015) “(2343) Proposal to conserve the name Cyclosorus against Meniscium (Thelypteridaceae). Taxon 64(1): 170–170. doi: 10.12705/641.9
  • Mickel JT, Beitel JM (1988) Pteridophyte flora of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 46: 1–568.
  • Mickel JT, Smith AR (2004) The pteridophytes of Mexico. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 88: 1–1054.
  • Morton CV (1969) The classification of Thelypteris. American Fern Journal 53: 149–154. doi: 10.2307/1546152
  • Pichi Sermolli REG (1977) Tentamen pteridophytorum genera in taxonomicum ordinem redigendi. Webbia 31: 315−512. doi: 10.1080/00837792.1977.10670077
  • Ponce M (1987) Revisión de las Thelypteridaceae (Pteridophyta) argentinas. Darwiniana 28: 317−390.
  • Proctor GR (1977) Pteridophyta. In: Howard RA (Ed.) Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University.
  • Proctor GR (1985) Ferns of Jamaica: a Guide to the Pteridophytes. British Museum (Natural History), London, 631 pp.
  • Proctor GR (1989) Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 53: 1–389.
  • Salino A, Almeida TE (2010) Thelypteridaceae. In: Forzza RC, Baumgratz JFA, Bicudo CE de M, Canhos D, Carvalho Jr. AA, Costa A, Costa DP, Hopkins M, Leitman PM, Lohmann LG, Lughadha EN, Maia LC, Martinelli G, Menezes M, Morim MP, Nadruz M, Peixoto AL, Pirani JR, Prado J (Org) Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 562−566.
  • Salino A, Fernandes RS, Pietrobom MR (2011) Thelypteris amazonica sp. nov. (Thelypteridaceae) from Amazonian Brazil. Nordic Journal of Botany 29: 1–4. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01332.x
  • Salino A, Melo LCN (2000) A new species of the fern genus Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from Southeastern Brazil. Novon 10: 74−77. doi: 10.2307/3393190
  • Salino A, Semir J (2002) Thelypteridaceae (Polypodiophyta) do Estado de São Paulo: Macrothelypteris e Thelypteris subgêneros Cyclosorus e Steiropteris. Lundiana 3: 9−27.
  • Salino A, Semir J (2003) Notas sobre duas espécies de Thelypteris Schmidel (ThelypteridaceaePterophyta) do Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 17: 515−521. doi: 10.1590/s0102-33062003000400004
  • Salino A, Semir J (2004) Thelypteris subg. Amauropelta (Kunze) A.R. Sm. (ThelypteridaceaePteridophyta) no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Lundiana 5: 83−112.
  • Salino A, Souza MGM, Arruda AJ (2014) Thelypteris indusiata (Thelypteridaceae), a new fern species from Amazonian Brazil. Phytotaxa 156: 279−284. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.156.5.3
  • Sánchez C, Calluff MG, Regalado L (2006) Flora de la República de Cuba: Thelypteridaceae. Serie A. Plantas Vasculares, Fascículo 11(13): 1–124.
  • Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM (2007) Fern phylogeny inferred from 400 leptosporangiate species and three plastid genes. Taxon 56: 1037−1050. doi: 10.2307/25065903
  • Sehnem A (1979) Aspidiáceas. In: Reitz R (Ed.) Flora Ilustrada Catarinense. Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues, Itajaí, 1–356.
  • Smith AR (1980) Taxonomy of Thelypteris subgenus Steiropteris including Glaphyropteris (Pteridophyta). University of California Publications in Botany 76: 1−39.
  • Schreber JCD (1791) Meniscium. In: Linnaeus C (Ed.) Genera Plantarum. Vol II. 8 Ed. 757.
  • Smith AR (1981a) Flora of Chiapas. Part 2. Pteridophytes. California Academy of Science, San Francisco, 370 pp.
  • Smith AR (1981b) The genus Thelypteris. In: Stolze RG (Ed.) Fern and fern allies of Guatemala. Part II. Polypodiaceae. Fieldiana, Botany, new series, 6: 473−514.
  • Smith AR (1983) PolypodiaceaeThelypteridoideae. In: Harling G, Sparre B (Eds) Flora of Ecuador. Swedish Research Councils, Stockholm, 18−148.
  • Smith AR (1988) Thelypteris. In: Mickel JT, Beitel JM (Eds) Pteridophyte flora of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 46: 361−388.
  • Smith AR (1990a) Thelypteridaceae. In: Kramer KU, Green PS (Eds) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 263−272. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-02604-5_45
  • Smith AR (1990b) New Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from Central America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77: 118−124. doi: 10.2307/2399631
  • Smith AR (1992) Thelypteridaceae. In: Tryon RM, Stolze RG (Eds) Pteridophyta of Peru. Part III. Fieldiana, Botany, new series, 29: 1−80.
  • Smith AR (1993) Thelypteridaceae. In: Görts-Van Rijn ARA (Ed.) Flora of the Guianas. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, 77−126.
  • Smith AR (1995a) Thelypteridaceae. In: Davidse G (Ed.) Flora Mesoamericana. Psilotaceae a Salviniaceae. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., 164−195.
  • Smith AR (1995b) Thelypteridaceae. In: Berry PE, Holst BK, Yatskievych K (Eds) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana − Pteridophytes and Spermatophytes (Acanthaceae-Araceae). Missouri Botanical Garden & Timber Press, Portland, 325−326.
  • Smith AR, Kessler M (2008) Sixteen new species of Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from Bolivia. Brittonia 60: 49−62. doi: 10.1007/s12228-008-9003-6
  • Smith AR, Lellinger DB (1985) New tropical American species of Thelypteris (Pteridophyta). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 98: 916−930.
  • Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55: 705−731. doi: 10.2307/25065646
  • Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2008) Fern classification. In: Ranker TA, Haufler CH (Eds) Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 417−467. doi: 10.1017/cbo9780511541827.017
  • Tryon RM, Tryon AF (1982) Fern and Allied Plants, with Special Reference to Tropical America. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1−857. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-8162-4_1
  • Vareschi V (1969) Helechos. In: Lasser T (Ed.) Flora de Venezuela. Instituto Botánico, Caracas, 473−1033.