Research Article
Research Article
Checklist of vascular plants of Klang Gates Quartz Ridge, Malaysia, a 14-km long quartz dyke
expand article infoRuth Kiew, Lim Chung-Lu
‡ Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Malaysia
Open Access


The Klang Gates Quartz Ridge (KGQR) is proposed for protection as National Heritage and as a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its spectacular size, exceptional beauty and significant biodiversity. The checklist of vascular plants documents 314 species that comprise a unique combination that grows on lowland quartz and that is distinct from the surrounding lowland equatorial rain forest by the absence of orchids, palms, gingers and tree canopy families. The Rubiaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Apocynaceae, Melastomataceae and Polypodiaceae are the most speciose families. The summit vegetation at 200–400 m elevation is dominated by Baeckea frutescens (Myrtaceae) and Rhodoleia championii (Hamamelidaceae) and shows similarities to the plant community on rocky mountain peaks above 1500 m. About 11% of its species are endemic in Peninsular Malaysia and four are endemic to KGQR: Aleisanthia rupestris (Rubiaceae), Codonoboea primulina (Gesneriaceae), Spermacoce pilulifera (Rubiaceae), and Ilex praetermissa (Aquifoliaceae). All four are provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered. Two, Eulalia milsumi (Gramineae) and Sonerila prostrata (Melastomataceae), are endemic to KGQR and a few neighbouring smaller quartz dykes. They are assessed as Endangered. The KGQR is a fragile habitat and conservation management is urgently required to halt the spread of the aggressive alien grass, Pennisetum polystachion and to prevent further habitat degradation from visitors. Based on KGQR being a threatened habitat, its biodiverse flora, and endangered species, it qualifies as an Important Plant Area.


Alien species, endangered species, endemic species, flora, Important Plant Area, quartz dyke, Selangor, UNESCO World Heritage Site


The Klang Gates Quartz Ridge (KGQR), renamed Gombak Selangor Quartz Ridge (Mohd.-Zainuddin 2015), is a 14 km-long quartz dyke (3.12N, 101.42E to 3.15N, 101.48E) 12 km northeast of Kuala Lumpur in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Rising to about 400 m, it dominates the skyline north of Kuala Lumpur and is believed to be the longest exposed quartz dyke in the world. Running from east to west, it is flanked to the north by the Hulu Gombak Forest Reserve Extensions and the Klang Gates Dam, a large reservoir covering 207 ha that supplies water to the capital, Kuala Lumpur. To the south, it is increasingly exposed to human disturbance.

Composed of pure quartz, the dyke was exposed as the surrounding granite material weathered away revealing sheer pale grey or white vertical cliffs rising above the surrounding vegetation. Though about 200 m wide at the base, in places the summit ridge is a knife edge only a metre or so wide with precipitous drops on either side. Jagged like a dragon’s spine, it is dissected by vertical faults giving it the appearance of limestone karst, so it has been termed a pseudo-karst formation. It is pierced by three rivers that flow through narrow gullies. The pure quartz weathers to coarse sand that is very nutrient poor, has poor water retention, and has crumbled to form a steep base of colluvium with 30–35° and in places up to 60° slopes.

Adaptation to the extremely poor nutrient status and water retention has resulted in a distinctive flora with a unique assemblage of plants that includes several rare and/or endemic species restricted to the KGQR. It is markedly different from the surrounding tropical lowland rain forest not only in species composition, but also in physiognomy (with sparse stunted trees), complexity (not multi-layered and without the epiphyte flora) and lower species diversity (Saw 2010).

Its striking topography and unique flora have long attracted botanists. The first botanical collections were made by H.N. Ridley, who made three visits in 1908, 1916 and 1921 that mainly concentrated on the summit ridge flora. He wrote the first account of the flora (Ridley 1922a), describing ten new species. Henderson (1928) produced the first comprehensive listing of plants from the KGQR included in his checklist of the flowering plants of Kuala Lumpur. It was based on collections made by Forestry Department staff, in particular by Mohd Hashim in 1908, and by H.L. Hume, employed by the Federated Malay States Museum, in 1921, who discovered the new species, Hydnocarpus humei, that was named in his honour. Subsequently, the herbarium collection of the Federated Malay States Museum was loaned indefinitely to the Singapore Botanic Gardens Herbarium (Henderson 1928). Henderson’s listing of 265 species provided the most complete inventory of the vegetation on the steep slopes that were still forested in those days. Unfortunately, Henderson did not cite specimens. Later significant collections were made by staff of the Forest Research Institute Malaysia, principally by E.J. Strugnell in 1927 and C.F. Symington in 1933, 1935 and 1939. After a long hiatus, Kiew (1978) described a new species, Ilex praetermissa, she had discovered and produced the third account of the flora (Kiew 1982) based on her collections made between 1977–1982 and included for the first time a checklist of ferns collected by B. Molesworth-Allen and A.G. Piggott, who recorded Syngramma dayi, a fern restricted to quartz habitats.

Effect of Human Activities on the Flora of KGQR

Being so close to the capital Kuala Lumpur, it has suffered disturbance from agricultural activities, urbanisation, visitor pressure, and the invasion of alien weeds. All these activities threaten the continued existence of its flora and species of conservation importance. On the Kuala Lumpur side, encroachment from housing and road building threatens. The north side is protected by the Hulu Gombak Forest Reserve Extensions and the Klang Gates Dam.

Agricultural activities were a particular problem in the 1970s and 1980s (Kiew 1982; Perumal 1992) when there was widespread clearing of sections of the steep base on the south side to plant bananas and pineapple. Clearing the land by burning the vegetation got out of control and the 5 m-tall Baeckea frutescens trees were burned to the ground together with thick festoons up to half a metre long of the old man’s beard lichen, Usnea sp. Fortunately, B. frutescens regenerated from seed and suckers but after 30 years the old man’s beard lichen has not re-established (Kiew pers. obs.). Rhodoleia championii (Figure 1) survived the fires with only its leaves being scorched, but in contrast the sappy Fagraea auriculata was totally destroyed. Due to the nutrient-poor soil, these agricultural activities failed and the area was quickly invaded by weeds of which the most damaging was the grass Imperata cylindrica, a fire hazard because it becomes tinder-dry in dry weather and fuelled fires on the lower slopes.

Figure 1. 

Rhodoleia championii, one of the dominant tree species on the summit.

The impact of urbanisation began with the building of a bungalow in 1883 on the top of the ridge above the gully through which the Klang River flows. Between 1893 and 1895 this gully was dammed to form a reservoir (Barlow 1995). By 1926, the bungalow had become derelict and today any sign of it has almost disappeared, although a few garden plants still persist with the patch of the native Eriachne pallescens grass indicating where the bungalow once stood (Kiew 1982). In the 1950s a quarry was established at the western end to utilise the quartz for glass making. It had only a very local impact and was discontinued due to lack of commercial viability. The expanding population of Kuala Lumpur required a greater water supply that resulted in enlargement of the Klang Gates Dam to its present size. This caused some local damage. Housing developments continue to creep ever closer to the KGQR. The major Kuala Lumpur-Karak Highway cuts through the western end. In 2016, a major highway development, the Eastern Klang Valley Expressway, threatened its integrity but due to public protest was re-routed away from the KGQR.

The KGQR’s easy accessibility and proximity to Kuala Lumpur has long encouraged rock climbers and hikers who are rewarded by a panoramic view of the Kuala Lumpur skyline in one direction and the reservoir lake and virgin rain forest in the other (Figure 2). Unfortunately, increasing visitor pressure has its negative effects including cutting down trees for camp fires (Perumal 1992). In the 1980s it was still possible to see quartz crystals 7–10 cm long, but these have long since been taken by visitors. Notable too is the disappearance from easily accessible places of Eurycoma longifolia, formerly a striking plant on the summit (Kiew 1982). Local Malays believe it to be a powerful aphrodisiac. The spider orchid, Renanthera sp., reported by Adams (1953) is also long gone. Both are the prey of opportunistic collecting by visitors. However, they may persist on inaccessible peaks.

Figure 2. 

View of the eastern ridge of Klang Gates Quartz Ridge from summit of western ridge, the summit (foreground) dominated by 2–3 m tall Baeckea frutescens.

The natural open nature of the KGQR flora makes it vulnerable to invasion by weeds. Formally, it was an island surrounded by rain forest that acted as a buffer against weed dispersal. Now this has gone from the southern side, so the KGQR is open to invasion by any weed that can withstand harsh conditions for plant growth. The agricultural activities mentioned above led to a great increase in the number of weed species recorded from the KGQR (Kiew 1982). After the initial invasion by Imperata cylindrica, by the 1990s Wong et al. (2010) reported that the aggressive fern Dicranopteris linearis covered large areas, the composite Chromolaena odorata, the shrub Clidemia hirta, the secondary forest tree Cyrtophyllum fragrans and a variety of grasses were already established.

In 1936, 130 ha of the KGQR were gazetted as the Klang Gates Wildlife Reserve to protect all wildlife and in particular the serow, Capricornis sumatraensis, a totally protected animal in Malaysia (Perumal 1992). Over the years, KGQR has been proposed to be designated as a National Nature Monument (in 1974 by the Malaysian Nature Society in the Blueprint for Conservation in Peninsular Malaysia) and to be included in the Selangor Heritage Park (Wong et al. 2010). The Hulu Gombak Forest Reserve Extensions were given enhanced protection when upgraded to Permanent Reserved Forest Status and from 2007 the KGQR lies within the Selangor State Park. In June 2015, the Selangor Town and Country Planning Department (JPBD) renamed the KGQR the Gombak Selangor Quartz Ridge and committed to protect it as National Heritage and to get it declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the grounds that it is a world-class geological phenomenon being the longest exposed quartz dyke in the world, as well as for its spectacular size, exceptional beauty, and its importance as a significant natural habitat for in situ conservation of biodiversity. It is currently on the Tentative List of World Heritage Sites.

In anticipation of the KGQR becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site, this account aims to make available essential baseline data on the unique assemblage of plants that make up its flora by providing:

• a complete checklist of vascular plant species

• details of the endemic and rare species of conservation importance

• a complete bibliography for the botany of the KGQR.

Materials and methods

Accessibility and proximity to Kuala Lumpur means that many botanists have from time to time collected plants there so its flora can be said to be well-collected. This has meant that it has been possible to build the checklist using herbarium specimen data from the herbaria at KEP, KLU and SING that hold the majority of KGQR collections. Herbarium codes follow Index Herbariorum at Herbarium specimens provide a permanent record and, should there be questions about a species’ identity, they can be verified at any time in the future by reference to the specimen. An example of the importance of making herbarium specimens is illustrated by the case of Hoya mappigera, a species only described in 2011 but that had been collected from the KGQR in 1962 (Sinclair 10730) under the name Hoya campanulata.

The database software Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System (BRAHMS) in the National Herbarium of Malaysia (KEP) at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, enabled records to be extracted from its extensive holding. Not included are exotic weeds, invasive species or plants from the surrounding lowland rain forest.

For cases where species are recorded from KGQR in the literature but specimens were not cited, for instance Henderson (1928), Molesworth-Allen (1963) and Piggott (Kiew 1982), the literature source is cited in the checklist.


The checklist compiled in this study contains 314 species of vascular plants in 233 genera and 105 families (Table 1, Appendix I). The most speciose families are Rubiaceae (32 species), Gramineae (15), Moraceae (14), Apocynaceae (11), Melastomataceae (10) and Polypodiaceae (10). Genera with five or more species include: Ficus (11 species), Hedyotis (5) and Ixora (5). About 11% (36 species) are endemic in Peninsular Malaysia. Percentage endemism is lower than the national average of about 25% for tree species (Saw 2010). Four species are endemic to KGQR and a further two endemic to KGQR and several neighbouring smaller quartz dykes.

Table 1.

Families, genera and species of vascular plants of Klang Gates Quartz Ridge.

Group Families Genera Species
Lycophytes 1 1 2
Ferns 16 24 36
Gymnosperms 1 1 1
Flowering plants 87 207 275
Total 105 233 314

In the checklist, four species proved to be endemic to KGQR, namely Aleisanthia rupestris, Codonoboea primulina, Ilex praetermissa and Spermacoce pilulifera (Figure 3). Following the IUCN criteria and categories (2001), these four species are all provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered under criteria CR B2ab(iii,iv) on the grounds that they are endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, where they are restricted to one locality that although it lies within the Selangor State Park is threatened by habitat degradation from visitor pressure and from invasive species. A further two species, Eulalia milsumi and Sonerila prostrata, endemic to KGQR and a few nearby smaller quartz dykes in the Gombak Valley, are provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered under criteria EN B2ab (iii, iv) on the grounds that they are endemic species, restricted to two to four quartz dykes that, although they lie within the Selangor State Park, are vulnerable to habitat degradation. Other species of conservation importance include Syngramma dayi, endemic in quartz habitats in Perak and Selangor, and a few species that are extremely rare: Hydnocarpus humei is known from one other collection from Larut, Perak; Hoya mappigera is known from one other collection from Lumut, Perak, and another from Thailand. Further, the specimen of Galearia fulva that Ridley described as G. lancifolia is strikingly different from the typical form in having extremely narrow leaves and may prove to be a distinct taxon.

Figure 3. 

Endemic species in Klang Gates Quartz Ridge: Eulalia milsumi (left) and Aleisanthia rupestris.



Without a doubt, it is the summit flora that is of greatest botanical interest for its unique combination of species. Baeckea frutescens and Rhodoleia championii are the dominant tree species, while shrubs include Austrobuxus nitidus and Vaccinium bancanum and several epiphytic species, for instance Fagraea auriculata, Ficus deltoidea var. angustifolia and Rhododendron longiflorum, that here grow directly on the quartz rocks. The ground layer is sparse with mats of the white moss Leucobryum aduncum covering the thin peat layer. The endemic grass Eulalia milsumi forms sparse tussocks in soil-filled cracks and crannies. Aleisanthia rupestris as its name suggests grows in crevices on the sheer cliff faces in full sun. In contrast, Ilex praetermissa grows in forest on steep slopes in partial shade where there is an accumulation of peat. The gorges that pierce the ridge present a completely different cool, humid, shaded environment where lush herbs, for instance Begonia sinuata, Codonoboea primulina and gingers, can thrive.

Comparison with other plant communities

Notable in the checklist is the absence or poor representation of trees typical of the canopy of lowland equatorial rain forest (Saw 2010), such as the Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Guttiferae, Leguminosae, Myristicaceae, and Myrtaceae, and families like Orchidaceae, Palmae and Zingiberaceae. While it is obvious that the harsh exposed conditions and scanty soil act as a filter that excludes the majority of trees, shrubs and herbs that are typical of equatorial rain forest, it is notable that this lowland quartzite flora at 200–400 m elevation has much in common with the plant community of upper montane forest that grows above 1500 m on mountain peaks with peat that develops on weathered granitic soils (Reid 1951). In fact, Ridley (1922b) first drew attention to this phenomenon noting that KGQR included a “small but quite peculiar flora consisting of several endemic species with several only known from much higher altitudes in our mountains”. Species that illustrate this striking disjunct altitudinal distribution include Austrobuxus nitidus, Baeckea frutescens, Dipteris conjugata, Oleandra neriiformis, Rhodoleia championii and Vaccinium bancanum. Further, Whitmore (1984) drew attention to a few of these species, Austrobuxus nitidus and Baeckea frutescens, that also grow in lowland heath forest that also has base-poor, often sandy soil topped by a peat layer.

It might be expected that the quartzite flora would share similarities with the limestone flora that also grows on a rocky, free-draining substrate with poor soil development. However, comparison with the flora of Batu Caves with 269 species (Kiew 2014), a karst hill just 7 km from the KGQR, shows that in fact they share very little in common with just five species that grow in both localities, namely, Alstonia scholaris (a secondary forest species), Pogonanthera pulverulenta (an epiphyte that grows on trees, not on the rock substrate), Microsorum membranifolium (a lithophyte), and the figs, Ficus hispida and F. punctata. Even at the family level, the differences are very pronounced. At Batu Caves, Orchidaceae is the most speciose family with 23 species contrasting with just two orchid species on KGQR; while speciose families on KGQR, Rubiaceae (32 species), Gramineae (15 species), Melastomaceae (10 species), Polypodiaceae (10 species) and are represented by 13, 0, 1 and 2 species, respectively, on Batu Caves.

Changes in the flora

The repeated burning of a large section of the southern face has resulted in long-term detrimental consequences. The steep slope is still covered by secondary vegetation among which the aggressive fern Dicranopteris linearis smothers competing vegetation. Many of the trees recorded by Henderson (1928) have not been recollected for more than 50 years, though they might still persist on the undisturbed northern side. Sonerila prostrata and Spermacoce pilulifera have not been re-collected for more than 35 years.

Among the site endemic species, Ilex praetermissa populations are now found only on the northern side suggesting that they are unable to disperse and become established in secondary vegetation on the southern side. This species is critically endangered having an extremely small population size and, in addition, it is a dioecious species (Kiew 1983). Wong et al. (2010) counted only 20 Ilex plants on a 250 m transect.

The endemic grass, Eulalia milsumi, is also seriously threatened by disturbance. Although reasonably common in less disturbed habitats, Wong et al. (2010) discovered that its population is highly sensitive to disturbance by aggressive smothering by weeds like Dicranopteris linearis and that it was significantly less frequent in disturbed areas. In addition, recently it is particularly threatened by the large, tussock forming alien grass, Pennisetum polystachion, first reported from KGQR by Yao (2007), but is now widespread (Kiew 2009; Lim and Yao 2010).

Fortunately, Aleisanthia rupestris appears to be less influenced by disturbance (Wong et al. 2010) probably because it grows in such exacting conditions in full sun on vertical rock faces rooted in tiny cracks and crevices where even weeds are unable to gain a toe-hold.

The very small population of Codonoboea primulina of less than 150 individuals that grows in an extremely small area measuring about 50 m2 (Kiew 1983), is most at risk from botanical collectors, even though there is no need for repeated collecting because it is already represented in most major herbaria in the world.


The proposal by the Selangor Town and Country Planning Department to protect the KGQR under the National Heritage Act 2005 (Act 645) status is long overdue. Globally, it is indeed unique for a combination of its great size, the tall exposed quartz dyke with its pseudo-karst morphology, and its unique assemblage of plant species that includes endemic and rare plants. It meets all three criteria for being designated an Important Plant Area (Anderson 2002). The quartz dyke is a fragile, threatened habitat vulnerable to visitor pressure and invasive plant species, it harbours a unique biodiverse flora quite unlike that of either lowland forest or the limestone hill flora and of its 314 species 11% are endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, among which four are provisionally assessed as Critically Endangered and two as Endangered. Management of the dyke not only needs to control visitor access (Mohd.-Zainuddin 2015) but also to manage the invasion of aggressive weed species, most notably the Dicranopteris linearis thickets and to weed out Pennisetum polystachion by hand before it irreversibly impacts on the native flora.


This study was supported by Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (currently Universiti Putra Malaysia), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, and the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia Project, the latter funded by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation under Project No. 01-04-01-000 Khas 2 entitled ‘Safeguarding the Forest Plant Diversity of Peninsular Malaysia’. We thank the Curators of the National Herbarium of Malaysia (KEP) and the Singapore Botanic Gardens Herbarium (SING) for permission to study specimens and databases in their care. Special thanks go to S. Anthonysamy for his excellent support in the field, to T.L. Yao for going through the checklist and to Mdm Saripah Barom for help with accessing the BRAHMS database.


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Appendix I

Checklist of vascular plant species collected from the Klang Gates Quartz Ridge, Selangor, Malaysia.

(Endemism: E – endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, EE – endemic in KGQR, E? – possibly endemic in Peninsular Malaysia).

Family classification follows the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia for ferns (Parris 2010) and flowering plants (Kiew et al. 2010).

Where details of herbarium specimens are not available, the literature source is provided, namely Henderson (1928), Molesworth-Allen (1963) and Piggott in Kiew (1982).



E Selaginella strigosa Bedd.

Sinclair SFN 40140

Selaginella stipulata (Blume) Spring




Haplopteris ensiformis (Sw.) E.H.Crane


Haplopteris scolopendrina (Bory) C.Presl



Asplenium affine Sw.

Syahida FRI 55109

Asplenium nitidum Sw.

Kiew RK 1090, Parris 10968, Sinclair SFN 40142

Asplenium pellucidum Lam.

Molesworth-Allen, Piggott


Blechnopsis orientalis (L.) C.Presl



Cibotium barometz (L.) J.Sm.

Anthonysamy SA 374, Molesworth-Allen, Piggott


Davallia denticulata (Burm.f.) Mett. ex Kuhn


Davallia heterophylla J.Sm.

Ng FRI 22112, Molesworth-Allen, Piggott

Davallia repens (L.f.) Kuhn


Davallia solida (G.Forst.) Sw.

Molesworth-Allen, Piggott


Microlepia speluncae (L.) T.Moore var. hancei (Ptantl) C.Chr. & Tardieu


Pteridium esculentum (Forst.) Cockayne

Molesworth-Allen, Piggott


Dipteris conjugata Reinw.



Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw.



Hymenophyllum blandum Racib.

Molesworth-Allen, Piggott


Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott

Anthonysamy SA 373

Nephrolepis falciformis J.Sm.



Oleandra neriiformis Cav.

Kiew RK 1080, Piggott


Drynaria rigidula (Sw.) Bedd.


Goniophlebium percussum (Cav.) W.H.Wagner & Grether


Lepisorus longifolius (Blume) Holttum

Strugnell FMS 14623

Leptochilus macrophyllus (Blume) Noot.


Microsorum membranifolium (R.Br.) Ching

Ingram FMS 14605

Pyrrosia angustata (Sw.) Ching

Symington 39403, Piggott

Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Farw.

Anthonysamy SA 372, Piggott

Selliguea heterocarpa (Blume) Blume


Selliguea lateritia (Baker) Hovenkamp

Kiew RK 1088

Selliguea stenophylla (Blume) Parris



Pteris biaurita L.

Strugnell FMS 14603

Pteris longipinnula Wall. ex J.Agardh

Molesworth-Allen, Piggott

E Syngramma dayi (Bedd.) Bedd.

Parris 10967, Sinclair SFN 40139


Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Burm.f.) Sw.



Tectaria fissa (Kunze) Holttum

Kiew RK 1089, 1091, Parris 10969, Hume 7065

Tectaria singaporiana (Wall. ex. Hook. & Grev.) Copel.



Diplazium polypodioides Blume

Ingram FMS 14602



Gnetum gnemon L. var. brunonianum (Griff.) Markgr.


Gnetum sp.

Kiew RK 991

Flowering Plants


Peristrophe acuminata Nees var. acuminata


Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum Ridl.


E Pseuderanthemum selangorense (C.B.Clarke) Ridl.


Staurogyne kingiana C.B.Clarke



E Hydnocarpus humei Ridl.

Hume 7256

E Ryparosa fasciculata King



Buchanania sessilifolia Blume


Semecarpus velutina King

Mohd. Hashim FMS 102

Swintonia schwenckii Teijsm. & Binn. ex Hook.f.



Anisophyllea corneri Ding Hou

Watson 538, Kiew RK 992


Alphonsea elliptica Hook.f. & Thomson

Syahida FRI 55106

Mitrella kentii (Blume) Miq.

Symington KEP 39393

Trivalvaria pumila (King) J.Sinclair

Sinclair SFN 40143, Kiew RK 1170


Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.


Chilocarpus costatus Miq.


Dischidia bengalensis Colebr.

Kiew RK 211

Epigynum ridleyi King & Gamble


E Hoya campanulata Blume

Strugnell FMS 13033

Hoya mappigera Rodda & Simonsson

Sinclair SFN 10730

Hoya revoluta Wight

Kiew RK 1155, Strugnell FMS 55109

Kibatalia maingayi (Hook.f.) Woodson

Watson 533

Pottsia laxiflora (Blume) Kuntze


Willughbeia edulis Roxb.

Mohd. Hashim FMS 402, Kiew FRI 65534, Symington KEP 39395


EE Ilex praetermissa Kiew

Kiew RK 215, RK 1255, Strugnell FMS 33213, Symington KEP 39398


Aglaonema nebulosum N.E.Br.


Amydrium medium (Zoll. & Moritizi) Nicolson


Anadendrum microstachyum (de Vriese & Miq.) Backer & Alderw.

Kiew RK 1150

Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.f.

Hay AH 2023, Kiew RK 1175, Saw FRI 34265

Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh.f.

Hay AH 2024

Rhaphidophora montana (Blume) Schott


Schismatoglottis scortechinii Hook.f.



Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume


Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq.) R.Vig.



Thottea piperiformis (Griff.) Mabb.

Kiew RK 1139, Stone 15648


E Begonia holttumii Irmsch.

Henderson 7291

Begonia wrayi Hemsl.

Ridley 13430

Begonia sinuata Wall. ex Meisn.

Kiew RK 1084, Sinclair SFN 40132, Saw FRI 34264


Lobelia zeylanica L.



Capparis versicolor Griff.

Ridley s.n., Henderson


Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl.) I.M.Turner

Ridley s.n. (1908), Kiew RK 1180


Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.


Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.



E Rourea rugosa Planch.



Argyreia capitiformis (Poir.) Ooststr.


Neuropeltis maingayi Peter ex Ooststr. var. maingayi



Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht.



Cyperus compressus L.


Cyperus cyperoides (L.) Kuntze

Kiew RK 1142

Cyperus laxus Lam.

Kiew RK 1147A

Fimbristylis thouarsii (Kunth) Merr.

Symington KEP 33210, KEP 39410

Mapania palustris (Hassk. ex Steud.) Fern-Vill.

Kiew RK 1144


E Dichapetalum griffithii (Hook.f.) Engl.



Tetracera asiatica (Lour.) Hoogl.

Julius FRI 54873


Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth

Anthonysamy SA 195


Shorea bracteolata Dyer

Watson 741

Shorea parvifolia Dyer subsp. parvifolia

Watson 739


Dracaena elliptica Thunb.

Kiew RK 224

E? Dracaena maingayi Hook.f.

Kiew RK 1124, RK 1140

Dracaena umbratica Ridl.

Kiew RK 1194


Diospyros sumatrana Miq.



Elaeocarpus mastersii King

Kiew RK 77, Symington 33207, Burkill SFN 10028

Elaeocarpus nitidus Jack var. nitidus

Phoon 108, 110

Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume var. stipularis

Phoon 107


Rhododendron longiflorum Lindl.

Ridley s.n., Symington KEP 33215

Vaccinium bancanum Miq. var. tenuinervium J.J.Sm.

Symington KEP 33206, 39404


Croton oblongus Burm.f.


Epiprinus malayanus Griff.


Euphorbia ridleyi Croizat.

Wong FRI 35270

Macaranga gigantea (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.


Macaranga hullettii King ex Hook.


Macaranga hypoleuca (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.


Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq.) Müll.Arg.


Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll.Arg.) Benth.



Castanopsis inermis (Lindl. ex Wall.) Benth. & Hook.f.

Mohd Hashim FMS 305

Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble


Lithocarpus ewychkii (Korth.) Rehder


Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder

Mohd Hashim FMS 29


Fagraea auriculata Jack



Aeschynanthus pulcher (Blume) G.Don

Kiew RK 1081, Syahida FRI 55108

EE Codonoboea primulina (Ridl.) Kiew

Ridley s.n., Kiew RK 1182, Soh FRI 471218, Syahida FRI 55105

Codonoboea quinquevulnera (Ridl.) C.L.Lim

Kiew RK 1077, Symington KEP 39407, Syahida FRI 55107


Acroceras tonkinense (Balansa) C.E.Hubb.

Chew FRI 51872

Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P.Beauv.

Chew FRI 51866

Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.

Chew FRI 51873

Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

Chew FRI 51868

Cyrtococcum patens (L.) A.Camus

Chew FRI 51875

Digitaria fuscescens (J.Presl) Henrard

Chew FRI 51864

Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees

Chew FRI 51863

Eriachne pallescens R.Br.

Chew FRI 51862, Kiew RK 1126, Symington KEP 47125

EE Eulalia milsumi Ridl.

Symington KEP 39405, Chew FRI 51879

Lophatherum gracile Brongn.

Chew FRI 51871

Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka

Chew FRI 51867

Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy

Chew FRI 51874

Panicum brevifolium L.

Chew FRI 51876

Paspalum conjugatum P.J.Bergius

Chew FRI 51880

Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.

Chew FRI51865


E Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl. var. oblongifolium (T.Anderson) P.F.Stevens

Wyatt-Smith 66609

E Mesua elegans (King) Kosterm.

Ridley 13527

E Mesua kunstleri (King) Kosterm. var. kunstleri

Symington KEP 47132


Rhodoleia championii Hook.f.

Foxworthy KEP 10031, Strugnell KEP 10991, Kiew RK 210


Indorouchera griffithiana Planch. Hallier f.



Gomphandra quadrifida (Blume) Sleumer



Ixonanthes icosandra Jack


Ixonanthes reticulata Jack

Symington KEP 33220, 37450


Callicarpa longifolia Lam.


Callicarpa pentandra Roxb.


Clerodendrum deflexum Wall.


Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb.

Kiew RK 209, Anthonsamy SA 163

E Vitex longisepala King & Gamble



Alseodaphne nigrescens (Gamble) Kostem.


Litsea umbellata (Lour.) Merr.

Mohd Hashim FMS 198

Litsea costalis (Nees) Kosterm.

Mohd Hashim FMS 277


Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz

Kiew RK 1107

Barringtonia scortechinii King

Kiew RK 1179


Archidendron contortum (Mart.) I.C.Nielsen


Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C. Nielsen


Derris elegans Grah. ex Benth.

Strugnell FMS13389

Bauhinia bidentata Jack

Mead FMS 30765

Flemingia strobilifera (L.) W.T.Aiton

Strugnell FMS 13387

E Fordia albiflora (Prain) Dasuki & Schot



Norrisia malaccensis Gardner

Symington KEP 37448


Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.

Symington KEP 37446, Stone 15641

Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser

Kiew RK 1125


E Orchidantha longiflora (Scort.) Ridl.



Durio griffithii (Mast.) Bakh.

Symington KEP 47126

Grewia laevigata Vahl


Microcos tomentosa Sm.


Pterospermum javanicum Jungh.

Watson 531


Donax canniformis (G.Forst.) K.Schum.



E Anerincleistus pauciflorus Ridl.

Sinclair SFN 40137

Diplectria divaricata Kuntze


Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex Blume) Blume

Poore 1086

Melastoma malabathricum L.

Omar FMS 9936

Oxyspora bullata (Griff.) J.F.Maxwell

Kiew RK 1178

Oxyspora exigua (Jack) J.F.Maxwell


Pogonanthera pulverulenta (Jack) Blume

Kiew RK 993, Putz FRI 21901, Wyatt-Smith KEP 66610

Pternandra echinata Jack


Sonerila obliqua Korth.

Kiew RK 1086, Sinclair SFN 40133

E Sonerila prostrata Ridl.

Ridley s.n., Foxworthy KEP 10039, Symington KEP 47134


Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr. subsp. paucijugus (Miq.) Mabb.


Dysoxylum arborescens (Blume) Miq.

Mohd Hashim FMS 1310


Meliosma sumatrana (Jack) Walp.



Memecylon dichotomum (C.B.Clarke) King var. dichotomum



Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr.



Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul


Ficus chartacea (Wall. ex Kurz) King


Ficus deltoidea Jack var. angustifolia (Miq.) Corner

Mohd Hashim FMS 1103, Kiew RK 214, Strugnell FMS 13029

Ficus deltoidea Jack var. kunstleri (King) Corner

Kiew RK 93, Mead FMS 30761, Symington KEP 39390

Ficus fulva Reinw. ex Blume


Ficus hispida L.f.

Anthonysamy SA 167

Ficus obscura Blume var. borneensis (Miq.) Corner


Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff.


Ficus punctata Thunb.

Davies 2837

Ficus sagittata Vahl


Ficus sumatrana Miq.

Symington KEP 39394

Ficus trichocarpa Blume


Ficus villosa Blume var. villosa


Hullettia dumosa King

Kiew RK 1171


Gymnacranthera forbesii (King) Warb.


Horsfieldia majuscula (King) Warb.


Horsfieldia polyspherula (Hook.f. ex King) J.Sinclair var. sumatrana (Miq.) Wilde

Watson FMS 537

Knema furfuracea (Hook.f. & Thomson) Warb.


Knema hookeriana (Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson) Warb.


Knema malayana Warb.


E Knema plumulosa J.Sinclair

Mohd Hashim FMS 279

Myristica cinnamomea King

Kiew RK 222


E Antistrophe caudata King & Gamble

Kiew RK 1181, Sinclair SFN 40132

Ardisia colorata Roxb.


Ardisia lanceolata Roxb.


Ardisia villosa Roxb.


Grenacheria amentacea Mez


Grenacheria lampani Mez


Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill.

Kiew RK 1148


Baeckea frutescens L.

Symington KEP 37441

Syzygium attenuatum (Miq.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Strugnell FMS 13036, Symington KEP 33202

Syzygium chloranthum (Duthie) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Mead FMS 30764

Syzygium gratum (Wight) S.N.Mitra

Kiew RK 850

Syzygium subdecussatum (Wall. ex Duthie) I.M.Turner var. subdecussatum

Kiew RK 213, Symington KEP 47123


Campylospermum serratum (Gaertn.) Bittrich & M.C.E.Amaral



Jasminum elongatum (P.J.Bergius) Willd.

Kiew RK 1154


Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.


Lepionurus sylvestris Blume



Renanthera sp. (Spider orchid)

Adam obs.

Dendrobium acerosum Lindl.

Strugnell FMS 13398


Calamus javensis Blume


Eugeissona tristis Griff.

Adams obs, Kiew obs.

Licuala triphylla Griff.

Kiew RK 1079, RK 1172

Pinanga disticha (Roxb.) Blume ex H.Wendl.

Kiew RK 1173


Galearia fulva (Tul.) Miq.

Hume 7146


Benstonea ornata (Solms.) Callm. & Buerki

Kiew RK 1145, Rk 1810


Pentaphragma horsfieldii (Miq.) Airy Shaw



Eurya acuminata DC.



Cyrtandromoea grandis Ridl.

Kiew RK 1146


Antidesma salicinum Ridl.


Aporosa benthamiana Hook.f.


Baccaurea brevipes Hook.f.


Breynia discigera Müll.Arg.


Bridelia tomentosa Blume

Burkill SFN 10033, Julius FRI 54866

Glochidion superbum Baill.


Phyllanthus pulcher Wall.


Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.



Austrobuxus nitidus Miq.

Kiew RK 848, Symington KEP 37444, Wyatt-Smith KEP 6612


E? Piper porphyrophyllum N.E.Br.


Piper stylosum Miq.

Kiew RK 1176


Salomonia cantoniensis Lour.

Kiew RK 208

Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.

Watson 529

Xanthophyllum wrayi King



Maesa ramentacea (Roxb.) A.DC.



Helicia attenuata (Jack) Blume

Hume FMS 7251


Carallia eugenoidea King

Ridley s.n. (1921), Strugnell FMS 33208, Symington KEP 39396

Carallia suffruticosa Ridl.

Sinclair SFN 40136


Prunus grisea (Blume) Kalkman var. tomentosa



EE Aleisanthia rupestris (Ridl.) Ridl.

Ridley s.n., Symington KEP 33201, Kiew RK 216

Argostemma pictum Wall.

Kiew RK 1185

Chassalia curviflora (Wall.) Thwaites


Greenea corymbosa (Jack) K.Schum.

Kiew RK 1153

Hedyotis auricularia L.


Hedyotis capitellata Wall. ex G.Don


Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.


Hedyotis dichotoma J.Koenig ex Roth

Kiew RK 207

Hedyotis vestita R.Br. ex G.Don


Ixora concinna R.Br. ex Hook.f.

Kiew RK 1143

Ixora congesta Roxb.

Kiew RK 1152

Ixora javanica (Blume) DC. var. javanica


Ixora lobbii Loudon


Ixora pendula Jack var. pendula

Kiew RK 1151

Lasianthus densifolius Miq.


Lasianthus maingayi Hook.f.


EE Lasianthus oblongus King & Gamble


Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil.


Mussaenda villosa Wall. ex G.Don


Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Steud.


Neonauclea pallida (Reinwa. ex Havil.) Bakh.f.


Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl.


Ophiorrhiza discolor R.Br.


Pavetta graciliflora Wall. ex Ridl.


Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb.) Ridl.


E? Psychotria maingayi Hook.f.


Psydrax sp.

Kiew RK 213

Rothmannia macrophylla (R.Br.) Bremek.

Kiew RK 1149

EE Spermacoce pilulifera (Ridl.) I.M.Turner


Timonius wallichianus (Korth.) Valeton

Kiew RK 989

Uncaria lanosa Wall. var. glabra (Blume) Ridsdale


Urophyllum hirstum (Wight) Hook.f.



Glycosmis chlorosperma Spreng. var. chlorosperma



Homalium caryophyllaceum Benth.


Osmelia maingayi King



Guioa diplopetala (Hassk.) Radlk.

Symington KEP 37447

Lepisanthes tetraphylla Radlk.

Kiew RK 1141, Symington Keo 37449

Pometia pinnata J.Forst. & G.Forst.



Payena lucida DC.

Henderson, Mohd Hashim FMS 37449


Eurycoma longifolia Jack

Kiew RK 990, RK 1073


Smilax myosotiflora A.DC.

Kiew RK 1147B


Styrax benzoin Dryand.



Gonystylus maingayi Hook.f.



Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh. & de Vreise) Miq.



Nothocnide mollissima (Blume) Chew


Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.



Rinorea anguifera (Lour.) Kuntze


Rinorea horneri (Korth.) Kuntze



Ampelocissus cinnamomea (Wall.) Planch.


Cayratia mollissima (Wall.) Gagnep.


Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep.

Kiew RK 223

Cissus hastata Miq.


Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr.



Camptandra parvula (King ex Baker) Ridl.

Kiew RK 1177, Saw FRI 34267

Etlingera littoralis (J.Koenig) Giseke


Globba patens Miq. var. costulata S.N.Lim

Kiew RK 1082

Globba pendula Roxb. var. pendula


E Globba variabilis Ridl. var. variabilis


Zingiber gracile Jack

Kiew RK 1174

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