Monograph
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Monograph
A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae)
expand article infoJohn R.I. Wood, Bethany R.M. Williams§, Thomas C. Mitchell|, Mark A. Carine, David J. Harris#, Robert W. Scotland¤
‡ University of Oxford, Oxford and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom
§ University of Oxford, Oxford and Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
| Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany
¶ Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
# Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
¤ University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

A global revision of Convolvulus L. is presented, Calystegia R.Br. being excluded on pragmatic grounds. One hundred and ninety species are recognised with the greatest diversity in the Irano-Turanian region. All recognised species are described and the majority are illustrated. Distribution details, keys to species identification and taxonomic notes are provided. Four new species, Convolvulus austroafricanus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvulus iranicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvulus peninsularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov. and Convolvulus xanthopotamicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., one new subspecies Convolvulus chinensis subsp. triangularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, subsp. nov., and two new varieties Convolvulus equitans var. lindheimeri J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov., Convolvulus glomeratus var. sachalitarum J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov. are described. Convolvulus incisodentatus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, nom. nov., is provided as a replacement name for the illegitimate Convolvulus incisus Choisy. Several species treated as synonyms of other species in recent publications are reinstated including C. chinensis Ker-Gawl., C. spinifer M.Popov., C. randii Rendle and C. aschersonii Engl. Ten taxa are given new status and recognised at new ranks: Convolvulus namaquensis (Schltr. ex. A.Meeuse) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus hermanniae subsp. erosus (Desr.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus crenatifolius subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus fruticulosus subsp. glandulosus (Webb) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus capituliferus subsp. foliaceus (Verdc.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus hystrix subsp. ruspolii (Dammer ex Hallier f.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus hystrix subsp. inermis (Chiov.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus rottlerianus subsp. stocksii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, comb. et stat. nov., Convolvulus calvertii subsp. ruprechtii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus (Bornm.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov. The status of various infraspecific taxa is clarified and numerous taxa are lectotypified. This account represents a new initiative in terms of taxonomic monography, being an attempt to bring together the global approach of the traditional monograph with the more pragmatic and identification-focussed approach of most current floras while at the same time being informed by insights from molecular systematics.

Keywords

Convolvulaceae, global revision, lectotypification, monograph, morning glories, new species, new taxa

Introduction

The approach adopted in this study arises from a consideration of what taxonomists should be focussed on in the 21st century. Our knowledge of flowering plant diversity comes primarily from taxonomy that has accumulated piecemeal through studies that are geographically restricted. A limitation of this approach to the taxonomy of any widespread or sizeable group is that species usually comprise a combination of restricted endemic species, just over half of all species of flowering plant are single country endemics (WCSP 2014) and widespread species, and accurately delimiting and distinguishing species in these two categories demands a global perspective (Thomas et al. 2012). Extensive sampling across the entire range of a taxon’s geographical distribution is also important if substantial and existing levels of synonymy are to be accurately detected (Govaerts 2003; Scotland and Wortley 2003; Wortley and Scotland 2004).

In contrast to the geographical focus of floristic projects, monographic studies at a global level have been undertaken by individual botanists or teams of botanists (Thomas 1999; Thomas et al. 2012) and these studies are viewed as the ‘gold standard’ for achieving accurate species delimitation, effective identification keys and the optimal treatment of variation. Such monographs are usually associated with intensive studies of many aspects of plant systematics including phylogeny, conservation and anatomy, and in consequence tend to be few in number and mostly deal with relatively small plant groups. A potential way to make more rapid taxonomic progress with species-rich groups of plants is to combine the accuracy that comes from a global monographic treatment of plant variation with the more focused and practical aims of regional floristic projects.

To speed up the taxonomic process while retaining the extensive specimen sampling of a global monographic treatment we believe it is necessary to focus on species delimitation at the expense of other aspects of the traditional monograph. This can be achieved as long as the pragmatic and heuristic nature of taxonomy is appreciated. In other words, for many groups we can rapidly assess specimen level variation, write keys and delimit species without devoting large amounts of time to infra-specific levels of variation and hybridisation and similar issues. Our approach, however, is quite different from many traditional flora projects as we have made full use of electronic tools and technologies, DNA sequencing and basic phylogeny estimates for the group. We use the term “Foundation Monograph” for our approach.

This monograph of Convolvulus represents what can be achieved in a 12 month period with an experienced botanist working 75 per cent of the time on the taxonomy, a 3 month DNA barcoding project plus additional student input, and a team of four people meeting to discuss relevant issues and progress along the way.

Our methodology and its implications

We faced two severe constraints in preparing the Convolvulus monograph: time and money. This meant that there was no opportunity for field work during the research for the monograph, no possibility of obtaining extensive loan material from a large number of herbaria and limited funds to visit other institutions. There was no time to carry out intensive studies into infraspecific taxa or study variation in populations of individual species over and above that evident from the herbarium samples available. However, we did have some advantages. The first was the proximity of the two major collections in London at Kew (K) and the Natural History Museum (BM), and the second rapid communication through e-mail and the sending of digital images from all over the world. Once the project was underway it became possible to make decisions which allowed us to maximise the benefits of the few visits and loans we required to see type material and a sufficient range of specimens of individual species to make taxonomic decisions. Thus visits were made to Edinburgh (E) and Vienna (W) because of their rich holdings in Middle Eastern material, to St Petersburg (LE) for its holdings from former Soviet Central Asia and to Paris for its collections from North Africa. All four institutions were additionally rich in type material. It would have been desirable to visit other herbaria, particularly Montpellier (MPU) and Geneva (G), but we had to work within budget and time constraints and nearly all the type material in these herbaria was duplicated elsewhere or could be viewed online. Small loans of up to six specimens in each case totalling about twenty five specimens were received from European herbaria (B, E, GOET, M, P, URT, W). Digital images from many herbaria (B, C, E, FI, FT, G, GOET, LISE, KW, M, MA, MPU, PRE, UPS) enabled us to see almost all type material. Australia and North America presented particular difficulties in species delimitation but we were able to receive more substantial loans of sufficient material from AD, BRI and TEX to facilitate more informed taxonomic decisions.

For species delimitation and the preparation of descriptions we examined specimens and made use of the available literature. Dissection of flowers and fruiting capsules was carried out where possible, but care was taken not to damage types or unusual material and capsules are rare or unknown in many species. In species delimitation we gave additional weight to authors who had extensive experience in the genus and knowledge of the species in the field as we were acutely aware that our field knowledge was limited to certain geographical areas. Thus, we have followed the treatment of (Johnson 2001) for Convolvulus in Australia in most particulars despite having some doubts about the characterisation of several species. However, in general we have made our own decisions based on the evidence of the material we have seen and believe that our broader approach from looking at the genus worldwide will provide useful insights. We would nevertheless emphasise that we do not believe in reinventing the wheel and we have made use of any insight available to us whether in the literature, on herbarium sheets, by personal observation or any other source, and, with permission, we have also made use of the illustrations that accompanied (Sa’ad 1967), which we believe will add to the utility of this work.

Our desire to produce a concise account of the genus in a limited time has of necessity resulted in the exclusion of certain elements common to many monographs. We have accepted subspecies and the more significant varieties but have accounted for all the recognised infraspecific taxa scattered through the literature down to the level of variety. Forms and subvarieties are not accounted for and are only cited when also treated as the basionym of a taxon of higher rank. For reasons of budget and time we have only seen and cited representative specimens of each species. To cite and map all known collections of each species would be an impossible task within our constraints. A glance at the Flora of Iran (Nowroozi 2002) or the Flora of Southern Africa (Meeuse and Welman 2000) will give an idea of how many records there are of each species in these two countries and how daunting a task comprehensive global distribution details would be. All that we would claim is the level of information we provide is at least comparable to that of Flora Europaea and similar to regional Floras and not much less than in most national floras.

Generic delimitation

The use of the name Convolvulus predates Linnaeus by well over a century but the first formal description of the genus was in Species Plantarum (Linnaeus 1753) where 31 species were accepted. However, Linnaeus’ concept of the genus was very broad and contained elements which were early removed to other genera, namely Argyreia Lour., Ipomoea L. and Evolvulus L. The modern definition of the genus was essentially established by the end of the 18th century based on the filiform stigmas, axillary flowers subtended by small bracteoles and the bilocular ovary. Webb and Berthelot (1844) separated off some species from the Canary Islands as Rhodorhiza Webb on the basis of the short style, the abortion of one locule and the irregular dehiscence of the capsule. However, all these characters are found in other species of the genus, the short style correlating with a conical ovary. Consequently both Choisy (1845) and Peter (1891) included Rhodorhiza within Convolvulus and this decision is confirmed by modern molecular studies. Another group of species was separated off by Robert Brown (Brown 1810) as Calystegia and his decision was followed by most subsequent authors (Choisy 1845; O’Donell 1959; Sa’ad 1967) on the grounds of its large bracteoles, which are adjacent to the calyx, and different pollen grains (Hallier 1893). However, many North American authors never accepted this division and molecular studies do not support it.

Prior to beginning this monograph of Convolvulus we were aware that Calystegia was nested within Convolvulus and, therefore, Convolvulus as treated in this monograph is paraphyletic (Carine et al. 2004; Stefanovic et al. 2002). Molecular work completed as part of the monograph encompassed broader sampling of both genera and the data support the hypothesis that Calystegia is a monophyletic group nested within Convolvulus (Williams et al. 2014). Calystegia may be distinguished from Convolvulus by its pollen (polypantoaperturate versus equatorially triaperturate), stigmas (globose versus linear/clavate) and bracteoles that are large and inflated and enclose the calyx in Calystegia whereas in Convolvulus they are typically small and often remote, large bracteoles only occurring in Convolvulus scammonia and C. pseudoscammonia. Taxonomically, the European species of Calystegia have been treated by (Brummitt 1972) with molecular data supporting taxon circumscriptions proposed therein (Brown et al. 2009). Most of the diversity in Calystegia is distributed in North America and the taxa in this region have been treated by (Brummitt submitted) for the Flora of North America. Thus, Calystegia is a clearly defined subgroup within Convolvulus that has been treated at a more or less global-level by a single author. For these reasons we decided to pursue a pragmatic approach excluding Calystegia from this monograph of Convolvulus. For those who would consider all taxonomy should be based on monophyletic taxa, this issue is readily resolved by re-naming all species of Calystegia as Convolvulus. The necessary combinations are already available for most of the taxa concerned.

Geographical distribution

Species of Convolvulus are distributed on all the main land masses of the world but the genus is most diverse in areas with a Mediterranean climate and in semi-desert regions of around the same latitude. It is principally a genus of dry, stony and sandy habitats from sea level to around 3000 m. In the tropics it is almost entirely absent within 15° of the equator except on mountains with one major exception–the Horn of Africa where there is a local centre of diversity. It is largely absent from smaller islands with two notable exceptions on either side of the African continent, Socotra to the east and the Canary Islands to the west, both of which are local centres of diversity in the genus. With the exception of the cosmopolitan weed, Convolvulus arvensis, the genus is absent at latitudes higher than 45°N. There are centres of diversity with similar number of species on all three major southern hemisphere land masses, Australia, southern Africa and South America. In the northern hemisphere, the genus is poorly represented in North America, where it is largely represented by Calystegia and is virtually absent from East Asia. Conversely it is most diverse in the Irano-Turanian regions of Central Asia with the greatest number of species being found in Iran.

Discovery

The European species of Convolvulus were largely known by the end of the 18th century and only a few, very localised species, not all generally accepted, have been described subsequently, the most recent being C. mairei (Halacsy 1907), C. suendermanii (Bornmüller 1938), C. sericocephalus (Juzepczuk 1950), C. argyrothamnos (Greuter 1967) and C. fernandesii (Silva and Teles 1980). Most American and South African species were known by the middle of the 19th century and only a trickle of new species has been found subsequently in these areas, the most recent being C. ensifolius (Ferreira et al. 2013) in South America and C. carrii (Turner 2009) in North America. The travels and collections of Boissier, Kotschy and Aucher-Eloy showed that the Middle East was especially rich in Convolvulus and Boissier’s monumental Flora Orientalis (Boissier 1875) summarises their achievement by listing 66 species. Further exploration has confirmed that this region is the main centre of diversity in Convolvulus and the travels and publications of Bornműller, Davis and Rechinger amongst others have resulted in a steady increment to the number of species known from this region. The 50 years before the First World War revealed the presence of considerable Convolvulus diversity in North Africa and Central Asia. Outstanding among a number of important French collectors was Rene Maire, who during the course of a long career found new species of Convolvulus across North Africa from Libya to Morocco. At the same time the species of Central Asia were being discovered, with M.Popov completing the work begun by Schrenk, Regel and Schmalhausen. South Africa was known as a centre of diversity in Convolvulus in the early 19th century but only since the end of the 19th century has botanical exploration shown the Horn of Africa and the island of Socotra to be the only truly tropical centre of diversity in the genus. Recent publications (Sebsebe 1993; 1999; Thulin 2005) have added considerably to species numbers from this region. Very recently (Johnson 2001) has made considerable progress in unravelling the complex group of species found in Australia. It now seems unlikely that any new centres of diversity in the genus will be discovered.

We have treated 190 species of Convolvulus worldwide and do not believe that the final number of species is likely to much exceed 200 even after more intensive study. During the course of preparing this monograph only four new species have been described and only two of these were, in fact, first found in the last thirty years.

Economic importance

Convolvulus is of relatively little economic importance. Several species are reported to be of importance for grazing in desert conditions including C. oxyphyllus and C. pilosellifolius in Arabia (Dickson 1955) and C. hamadae, C. eremophilus, C. divaricatus and C. dorycnium subsp. subhirsutus in Central Asia (Grigoriev 1953). Several species produce attractive flowers and are cultivated in suitable climates, most commonly C. tricolor and C. valentinus and, to a lesser extent, C. althaeoides and C. cneorum. The Canary Island species C. floridus and C. scoparius are sometimes planted, especially the former. Both species are the source of a fragrant oil obtained from the distillation of their roots and stem, known as Rhodium (oil) or rosewood (bois de rose). C. scammonia has roots that produce a pale brown exude used as a laxative, known as scammony. On the negative side, C. arvensis is a widespread and persistent weed, which is difficult to eradicate once established and has a considerable negative economic impact. Other species are occasionally reported as weeds, such as C. pilosellifolius, which can occur amongst cotton (Grigoriev 1953).

Molecular systematics

Molecular data formed an integral component of our approach. Silica gel dried (10%) and herbarium (90%) material were used to sample 130 species of Convolvulus and 18 species of Calystegia for the plant barcoding regions matK and rbcL (CBOL Plant Working Group 2009), together with the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer region (ITS) that has been proposed as a third barcoding marker (China Plant BOL Group 2011). For fifty-one taxa, data was obtained from one or more of the markers for two or more accessions. Whilst a high level of sampling was achieved overall, sampling of taxa in central Asia was limited, reflecting the lack of suitable material for molecular work for many of the species endemic to this region.

Molecular data were used in conjunction with morphology to resolve species delimitation in a number of complexes and to inform decisions regarding infrageneric classification and the systematic order used in the taxonomic treatment (Williams et al. 2014).

At the species level, molecular data supports the distinction of a number of geographically separate but morphologically similar species pairs such as C. althaeoides (Mediterranean) and C. capensis (South African) and C. demissus (South American) and C. sagittatus (African). Molecular data also support the separation of C. chinensis from C. arvensis and of C. aschersonii and C. namaquensis from C. sagittatus (Williams et al. 2014). Distinct clades were resolved within C. lineatus and C. oxysepalus by DNA sequence data. However, we were unable to correlate these infraspecific groupings with morphology or geography. Further work may be necessary to accurately delimit these widespread and morphologically variable taxa. We have discussed this in the text under each individual species.

The phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of the results are discussed elsewhere (Williams et al. 2014). However, a summary cladogram is provided in Figure 1. The results concur with those of (Carine et al. 2004) in highlighting the non-monophyly of infrageneric groups proposed originally by (Boissier 1875) and elaborated by Peter (1891), Petrov (1935) and Sa’ad (1967) and in recognising two major clades within the genus (Figure 1, Clades X and Y). Clade X comprises species that are mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base and typically with a trailing or climbing habit and leaves that are distinctly petiolate. Calystegia (Clade D) is resolved in this clade. Clade Y mostly comprises erect shrubs, with indistinct petioles.

Figure 1.

Summary cladogram showing major groupings resolved in Convolvulus based on a phylogenetic analysis of 140 species of Convolvulus and 19 species of Calystegia analysed for matK, rbcL and ITS. For details of clades, see text.

Within Clade X, there is a strong geographical signal with Australasian (Clade E) and South American (Clade F) clades of Convolvulus resolved within a paraphyletic tropical African grade G. Other groups resolved within Clade X include subclade C, comprising blue-flowered annuals that are largely Mediterranean in distribution but include also C. simulans from North America. Taxa in this clade do not exhibit the distinctly petiolate leaves typical of Clade X more generally. Subclade B, comprises western Mediterranean and Macaronesian taxa (the latter exhibiting a woody habit), many of which have blue flowers, and clade A, centred on the Red Sea, is a morphologically diverse assemblage of species including taxa with dense capitulate inflorescences, blue flowers and/or clavate stigmas. Three species of Convolvulus (C. kossmatii, C. semhaensis and C. socotranus) previously treated in Seddera (Sebsebe and Mill 2009) were recently transferred to Convolvulus on the basis of molecular sequence data (Luna et al. 2014). They are resolved in this clade and exhibit the clavate stigmas found in a number of members of the group. The remaining taxa in Clade X constitute a grade of Eurasian taxa (H) that includes C. arvensis.

Clade Y is restricted to the Eurosiberian region and three major subgroups are resolved within it. The first (Clade I) comprises species that are often fastigiate in habit and have flowers that are not aggregated into heads. The second (Clade J) comprises species that are typically subshrubs with sericeous leaves, pubescent seeds and often a spiny habit. The third clade (Clade K) comprises species with leaves that are typically tomentose and flowers that are borne in heads.

Whilst some attempt has been made above to correlate morphological traits with the clades resolved in the molecular analysis, it should be noted that the fit is imperfect. We have been unable to identify unique, un-reversed morphological synapomorphies for any of the groups highlighted in Figure 1 with the notable exception of Calystegia, a situation that reflects a more widespread problem in Convolvulaceae wherein high levels of homoplasy have rendered super-specific classification problematic (Austin 1998; Manos et al. 2001). Given the nature of the morphological variation, we are unable to propose an adequate infrageneric classification (Carine and Scotland 2002).

As noted above, there were pragmatic grounds for excluding Calystegia from this treatment. Nevertheless, the molecular data do support the inclusion of Calystegia within Convolvulus, in agreement with Carine et al. (2004) and Stefanovic et al. (2002).

The molecular results have been used to establish a framework for the linear sequence of species adopted in the taxonomic account. Efforts have been made to establish an order that maximises morphological similarity between adjacent species within the constraints of relationships inferred using molecular data. Species that are not sampled for molecular data were placed on the basis of their morphology. Within major groups, the molecular sequence has occasionally been abandoned so as to place species which are known to hybridise next to each other or to place species with close morphological similarity together. The sequence used is as follows:

Old world species with petiolate leaves and mostly twining/trailing stems (Grade H)

Southern African species (Grade G)

New world species (Clade F)

Australasian species (Clade E)

North west African (mostly) and Canary Island species (Clade B)

Annual mostly blue-flowered species (Clade C)

Red Sea group, often with bluish flowers and/or clavate stigmas but very diverse in habit (Clade A)

Old world species with mostly separate flowers, often fastigiate in habit, not spiny (Clade I)

Old world species with sericeous leaves, often undershrubs, sometimes spiny (Clade J)

Old world species with flowers in heads, leaves commonly tomentose, rarely spiny (Clade K)

Species concept

The species concept is problematic in Convolvulus. While there are a small number of species that are outstandingly distinct (C. persicus from the Caspian and Black Seas, C. floridus from the Canary Islands, C. assyricus from Turkey and C. kilimandschari from East Africa are good examples) and many that are perfectly adequately delimited although having close relatives, there are a large number of species clusters where the boundaries of individual species are far from satisfactory. This will be apparent in any region where Convolvulus is reasonably diverse, whether South America, Australia, Central Asia, the Canary Islands, Southern Africa, the Horn of Africa, Arabia, Turkey or elsewhere. It is apparent in the long synonomies of several species such as C. althaeoides, C. sagittatus and C. prostratus. It is also apparent in the many species that historically have been subsumed in other species such as C. libanoticus, C. mazicum and C. subsericeus in C. cantabrica or the inclusion of all Australian species in C. erubescens. It can also be seen in the placement of a number of infraspecific taxa which have been moved by different authors from one species to another, such as var. melliflorus which has moved between C. valentinus and C. supinus.

Notes are provided to indicate where plants intermediate between two species are known to occur. The status of these intermediates is rarely known with certainty. Hybrids are only well documented in a few cases (Carine et al. 2007, Aykurt and Sümbül 2011b, for example) and may be common, but this cannot be confirmed at the present time. Clearly detailed population studies and experimental work may clarify uncertainties over the years, but quite obviously evolution of species is taking place both in the island context of the Canaries and Socotra and across continents. We have tried to provide solutions to these problems on a consistent and pragmatic basis and the notes indicate where we have had difficulties. We have accepted as a ‘good’ species any that is distinct over most of its range and have indicated when intermediates are known. A very strict species concept could result in a series of species collapsing into each other ending in a counter-intuitive and uninformative taxonomy. In any case it is not clear in most cases whether these intermediates are hybrids or not. We have tried to avoid excessive resort to subspecies and varieties, but these ranks are necessary in quite a few cases.

An important and perhaps surprising problem in species delimitation is that a considerable number of species are only known from a handful of collections and in several cases from the type only. Moreover, many specimens are inadequate. Only in a few cases do we know what the rootstock is like and in many species the capsule and seeds are unknown. This makes any taxonomy based on capsule and seed characters difficult to formulate and, where it has been attempted, difficult to use or evaluate, as in the case of the Australian species. Good field observations are also lacking in many cases. We do not know the flower colour or the potential height of many species as these details are often not recorded.

Very few new species are described in this monograph. This is mainly a reflection of the fact that Convolvulus is an essentially temperate genus which has been well-studied over the years. We have avoided describing new species based on single collections, however odd, which belong to a species complex. Santos 544 from Angola is unmatched by any other collection but is clearly part of a complex group of species centred on C. sagittatus, so has been noted but not described. The same is true of Bramwell & Humphries 3448 from the Canary Islands. Conversely three species, C. iranicus, C. xanthopotamicus and C. peninsularis have been described because their relationships are clear and they separate from related species by one or more ‘strong, qualitative’ characters. We have, however, described one new species from a species complex, C. austroafricanus, but in this case there are a good number of specimens and it has a distinct geographical range (Figure 2).

Figure 2.

Habits of the four new species described in this treatment. A C. austroafricanus B C. peninsularis C C. xanthopotamicus D C. iranicus A from Fanshawe 6566 (K) B from Whitcombe 807 (E) C from Purdom s.n. (K) D from Alava & Bokhari 10629 (W).

For the reasons expressed in the previous paragraphs it should be emphasised that the status of a number of species remains uncertain until further collections and more detailed study in the field is possible. We are not completely convinced that C. lindbergii is distinct from C. eremophilus or C. rectangularis from C. lanjouwii or C. semhaensis from C. kossmatii or that C. jordanensis, C. spicatus, C. schimperi and C. cephalopodus merit recognition as separate species. Other examples could be found from Australia, America and elsewhere. In contrast, C. sagittatus is so variable that it is quite possible that some populations merit recognition as separate species but intensive genetic studies are clearly needed within this complex to explain the variation and introgression between species and forms.

At the infraspecific level, we have utilised the ranks of subspecies and variety:

The rank of subspecies is used to separate two closely related and usually intergrading taxa which are geographically separated but may have an overlapping range. Usually they are separated by one or two characters. Characteristically they behave as distinct species through much of their range.

The rank of variety is used for a distinct infraspecific taxon which is either known from a single location or group of close-by locations within the broader range of the species or occurs sporadically over the whole or, at least, most of the range of the species but with no obvious geographical patterning.

Morphological characters and their use in species delimitation

During our studies we have noted a range of characters of use in species delimitation. Their value is discussed below and we have provided lists of distinctive features, which may be of use in identification. It should be noted that the lists are not always exhaustive as information is not available for all species and not all useful characters are clearly defined.

Habit. Species of Convolvulus may be herbs or undershrubs. Herbs may be perennial or annual, entirely herbaceous or somewhat woody below, twining, trailing or more or less erect. Undershrubs may be cushion-forming, fastigiate, liana-like, erect and unarmed; or low compact and spiny; or low, compact and unarmed. Habit is therefore of great use in species delimitation and some of these distinctive habits are geographically restricted.

All southern hemisphere species are perennial trailing or twining herbs with cordate, hastate or sagittate, petiolate leaves with the partial exceptions of C. hasslerianus and C. randii which are often (but apparently not always) erect herbs. In the northern hemisphere there is much greater diversity of life form and habit although trailing perennial herbs similar in habit to southern hemisphere species are well-represented. Amongst the distinct forms are:

  • Annual herbs: C. fatmensis, C. coelesyriacus, C. siculus, C. pentapetaloides, C. simulans, C. gharbensis, C. humilis, C. tricolor, C. meonanthus, C. rhyniospermus, C. rottlerianus. Convolvulus rhyniospermus may occasionally perenniate. Several Australian species regarded as perennials may be (at least sometimes) annual. These include C. crispifolius, C. eyreanus and C. recurvatus. C. capituliferus and C. grantii have been interpreted as annuals but appear always to be perennial. None of the annuals are obviously twiners. They are characteristically slender, entirely herbaceous and with a poorly developed rootstock. Many have recurved fruiting peduncles.

  • Erect (or at least ascending) herbs: Convolvulus pseudoscammonia, C. hasslerianus (apparently sometimes twining), C. randii (sometimes twining).

  • Trailing or twining herbaceous perennials, which may be woody below, with hastate, sagittate or truncate leaves: C. scammonia, C. durandoi, C. arvensis, C. mairei, C. chinensis, C. fatmensis, C. steppicola, C. sinuatodentatus, C. rufescens, C. galaticus, C. germaniciae, C. cassius, C. betonicifolius, C. longipedicellatus, C. stachydifolius, C. althaeoides, C. palaestinus, C. maireanus, C. pitardii, C. glaouorum, C. vidalii, C. lanjouwii, C. rectangularis, C. dryadum, C. supinus, C. sabatius, C. valentinus, C. vollesenii, C. bidrensis, C. jefferyi, C. capituliferus, C. stenocladus, C. subspathulatus, C. grantii, C. sarmentosus (perhaps), all American and southern hemisphere species except C. simulans (annual), C. kilimandschari (liana), C. hasslerianus and C. randii (both usually erect herbs). Most of these species seem to be normally trailing herbs but a few show strong evidence of usually being twiners although this might be an artifice of their preferred habitat. Common twining species include C. farinosus from Africa and C. remotus from Australia.

  • Lianas: C. canariensis, C. massonii, C. volubilis, C. lopezsocasii, C. fernandesii, C. kilimandschari.

  • Unarmed non-twining, non-fastigiate shrubs: C. persicus, C. floridus, C. scindicus, C. fruticulosus. The first three are commonly erect whereas the last is more or less prostrate in form.

  • Erect unarmed undershrubs with stiff, thin, woody, subfastigiate branches and (usually) few, relatively small leaves: C. scoparius, C. scopulatus, C. socotranus, C. sericophyllus, C. hildebrandtii, C. peninsularis, C. leptocladus, C. eremophilus, C. lindbergii, C. hamadae, C. erinaceus, C. divaricatus, C. tujuntauensis, C. subsericeus, C. chondrilloides, C. gracillimus, C. kurdistanicus, C. koieanus, C. sarothrocladus, C. pseudocantabrica, C. dorycnium.

  • Low cushion plants with branched woody rootstock: C. assyricus, C. mazicum, C. boissieri, C. suendermannii, C. libanoticus, C. carduchorum, C. cataonicus, C. phrygius, C. aitchisonii, C. asyrensis, C. ammannii, C. tragacanthoides. These intergrade with species like C. lineatus, C. calvertii and C. holosericeus, which may be cushion-like in form but with erect stems.

  • Spiny undershrubs can be divided into three subgroups:

    1. Only the old lower branchlets spinescent: C. lanatus, C. tragacanthoides, C. grigorjevii.

    2. All (or most) branches spinescent: C. kossmatii, C. semhaensis, C. caput-medusae, C. oxyphyllus, C. ulicinus, C. spinifer, C. virgatus. In all of these except C. virgatus the flowers are sessile. A few other species have sometimes been interpreted as having spinescent branches including C. turrillianus, C. oxysepalus, C. erinaceus, C. hamadae and C. sericophyllus and a few others are rarely subspinescent, such as some forms of C. prostratus.

    3. Branches and peduncles (where present) spinescent, sterile lateral spines (formed from abnormal sterile peduncles?) also present: C. fruticosus, C. gortschakovii, C. spinosus, C. argyracanthus, C. acanthocladus, C. iranicus, C. leiocalycinus, C. verdcourtianus, C. trabutianus.

Underground parts. These are poorly known. Convolvulus arvensis is well-known for producing extensive underground rhizomes, which explain its persistence as a weed of cultivation. Many herbaceous species put down a shallow tap root, from which thin adventitious side roots develop. The perennial species of desert and semi desert regions commonly have a thickened woody rootstock which allows survival in the long periods between rain and from which annual, herbaceous or near herbaceous stems arise. C. hasslerianus and perhaps C. randii have a xylopodium which allows them to survive savannah fires.

Leaf and stem indumentum. There is much variation in indumentum, with the majority of species hairy in some form. Sa’ad (1967: 25 ff.) drew attention to different hair structures in Convolvulus but she did not make use of this in species delimitation and we have made no use of it either. Instead, we have indicated below some indumentum features which we have found of taxonomic importance. In the majority of species the indumentum of the leaves, stem, bracts, bracteoles and sepals is similar although varying somewhat in density. However, in a few species the indumentum of the sepals (and occasionally also that of the bracteoles) is strikingly different to that of the leaves. Reference in this part is consequently to the indumentum of the leaves and stem unless otherwise indicated. It should also be noted that some species are glabrescent, the older parts glabrous while the younger parts are hirsute to some degree.

  • Leaves velvety-tomentose: C. galaticus, C. germaniciae, C. althaeoides subsp. tenuissimus, C. eyreanus, C. crispifolius, C. thomsonii. The distinction between this and the next category is not very clear.

  • Leaves densely sericeous/canescent: C. lanuginosus, C. cneorum, C. krauseanus, C. lineatus, C. oleifolius, C. argyrothamnos, C. holosericeus, C. calvertii, C. ammannii, C. xanthopotamicus, S. tragacanthoides, C. spinifer, C. grigorjevii, C. fruticosus, C. hermanniae, C. carrii, C. randii, C. lindbergii, C. boissieri, C. suendermannii, C. caput-medusae, C. mazicum.

  • Very finely sericeous and often somewhat glabrescent: C. sericophyllus, C. kossmatii, C. semhaensis, C. gracillimus, C. vollesenii, C. subspathulatus, C. jefferyi.

  • Villous-tomentose perennials (dense longish hairs), characteristically woody at the base but with more or less herbaceous branches (always associated with flowers in heads): C. aitchisonii, C. asyrensis, C. lanatus, C. secundus, C. spicatus, C. schimperi, C. jordanensis, C. cephalopodus, C. euphraticus, C. reticulatus, C. cephalophorus, C. stapfii, C. kotschyanus, C. pyrrotrichus, C. prostratus, C. pilosellifolius, C. calvertii, C. elymaiticus, C. commutatus, C. schirazianus.

  • Plants glabrous or nearly so (several of these are sometimes partially puberulent): C. scammonia, C. pseudoscammonia, C. durandoi, C. arvensis, C. chinensis, C. lopezsocasii, C. demissus, C. laciniatus, C. montanus, C. ensifolius, C. microsepalus, C. remotus, C. angustissimus, C. waitaha, C. dregeanus, C. bidentatus, C. namaquensis.

  • Sepal indumentum strikingly different from that of stem and leaves: C. acanthocladus, C. hamrinensis, C. oxyphyllus, C. ulicinus, C. urosepalus, C. iranicus, C. oxysepalus, C. turrillianus, C. virgatus, C. glomeratus, C. scopulatus, C. sericocephalus, C. boissieri subsp. compactus, C. cephalopodus (not as strongly as in other species).

Leaves and bracts. In this treatment, no great distinction is generally made between bracts and leaves. In the great majority of cases the leaves which subtend flowering peduncles (i.e. bracts) are almost identical to the lower stem leaves and differ only in their progressively smaller size towards the apex of the stem. Only in a few cases, principally those species where the inflorescence appears terminal, have we made a clear distinction between leaves and bracts.

In terms of leaf shape and molecular phylogeny the genus can be divided into two main natural groups, which are mostly easily separated apart from a few Somali or Socotran species. The first group (Species 1–106) has leaves with cordate, truncate, sagittate or hastate leaf bases and clearly demarcated petioles; basal leaf auricles are frequent. Leaves may be entire, undulate, crenate, dentate or sinuate-lobed. Included are a small number of petiolate species with rounded to broadly cuneate leaf bases, which include C. persicus and a few species from East Africa including C. oppositifolius, C. rhyniospermus, C. capituliferus, C. stenocladus, C. jefferyi, C. bidrensis. All trailing and twining species belong to this first group. The second group (Species 107–190) have leaves that are gradually narrowed at base and lack a distinct petiole. This group is most diverse in Central Asia and does not occur in the southern hemisphere or the Americas. It includes all cushion plants, most spiny species, most species with a sericeous or canescent indumentum and all species of a fastigiate habit. Leaves are usually linear, oblanceolate, oblong or elliptic and are usually entire, although undulate leaves occur in some fastigiate species and especially in the herbaceous C. grantii.

Amongst unusual leaf features are

  • Leaves abruptly contracted to a subsessile base: C. hasslerianus, C. ensifolius, C. hystrix, C. ocellatus.

  • Twining/trailing plants with strongly dimorphic leaves include most Australasian species and the following but the list is not exhaustive: C. althaeoides, C. palaestinus, C. glaouorum, C. vidalii, C. dregeanus, C. sagittatus (sometimes), C. capensis (?), C. chilensis, C. equitans, C. maireanus, C. assyricus, C. grantii.

  • Leaf auricles bifurcate or otherwise divided: C. chilensis, C. bonariensis, C. equitans, C. aschersonii, C. steppicola, C. chinensis.

  • Leaves equilaterally triangular in form: C. scammonia, C. chinensis subsp. triangularis, C. dryadum, C. farinosus (commonly).

Inflorescence. Inflorescence structure is quite diverse in the genus and is of taxonomic importance. Flowers are arranged in axillary cymes but this structure is not always obvious. Most commonly, cymes are clearly pedunculate with paired bracteoles at the branching point(s). In this account the peduncle is measured from the base where it arises from the main stem to this branching point. The term pedicel is used above this point. Pedicels are often very variable in length on a single inflorescence especially when the cyme has a clearly monochasial structure. Bracteoles are mostly small, sometimes caducous and relatively unimportant in distinguishing species.

  • Inflorescence terminal: C. turrillianus, C. oxysepalus, C. scindicus, C. maireanus, C. calvertii, C. commutatus, C. schirazianus, C. elymaiticus, C. lineatus, C. xanthopotamicus, C. spinifer, C. grigorjevii, C. krauseanus, C. oleifolius, C. cneorum, C. lanuginosus, C. gharbensis, C. humilis.

  • Axillary pedicellate flowers with peduncle absent or very short: C. vidalii, C. pitardii, C. glaouorum (somewhat so), C. fruticulosus, C. boedeckerianus, C. ocellatus, C. randii.

  • Flowers sessile, solitary or paired: C. hamrinensis, C. oxyphyllus, C. socotranus, C. hystrix (subsp. ruspolii only), C. kossmatii, C. semhaensis, C. caput-medusae, C. sericophyllus (near sessile), C. argillicola.

  • Inflorescence paniculate in form: C. floridus. Several other species could sometimes be interpreted as having a paniculate inflorescence including C. aucheri, C. cantabrica, C. pilosellifolius and C. prostratus.

  • Inflorescence racemose in form: C. sericophyllus, C. hildebrandtii, C. peninsularis, C. leptocladus.

  • Peduncles paired (at least sometimes): C. rufescens, C. thomsonii.

Sepals. The calyx consists of five separate overlapping sepals, which are commonly somewhat similar in size and shape but often slightly unequal. The two outer sepals are nearly identical; the middle is commonly asymmetric with two halves unequal and the inner pair similar to each other. All sepals may be scarious marginally, but the inner sepals often have wider scarious margins and are less hirsute than the outer pair. The sepal margins are entire or sometimes slightly undulate. In several species, the lower part of the sepal is more or less colourless and contrasts with the distinct green apical portion. In general the size and relative size of the inner and outer sepals, sepal shape, texture and indumentum are all of taxonomic importance. Unusual sepal structures include:

  • Outer sepals noticeably shorter than inner sepals: C. scammonia, C. pseudoscammonia, C. spinosus.

  • Outer sepals conspicuously larger than inner sepals: C. gortschakovii.

  • Sepals conspicuously accrescent: C. argillicola.

  • Sepals very lax (not appressed to base of corolla): C. leiocalycinus.

  • Sepals spathulate (and reflexed): C. durandoi.

  • Sepals rectangular: C. rectangularis, C. lanjouwii.

  • Sepals with a conspicuously different coloured apex: C. prostratus, C. pilosellifolius, C. cantabrica, C. aucheri, C. betonicifolius, C. tricolor, C. cataonicus, C. carduchorum, C. germaniciae, C. volubilis, C. massonii, C. oppositifolius, C. lineatus.

  • Sepals mostly > 10 mm long: C. lilloi, C. hasslerianus (South America), C. carrii (North America), C. bidrensis, C. thomsonii, C. kilimandschari, C. thunbergii, C. capensis, C. natalensis, C. argillicola, C. bullerianus (Africa), C. massonii, C. lopezsocasii (Atlantic Islands), C. scammonia (inner sepals), C. glomeratus var. sachalitarum, C. holosericeus, C. sericocephalus, C. fruticosus, C. gortschakovii, C. betonicifolius, C. supinus, C. persicus, C. phrygius, C. kotschyanus, C. commutatus, C. lanatus, C. secundus, C. schimperi, C. pyrrotrichus, C. aitchisonii, C. oxysepalus, C. cephalopodus, C. reticulatus, C. stapfii, C. cephalophorus, C. urosepalus.

  • Sepals all very short, < 5 mm long: C. arvensis, C. mairei, C. durandoi, C. fatmensis, C. vidalii, C. coelesyriacus, C. humilis, C. floridus, C. microsepalus, C. crispifolius, C. recurvatus, C. clementii, C. verecundus, C. waitaha, C. assyricus, C. dorycnium, C. sericophyllus, C. sarmentosus, C. grantii, C. hildebrandtii, C. peninsularis, C. leptocladus, C. eremophilus, C. erinaceus, C. chondrilloides, C. gracillimus, C. iranicus, C. verdcourtianus.

Corolla. The corolla of all Convolvulus species is funnel-shaped. The short basal tube is usually more or less included in the calyx while the expanded part is strongly exserted and usually conspicuous. It is undulate to 5–lobed, although it is not completely certain how constant this distinction is. On the exterior, there are 5 darker coloured and usually hirsute bands which terminate at the apex of each corolla lobe. These are referred to as midpetaline bands. They do not extend to the basal, cylindrical portion of the corolla. Corolla colour is sometimes of taxonomic importance but it is difficult to assess from dried specimens and so has been used with caution. Some species apparently always have a white corolla such as Convolvulus persicus and C. erinaceus and its allies whereas others such as C. chinensis and C. dorycnium seem always to be pink-flowered but there is uncertainty about how constant this character is in many species.

  • Corolla often or always deeply lobed: C. rufescens, C. crenatifolius, C. bonariensis, C. montanus, C. bullerianus, C. argillicola, C. multifidus, C. farinosus, C. aschersonii, C. rhyniospermus, C. erinaceus, C. fatmensis, C. siculus, C. simulans, C. volubilis, C. scoparius.

  • Corolla yellow (or cream): C. scammonia, C. pseudoscammonia, C. supinus, C. palaestinus, C. natalensis, C. bullerianus.

  • Corolla blue or bluish: C. sabatius, C. valentinus (?), C. siculus, C. pentapetaloides, C. humilis, C. gharbensis, C. simulans, C. tricolor, C. meonanthus, C. subspathulatus, C. jefferyi, C. capituliferus, C. canariensis, C. fruticulosus.

  • Midpetaline bands glabrous: C. scammonia, C. pseudoscammonia, C. durandoi, C. siculus, C. simulans, C. dregeanus, C. montanus, C. laciniatus (sometimes), C. waitaha, C. rhyniospermus, C. capituliferus (almost).

Stamens. Stamens are unequal in length. The main taxonomic character of interest is in the filaments. Sessile or very shortly stipitate glands are present on the lower expanded part of the filaments in all annual species, and trailing and twining species from the Mediterranean and Central Asian regions. They are absent from species with cuneate or attenuate leaf bases and apparently from the twining and trailing species from the southern hemisphere.

Style and stigma. The length of the undivided portion of the style is provided in the descriptions but this may well be more variable than the dimensions given as we have not generally examined the style of many examples of each species. More significant is the relative length of the undivided portion of the style to that of the stigmas. In a number of species, the stigmas are almost as long as the undivided style although they are usually much shorter. The stigmas are weakly exserted from the corolla in a number of species (C. crenatifolius subsp. montevidensis, C. equitans), possibly because the corolla is somewhat wider than in most other species. These species are also unusual for the persistence of the style on the ripening capsule.

In most species the stigmas are linear-filiform and co-extensive with the style arm. In a small group of Socotran species previously placed in Seddera (Convolvulus kossmatii, C. socotranus, C. semhaensis) the stigmas are clavate and shorter than the style arm (Luna et al. 2014). Ellipsoid stigmas are found in a number of species in the same clade (C. glomeratus, C. hystrix etc.) and upwardly thickened stigmas occur in various other species, notably C. leiocalycinus and several South African species. Several South American species also have short, rather thick stigmas (C. demissus, C. chilensis). This last species is unusual in exhibiting rather different stigmas on different plants, linear stigmas 3.5 mm long occurring on some plants while oblong stigmas c. 1.5 mm long occur on others. The frequency or significance of this variation is unknown. In most plants both stigmas in each pair are equal but occasional specimens have been observed where they are asymmetric. This does not seem to be species specific.

  • Stigmas 3: C. maireanus.

  • Stigmas not coequal with style arm: C. kossmatii, C. socotranus, C. semhaensis.

  • Stigmas thickened, oblong to ellipsoid in form, much shorter than style: Convolvulus leiocalycinus, C. persicus, C. hystrix, C. glomeratus, C. virgatus, C. oppositifolius, C. subspathulatus, C. scopulatus, C. capensis, C. namaquensis, C. bidentatus, C. chilensis (sometimes).

  • Stigmas equalling or longer than style: C. ulicinus, C. aschersonii, C. chondrilloides, C. oxysepalus, C. koieanus, C. leptocladus, C. peninsularis, C. hildebrandtii, C. trabutianus, C. sarmentosus, C. grantii, C. prostratus, C. pilosellifolius, C. aucheri, C. cantabrica, C. gracillimus, C. scoparius, C. floridus, C. lanuginosus, C. cneorum. C. calvertii, C. ammannii, C. oleifolius, C. holosericeus, C. assyricus, C. libanoticus, C. phrygius, C. cephalopodus, C. jordanensis, C. spicatus, C. secundus, C. lanatus, C. schimperi, C. kotschyanus, C. reticulatus, C. pyrrotrichus, C. fruticulosus, C. sabatius, C. valentinus, C. durandoi, C. pentapetaloides, C. humilis, C. massonii, C. volubilis, C. lopezsocasii (?). C. canariensis.

Style and ovary indumentum. The indumentum of the ovary, ripening capsule and style is of considerable taxonomic importance. Style indumentum correlates closely with that of the ovary but there are cases where the ovary is hirsute and the style glabrous (Convolvulus hermanniae subsp. erosus). However, we know of no cases where the lower part of the style is hirsute but the ovary is glabrous. Two North American species (Convolvulus equitans, C. carrii) are unique in that the upper part of the style, immediately below its division into two arms, is pilose but only in some of the specimens we have seen. In both these cases the ovary is glabrous and the character, although interesting, appears not to be of taxonomic significance.

Ovary indumentum has been used extensively in species delimitation by Sa’ad, Rechinger and others. Indeed (Rechinger 1963) uses the presence or absence of ovary hairs as one of the first dichotomies in the key to species in Flora Iranica. It has been noted as the principal but not the only character to distinguish several pairs of species including Convolvulus lanuginosus/C. calvertii and C. oxysepalus/C. turrillianus. However, others have discounted its importance (O’Donell 1957: 169) or ignored it altogether (Meeuse 1958). Our own studies suggest that it is often species specific but there are many cases where the presence or absence of ovary hairs does not correlate either with other morphological differences or with geographical distribution. This is certainly the case with C. ocellatus from Southern Africa, C. hildebrandtii from Somalia and Socotra and C. leiocalycinus from the Iranian region as well as with a number of species from Madeira and the Canary Islands. More controversially, we have adduced that indumentum differences are not significant in separating several hitherto recognised species, which we have included within C. eremophilus. Where some geographical patterning is obvious, we have accepted existing taxonomic decisions (as in the separation of C. spicatus from C. cephalopodus) or recognised subspecies (as in the South American C. hermanniae subsp. hermanniae and subsp. erosus), although no additional characters seem to separate these taxa

  • Style sometimes hirsute immediately below stigmas: C. equitans, C. carrii.

  • Ovary (and usually the capsule) hirsute at least at apex: Convolvulus hermanniae subsp. erosus, C. ocellatus (sometimes), C. semhaensis (sometimes), C. hildebrandtii (sometimes), C. mairei, C. leiocalycinus (sometimes), C. galaticus, C. germaniciae, C. cassius, C. betonicifolius, C. palaestinus, C. maireanus, C. massonii (sometimes), C. canariensis, C. lopezsocasii, C. fruticulosus (sometimes), C. sp. A, C. supinus (occasionally), C. erinaceus, C. eremophilius (usually), C. divaricatus, C. tujuntauensis, C. subsericeus, C. hamadae, C. chondrilloides, C. lindbergii (sometimes), C. sarothrocladus, C. koieanus, C. gracillimus, C. ammannii, C. xanthopotamicus, C. grigorjevii, C. krauseanus, C. tragacanthoides, C. spinifer, C. fruticosus, C. gortschakovii, C. spinosus, C. argyracanthus, C. acanthocladus, C. iranicus, C. urosepalus, C. turrillianus, C. cantabrica, C. aucheri, C. schirazianus, C. commutatus, C. elymaiticus, C. calvertii, C. sericocephalus, C. holosericeus, C. boissieri, C. suendermannii, C. lineatus, C. oleifolius, C. argyrothamnos, C. mazicum, C. phrygius, C. libanoticus, C. assyricus, C. cataonicus, C. cneorum, C. caput-medusae, C. scoparius, C. floridus, C. oxyphyllus, C. hamrinensis, C. cephalopodus, C. asyrensis, C. stapfii, C. cephalophorus, C. ulicinus.

Capsule and seeds. The fruit is a capsule and is ovoid, subglobose or somewhat ellipsoid and acuminate in shape. It has the same indumentum as the ovary. The base of the style is persistent in some species. The dehiscence is loculicidal. The capsule is basically bilocular and 4-seeded with trigonous seeds. However, unilocular capsules and single seeds occur quite frequently by abortion and may sometimes be species specific. The shape of the seed is more or less ellipsoidal if only one seed is present. Seeds may be glabrous or variously hairy. The surface may be smooth, reticulate or tuberculate.

Despite the great variety of fruit characters there are severe practical limitations in their use for taxonomic purposes, particularly in the herbarium. Most specimens are collected in flower and capsules and ripe seeds are often missing. Still more serious is the fact that for a large number of species the capsule and seeds are unknown. Given the small number of fruiting specimens available it is often impossible to be certain whether single seeded or 2–4-seeded capsules are species specific or the result of chance abortion. Our observations of seed ornamentation do not always agree with those of other authors and it is not always easy to be sure whether this is the result of natural variation, wrong identification or observation using different strengths of magnification. Consequently, caution should be exercised in relying on distinctions based solely on seed characters. Some generalisations include:

  • Many fastigiate species are 1-seeded (C. scopulatus, C. erinaceus, C. dorycnium, C. eremophilus, C. divaricatus, C. pseudocantabrica) but 1-seeded capsules are also known in C. floridus, C. hystrix and C. commutatus.

  • All herbaceous petiolate species have glabrous seeds, the seeds commonly being tuberculate or rugose, sometimes more or less reticulate with raised wavy lines as in several African species C. kilimandschari, C. farinosus and C. sagittatus.

  • Capsules and seeds are usually found in abundance on annual species.

  • Capsules and seeds are usually present on herbaceous petiolate species.

The following character lists may prove useful although they are not necessarily exhaustive:

  • Peduncles reflexed in fruit (most common in annual and Australian species): C. mairei, C. fatmensis, C. palaestinus, C. coelesyriacus, C. germaniciae (?), C. pitardii, C. vidalii, C. glaouorum, C. siculus, C. pentapetaloides, C. tricolor, C. simulans, C. microsepalus, C. recurvatus, C. graminetinus, C. crispifolius, C. eyreanus, C. angustissimus, C. waitaha, C. stenocladus.

  • Seeds hirsute: C. acanthocladus, C. fruticosus, C. dorycnium, C. chondrilloides, C. eremophilus, C. erinaceus, C. divaricatus, C. tujuntauensis, C. pseudocantabrica, C. floridus, C. calvertii, C. commutatus, C. cantabrica, C. cneorum, C. lanuginosus, C. lineatus, C. oleifolius, C. holosericeus, C. assyricus, C. libanoticus, C. asyrensis, C. cephalopodus, C. reticulatus, C. prostratus, C. pilosellifolius, C. rottlerianus, C. lanjouwii, C. sericophyllus, C. sarmentosus, C. hildebrandtii (sometimes), C. verdcourtianus, C. xanthopotamicus, C. ammannii.

  • Seeds smooth, glabrous: C. leiocalycinus, C. hystrix, C. lanatus, C. chondrilloides.

Dichotomous keys

Keys for the identification of Convolvulus species are provided on a regional basis. This ensures that keys are relatively short and the user has only a small number of species to consider if facing difficulties in deciding to which species a particular specimen belongs. Subspecies are only keyed out where more than one occurs in a particular region. Efforts have been made to ensure that similar or confusable species are contrasted in couplets, rather than being placed far apart by the use of an arbitrary character. The following 14 regional keys are provided:

  1. South America

  2. North America

  3. Australia

  4. New Zealand

  5. Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland)

  6. Tropical Africa (Sahel south to Angola, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, including Socotra and Madagascar)

  7. North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania and Niger)

  8. Atlantic Islands (Azores, Canaries, Cape Verde, Madeira)

  9. Europe (Flora Europaea area)

  10. Levant (Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Jordan)

  11. Arabian Peninsular (including Socotra and Kuwait)

  12. Indo-Iranian Region (Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Iran, Iraq, Nepal, Pakistan)

  13. Former Soviet Union

  14. East Asia (Burma/Myanmar, China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia).

Regional keys to Convolvulus species

1. Key to species in South America

1 Erect cerrado perennial with woody xylopodium; leaves sessile or subsessile 55. C. hasslerianus
Twining, trailing or prostrate herbs of varied habitats; leaves distinctly petiolate 2
2 Outer sepals 3–6 mm long 3
Outer sepals 6–14 mm long 4
3 corolla <1 cm long; outer sepals 5–6 mm long 47. C. schulzei
corolla 2–3 cm long; outer sepals 3–4.5 mm long 4. C. arvensis
4 Leaves deeply palmatisect or pinnatisect, the segments usually very fine 48. C. laciniatus
Leaves entire, weakly lobed, dentate or crenate, the basal auricles entire or bifid, never palmatisect or pinnatisect 5
5 Outer sepals 10–14 mm long; corolla 2.5–4 cm long 53. C. lilloi
Outer sepals 7–10 mm long; corolla 1–3 cm long 6
6 Prostrate plants; leaves < 3 cm long, usually much less; flowers solitary (rarely paired) 7
Prostrate or twining plants; leaves mostly >3 cm long; flowers in 1–many-flowered cymes 9
7 Leaves suborbicular, glabrous or nearly so; corolla with glabrous midpetaline bands 50. C. montanus
Leaves ovate-deltoid, pubescent; corolla with hirsute midpetaline bands 8
8 Leaves entire or very shallowly lobed (Chile) 46. C. demissus
Leaves incised-dentate (Peru) 51. C. incisodentatus
9 Corolla (1.5-)2–3 cm long, pink; leaf auricles usually bifid 44. C. chilensis
Corolla 1–2.5 cm long but, if more than 1.5 cm corolla cream; leaf auricles entire, rarely bifid and, if so, corolla < 1.5 cm long 10
10 Leaves linear oblong, glabrous, petiole < 6 mm long, flowers always solitary 54. C. ensifolius
Leaves ovate, deltoid or strap-shaped, pubescent or hirsute, petiole > 5 mm long, flowers 1–many 11
11 Ovary and capsule apically pilose; plant commonly white-pilose 49. C. hermanniae subsp. erosus
Ovary and capsule glabrous; plant variously hairy to subglabrous 12
12 Corolla 1.6–2.5 cm long, cream; flowering stems slender, c. 1–1.5 mm thick 52. C. crenatifolius subsp. montevidensis
Corolla 1–1.8 cm long, white or pink; flowering stems relatively stout, 2–3 mm thick 13
13 Leaves usually 4–5 times as long as broad, puberulent, the auricles sometimes bifid 45. C. bonariensis
Leaves ovate-deltoid, 2–3 times as long as broad, usually hirsute, the hairs more or less spreading, the auricles never bifid 14
14 Inflorescence of (1-)3–7-flowered cymes; peduncles 1.5–12 cm long; corolla pinkish 52. C. crenatifolius subsp. crenatifolius
Flowers solitary or paired; peduncles 1–3(-6) cm long; corolla white 49. C. hermanniae

2. Key to species in North America

1 Annual. Leaves narrowly oblong-oblanceolate with a long petiole-like base; corolla 5–6 mm long 92. C. simulans
Perennial. Leaves various but never narrowly oblong-oblanceolate with a long petiole-like base; corolla more than 10 mm long 2
2 Corolla pink, 1.8–4.5 cm long, leaves strongly dimorphic, the upper leaves deeply incised (naturalised in California) 22. C. althaeoides
Corolla < 2.5 cm long but, if longer, white; leaves not dimorphic; upper stem leaves not deeply incised 3
3 Outer sepals 3–4.5 cm long; corolla 3–4 times longer than calyx, usually pink 4. C. arvensis
Outer sepals 6–11 mm long; corolla mostly about twice as long as calyx but, if much more, white 4
4 Sepals mostly 9–11 mm long; corolla > 2 cm long 5
Sepals < 8 mm long; corolla < 1.8 cm long 6
5 Leaves and stem white-tomentellous; leaves abaxially with prominent raised veins 43. C. carrii
Leaves and stem not white-tomentellous; leaves lacking prominent raised veins 42. C. equitans var. lindheimeri
6 Leaves ovate-deltoid, neither lobed nor deeply incised, auricles simple; outer sepals narrowed to base; peduncles with 1–5 flowers 7
Leaves deeply lobed or incised and/or auricles deeply bifid; outer sepals often truncate to auriculate at base; peduncles with 1–2 flowers, rarely more 42. C. equitans
7 Corolla 1.3–1.8 cm long; leaf margin incised-dentate; sepals reddish-brown 52. C. crenatifolius
Corolla 1–1.5 cm long; leaf margin usually entire or undulate; sepals not reddish-brown 36. C. farinosus

3. Key to species in Australia

1 Corolla more than 1.5 cm long 2
Corolla less than 1.5 cm long 3
2 Leaves usually strongly dimorphic and/or with narrowly linear segments; sepals > 4 mm long 66. C. angustissimus
Leaves not or only weakly dimorphic, the segments never linear; sepals < 4.5 cm long 4. C. arvensis
3 Sepals less than 3 mm long 56. C. microsepalus
Sepals more than 4 mm long, often much more 4
4 Fruiting peduncles straight or sinuate, never recurved 5
Fruiting pedicels recurved 8
5 Leaves with central lobe entire or undulate; basal auricles distinct, not intergrading with sinuate-margined central lobe; corolla 1–1.5 cm long 58. C. remotus
Leaves with central lobe dentate, sinuate or dissected, the basal auricles variously lobed or dentate 6
6 Flowers usually solitary, peduncles solitary; seeds winged; corolla 7–9 mm long 61. C. clementii
Flowers usually in small axillary cymes, peduncles sometimes paired in leaf axils; seeds unwinged; corolla 9–15 mm long 7
7 Corolla < 10 mm long; stems stout, coarsely hairy 62. C. tedmoorei
Corolla > 12 mm long; stems relatively slender, softly pubescent or glabrous; corolla 1.2–1.5 mm 65. C. erubescens
8 Leaves sericeous-tomentose with appressed hairs, basal lobes usually not prominent 9
Leaves glabrous to roughly pubescent with spreading hairs; basal lobes usually prominent 10
9 Peduncles very short, < 12 mm long 59. C. crispifolius
Peduncles > 12 mm long 60. C. eyreanus
10 Sepals glabrous to sparsely hairy 57. C. graminetinus
Sepals pubescent, often densely so 11
11 Seeds winged; corolla 7–9 mm long 63. C. recurvatus
Seeds unwinged; corolla 9–12 mm long 64. C. wimmerensis

4. Key to species in New Zealand

1 Leaves dimorphic on the same plant, some being ovate-deltoid in form, others being deeply laciniate with filiform lobes 2
Leaves more or less uniform in shape, generally ovate to suborbicular in form 3
2 Sepals 6–8 mm long; peduncles not reflexed in fruit 67. C. fractosaxosus
Sepals 4–6 mm long; peduncles reflexed in fruit 57. C. graminetinus
3 Corolla > 2 cm long 4. C. arvensis
Corolla < 2 cm long 4
4 Corolla relatively small, < 14 mm long; plant subglabrous with only a few hairs, these especially on petioles 69. C. waitaha
Corolla 15–19 mm long; plant pubescent 68. C. verecundus

5. Key to species in Southern Africa

1 Flowers sessile; corolla scarcely exceeding calyx; calyx strongly accrescent in fruit 31. C. argillicola
Flowers pedicellate and/or pedunculate; corolla much exceeding calyx; calyx not markedly accrescent in fruit 2
2 Calyx < 6 mm long 3
Calyx 6–15 mm long 6
3 Corolla 2–4 times longer than the calyx; leaves usually < 2 cm long 4
Corolla only slightly exceeding calyx; leaves usually > 2 cm long 35. C. aschersonii
4 Leaves ovate-deltoid, sagittate, never lobed 4. C. arvensis
Leaves usually lobed or segmented but, if entire, linear-oblong 5
5 Plant completely glabrous, even on the exterior of the corolla; flowers pedunculate 28. C. dregeanus
Plant pubescent; flowers pedicellate but peduncles absent or very short 29. C. boedeckerianus
6 Peduncles short or absent, flowers solitary 7
Peduncles always present, short or long, 1–5-flowered 9
7 Leaves with 5–9 linear or filiform lobes; corolla lobes obtuse or rounded 30. C. multifidus
Leaves entire or 3–5-fid, lobes not markedly narrow; corolla lobes acute 8
8 Leaves always entire, silvery-sericeous, margins not inrolled; sepals acute 33. C. randii
Leaves usually palmately-lobed, rarely entire, brownish-villous, margins inrolled; sepals obtuse 32. C. ocellatus
9 Corolla < 15 mm long 10
Corolla > 15 mm long 13
10 Leaves broadly to narrowly triangular to ovate, the base truncate, sagittate or hastate but auricles not lobed 11
Leaves palmately-lobed with the central lobe much longer than the auricles, which are usually bilobed 12
11 Flowers solitary; petioles short; plant decumbent to erect, rarely twining; corolla indistinctly lobed 37. C. sagittatus
Flowers in cymes of 1–6; petioles to 6 cm, plant usually twining; corolla lobed 36. C. farinosus
12 Central lobe of leaf broad, coarsely serrate to pinnatisect; plant roughly hairy 34. C. austroafricanus
Central lobe of leaf linear-oblong (rarely broad), entire; plant glabrous to finely pubescent 35. C. aschersonii
13 Leaves linear with hastate base 14
Leaves various, usually pinnately to palmately lobed or triangular-ovate 15
14 Sepals obtuse; corolla shallowly lobed 25. C. bidentatus
Sepals acute; corolla deeply lobed 41. C. bullerianus
15 Leaves unlobed, entire or crenate 16
Leaves palmately or pinnately lobed 19
16 Corolla < 2 (-2.5)cm long; calyx < 10 mm long 17
Corolla 2–3. 5 cm long; calyx > 10 mm long 40. C. natalensis
17 Sepals abruptly narrowed into an apiculate point 39. C. galpinii
Sepals rounded to acute but not abruptly narrowed 18
18 Central lobe of leaf sinuate; flowers usually 2 or more 26. C. namaquensis
Leaf entire; flowers usually solitary 37. C. sagittatus
19 Leaves pinnately nerved with sinuous-margined central lobe 27. C. thunbergii
Leaves palmately lobed or palmatifid 24. C. capensis

6. Key to species in Tropical Africa

1 Undershrub with woody spinescent branches 2
Plant unarmed although stems sometimes stiff and woody 6
2 Leaves abruptly narrowed at base; flowers in subsessile clusters 3
Leaves cuneate at base, flowers solitary or paired, not pilose 4
3 Stems and leaves hirsute; flower clusters usually 2–6-flowered; corolla > 12 mm long; bracteoles 3–5 mm wide 104. C. hystrix subsp. hystrix
Stems and leaves glabrous to thinly pubescent; flower clusters 1(-2)-flowered; corolla 8–10 mm long; bracteoles 1–2 mm wide 104. C. hystrix subsp. ruspolii
4 Flowers shortly pedicellate, solitary or paired; stigmas linear (Somalia) 108. C. verdcourtianus
Flowers sessile, solitary; stigmas clavate (Socotra) 5
5 Ovary glabrous; sepals broadly obovate-elliptic 106. C. kossmatii
Ovary hirsute; sepals oblong-lanceolate 107. C. semhaensis
6 Annual herb; plant entirely herbaceous 7
Perennial herb or undershrub 10
7 Lamina ovate, abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole 8
Lamina oblong, lanceolate or oblong (rarely ovate), sessile or narrowed at base with petiole not clearly demarcated 9
8 Leaves crenate; sepals obtuse; corolla pink 7. C. fatmensis
Leaves entire; sepals acute; corolla blue 87. C. siculus
9 Flowers 3–6 in sessile axillary clusters 93. C. rhyniospermus
Flowers up to 3 in pedunculate cymes 110. C. rottlerianus
10 Corolla large, 2.5–4 cm in length; mountain liana 23. C. kilimandschari
Corolla < 2 cm in length; low herb if occurring on mountains 11
11 Flowers arranged in few- to many-flowered heads, these pedunculate or sessile, the flower bases often concealed by bracts 12
Flowers solitary or in lax cymes with pedicels clearly developed, flower bases usually easily visible 21
12 Leaves linear, < 5 mm long. Undershrub 103. C. scopulatus
Leaves oblong or lanceolate, > 10 cm long. Herbs or undershrubs 13
13 Bracts and calyx glabrous 97. C. bidrensis
Bracts and calyx variously hirsute 14
14 Flower heads subsessile; peduncles < 5 mm long 15
Flower heads distinctly pedunculate with peduncles > 10 mm long 18
15 Corolla pale pink or white; woody below 16
Corolla blue; herbaceous 17
16 Leaves abruptly narrowed into a short petiole up to 6 mm long; sepals uniform in colour 104. C. hystrix subsp. inermis
Leaves gradually narrowed to base; sepals bicoloured, pale basally, green at the apex 111. C. prostratus
17 Leaves obovate, pubescent, up to 10 mm wide; sepals 5–7 mm long 94. C. capituliferus
Leaves oblong-oblanceolate, sericeous, < 6mm wide; sepals 8–9 mm long 98. C. vollesenii
18 Leaves linear, cuneate at base; bracts linear, appressed to flower head 96. C. stenocladus
Leaves suborbicular, ovate, lanceolate or oblong; bracts neither linear nor appressed to flower head 19
19 Leaves suborbicular; plant densely covered in brownish sericeous hairs 99. C. subspathulatus
Leaves lanceolate, ovate or oblong; plant not sericeous 20
20 Leaves usually basally cordate; bracts and sepals villous with brownish hairs; flowers usually whitish 101. C. glomeratus
Leaves basally truncate to subhastate; bracts and sepals pubescent; corolla blue 95. C. jefferyi
21 Leaves sessile, the base of the lamina attenuate at the base 22
Leaves petiolate, lamina hastate or sagittate, well demarcated from the petiole 26
22 Flowers solitary, sessile; stigmas clavate, shorter than the style arm 105. C. socotranus
Flowers grouped into cymes or, if solitary, pedunculate; stigmas linear 23
23 Inflorescence racemose in form with very shortly pedunculate cymes 114. C. sericophyllus
Inflorescence paniculate or cymose; flowers with long peduncles 24
24 Herbaceous plant; leaves with sinuate or undulate margins; basal rosette present 115. C. grantii
Herbaceous plant becoming woody with age; leaves entire; basal rosette absent 25
25 Basal leaves villous, ephemeral; bracts linear 117. C. hildebrandtii
Basal leaves sericeous, persistent; bracts oblong to oblanceolate 116. C. sarmentosus
26 Corolla 2–5 times as long as calyx; sepals <4.5 mm long 4. C. arvensis
Corolla up to twice as long as calyx; sepals usually > 5 mm long 27
27 Leaves crenate; fruiting peduncle reflexed 7. C. fatmensis
Leaves not crenate; fruiting pedicels not reflexed 28
28 Erect or twining plant; leaves sericeous with prominent veining on abaxial surface (Zimbabwe) 33. C. randii
Trailing or twining herb, veining on abaxial surface of leaf not prominent 29
29 Flowers in 1–7-flowered cymes; peduncles 1.5–12 cm long; corolla < 1.2 cm long 30
Flowers usually solitary; peduncles 1–3(-6) cm long; corolla > 1.2 cm long 32
30 Central lobe of leaves coarsely dentate; stems and leaves roughly hirsute 34. C. austroafricanus
Central lobe of leaf entire to undulate; stems and leaves farinose to softly pubescent 31
31 Leaves ovate to triangular; auricles not bifurcate 36. C. farinosus
Leaves oblong or strap-shaped; auricles commonly bifurcate 35. C. aschersonii
32 Plant densely pubescent to subtomentose; leaf margins shallowly lobed; outer sepals 9–11 mm long 38. C. thomsonii
Plant thinly to densely pubescent: leaf margin usually entire; sepals 6–8 mm long 37. C. sagittatus

7. Key to species in North Africa

1 Annual herbs; plants slender, herbaceous, never rhizomatous or woody at the base 2
Perennial herbs or undershrubs, usually robust, the base woody or, if herbaceous, rootstock rhizomatous 11
2 Flowers densely clustered, peduncles and pedicels, absent or, if present, very short 3
Flowers solitary or in lax cymes 5
3 Flower 3–6 in axillary clusters; corolla pale pink (Sahara) 93. C. rhyniospermus
Flower clusters terminal (formed from the uppermost leaf axils); corolla blue 4
4 Corolla c. 1 cm long; ovary and capsule hirsute; some flowers usually present in uppermost leaf axils (Mediterranean) 91. C. humilis
Corolla 1.5–2.5 cm long; ovary and capsule glabrous; flowers all terminal (Morocco) 86. C. gharbensis
5 Leaves petiolate; leaf blade abruptly narrowed to a truncate or cordate base 6
Leaves clearly sessile or leaf blade gradually narrowed to base 8
6 Flowers blue; leaves entire, fruiting peduncle not strongly recurved 7
Flowers pinkish, leaves crenate; peduncle strongly recurved in fruit 7. C. fatmensis
7 Pedicel absent, bracteole adjacent to calyx 87. C. siculus subsp. siculus
Pedicel present, bracteole distant from calyx 87. C. siculus subsp. elongatus
8 Corolla 7–10 mm long, entirely blue 88. C. pentapetaloides
Corolla 14–40 mm long, usually blue, white and yellow banded 9
9 Capsule pubescent; sepals with distinct, different coloured lower and upper portions, pubescent (C. tricolor) 10
Capsule glabrous; sepals without distinct upper and lower areas, glabrous to pubescent 89. C. meonanthus
10 Upper portion of sepals acute to acuminate, longer than basal portion 90. C. tricolor subsp. cupanianus
Upper portion of sepals obtuse to acute, shorter than or equalling the basal portion 90. C. tricolor subsp. tricolor
11 Plant with spinescent branches, at least below 12
Plant unarmed 14
12 Plant subglabrous to densely sericeous (Morocco and Algeria); flowers solitary or in ebracteate clusters 109. C. trabutianus
Plant densely pilose to tomentose (Egypt); flowers in bracteate heads 13
13 Leaves < 15 mm long, abruptly narrowed at base; all branches spinescent 104. C. hystrix
Leaves 1–3 cm long, tapered at base; only the old basal, often leafless branches spinescent 176. C. lanatus
14 Leaves attenuate at base and lacking a distinct petiole; plants never twining 15
Leaves hastate, sagittate or (less commonly oblong), abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole; plants twining or not 24
15 Mature stems woody and divaricately branched 167. C. dorycnium
Mature stems not woody except below, not divaricately branched 16
16 Stems and leaves with spreading hairs 17
Stems and leaves appressed hairy and more or less sericeous with silvery hairs 21
17 Sepals with a pale lower portion and green apex; flowers separate or in few-flowered clusters; leaves mostly pilose or pubescent, sometimes subtomentose 18
Sepals uniform in colour; flowers in dense heads; leaves densely tomentose (Sinai) 20
18 Ovary and capsule hirsute; corolla c. 2 cm long 146. C. cantabrica
Ovary and capsule glabrous; corolla <1.5 cm long 19
19 Sepals oblong–oblanceolate, acute; inflorescence lax with some flowers separate 112. C. pilosellifolius
Sepals lanceolate or ovate, acuminate; flowers clustered into heads 111. C. prostratus
20 Leaf margin undulate; plants apparently prostrate 180. C. schimperi
Leaf margin entire; plants ascending to erect 178. C. spicatus
21 Cushion plant; flowers solitary or paired, very shortly peduncled 22
Plants not cushion–forming; flowering stems mostly > 5 cm long, flowers in lax terminal groups 23
22 Upper surface of leaves glabrous (Morocco) 159. C. mazicum
Upper surface of leaves at least thinly pubescent (widespread) 156. C. lineatus
23 Plant usually < 25 cm high; extreme base of leaf widened and scarious; sepals sericeous and spreading pilose 156. C. lineatus
Plant usually 20–50 cm high; extreme base of leaf not widened and scarious; sepals with spreading hairs only 157. C. oleifolius
24 Leaves almost completely entire, occasionally lobed at base 25
Leaves undulate, dentate, sinuate–lobed or incised 31
25 Inner sepals longer and more prominent than outer sepals; plant completely glabrous 26
Inner sepals equalling or shorter than the outer sepals; plant hirsute or glabrous 27
26 Corolla yellow, 3–4 cm long; outer sepals oblong–obovate without recurved apex (East Mediterranean) 1. C. scammonia
Corolla pink < 2.3 cm long, outer sepals spathulate with reflexed apex (Algeria) 3. C. durandoi
27 Stem base herbaceous; plant usually glabrous to adpressed pubescent 28
Stem base woody, plant pubescent, often densely so 29
28 Sepals < 5 mm long 4. C. arvensis
Sepals > 6 mm long 37. C. sagittatus
29 Corolla yellow or yellowish; stigma much shorter than style; petioles all very short, more or less 1 mm 85. C. supinus
Corolla blue or white; stigma and style more or less equal or stigma only slightly shorter; petioles > 2 mm 30
30 Leaves more than twice as long as broad, usually acute; bracteoles 0.5 mm wide 83. C. valentinus
Leaves less than twice as long as broad, rounded; bracteoles 1–3.5 mm wide 84. C. sabatius subsp. mauritanicus
31 Flowers in compact pilose axillary heads; stigma clavate 101. C. glomeratus
Flowers solitary or in lax cymes or, if clustered, at apex of stem; stigma linear 32
32 Sepals < 5 mm long; peduncle deflexed in fruit; slender trailing herb 7. C. fatmensis
Sepals > 5 mm long; peduncles not deflexed in fruit; plant moderately robust 33
33 Flowers clustered at the apex of a peduncle–like stem; stigmas commonly three 73. C. maireanus
Flowers not clustered, solitary to several; stigmas 2 34
34 Perennial herbs with herbaceous base; flowers 1–several; peduncle not suppressed 35
Woody based plants from Morroco; flowers solitary, peduncle commonly short 39
35 Leaves undulate to sinuate, not dimorphic 36
Leaves (or some of them) deeply incised, commonly dimorphic with basal leaves differing markedly from upper stem leaves 37
36 Flowers solitary; leaves truncate (NW Africa) 71. C. dryadum
Flowers up to 5; leaves cordate (East Mediterranean) 14. C. stachydifolius
37 Corolla yellow 15. C. palaestinus
Corolla pink or white 38
38 Leaves sericeous, the segments of the upper leaves linear 22. C. althaeoides subsp. tenuissimus
Leaves pubescent to pilose, the segments of the upper lanceolate to oblong–elliptic 22. C. althaeoides subsp. althaeoides
39 Corolla purple, the centre white usually with 5 purple spots; peduncles absent; sepals < 5 mm long 21. C. vidalii
Corolla pink or white, lacking a purple-spotted centre; peduncles almost always present; sepals > 4.5 mm long 40
40 Calyx lanceolate in outline; sepals lanceolate to ovate 19. C. pitardii
Calyx oblong in outline; sepals obovate, obtuse to truncate 20. C. glaouorum

8. Key to species in the Atlantic Islands

1 Leaves sessile; shrubs or woody-based herbs 2
Leaves abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole; herbs or shrubs 5
2 Ovary glabrous; leaves not sericeous; flowers of sessile or pedunculate clasters; plant herbaceous with a woody base (Cape Verde) 111. C. prostratus
Ovary usually hirsute; leaves sericeous; flowers varied but not in sessile or pedunculate clusters; undershrubs or shrubs (Canaries) 3
3 Prostrate hummock-forming undershrub with spinescent branches 169. C. caput-medusae
Erect shrubs or herbs, the branches not spinescent 4
4 Leaves oblong, > 0.5 cm wide; inflorescence terminal, paniculate, many-flowered 171. C. floridus
Leaves filiform to linear < 0.5 cm wide; inflorescence unbranched or sparingly branched, axillary and terminal, few-flowered (< 10) 170. C. scoparius
5 Annual herbs, neither twining nor trailing; corolla blue 6
Perennial herbs, lianas or undershrubs, twining or trailing the basal parts often woody 8
6 Leaves sessile, tapered at base; corolla 3-coloured 90. C. tricolor
Leaves abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole; corolla entirely blue (C. siculus) 7
7 Pedicels absent, bracteole appressed to base of calyx, filiform to more or less lanceolate 87. C. siculus subsp. siculus
Pedicels borne at least 5 mm below calyx, always filiform 87. C. siculus subsp. elongatus
8 Calyx < 5 mm long, plant entirely herbaceous 4. C. arvensis
Calyx > 5 mm long, base of plant woody, rarely entirely herbaceous 9
9 Corolla 10–15 mm long; plant entirely herbaceous (Azores) 36. C. farinosus
Corolla > 15 mm long; plant woody at base (Madeira, Canaries) 10
10 Leaves dimorphic, upper leaves deeply segmented 22. C. althaeoides
All leaves similar, upper leaves not deeply segmented 11
11 Leaves strongly hirsute 12
Leaves glabrous or nearly so 14
12 Leaves oblong-ovate, densely villous beneath 77. C. canariensis
Leaves elliptic, lanceolate, ovate or oblong, finely pubescent to tomentellous beneath 13
13 Leaves ovate, outer sepals 10–13 mm long 80. C. sp. A
Leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong, sepals 6–9 mm long 81. C. fruticulosus subsp. fruticulosus
14 Cymes long-pedunculate; leaves large 4–11 cm long (Madeira) 75. C. massonii
Cymes borne on peduncles < 2 cm long; leaves < 6 cm long 15
15 Leaves < 4 × 1.5 cm wide; cymes 1–2-flowered (Gran Canaria) 81. C. fruticulosus subsp. glandulosus
Leaves mostly > 4 × 1.5 cm; cymes 1–6-flowered 16
16 Sepals 9–10 mm long; corolla white with pink midpetaline bands (Lanzarote) 79. C. lopezsocasii
Sepals 5 mm long; corolla bluish (Tenerife, La Gomera) 78. C. volubilis

9. Key to species in Europe

1 Leaves abruptly narrowed at the base into a distinct petiole 2
Leaves gradually narrowed at the base, lacking a distinct petiole 15
2 Leaves cuneate or truncate at the base 3
Leaves sagittate or hastate at the base 8
3 Robust plant, densely lanate; sepals obtuse 72. C. persicus
Slender plant, pubescent; sepals acute to acuminate 4
4 Annual herb, corolla 7–12 mm long (C. siculus) 5
Perennial herb, corolla 1.5–2 cm long 6
5 Pedicels absent, bracteole appressed to base of calyx, filiform to more or less lanceolate 87. C. siculus subsp. siculus
Pedicels borne at least 5 mm below calyx, always filiform 87. C. siculus subsp. elongatus
6 Pedicels 0–3 mm long; leaves ovate to suborbicular 83. C. valentinus
Pedicels 3–12 mm; leaves lanceolate to oblong, often falcate 7
7 Calyx with mostly short appressed hairs 84. C. sabatius subsp. sabatius
Calyx with spreading hairs only 84. C. sabatius subsp. mauritanicus
8 Leaves strongly dimorphic, the upper leaves deeply divided (C. althaeoides) 9
Leaves not strongly dimorphic; the upper leaves not deeply divided 10
9 Leaves sericeous beneath; leaf segments narrow, linear to oblong 22. C. althaeoides subsp. tenuissimus
Leaves with spreading, often slightly asperous hairs; leaf segments mostly broad 22. C. althaeoides subsp. althaeoides
10 Sepals < 5 mm long 11
Sepals > 5 mm long 12
11 Flowers very small; capsule pubescent, borne on recurved peduncles 6. C. mairei
Flowers usually 15–25 mm long; capsule glabrous, not recurved 4. C. arvensis
12 Corolla < 17 mm long. Portugal 13
Corolla 25–45 mm long. Eastern Europe 14
13 Liana; leaves oblong and elliptic, retuse, glabrescent; corolla 15–17 mm long 82. C. fernandesii
Twining or decumbent perennial herb with herbaceous stems; leaves usually triangular, acute, farinose or pubescent; corolla 10–15 mm long 36. C. farinosus
14 Plant glabrous; flowers yellow; sepals emarginate and apiculate 1. C. scammonia
Plant pubescent; flowers usually pink; sepals acute or acuminate 11. C. betonicifolius
15 Annual herbs; plants entirely herbaceous 16
Perennial plants, at least the basal portions and rootstock woody 20
16 Flowers sessile or nearly so, peduncle and pedicel shorter than calyx 91. C. humilis
Flowers distinctly pedunculate, the peduncle and pedicel several times longer than the calyx 17
17 Corolla 7–10 mm long, entirely blue 88. C. pentapetaloides
Corolla 14–40 mm long, usually blue, white and yellow banded 18
18 Capsule pubescent; sepals with distinct, different coloured lower and upper portions, pubescent (C. tricolor) 19
Capsule glabrous; sepals without distinct upper and lower areas, glabrous to pubescent 89. C. meonanthus
19 Upper portion of sepals acute to acuminate, longer than basal portion 90. C. tricolor subsp. cupanianus
Upper prtion of sepals obtuse to acute, shorter than or equalling the basal portion 90. C. tricolor subsp. tricolor
20 Cushion plants with prostrate stems with or without short flowering stems 21
Plants not cushion forming; flowering stems at least 5 cm high 25
21 Flowering stems absent or extremely short 22
Short but distinct flowering stems present 24
22 Leaves glabrous above, midrib only distinct 161. C. libanoticus
Leaves sericeous above, lateral veins distinct (C. boissieri) 23
23 Indumentum of sepals more or less spreading and distinct from that of the leaves (Spain) 154. C. boissieri subsp. boissieri
Indumentum of leaves and sepals similar (Balkans) 154. C. boissieri subsp. compactus
24 Lateral veins distinct (Bulgaria) 155. C. suendermannii
Lateral veins not distinct (widespread). 156. C. lineatus
25 Mature stems woody and divaricately branched 167. C. dorycnium
Mature stems not woody, or only so below, not divaricately branched 26
26 Plants silvery-sericeous, the hairs appressed 27
Plants densely pubescent to pilose, some hairs conspicuously spreading 33
27 Outer sepals more or less cordate at the base, conspicuously gibbous 153. C. holosericeus
Outer sepals neither cordate basally nor gibbous 28
28 Flowers in dense heads overtopped by bracts, which form a kind of involucre 29
Flowers in lax terminal groups, the pedicels usually obvious 31
29 Ovary and capsule glabrous (Spain and France) 165. C. lanuginosus
Ovary and capsule hirsute 30
30 Stem leaves distant, few; sepals all acuminate (Caucasus) 151. C. calvertii subsp. ruprechtii
Stem leaves imbricate, numerous, some sepals obtuse (Adriatic region) 166. C. cneorum
31 Cliff plant with long pendent sems 158. C. argyrothamnos
Plant of open slopes, decumbent to erect 32
32 Plant usually < 25 cm high; extreme base of leaf widened and scarious 156. C. lineatus
Plant usually 20–50 cm high; extreme base of leaf not widened and scarious 157. C. oleifolius
33 Inflorescence with flowers clustered at apex of stem 34
Inflorescence lax 146. C. cantabrica
34 Sepals densely pilose 151. C. calvertii subsp. calvertii
Sepals with scattered spreading hairs 152. C. sericocephalus

10. Key to species in the Levant

1 Annual herbs; plants slender, herbaceous, never rhizomatous or woody at the base 2
Perennial herbs or undershrubs, usually robust, the base woody or, if herbaceous, rootstock rhizomatous 7
2 Flowers densely clustered at the apex, peduncles and pedicels, absent or, if present, very short 91. C. humilis
Flowers solitary or in lax cymes 3
3 Sepals terminating in a prominent mucro 1.5–3 mm long 18. C. coelesyriacus
Sepals acute to obtuse, lacking a distinct terminal mucro 4
4 Leaves petiolate; leaf blade abruptly narrowed to a truncate or cordate base 5
Leaves clearly sessile or leaf blade gradually narrowed to base 8
5 Flowers blue; leaves entire, fruiting peduncle not strongly recurved 87. C. siculus
Flowers pinkish, leaves crenate; peduncle strongly recurved in fruit 7. C. fatmensis
6 Corolla 7–10 mm long, entirely blue 88. C. pentapetaloides
Corolla 14–40 mm long, usually blue, white and yellow banded 90. C. tricolor
7 Leaves distinctly petiolate, base of lamina hastate, sagittate, cordate, rounded or very broadly cuneate 8
Leaves sessile or base of lamina tapering at base 22
8 Inner sepals conspicuously longer than outer sepals; plant glabrous (including midpetaline bands); corolla yellow 9
Inner sepals equalling or shorter than outer sepals; plant hirsute at least on the midpetaline bands; corolla pink or white (yellowish only in C. palaestinus) 10
9 Rigidly erect, divaricately branched plant 2. C. pseudoscammonia
Trailing plant, stems not divaricately branched 1. C. scammonia
10 Flowers in axillary, pedunculate, pilose heads 101. C. glomeratus
Flowers solitary or in lax cymes, never arranged in dense pilose heads 11
11 Leaf base broadly cuneate to rounded; undershrub with tomentose leaves and solitary white flowers 72. C. persicus
Leaf base hastate, sagittate or truncate; trailing or twining herbs, only slightly woody at base; flowers or not, commonly pinkish 12
12 Sepals < 6 mm long; leaves never deeply incised or lobed 13
Sepals > 6 mm long; upper leaves often incised or dentate 15
13 Leaf margin entire; fruiting peduncles not recurved 14
Leaf margin strongly crenate; fruiting pedicels recurved 7. C. fatmensis
14 Sepals < 4.5 mm long, scarious-margined 4. C. arvensis
Sepals 5.5–6 mm long, margins not scarious 12. C. longipedicellatus
15 Sepals 10–15 mm long, leaf margin entire to obscurely undulate 11. C. betonicifolius
Sepals 6–10 mm long, leaf margin crenate dentate to incised 16
16 Leaves dimorphic, at least the upper ones incised; ovary glabrous; corolla pink or white 17
Leaves not dimorphic nor upper leaves incised except sometimes in C. palaestinus, which has a yellow corolla; ovary hirsute or glabrous 18
17 Leaves sericeous, the segments of the upper leaves linear 22. C. althaeoides subsp. tenuissimus
Leaves pubescent to pilose, the segments of the upper lanceolate to oblong-ellipti 22. C. althaeoides subsp. althaeoides
18 Leaves glabrous with a ciliate margin 13. C. cassius
Leaves densely pubescent to tomentose 19
19 Corolla yellow; leaves commonly dimorphic 15. C. palaestinus
Corolla pink or white, leaves never dimorphic 20
20 Ovary glabrous; sepals obovate to broadly elliptic, leaves sinuate, coarsely pubescent 14. C. stachydifolius
Ovary hirsute (? rarely glabrous); sepals ovate to elliptic; leaves undulate to crenate, softly tomentose 21
21 Leaves with spreading hairs; sepals acute; corolla white to pale pink 17. C. germaniciae
Leaves uniformly short-tomentose; sepals apiculate; corolla pink 16. C. galaticus
22 Flowers several in axillary heads; leaves, stem and sepals densely villous 23
Flowers in terminal heads (sometimes a few axillary also) or not in head-like structures; stem and leaves glabrous, pubescent, pilose or sericeous 27
23 Bracts ovate, cordate, up to 3 cm wide; leaves reticulate below 185. C. reticulatus
Bracts oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, up to 1.5 cm wide; leaves not reticulate below 24
24 Flower heads sessile or subsessile 25
Flower heads pedunculate 26
25 Lower, old stems spinescent, stems ascending, < 40 cm long 176. C. lanatus
Plant unarmed, stems procumbent, > 40 cm long 177. C. secundus
26 Bracts linear to lanceolate, < 0.5 cm wide 179. C. jordanensis
Bracts oblong-elliptic or lanceolate 0.5–1.5 cm wide 178. C. spicatus
27 Plants with branched stems forming a lax open inflorescence 28
Plants with compact terminal inflorescences or cushion plants, never forming a much branched open inflorescence 33
28 Corolla white, c. 1 cm long; stem glabrous 113. C. chondrilloides
Corolla pink or with pink midpetaline bands, > 1 cm long, stem appressed hairy to pilose 29
29 Ovary glabrous 30
Ovary hirsute 32
30 Corolla 1–1.5 cm long; stems flexible, herbaceous, pilose 112. C. pilosellifolius
Corolla 2–2.5 cm long; stems stiff and woody, appressed pubescent 31
31 Sepals at apex abruptly narrowed and mucronate 167. C. dorycnium subsp. dorycnium
Sepals gradually narrowed to an acute or acuminate apex 167. C. dorycnium subsp. oxysepalus
32 Stems and leaves densely spreading pilose; leaves all oblong (Gaziantep region) 147. C. aucheri
Stems and leaves pubescent or thinly pilose; leaves variously shaped, often oblanceolate-spathulate near the base of the stem, rarely oblong 146. C. cantabrica
33 Leaves and stem adpressed-sericeous 34
Leaves and stem with spreading hairs (often also sericeous) or more or less glabrous 39
34 Sepals with a conspicuous pouch near base 35
Sepals lacking a conspicuous pouch near base 36
35 Sepals < 10 × 8 mm 153. C. holosericeus subsp. holosericeus
Sepals > 11 × 11 mm 153. C. holosericeus subsp. macrocalycinus
36 Dwarf cushion-forming shrublet 37
Low perennial with woody base and distinct ascending or erect stems 38
37 Sepals with conspicuous spreading hairs; leaves with forked central vein 154. C. boissieri subsp. compactus
Sepals with appressed hairs; leaves with one simple central vein 160. C. phrygius
38 Plant usually < 25 cm high; extreme base of leaf widened and scarious; sepals sericeous and spreading pilose 156. C. lineatus
Plant usually 20–50 cm high; extreme base of leaf not widened and scarious; sepals with spreading hairs only 39
39 Flowers clustered, usually at apex of peduncle-like stem; plants cushion-forming or not 40
Flowers solitary or clearly separate in a lax terminal cyme; plants strictly cushion forming 44
40 Outer sepals bicoloured with a pale base and green apex 41
Outer sepals uniformly coloured 151. C. calvertii
41 Corolla < 1.5 cm long 112. C. pilosellifolius
Corolla > 1.5 cm long 42
42 Stems, leaves, sepals and ovary glabrous or nearly so 164. C. carduchorum
Stems, leaves, sepals and ovary conspicuously pilose 43
43 Plant < 15 cm high; sepals with long caudate apex 163. C. cataonicus
Plant usually > 25 cm high; sepals acute to acuminate 146. C. cantabrica
44 Plant with conspicuous spreading hairs; corolla pink 162. C. assyricus
Plant subglabrous or thinly appressed pubescent; corolla white or pale pink 161. C. libanoticus

11. Key to species in the Arabian Peninsula (including Socotra)

1 Plants annual; all parts of the plant herbaceous 2
Plants perennial; plants usually woody below, but, if entirely herbaceous, with perennial rhizomatous roots 4
2 Leaves crenate; sepals obtuse; corolla pink 7. C. fatmensis
Leaves entire; sepals acute; corolla blue 3
3 Pedicels absent, bracteole appressed to base of calyx, filiform to more or less lanceolate 87. C. siculus subsp. siculus
Pedicels borne at least 5 mm below calyx, always filiform 87. C. siculus subsp. elongatus
4 Trailing or twining herbs with leaves abruptly narrowed at the base into a distinct petiole; plants not with woody stems nor flowers arranged in head-like clusters 5
Herbs or shrubs, never twining or trailing, leaves gradually narrowed at the base, lacking a distinct petiole but if petiolate, stems woody or flowers in head-like clusters 9
5 Corolla > 15 mm long; flowers usually solitary 6
Corolla < 12 mm long; flowers 1–5 in axillary cymes 7
6 Sepals < 4.5 mm long; plant usually glabrescent 4. C. arvensis
Sepals > 6 mm long; plant pubescent 37. C. sagittatus
7 Leaves crenate; fruiting peduncles deflexed 7. C. fatmensis
Leaves not crenate, entire apart from (sometimes) forked auricles or weakly sinuate margins; fruiting peduncles not deflexed 8
8 Central leaf lobe ovate to triangular in outline; basal auricles not forked; plant often twining 36. C. farinosus
Central leaf lobe linear-oblong in outline; basal auricles sometimes forked; plant usually trailing 35. C. aschersonii
9 Leaves with lamina abruptly narrowed at base and clearly separate from the (sometimes very short) petiole; stigmas clavate or at least thickened upwards 10
Leaves sessile or with lamina attenuate at base with no distinct petiole; stigmas various 14
10 Flowers in hirsute heads, the hairs spreading and somewhat concealing the calyx 11
Flowers solitary; sepals glabrous or sericeous, easily visible (Oman) 70. C. leiocalycinus
11 Flower heads pedunculate 12
Flower heads sessile or nearly so 13
12 Leaves glabrous; stems woody, sometimes spinescent 100. C. virgatus
Leaves pubescent; stems herbaceous (except below), never spinescent 101. C. glomeratus
13 Spiny undershrub; leaves all alternate; flower clusters of up to 6 flowers 104. C. hystrix
Unarmed undershrub; leaves often opposite towards branch tips; flowers usually 1–2 together 102. C. oppositifolius
14 Branches spinescent 15
Branches not spiny although sometimes woody and rigid 21
15 Flowers solitary or clustered, sessile; sterile spinescent peduncles absent 16
Flowers solitary or clustered borne on spinescent peduncles; sterile peduncles often present as spines (Oman) 142. C. acanthocladus
16 Sepals addressed pubescent; stigma clavate, shorter than style arm (Socotra) 17
Sepals with spreading hairs; stigmas linear, co-extensive with style arm 18
17 Ovary glabrous; sepals broadly obovate-elliptic 106. C. kossmatii
Ovary hirsute; sepals oblong-lanceolate 107. C. semhaensis
18 Sepals long-pilose with woolly hairs (Oman) 189. C. ulicinus
Sepals densely pubescent to tomentose but lacking long woolly hairs 19
19 Plant with long, slender, spine-tipped branches, short spinescent side shoots absent or very few 172. C. oxyphyllus subsp. oxyphyllus
Plant with stout spinescent primary branches and numerous short (< 4 cm long), usually stout lateral spine-like shoots 20
20 Leaves with rigid, acute apex, basal leaves not undulate; flowers usually in clusters of > 1, clusters elongating at maturity 172. C. oxyphyllus subsp. oxycladus
Leaves with soft obtuse to subacute apex, the basal leaves often undulate; flowers mostly solitary 173. C. hamrinensis
21 Flowers arranged in sessile or pedunculate, pilose clusters 22
Flowers arranged in a lax open inflorescence or sessile or shortly pedunculate along an elongate axis, not in pilose cluster 28
22 Nearly leafless subshrub with glabrous to adpressed pubescent stem and leaves; leaves minute, linear, < 5 mm long (Hadramaut) 103. C. scopulatus
Leafy plants at least basally; leaves and stem pubescent, pilose or villous; leaves > 2 cm long 23
23 Sepals bicoloured, base colourless, apex greenish; ovary glabrous 24
Sepals uniformly coloured green; ovary hirsute 25
24 Flowers usually more or less solitary, sometimes clustered; sepals oblong with an acute apex 112. C. pilosellifolius
Flowers in heads, very rarely solitary; sepals gradually narrowed to an acute to long acuminate apex 111. C. prostratus
25 Heads subsessile; dwarf mountain plant with stems < 10 cm high (Asir) 183. C. asyrensis
Heads pedunculate; desert plant with stems usually >15 cm 26
26 Stems and leaves with long villous hairs; style pilose 181. C. cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus
Stems and leaves shortly hairy; style glabrous or nearly so 181. C. cephalopodus subsp. cephalopodus
27 Sepals bicoloured; base colourless, apex greenish 112. C. pilosellifolius
Sepals uniformly green 28
28 Leaves sinuate margined; basal rosette persistent; plant entirely herbaceous (Abd ul Kuri Island) 115. C. grantii
Leaf margins entire; basal rosette absent or ephemeral; plant usually woody at least below 29
29 Ovary hirsute; corolla deeply lobed; undershrub to 3 m with very rigid branches and peduncles arising at 90° to each other (Saudi Arabia) 120. C. erinaceus
Ovary glabrous; corolla shallowly lobed; herbs or undershrubs to 50 cm, branching not as above 30
30 Flowers sessile or nearly so, forming a long narrow inflorescence 31
Flowers borne on conspicuous, often rigid peduncles; inflorescence open 32
31 Flowers solitary (Socotra) 105. C. socotranus
Flowers in very shortly pedunculate cymes (Yemen) 114. C. sericophyllus
32 Peduncles bearing monochasial cymes, inflorescence pubescent (Oman) 118. C. peninsularis
Peduncles mostly bearing single flowers; inflorescence almost glabrous except sepals 33
33 Basal leaves villous, ephemeral; bracts linear 117. C. hildebrandtii
Basal leaves sericeous, persistent; bracts oblong or oblanceolate 116. C. sarmentosus

12. Key to species in the Indo-Iranian region

1 Plants annual; all parts of the plant herbaceous 2
Plants perennial; plants usually woody below, but, if entirely herbaceous, with perennial rhizomatous roots 7
2 Lamina ovate, abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole 3
Leaves oblong, lanceolate or oblong (rarely ovate), sessile or narrowed at base with petiole not clearly demarcated 4
3 Leaves crenate; sepals obtuse; corolla pink 7. C. fatmensis
Leaves entire; sepals acute; corolla blue 87. C. siculus
4 Flowers solitary, corolla blue 88. C. pentapetaloides
Flowers clustered or grouped, very rarely solitary; corolla pinkish 5
5 Flowers 3–6 in sessile axillary clusters 93. C. rhyniospermus
Flowers up to 3 in pedunculate cymes
6 Sepals glabrous 110. C. rottlerianus subsp. stocksii
Sepals adpressed-pilose 110a. C. rottlerianus subsp. rottlerianus
7 Trailing or twining herbs with leaves abruptly narrowed at the base into a distinct petiole; plants not with woody stems nor flowers arranged in head-like clusters 8
Herbs or shrubs, never twining or trailing, leaves gradually narrowed at the base, lacking a distinct petiole but if petiolate, stems woody or flowers in head-like clusters 15
8 Sepals < 5 mm long 9
Sepals > 6 mm long 10
9 Leaves crenate; fruiting peduncles deflexed 7. C. fatmensis
Leaves entire; fruiting peduncles not deflexed 4. C. arvensis
10 Plant completely glabrous; corolla yellow 1. C. scammonia
Plant pubescent at least on the midpetaline bands and usually elsewhere; corolla variously coloured 11
11 Sepals rectangular in form (Afghanistan) 12
Sepals variously shaped, never rectangular in form (India, Iran, Iraq) 13
12 Leaves entire, densely hirsute 74. C. lanjouwii
Leaves sinuate-margined, sparsely pubescent 75. C. rectangularis
13 Ovary and capsule hirsute; sepals bicoloured with distinct apical portion; leaves entire to undulate 11. C. betonicifolius
Ovary and capsule glabrous; sepals lacking a distinctly coloured apical portion; leaves undulate to sinuate or dentate 14
14 Corolla < 1.2 cm long, white or cream (India) 10. C. rufescens
Corolla 2.5–3.5 cm long, pink or purplish 14. C. stachydifolius
15 Leaves distinctly petiolate, the lamina clearly separate from the petiole 16
Leaves sessile or with lamina attenuate or cuneate at base with no distinct petiole 19
16 Flowers in pedunculate hirsute heads 17
Flowers solitary 18
17 Leaves glabrous; stems woody, sometimes spinescent 100. C. virgatus
Leaves pubescent; stems herbaceous (except below), never spinescent 101. C. glomeratus
18 Spiny undershrub; leaves glabrous to finely sericeous, < 1 cm wide 70. C. leiocalycinus
Unarmed undershrub; leaves tomentose, 1–3.5 cm wide 72. C. persicus
19 Plant spiny or with spinescent branches 20
Plant unarmed, although branches sometimes rigid and hard 30
20 Flowers in a terminal cluster towards the apex of the stem 21
Flowers mostly or entirely axillary 22
21 Ovary and style glabrous; primary branches only spinescent 188. C. oxysepalus
Ovary and style hirsute; lateral shoots spinescent as well as primary branches 145. C. turrillianus
22 Flowers borne on spinescent peduncles; sterile spines often also present 23
Flowers sessile or nearly so; sterile spines usually absent 27
23 Outer sepals much shorter than the inner sepals 140. C. spinosus
Outer and inner sepals similar in length 24
24 Sepals 3–10 mm long 25
Sepals 10–11 mm long 138. C. fruticosus
25 Sepals long-pilose 26
Sepals adpressed pubescent 141. C. argyracanthus
26 Sepals 4–5 mm long, thinly pilose; corolla 1.5–1.7 cm long 143. C. iranicus
Sepals 7–10 mm long, densely pilose; corolla 1.6–2.5 cm long 142. C. acanthocladus
27 Sepals 12–15 mm long 144. C. urosepalus
Sepals < 8 mm long 28
28 Plant with long, slender, spine-tipped branches, short spinescent side shoots absent or very few 172. C. oxyphyllus subsp. oxyphyllus
Plant with stout spinescent primary branches and numerous short (< 4 cm long), usually stout lateral spine-like shoots 29
29 Leaves with rigid, acute apex, basal leaves not undulate; flowers usually in clusters of > 1, clusters elongating at maturity 172. C. oxyphyllus subsp. oxycladus
Leaves with soft obtuse to subacute apex, the basal leaves often undulate; flowers mostly solitary 173. C. hamrinensis
30 Flowers arranged in dense terminal or axillary heads or clusters 31
Flowers variously arranged in a lax, branched inflorescence 54
31 Heads terminal (occasionally with a few flowers below the terminal head) 32
Heads axillary, sometimes terminal as well 40
32 Plant with woody stems 33
Plant with herbaceous stems, woody only at the base 35
33 Leaves with impressed veins, hairs dense but short; sepals < 10 mm long; Corolla < 1.2 cm long 190. C. scindicus
Leaves without impressed veins; sepals > 10 mm long; corolla > 1.5 cm long 34
34 Ovary and style glabrous; stigmas c. 6 mm long 188. C. oxysepalus
Ovary and style hairy; stigmas c. 3 mm long 145. C. turrillianus
35 Plant silvery-sericeous; inflorescence very lax with individual peduncles and pedicels clearly visible 36
Plant not sericeous or, if somewhat so, inflorescence of dense heads with individual peduncles and pedicels not easily visible 37
36 Outer sepals with a conspicuous pouch; plant to 30 cm 153. C. holosericeus
Outer sepals lacking a conspicuous pouch; plant usually < 10cm 156. C. lineatus
37 Leaves linear, < 0.2 cm wide 148. C. schirazianus
Leaves oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, > 5 cm wide 38
38 Stem with spreading hairs 39
Stem with appressed hairs 149. C. commutatus
39 Heads solitary, strictly terminal 151. C. calvertii subsp. calvertii
Heads with 1–2 flower groups below terminal heads 150. C. elymaiticus
40 Lower peduncles absent or < 0.5 cm long; heads sessile or nearly so 41
Lower peduncles well-developed, > 1 cm long; heads mostly distinctly pedunculate 44
41 Cushion herbs from which arise erect flowering stems, ovary comose 184. C. aitchisonii
Plants not cushion forming, ovary glabrous or hirsute 42
42 Sepals bicoloured, the base pale, apex green; ovary glabrous 111. C. prostratus
Sepals of uniform colour; ovary hirsute at apex 43
43 Branches rigid and woody; leaves apiculate; corolla < 1.5 cm long; corolla < 1.5 cm long; flowers usually 1–3 172. C. oxyphyllus
Branches not noticeably rigid; leaves acute but not apiculate; corolla > 1.5 cm long; heads many-flowered 186. C. stapfii
44 Ovary hirsute, at least at apex 45
Ovary glabrous 47
45 Sepals 14–16 mm, ovate with a long aristate point, almost half its length 187. C. cephalophorus
Sepals 10–12 mm, lanceolate to ovate, acuminate but not long-aristate 46
46 Stems and leaves with long villous hairs; style pilose 181. C. cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus
Stems and leaves shortly hairy; style glabrous or nearly so 181. C. cephalopodus subsp. cephalopodus
47 Plant densely brown-velvety-tomentose; leaves reticulate 48
Leaf indumentum not as above; leaves not reticulate 49
48 Stem stout, 4–5 mm wide; bracteoles elliptic, 4–5 mm wide, sepals obovate 185. C. reticulatus subsp. waltherioides
Stem relatively slender, < 3 mm wide; bracteoles lanceolate, 2–3 mm wide; sepals lanceolate 185. C. reticulatus subsp. reticulatus
49 Sepals bicoloured; base colourless, apex greenish 50
Sepals uniformly coloured green 52
50 Corolla 1.7–2.5 cm long, ovary and capsule hirsute 146. C. cantabrica
Corolla 1–1.5 cm long; ovary and capsule glabrous 51
51 Flowers usually more or less solitary, sometimes laxly clustered, sepals oblong with an acute apex 112. C. pilosellifolius
Flowers always in dense heads, sepals tapered to an acute to long acuminate apex 111. C. prostratus
52 Only lower heads pedunculate; heads on upper part of stem sessile 53
All heads distinctly pedunculate except perhaps the uppermost 182. C. euphraticus
53 Bracts < 3 × 1 cm, lanceolate (Iraq–Iran) 174. C. kotschyanus
Bracts mostly 3–4 × 1.2–2 cm, ovate (Afghanistan) 175. C. pyrrotrichus
54 Sepals bicoloured, pale below with a green apex; plants with herbaceous stems, flowers somewhat clustered 55
Sepals of one colour; plants commonly with woody rigid stems, few leaves and flowers well separated 56
55 Corolla < 1.5 cm long; ovary and capsule glabrous; sepals oblong-obovate 112. C. pilosellifolius
Corolla 1.7–2.5 cm long; ovary and capsule hirsute; sepals ovate to lanceolate, acuminate 146. C. cantabrica
56 Sepals glabrous or nearly so 57
Sepals pubescent, canescent or otherwise hirsute 63
57 Stems completely glabrous 113. C. chondrilloides
Stems adpressed pubescent 58
58 Corolla 1.7–2 cm long, pink 59
Corolla < 1. 5 cm long, white or very pale pink 60
59 Sepals obovate, mucronate, c. 5 mm long 131. C. pseudocantabrica subsp. pseudocantabrica
Sepals oblong, acuminate, c. 7 mm long 131. C. peudocantabrica subsp. askabadensis
60 Leaves filiform 61
Leaves linear, oblong or oblanceolate 62
61 Sepals ovate 128. C. kurdistanicus
Sepals obovate-elliptic 129. C. koieanus
62 Sepals 6–7 × 3–4 mm; inflorescence narrow, few-flowered 127. C. sarothrocladus
Sepals 4–5 × 2 mm; inflorescence commonly much branched and many flowered 125. C. eremophilus
63 Stems appressed hairy, finely sericeous to strigose 64
Stems with spreading hairs at least below 69
64 Sepals tiny, suborbicular, c. 2 mm; plant divaricately branched 130. C. gracillimus
Sepals > 3 mm long, longer than broad; plant not divaricately branched 65
65 Sepals obtuse to rounded; corolla deeply lobed; inflorescence much branched forming an intricate mass 120. C. erinaceus
Sepals acute, acuminate or obtuse and mucronate, always terminating in a point. Corolla at most shallowly lobed; branching not so extensive as to form an intricate mass 66
66 Corolla 0.8–1 cm long; ovary pubescent 121. C. hamadae
Corolla > 1.2 cm long; ovary glabrous 67
67 Corolla pink 68
Corolla white 119. C. leptocladus
68 Sepals lanceolate, elliptic or oblong, acuminate; stems not leafy, very rigid 167. C. dorycnium subsp. oxysepalus
Sepals obovate, abruptly narrowed to a muconate apex; stems leafy and somewhat herbaceous 168. C. dorycnium subsp. subhirsutus
69 Stem and leaves white-sericeous 126. C. lindbergii
Stem and leaves not white-sericeous 70
70 Branches slender, not very rigid; leaves lanceolate to ovate 123. C. divaricatus
Branches short, stiff, relatively stout; leaves linear-oblong 125. C. eremophilus

13. Key to species in the Former Soviet Union

1 Plant an annual herb; flowers solitary, blue 88. C. pentapetaloides
Plant perennial, herbaceous or woody; flowers pink, white or yellow 2
2 Trailing or twining herbs with leaves abruptly narrowed at the base into a distinct petiole; plants not with woody stems nor flowers arranged in head-like clusters 3
Herbs or shrubs, never twining or trailing, leaves gradually narrowed at the base, lacking a distinct petiole but if petiolate, stems woody 7
3 Sepals < 5 mm long 4. C. arvensis
Sepals > 5 mm long 4
4 Corolla < 2.8 cm long, pink, flowers usually solitary 5
Corolla >2.8 cm long, white, yellowish or pink, flowers usually more than one 6
5 Leaves with an elongated strap-shaped central lobe 5. C. chinensis subsp. chinensis
Leaves triangular in form 5. C. chinensis subsp. triangularis
6 Plant completely glabrous; inner sepals longer than outer sepals 1. C. scammonia
Plant hirsute; inner sepals equalling or shorter than outer sepals 11. C. betonicifolius
7 Undershrubs with petiolate leaves, the lamina abruptly narrowed at base 8
Herbs or undershrubs with sessile leaves or leaves gradually narrowed into an indistinct petiole 9
8 Spiny undershrub; leaves glabrous to finely sericeous, < 1 cm wide 70. C. leiocalycinus
Unarmed undershrub; leaves tomentose, 1–3.5 cm wide 72. C. persicus
9 Plant spiny or with spinescent branches 10
Plant unarmed, although branches sometimes rigid and hard 14
10 Flowers in a terminal inflorescence 11
Flowers axillary 12
11 Branches all spinescent; lower leaves oblanceolate-obovate; flowers 1–several in a terminal cluster 137. C. spinifer
Only the old lower branches spinescent; lower leaves linear to narrowly oblanceolate; flowers in a terminal cyme 134. C. grigorjevii
12 Flowers borne on spinescent peduncles; sterile spines often also present 13
Flowers sessile or nearly so; sterile spines absent 136. C. tragacanthoides
13 Outer sepals glabrous, much larger than the inner sepals 139. C. gortschakovii
Outer sepals pubescent, equalling or smaller than the inner sepals 138. C. fruticosus
14 Flowers arranged in terminal heads or clusters, occasionally with a few flowers on the stem below the main cluster; stems herbaceous (if woody, see 134. C. krauseanus) 15
Flowers variously arranged in lax, branched inflorescences, stems often woody 20
15 Leaves, stem and sepals all silvery-sericeous 16
Leaves, stem or sepals with conspicuous spreading hairs, sometimes sericeous as well 18
16 Inflorescence a compact head, pedicels and peduncles not clearly visible 151. C. calvertii subsp. ruprechtii
Inflorescence lax, peduncles and pedicels easily visible 17
17 Outer sepals conspicuously pouched (Crimea); plant to 30 cm 153. C. holosericeus
Outer sepals lacking a conspicuous pouch; plant rarely exceeding 15 cm 156. C. lineatus
18 Stem with spreading hairs 151. C. calvertii subsp. calvertii
Stem with appressed hairs 19
19 Sepals with spreading hairs 152. C. sericocephalus
Sepals with appressed hairs 149. C. commutatus
20 Low perennial with linear, sericeous leaves; flowers solitary 132. C. ammannii
Erect or ascending plants with stems usually > 10 cm tall; flowers mostly clustered 21
21 Sepals bicoloured, with pale base and green apex; plants with herbaceous stems and flowers somewhat clustered 22
Sepals of one colour; plants commonly with woody rigid stems, few leaves and flowers well separated 23
22 Corolla < 1.5 cm long; ovary and capsule glabrous; sepals oblong-obovate 112. C. pilosellifolius
Corolla 1.7–2.5 cm long; ovary and capsule hirsute; sepals ovate to lanceolate, acuminate 146. C. cantabrica
23 Sepals glabrous or nearly so 24
Sepals pubescent, canescent or otherwise hirsute 26
24 Corolla pink; sepals 5–7 mm long; plant divaricately branched 25
Corolla white; sepals 4–5 mm; plant not divaricately branched. 125. C. eremophilus
25 Sepals obovate, mucronate, c. 5 mm long 131. C. pseudocantabrica subsp. pseudocantabrica
Sepals oblong, acuminate, c. 7 mm long 131. C. peudocantabrica subsp. askabadensis
26 Stems appressed pubescent, finely sericeous to strigose 27
Stems densely sericeous, pubescent or pilose, some hairs spreading at least below 29
27 Sepals obtuse to rounded; corolla deeply lobed; inflorescence much branched forming an intricate mass 120. C. erinaceus
Sepals acute, acuminate or obtuse and mucronate, always terminating in a point; corolla at most shallowly lobed; branching not so extensive as to form an intricate mass 28
28 Corolla white, 0.8–1 cm long; ovary pubescent 121. C. hamadae
Corolla pink, > 1. 2 cm long; ovary glabrous 167. C. dorycnium subsp. subhirsutus
29 Stem and leaves white-sericeous 30
Stem and leaves not white-sericeous 31
30 Inflorescence of very dense, axillary clusters; lower leaves clearly oblanceolate; lower branches often somewhat spinescent 134. C. grigorjevii
Inflorescence scape-like, flowers1-several at apex of stem; leaves strictly linear, branches never spinescent 135. C. krauseanus
31 Branches slender, not very rigid 32
Branches short, stiff, relatively stout 34
32 Leaves linear-lanceolate, up to 3 mm wide; sepals lanceolate, acuminate; stems subsericeous 122. C. subsericeus
Leaves lanceolate to ovate, 3–15 mm wide; sepals often abruptly narrowed at apex; stems pubescent 33
33 Stems sparingly branched; corolla > 1.5 cm long, pink; ovary glabrous 168. C. tschimganicus
Stems much branched; corolla < 1.5 cm long, white or pinkish; ovary usually hirsute 123. C. divaricatus
34 Plant densely pubescent; leaves linear-oblanceolate 124. C. tujuntauensis
Plant thinly pubescent; leaves linear-oblong 125. C. eremophilus

14. Key to species in East Asia

1 Leaves distinctly petiolate, the blade abruptly narrowed onto to the petiole; trailing or twining herbs 2
Leaves lacking a distinct petiole, the blade narrowed at base; undershrubs or perennial herbs with a woody rootstock, neither twining nor trailing 5
2 Sepals < 4.5 mm long 4. C. arvensis
Sepals 5–7 mm long 3
3 Leaves glabrous or nearly so, margin entire 5. C. chinensis
Leaves densely pubescent to tomentose, margin undulate, crenate or dentate 4
4 Leaf base hastate, often with bifid auricles; sepals 7–10 mm long 8. C. steppicola
Leaf base truncate to subcordate with simple, poorly developed auricles; sepals 6–7 mm long 9. C. sinuatodentatus
5 Unarmed perennials woody at base only 6
Undershrubs with spinescent branchlets 9
6 Stems erect, branched; leaves glabrous or adpressed hairy beneath; ovary and capsule glabrous 131. C. pseudocantabrica
Stems prostrate to ascending but always low; leaves sericeous; ovary and capsule pubescent 7
7 Leaves oblong-oblanceolate, 5–25 mm wide; flowers 1–5 in compact cymes, 1.8–2.5 cm long 156. C. lineatus
Leaves linear to linear oblanceolate, < 5 mm wide; flowers usually solitary, 1–1.6 cm long 8
8 Flowers mostly axillary; outer sepals 4.5–6 mm long; stems herbaceous 132. C. ammannii
Flowers all terminal on the branches; outer sepals 6–7 mm long; stems somewhat woody and rigid 133. C. xanthopotamicus
9 Sepals glabrous to thinly pubescent. Outer pair suborbicular, much wider than inner sepals 139. C. gortschakovii
Sepals hirsute, all similar in shape and size 10
10 Flowers clustered at apex of peduncle-like stem 137. C. spinifer
Flowers axillary 11
11 Prostrate cushion plant, the flowering branches without spines 136. C. tragacanthoides
Erect undershrub, flowers borne on spinescent peduncles, usually (always?) with sterile stem spines towards the apex of the flowering shoots 138. C. fruticosus

Taxonomic treatment of Convolvulus

Names

Accepted names are in bold italics. All names of specific, subspecific and varietal rank in the genus Convolvulus are accounted for in the synonomies that are provided for each species. Species now considered to belong to other genera but originally described in Convolvulus are not accounted for.

Specimen citations

Type specimens and their location are cited for all recognised taxa whether species, subspecies or varieties. We have lectotypfied species where we have seen appropriate material for lectotypification but have not lectotypified where there is doubt about the selection of a lectotype. A particular problem relates to the plants described from North Africa by Maire. The types of these species were supposed to have been deposited at the Université d’Alger (AL) and are cited for AL by Sa’ad (1967). However, it seems that portions of the holotypes were removed from Algeria in 1962 and deposited in Montpelier (MPU) and perhaps Paris (P). We are not certain whether material remained in AL or if all or only some was removed.

Wherever possible, at least one specimen is cited for every country where a species is known to occur. Occasionally, a literature record is cited and in a few cases of common species, no specimen is cited as the species is assumed to be present because of its wider distribution. Records requiring confirmation are indicated with a question mark (?). Although cited specimens are limited to those seen by the authors and are representative of the species, some effort has been made to select material that is either widely distributed or likely to be available in the country where the plant occurs. Unfortunately this has not always been possible. The herbaria where these specimens are found are not cited as we are not generally aware of where they are distributed. We have seen all collections in BM, E, K, LE, OXF, P and W and sporadic examples from other herbaria if material has been loaned or images were available online.

Where a species is known from a few countries the country order in which specimens are cited is arbitrary but in cases where a species is known from many different countries the preferred order is as follows: European and Mediterranean countries are arranged from West to East beginning with the Atlantic Islands but southern African countries are arranged from South Africa northwards.

Literature citations

We have cited references to where all type specimens were published. We have not cited references to pages in standard floras unless they add to the information in the present monograph by providing additional descriptive material, illustrations or maps. However we have cited recent works where illustrations, paintings, drawings or photographs are provided as these are often a very useful aid to identification, capturing the appearance of a particular species in a way that words do not. We have cited references to relevant literature in the discussion of infraspecific variation and taxonomic problems.

Convolvulus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 153. 1753. (Linnaeus 1753: 153).

Type

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Description

Spiny or unarmed shrubs or subshrubs or prostrate or erect herbs, stems often twining or trailing. Leaves alternate (rarely subopposite), simple, sessile or petiolate. Flowers variously arranged, solitary or in various kinds of inflorescence, usually cymose in structure although reduced to heads, flower pairs or other arrangements; each flower subtended by a pair of small bracteoles; calyx of 5 free sepals, these usually entire, slightly to very unequal, usually of two similar outer sepals, two similar inner sepals and an asymmetric middle sepal whose two halves are dissimilar; corolla funnel-shaped with a spreading limb and a short glabrous basal tube, the limb with five hirsute external midpetaline bands which terminate in a tooth or lobe; stamens 5, included, inserted at the top of the basal tube, filaments unequal, the basal part slightly dilated, glabrous or minutely glandular, the glands sessile or shortly stipitate, anthers equal, oblong to oblong-sagittate, pollen tricolpate, more or less spherical, colpi long and broad, exine thick; ovary usually ovoid, less commonly globose or conical, hirsute or glabrous, the base with a distinct disc, bilocular, each locule with 2 ovules; styles glabrous or hirsute, filiform divided upwards into 2 (rarely 3) arms, stigmas coextensive with style arms (very rarely slightly shorter), linear or, rarely, thickened upwards and ellipsoid or clavate. Capsule bilocular or by abortion unilocular, the dehiscence loculicidal or from the base, 4-seeded or less by abortion; seeds hirsute or glabrous, smooth tuberculate or obscurely ridged, one side convex and the other flat (see Figure 15: 34, for an example) unless capsule is 1-seeded when shape is ellipsoidal.

Species 1–22. Eurasian and North African species with leaves abruptly narrowed into a distinct petiole

Nearly all species are trailing or twining perennial herbs with flowers in pedunculate cymes (sometimes reduced to single flowers) arising from the axils of leaf-like bracts. Convolvulus coelesyriacus is an annual herb and C. fatmensis may sometimes be so. C. pseudoscammonia is an erect herb. In a few species leaves are distinctly dimorphic with lower leaves very different in form from those on the upper part of the stem. C. althaeoides, C. pitardii and its allies, C. palaestinus and to some extent C. galaticus show this characteristic. Flower colour is quite variable but white, pinkish or pink are the norm. C. scammonia, C. pseudoscammonia, C. cassius and C. palaestinus are yellow or yellowish. As far as is known all these species have sessile glands on the dilated part of the filaments towards the base. These are not always easy to see except with a good microscope. Seeds are always glabrous, usually somewhat tuberculate but occasionally smooth.

Convolvulus scammonia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 153. 1753. (Linnaeus 1753: 153).

Figure 3, t. 1–9.

Convolvulus elongatus Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 123. 1796; illegitimate superfluous name for Convolvulus scammonia L. (Salisbury 1896: 123).

Type. SYRIA, Aleppo [Haleb], P. Russell (whereabouts unknown).

Type

Plate “Convolvulus syriacus s. Scammoniaca syriaca” in Morison (1680: 2, sect. 1 plate 3, f. 5), lectotype (designated by Staples and Jarvis 2006: 1021).

Description

Glabrous perennial herb with trailing or twining stems up to 2 m long. Leaves petiolate, 2.5–7 × 1.5–5 cm, deltoid, acute to acuminate, margin entire, base cordate but not cuneate onto the petiole, auriculate with auricles weakly 2 (– 3)-lobed, with one lobe larger than the other; petioles 0.5–4.5 cm long. Flowers 1–5 in pedunculate axillary cymes; peduncles 3.5–16 cm long; bracteoles 3–5 × 0.5–1 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate, acute; pedicels 8–11 mm, so inflorescence rather dense; outer sepals 6–7 × 5 mm, broadly oblong-obovate to rectangular, truncate and minutely mucronate, glabrous, scarious; inner sepals 7–11 × 4.5–6 mm; corolla 3–4 cm, pale yellow, undulate, midpetaline bands glabrous except for a few hairs near the apex; filaments with sessile glands below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 11–15 mm above the base, stigmas 3 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth (especially in Iraq) to tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 241; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: plate 69; Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 216 (photo); Strid and Strid 2009: 386–387 (plate)]

Figure 3.

1–9 C. scammonia 1 leaves 2 bracteole 3 outer sepal 4 middle sepal 5 inner sepal 6 stamen 7 ovary and style 8 capsule 9 seed. 1 from Bourgeau 114 (W) 2–7 from Gathorne-Hardy 547 (E) 8–9 from Rechinger 10708 (W) 10–18 C. durandoi 10 leaves 11 bracteole 12 outer sepal 13 middle sepal 14 inner sepal 15 stamen 16 ovary and style 17 capsule 18 seed 10 & 17–18 from Battandier & Trabut 9 (GOET) 11–16 from Gay 2792 (W) 19–27 C. arvensis 19 leaves 20 bracteole 21 outer sepal 22 middle sepal attached to pedicel 23 inner sepal 24 stamen 25 ovary and style 26 capsule, 27 seed 19–25 from Abdallah et al. 1725 (CAIM) 26–27 from Abdallah et al. 1671 (CAIM) 28–33 C. chinensis 28 leaves 29 outer sepal 30 inner sepal 31 stamen 32 ovary and style 33 sepals enclosing capsule 28 (centre/right) from sin coll. 12/6/1886 (OXF) 28 (left)–33 from Wang 3259 (K) 34–39 C. mairei 34 leaf 35 outer sepal 36 middle sepal 37 inner sepal 38 stamen 39 ovary and style. From Maire & Petitmengin 628 (K) 40–48 C. fatmensis 40 leaves 41 bracteole 42 outer sepal 43 middle sepal 44 inner sepal 45 stamen 46 ovary and style 47 capsule 48 seed 40–46 from Schimper 839 (L) 47–48 from Shalaby & Sharobiem 1637 (CAIM).

Distribution

East Mediterranean region to Crimea and Iraq: Greece (Aegean Islands only): Rhodes (Rechinger 7441), Chios (Platt 238); Turkey (Balansa 697, Davis & Coode 36447, Sintenis 1274); Crimea (Rehmann 606, Callier 323); Iraq (Rawi 23102, Gillett 8236, Wheeler-Haines s.n. [4/6/1960]); Syria (Haradjian 1508, 2711); Lebanon (Breidy et al. LEB-555); Palestine/Israel (Davis 4630); Jordan (Täckholm et al. 8934); Egypt: Sinai (fide Boulos 2000: 251).

Notes

A very distinct, nearly completely glabrous species with a yellow corolla, acutely-angled deltoid leaves and the outer sepals much smaller than the inner sepals. Molecular studies (Williams et al. 2014) show this species and C. pseudoscammonia to be the most closely related species to Calystegia spp.

Convolvulus pseudoscammonia K.Koch, Linnaea 22: 746. 1849. (Koch 1849: 746).

Convolvulus scammonia var. pseudoscammonia (K.Koch) Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 242. 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 242).

Type. Based on Convolvulus pseudoscammonia K.Koch

Convolvulus cappadocicus Hausskn. & Sint. ex Woronow, Vĕstn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada (Monit. Jard. Bot. Tiflis) 10: 31. 1908. (Woronow 1908: 31).

Type. TURKEY, Egin, Sintenis 2864 (lectotype TGM, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 242); isolectotypes B, K!, STU, W!).

Type

TURKEY, Gaue Sber, Koch s.n. (holotype B†).

Description

Perennial herb with tap root and stems somewhat woody below, similar in all details to Convolvulus scammonia but stems erect to 60 cm, leaves 1.5–5 × 0.3–0.8 cm, sagittate, the central lobe narrowly oblong-lanceolate, basal auricles small, simple. The peduncles appear always to bear only 1–2 flowers and the bracteoles are filiform, not more than 0.5 mm wide. [Sa’ad 1967: 242; Parris 1978: 218]

Distribution

Northeast Turkey (Sintenis 1335, Stainton & Henderson 5763, Davis & Hedge 30166, Woronov 271, Turkevicz 603, Herrero 1361); Armenia (?).

Notes

Molecular studies (Williams et al. 2014) confirm that this is a distinct species related to but distinct from C. scamonia.

Convolvulus durandoi Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 85. 1874. (Pomel 1874: 85).

Figure 3, t. 10–18

Type

ALGERIA, Durando s.n. (holotype MPU004911!, possibly divided with AL; isotype MPU004912, P00417697!).

Description

Glabrous, trailing perennial herb, the stems angular, reaching at least 75 cm. Leaves petiolate, 1.2–3 × 1–2.2 cm. ovate, apex acute to more or less rounded and mucronate, margin entire, base truncate (below) or cordate (above), the auricles small, triangular-acute, venation reticulate; petioles 1–2.5 cm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, solitary; peduncles 3–9 cm, commonly flexuose in bud; bracteoles 3–9 × 0.25–0.5 mm, linear-oblanceolate; pedicels 0.5–3.5 cm; outer sepals 4–5 × 2.5–3 mm, spathulate, the apex abruptly widened above the oblong base, rounded, sparsely ciliate, commonly reflexed; inner sepals 5–6 × 2.5–3 mm, similar in shape but apex emarginate and not reflexed; corolla 1.7–2.3 cm long, pink, weakly lobed, midpetaline bands glabrous; filaments glandular below; ovary conical, glabrous; style glabrous, divided 5–6 mm above the base, stigmas 5–6 mm. Capsule glabrous, style persistent; seeds slightly rugose. [Sa’ad 1967: 224]

Distribution

Restricted to the Magreb of northwestern Africa: Algeria (Maire 5944, Gay 2792, Battandier 3823); Tunisia (Simpson 38395); Morocco (?).

Notes

A very distinctive species because of its reflexed spathulate sepals and unusual ovate, truncate, reticulate-veined leaves.

Convolvulus arvensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 153. 1753. (Linnaeus 1753: 153).

Figure 3, t. 19–27

Convolvulus hastatus Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 203. 1775. (Forsskål 1775: 203).

Type. EGYPT, Cairo, Forssk ål s.n. (syntype C10002044).

Convolvulus minor Gilib. Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 43. 1782. (Gilibert 1782: 43).

Type. Not specified.

Convolvulus auriculatus Desr., Encycl. [Lamarck et al.] 3: 540. 1792. (Desrousseaux 1792: 540).

Type. MAURITIUS (“Isle de France”), Commerson s.n (holotype P00608776).

Convolvulus prostratus F.W.Schmidt, Fl. Boëm. Cent. 2: 93. 1793 [pub. 1794], nom illeg., non Convolvulus prostratus Forssk. (1775). (Schmidt 1793: 93).

Type. Icon 237 linked to Schmidt (1793) in Prague University Library.

Convolvulus sagittifolius Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 123. 1796, superfluous name for Convolvulus arvensis L. (Salisbury 1796: 123).

Convolvulus hastifolius Poir., Encycl. [Lamarck et al.] Suppl. 3: 467 (1814), lapsus [spelling mistake] for C. hastatus Forssk. (Poiret 1814: 467).

Convolvulus corsicus Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 256. 1819. (Roemer and Schultes 1819: 256).

Type: CORSICA, no type cited.

Convolvulus cherleri C.Agardh ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 261. 1819. (Roemer and Schultes 1819: 261).

Type. SPAIN, Malaga, C. Agardh (whereabouts unknown).

Convolvulus malcolmii Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 2: 55.1824. (Roxburgh 1824: 55).

Type. a plant cultivated in Kolkata from seed brought from Iran by Malcolm (lectotype, Icon. 1532 (K) accompanying Flora Indica, designated here).

Convolvulus arvensis var. pumilus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 407. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 407).

Type. GERMANY, Thuringia, Wallroth s.n. (P, not seen).

Convolvulus arvensis var. obtusifolius Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 406. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 406).

Type. Based on Convolvulus corsicus Roem. & Schult.

Convolvulus arvensis var. biflorus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 406. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 406).

Type. EGYPT, Cairo, Forsskål s.n. (C10002044, lectotype designated here).

Convolvulus arvensis var. multiflorus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 407. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 407).

Type. LEBANON, Mount Lebanon, Mergon s.n. (lectotype G-DC, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 218).

Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 407. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 407).

Type. GERMANY, Thuringia, Wallroth s.n. (location unknown).

Convolvulus arvensis var. auriculatus (Desr.) Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 407. 1847. (Choisy 1847: 407).

Type. Based on Convolvulus auriculatus Desr.

Convolvulus arvensis var. villosus Choisy. Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 407. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 407).

Type. CHILE, J. Style s.n. (holotype G-DC, not seen).

Convolvulus arvensis var. minor Lindem, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 23: 508. 1850. (Lindemann 1850: 508).

Type. BELARUS, Hainowka, Lindem s.n. with annotation Convolvulus quinquelobus (whereabouts uncertain, ?LE).

Convolvulus arvensis var. hastulatus Meisn., Fl. Bras. (Martius). 7: 313. 1869. (Meisner 1869: 313).

Type: Southern Brazil, Sello; Uruguay and Argentina, Tweedie: Chile, Maximowicz (all syntypes, whereabouts unknown ?B†).

Convolvulus arvensis var. aphacoefolius Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 1: 85. 1874. (Pomel 1874: 85).

Type. ALGERIA, Garrouban, Pomel s.n. (isotype MPU005194!).

Convolvulus arvensis var. filicaulis Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 1: 85. (Pomel 1874: 85).

Type. ALGERIA, Sidi-Bouzid, Djebel-amour, Pomel s.n. (isotype MPU005193!).

Convolvulus segobricensis Pau, Not. Bot. Fl. Espan, 1: 7. 1887. (Pau 1887: 7).

Type. SPAIN, Valencia, Pau s.n. (holotype MA?, not seen).

Convolvulus arvensis var. cherleri (C.Agardh ex Roem. & Schult.) Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 2: 307. 1902. (Halácsy 1902: 307).

Type. Based on Convolvulus cherleri C.Agardh ex Roem. & Schult.

Convolvulus ambigens House, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 139. 1905. (House 1905: 139).

Type. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Colorado, C.S.Crandall 4218 (holotype NY!; isotype US).

Convolvulus europaeus Barb.-Gamp., Bull. Soc. Bot. Genève, ser. 2, 12: 236. 1921 [“1920”]. (Barbey-Gampert 1921: 236).

Type. SPAIN, Picos de Europa, Barbey-Gampert s.n. (holotype G, not seen).

Convolvulus incanus var. glabratus Farw., Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 2: 36. 1923. (Farwell 1923: 36).

Type. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Michigan, Detroit, Farwell 5950 (isotypes GH00112744, BLH0000114).

Convolvulus arvensis var. paui Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 28: 370. 1937. (Maire 1937: 370).

Type. MOROCCO, P. Font Quer (holotype MPU006711!).

Convolvulus arvensis var. trigonophyllus Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 28: 370. 1937. (Maire 1937: 370).

Type. MOROCCO, Mont Amezdour, E.K. Balls 2740 (holotype MPU003790!)

Convolvulus arvensis subsp. crispatus Franco, Nova Fl. Portugal 2: 565. 1984. (Franco 1984: 98).

Type. PORTUGAL, Serpa, Herdade da Loja, F.Goinhas Palma (holotype LISI, not seen).

Type

“Europe” (lectotype LINN 218.1!. designated by Meeuse 1958: 695).

Description

Perennial herb from an extensive creeping underground rootstock, branched at base with trailing or twining quadrangular stems to about 75 cm long, plant glabrous to sparsely hairy. Leaves petiolate, 1–7 × 0.5–4 cm, broadly to narrowly ovate-deltoid, obtuse or acute, mucronulate, margin entire or undulate, base hastate to sagittate with simple auricles; petioles 1–2.5 cm. Flowers 1–3 in axillary pedunculate cymes; peduncles 1–5 cm; bracteoles 2.5–3 mm, filiform; pedicels 0.6–20 mm; sepals 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, obovate to oblong, obtuse to mucronulate, scarious-margined; corolla 1.5–2.5 cm long, white or pink, undulate but not lobed, midpetaline bands often dark pink, pubescent; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided 7–8 mm above base, stigmas 2.5 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 214; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: plate 65; Collenette 1999: 226 (photo); Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 213 (photo); Silvestre 2012: 153; Sell and Murrell 2009: 343–344; Austin and Ghazanfar 1979: 28; Siddiqui 1977: 7 (Figure 2); Breckle and Rafiqpoor 2010: 41 (photo); Pignatti 1982: 389]

Distribution

A very common cosmopolitan weed of all temperate regions which also grows in upland regions throughout the tropics.

Notes

A very variable species especially in indumentum, leaf shape and flower colour, of which many forms and varieties have been described (Choisy 1845: 406–407, Sa’ad 1967: 215–219; Franco 1984: 98, Sell and Murrell 2009: 343–344, for example). Convolvulus arvensis is usually easily recognised by the short sepals, which rarely exceed 4.5 mm, combined with a corolla about five times longer than the calyx. The leaves are usually, but not always, glabrous or nearly so and the auricles are unlobed.

Convolvulus chinensis Ker-Gawl., Bot. Reg. 4: t. 322. 1818. (Ker-Gawler 1818: t 322).

Figure 3, t. 28–33

Type

CHINA, cultivated plant grown from seed collected by Staunton at “Pechelee” (holotype BM001053866!).

Description

Perennial herb with long decumbent stems from a central rootstock to at least 50 cm, glabrous or, on older parts, minutely scabridulous. Leaves petiolate, 3–5 cm long, formed of an oblong, acute, entire central lobe 2–4 mm wide, a broadly cuneate base and horizontally to weakly reflexed auricles, these mostly bifid with acute segments; petioles 4–7 mm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, solitary; peduncles 3.2–4.5 cm, slighty flexuous; bracteoles 3 mm, linear-filiform; pedicels 4–8 mm; sepals 6–7 × 3.5–4 mm, obovate, obtuse and sometimes mucronate, glabrous, margins scarious, inner sepals slightly larger; corolla 2–2.8 cm long, pink, very shallowly lobed, the midpetaline bands extended as short teeth, nearly glabrous but with a few hairs near apex; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 12–14 mm above base, stigmas 2.5–3.5 mm. Capsule glabrous, seeds glabrous, minutely tuberculate.

Notes

We recognise two subspecies:

Convolvulus chinensis subsp. chinensis

Convolvulus bicuspidatus Fisch. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 201. 1821. (Link 1821: 201).

Type. RUSSIA, Siberia, “Dahurica”, Fischer s.n. (B†).

Convolvulus arvensis var. sagittatus Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. [Ledebour] 1: 225. 1829. (Ledebour 1829: 225).

Type. RUSSIA, based partially on Fischer specimen (?LE).cited in Cat. Hort. Gorenk. 28. (Fischer 1808).

Convolvulus arvensis var. crassifolius Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 406. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 406).

Type. MONGOLIA, Meyer & Turczaninov (lectotype G-DC, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 218).

Convolvulus sagittifolius Fisch. ex T.Liou & Y.Ling, Fl. Ill. Nord Chine 1: 17. 1931, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus sagittifolius Michx. (1803). (Liou and Ling 1931: 17).

Type. Based on Fischer specimen (?LE); cited in Cat. Hort. Gorenk. 28. (Fischer 1808).

Convolvolus fischerianus Petrov, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol., n.s., 44: 147. 1935. (Petrov 1935: 147).

Type. not specified, possibly Fischer s.n. (LE, not seen).

Distinguishing features

Distinguished by the decumbent habit and distinctive strap-shaped leaves, the central lobe elongated.

Distribution

Very common in northern China, Mongolia and Siberia becoming rare in Kazakhstan, where it is largely replaced by C. arvensis. Russia: Siberia (Elias, Shetler & Murray 7606, Turkewitsch 1043, Kuznezow 2709, Timokhina & Danilyuk 1249, Shiskin 332, Castroviejo 14317); Mongolia (Pobedimova 1323, Campbell 1901); Northern China (David 1851, Chaffanjon 1662, Rock 14359, Ho et al. 120, R. C. Ching 171, Williams 10515, Licent 120, Petrov s.n. [25/6/1957]); Kazakhstan (Tsvelev et al. 777).

Convolvulus chinensis subsp. triangularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, subsp. nov.

Diagnosis

A subsp. typo habitu suberecta et foliis triangularibus.

Convolvulus arvensis var. erectus Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. [Ledebour] 1: 224. 1829. (Ledebour 1829: 225).

Type. RUSSIA, Altai, Tiuguriuk stream by Katunja River (LE, not seen).

Type

KAZAKHSTAN, “in rupestribus montium Tarbagatai ad torrentium Dschanybek”, Karelin & Kiriloff 328 (holotype LE ex Herb Ledebour!; isotypes BM001035796!, LE ex herb. Fischer!, LE ex herb. Schrenk!, P!).

Distinguishing features

Distinguished by its suberect habit and triangular leaves, c. 3–5 × 1.5–4 cm.

Distribution

Russia: Siberia (Salefov 794, 806 (sin data), Mardovkin s.n. (“Siberia altaica”), Kazakhstan (Karelin & Kiriloff 597 (“Tarbagatai ad torrentium Dschanybek”), Roldugin s.n. [12/8/1960] “Dzungarsky Alatai”), Schrenk s.n. (“Songaria”). Apparently rare.

Notes

Convolvulus chinensis is most reliably distinguished from C. arvensis by the longer sepals. Additionally the auricles are often bifid, the central lobe oblong and the corolla usually deep pink and slightly larger than in C. arvensis. It is often considered to be a form of C. arvensis but intermediates are uncommon, mainly being found in the Tibet region, and could be of hybrid origin. Molecular studies (Williams et al. 2014) strongly support the recognition of C. chinensis as a distinct species.

Convolvulus mairei Halácsy, Bull. Soc. Sci., Nancy, sér. 3, 8: 176. 1908. (Maire and Petitmengin 1908: 176).

Figure 3, t. 34–39.

Type

GREECE, Parnassus, Lake Zouvala, R.Maire 113 (holotype ?AL, not seen.).

Description

Trailing perennial herb with very slender stems 10–30 cm long, vegetative parts densely pubescent. Leaves petiolate, 0.5–1.3 × 0.3–1 cm, suborbicular to ovate with obtuse apex to deltoid with acute apex, margin undulate, base cordate to hastate; petioles 2–9 mm. Flowers solitary, pedunculate, axillary; peduncles 2–11 mm, strongly recurved in fruit; bracteoles 1–1.5 mm, linear; pedicels 2.5–6 mm; outer sepals 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm, oblong-elliptic, somewhat truncate at both ends, pubescent, margins scarious. Corolla 0.8–1 cm long, pink, unlobed, midpetaline bands pubescent; filaments glandular; ovary pilose; style glabrous, persistent, divided 3–3.5 mm above base, stigmas c. 1.5 mm. Capsule borne on a recurved peduncle, pilose; seeds glabrous, obscurely rugose. [Sa’ad 1967: 235]

Distribution

Greece (Maire & Petitmengin 668, Atchley 2314, Guiol 2411). Apparently rare and very localised to the area around Mount Parnassus near Delphi in central Greece.

Notes

A distinctive species, superficially resembling a diminutive C. arvensis, with leaves and flower parts all very small. The plant is pubescent in its vegetative parts with a hirsute recurved capsule and a proportionally very small corolla.

Convolvulus fatmensis Kunze, Flora 23(1): 172. 1840. (Kunze 1840: 172).

Figure 3, t. 40–48.

Convolvulus amblycalyx Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed.2 1: 407. 1840, illegitimate superfluous name for Convolvulus fatmensis Kunze (Steudel 1840: 407).

Type

SAUDI ARABIA, Wadi Fatma, G. W.Schimper 839 (lectotype LZ, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 226); isolectotypes GOET, HBG, JE, L, LE!, OXF!, P!, W!).

Description

Perennial (possibly sometimes annual) herb with trailing stems to at least 50 cm from a slender central tap root; stems glabrescent to pubescent. Leaves petiolate, 1.2–4.5 × 0.6–4 cm, ovate-deltoid, apex obtuse, margin sinuate, base auriculate and cordate; petioles 0.5–3.5 cm. Flowers 1(-3) borne on axillary peduncles; peduncles 7–30 mm, commonly recurved in fruit; bracteoles 2 mm, filiform; pedicels 3–5 mm; outer sepals 3–5 × 3–4 mm, obovate, rounded, glabrous, slightly concave; inner sepals slightly narrower, 2.5–3 mm wide; corolla 0.9–1.3 cm long, pink, distinctly lobed, midpetaline bands brownish, thinly pubescent; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 2 mm above base, stigmas 1 mm. Capsule glabrous, strongly exserted from the sepals, recurved in fruit; seeds glabrous, smooth (not rugulose as stated by Sa’ad,1967: 226). [Sa’ad 1967: 226; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978 (plate 67); Collenette 1999: 229 (photo)]

Distribution

A widespread Sahara-Sindian species, generally uncommon and very scattered in occurrence but most frequent in Egypt; usually a weed of sandy fields. “Mauretania” (Chudeau s.n. [10/2/1911]); Morocco (Maire 781); Algeria: Ahaggar (Maire 857); Tunisia (Cosson s.n. [22/5/1858]); Libya (Guichard KG/LIB/121); Egypt (Abd El Ghani 5994, Kralik 168); Sudan (El Din 1, Colston 257); Saudi Arabia (Collenette 1753, 7903; Fischer 20, Mandaville 2884); Yemen (Wood 2059); Oman (Radcliffe-Smith 4133); Palestine/Israel (fide Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 42); Lebanon (?); Iran (Popov 51/11).

Notes

Very distinct species with sinuate leaves and pink, lobed corolla borne on a recurved peduncle. The leaves are sometimes exceptionally small.

Convolvulus steppicola Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 810. 1936. (Handel-Mazzetti 1936: 810).

Type

CHINA, Yunnan, Dali, Handel-Mazzetti 6351 (holotype W!; isotype E00067083!).

Description

Pubescent perennial herb with (probably) decumbent stems from a thickened rootstock, young growth brownish-tomentose; stems to 60 cm, probably reaching 1 m, Leaves shortly petiolate, 1.1–3.5 cm long, the central lobe 0.2–1 cm wide, linear or oblong, acute, margin entire, undulate, sinuate or more or less dentate, base hastate, the auricles simple or bifid, sometimes intergrading with sinuate leaf margin. Flowers 1–2, axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 1.5–4 cm; bracteoles 3–4 × 0.5 mm, linear or filiform; pedicels 6–15 mm long, straight to slightly bent; outer sepals 7–10 × 4–5 mm, ovate, acuminate, villous with ciliate margins; inner sepals similar but much less hairy; corolla 1.2–1.4 cm long, pink or white, unlobed, midpetaline bands pilose, extended as short teeth; ovary and style glabrous. Capsule glabrous; seeds nearly smooth, glabrous.

Distribution

Endemic to SW China: Yunnan (Ducloux 6660, E. Maire 511, 581, Delavay s.n. [8/4/1884]), 1600–2450 m.

Notes

Apparently rare and localised and no recent collections seen.

Convolvulus sinuatodentatus Collett & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 28: 98. 1890. (Collett and Hemsley 1890: 98).

Type

MYANMAR/BURMA, Shan plateau, Collett 464 (holotype K!; isotype CAL?).

Description

Coarsely pilose perennial herb with decumbent stems from a thickened taproot; stems to 20 cm but probably much more. Leaves petiolate, 1–1.5 × 0.2–0.5 cm, ovate-deltoid, acute, margin sinuate-dentate, base truncate to subcordate, coarsely pilose; petioles 4–6 mm. Flowers axillary, solitary, pedunculate; peduncles 1–1.5 cm; bracteoles 1–2 mm, filiform; pedicels 4–7 mm; outer sepals 6–7 × 2–3 mm, oblong-oblanceolate, acute, pilose on dorsal surface; inner sepals similar but 5 × 3 mm, obovate, scarious-margined; corolla c. 1.3 cm long, colour unknown, apparently weakly lobed, midpetaline bands pilose; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 2.5 mm above base; stigmas 2 mm. Capsule not known.

Distribution

Myanmar (Burma). Only known from the type collection found at c. 1700 m.

Notes

This poorly known species might prove to be a variant of C. steppicola but further collections are needed before its status can be asssessed.

Convolvulus rufescens Choisy, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 6: 477. 1834. (Choisy 1834: 479).

Convolvulus flavus sensu C.B.Clarke (1883: 219) et auct. mult.

Type

INDIA, Tamil Nadu/Kerala, Nilgiri Hills, J.P. Leschenault s.n. (lectotype P03548937!, designated here).

Description

Perennial scrambling and climbing herb to at least 50 cm, stems pubescent, the hairs reddish on young parts. Leaves petiolate, 2–8 × 2–6 cm, lanceolate to broadly ovate-deltoid, acute and mucronulate, margin variable, undulate to deeply dentate, base broadly cordate in outline but cuneate onto the petiole, auricles entire to deeply dentate, pubescent on both surfaces, especially on the veins beneath; petioles 1.5–3 cm. Flowers 1–2 (-3) in pedunculate, axillary cymes; peduncles often paired, 6–8 mm; bracteoles c. 1.25 mm, caducous, ovate, acuminate; pedicels 8–10 mm, more densely pubescent than peduncles; sepals 6–7 × 3–4 mm, outer sepals obovate-elliptic, abruptly narrowed at apex, apiculate, pubescent, inner sepals similar, obovate, mucronate, scarius-margined, subglabrous; corolla 10–12 mm, whire or cream, deeply lobed, mid-petaline bands terminating in a tuft of hairs; filaments glabrous; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided c. 5 mm above base, stigmas 1.5–2 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous, seeds glabrous.

Distribution

Endemic to South India: Nilgiri and Palni (Pulney) Hills (Wight 1992, Perottet 892, Clarke 10758).

Notes

Like the two preceeding species, this is a geographically isolated species. Although quite variable, the leaves are often strongly dentate and the auricles lobed. The corolla is similar to that of the South American species C. crenatifolius and C. hermanniae as well as to that of C. sinuatodentatus from Myanmar. The peduncles are unusual as they are commonly paired. We have not seen recent collections.

Convolvulus betonicifolius Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: no. 20. 1768. (Miller 1768: 20).

Figure 4, t. 1–9.

Convolvulus pubescens Sol., in Russell, Aleppo, ed. 2, 2: 246 1794, illegitimate superfluous name for Convolvulus betonicifolius Mill. (Russell 1794: 246).

Type. SYRIA, Aleppo, Russell s. n. (holotype BM001014565!).

Convolvulus lanuginosus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 23. 1794., nom. illeg., non Convolvulus lanuginosus Desr. (1792). (Vahl 1794: 23).

Type. sin data (holotype C10009605!).

Convolvulus tomentosus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 413. 1845., nom. illeg., non Convolvulus tomentosus Vell. (1829). (Choisy 1845: 413).

Type. Based on Convolvulus lanuginosus Vahl

Convolvulus sagittifolius Sm. Fl. Graec. Prod. 1: 133. 1806, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus sagittifolius Michx. (1803). (Sibthorp and Smith 1806: 133).

Type. Icon., Fl. Graec. 2: 77, t. 193 (1816).

Convolvulus hirsutus M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas 1: 422. 1808. (Marschall von Bieberstein 1808: 422).

Type. CRIMEA, Steven s.n. (holotype LE!).

Convolvulus atriplicifolius Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck), Suppl. 3 (2): 467.1814. (Poiret 1814: 467).

Type. SYRIA, de Labillardière s.n. (holotype FI).

Convolvulus sibthorpii Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 285. 1819. (Roemer and Schultes 1819: 285).

Type. GREECE, Samos, sin col. (whereabouts unknown).

Convolvulus amoenus K. Koch. Linnaea 19: 19. 1847, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus amoenus Dietrich (1816). (Koch 1847: 19).

Type. TURKEY, Pontus Euxinus, Thirke s. n. (holotype B†, possible isotype MO).

Convolvulus peduncularis Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 11: 84. 1849. (Boissier 1849: 84).

Type. TURKEY, between Orfa and Sierek, Kotschy 58 (holotype G; isotype K000852030).

Convolvulus pedunculatus Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3(1): 112. 1852, lapsus [spelling mistake] for C. peduncularis Boiss. (Walpers 1852: 112).

Convolvulus hirsutus var. tomentosus Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 4: 105. 1875. (Boissier 1875b: 105).

Type. Based on Convolvulus peduncularis Boiss.

Convolvulus betonicifolius subsp. peduncularis (Boiss.) Parris, Fl. Turkey & E. Aegean Is (P.H.Davis). 6: 217. 1978. (Parris 1978: 217).

Type. Based on Convolvulus peduncularis Boiss.

Convolvulus hirsutus var. virescens Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 4: 105. 1875. (Boissier 1875b: 105).

Type. TURKEY, Egirdir, Heldreich s. n. (G, E00285435, WAG0003915, K!).

Convolvulus armenus Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 4: 105. 1875. (Boissier 1875b: 105).

Type. TURKEY, Kotschy 373 (lectotype G, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 221); isolectotypes K000852028, P00608770!, W!).

Convolvulus betonicifolius var. armenus (Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss) Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus.Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 221. 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 221).

Type. Based on Convolvulus armenus Boiss.

Convolvulus aleppensis Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus.Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 209. 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 209).

Type. SYRIA, Aleppo, Kotschy 232 (holotype P!).

Type

Cultivated plant grown in Chelsea Physic Garden from seed received from Paris (holotype BM001035798!).

Description

Very variable trailing or twining perennial herb up to 1 m high, stems angled, vegetative parts always hirsute, thinly to densely pubescent, pilose or tomentose. Leaves petiolate, 2.5–8 × 2–6 cm, ovate, apex obtuse or acute, often mucronate, margin entire to undulate, base cordate and cuneate onto the petiole, usually auriculate, auricles rounded to acute, entire or dentate; petioles 0.5–1.5 (-6) cm. Flowers 1–3 (-8) in pedunculate, axillary cymes (often clearly dichasial); peduncles 2–14 cm, very variable from specimen to specimen; bracteoles filiform to linear or linear-oblanceolate, acute, 6–14 × 0.5–1.5 mm, pedicels 5 –15 mm; outer sepals 7–15 × 3–5 mm, oblong-elliptic, acute or acuminate, bicoloured, sometimes slightly constricted below triangular, slightly deflexed dark green apical portion, inner sepals scarious-margined 8–10 × 5–6 mm, shorter but broader; corolla 2.8–3.6 cm, white, cream, or pink, unlobed, midpetaline bands pilose, sometimes darker coloured; filaments glandular below; ovary pilose, style pilose, divided c. 9 mm above base, stigmas 3 mm. Capsule pilose; seeds papillose. [Sa’ad 1967: 219; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: plate 66; Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 214 (photo); Silvestre 2012: 258; Strid and Strid 2009: 388–389 (plate); Pignatti 1982: 389; Grigoriev 1953: 12 (plate)]

Figure 4.

1–9 C. betonicifolius 1 leaves 2 bracteole 3 outer sepal 4 middle sepal 5 inner sepal 6 stamen 7 ovary and style 8 capsule 9 seed. From Stribrny s.n. (G) 10–16 C. cassius 10 leaf 11 bracteole 12 outer sepal 13 middle sepal 14 inner sepal 15 stamen 16 ovary and style. From Dinsmore 10127 (K) 17–23 C. longipedicellatus 17 leaves 18 bracteole 19 outer sepal 20 middle sepal 21 inner sepal 22 stamen 23 ovary and style. From Manisadjan s.n. (W) 24–32 C. stachydifolius 24 leaf 25 bracteole 26 outer sepal 27 middle sepal 28 inner sepal 29 stamen 30 ovary and style 31 capsule 32 seed 24–30 from Bornműller 1528b (B) 31–32 from sin coll. (JE) 33–41 C. palaestinus 33 leaves 34 bracteole 35 outer sepal 36 middle sepal 37 inner sepal 38 stamen 39 ovary and style 40 capsule 41 seed 33–39 from Dinsmore 1409 (E) 40–41 from sin coll. (JE).

Distribution

Widely distributed from the eastern Mediterranean region east to the Caucasus and Iran: Greece (Rechinger 8992): Albania (Alston & Sandwith 1730): Bulgaria (Wiesniewski 1161); Turkey (Davis & Polunin 4220); Cyprus (Meikle 2626); Crimea; Russia: North Caucasus (Sokolova 1149, Kozo-Poljansky & Preobrashensky s.n. [5/1915]); Iraq (Al Kaisi et al. 51085); Syria (Kotschy 232); Lebanon (Gombault 4491); Palestine/Israel (Post 460, Heller & Shamash 13434); Iran (Jacobs 6837). Naturalised in Spain, France (Gay s.n.) and Italy (Fiori & Beguinot 2509).

Notes

A very variable species in indumentum, leaf shape, peduncle length, number and colour of flowers and size and shape of sepals Attempts have been made by Sa’ad (1967) and Parris (1978) to provide an infraspecific classification but the characters do not correlate well with each other and it seems best to treat this as a single widespread variable species.

Convolvulus longipedicellatus Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus.Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 233. 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 233).

Figure 4, t. 17–23.

Type

TURKEY, Merzivan, Manisadjan s.n. (holotype W!).

Description

Presumably trailing herb of unknown length; stems and leaves pubescent. Leaves similar to those of Convolvulus betonicifolius, petiolate, c. 2.5 × 2 cm, ovate, obtuse and mucronate, entire, shallowly sagittate with short auricles. Flowers 1–2, pedunculate, axillary; peduncles c. 2.5 cm; bracteoles c. 5 × 0.5 mm, linear, attenuate; pedicels equalling bracts; sepals 6 × 3 mm, oblong-oblanceolate, obtuse and retuse, mucronulate, pubescent, inner sepals glabrous, membranous; corolla 2.5 cm long, colour unknown, midpetaline bands pubescent, unlobed; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous, style 8 mm long, glabrous, stigmas 5 mm. Capsule and seeds unknown.

Distribution

Turkey. Only known from the type collection.

Notes

This species is not conspecific with C. arvensis as stated in the Flora of Turkey (Parris 1978) but differs in the pubescent leaves and the pubescent, 6 mm long, herbaceous sepals which lack a membranous border. Instead it is clearly related to the very variable C. betonicifolius, as stated by Sa’ad, but appears to be distinct as we cannot match it with any specimens of C. betonicifolius. It differs in the shorter, obtuse and minutely retuse sepals 5–6 mm long, which lack a distinctive apical portion. The ovary is also glabrous.

Convolvulus cassius Sam. ex Rech.f., Ark. Bot., a.s., 1: 314. 1950. (Rechinger 1950: 314).

Figure 4, t. 10–16.

Type

SYRIA, Dinsmore 10127 (holotype S; isotype K!).

Description

Twining perennial herb, stems angled, glabrous. Leaves petiolate, 3–4 × 2–2.5 cm, ovate-deltoid, obtuse, margin undulate to crenate or weakly lobed, ciliate, base cordate and attenuate onto the petiole, beneath thinly pubescent. Flowers 1–3 in pedunculate axillary cymes; peduncles 4–14 cm, glabrous; bracteoles linear, acute, 6–8 × 1 mm, ciliate; pedicels 0.8–1 cm, thinly pilose with stiff spreading hairs; outer sepals 9–10 × 5–6 mm, oblong-obovate, slightly pandurate, abruptly constricted at apex into a mucro, the apical portion dark-coloured, pilose with stiff brown hairs; inner sepals glabrous, membranous; corolla 3.2 cm, yellow, unlobed, midpetaline bands thinly pilose towards the apex; filaments glandular below; ovary pilose; style thinly pilose, divided 5 mm above the base; stigmas 2 mm. Capsule and seeds not seen. [Sa’ad 1967: 222]

Distribution

A rare and very local species of the Syrian border with Turkey, known from a handful of collections: Turkey (?); Syria (“Latakia” fide Parris 1978: 216; Samuelson 5265).

Notes

Resembling C. betonicifolius and similar species but leaves glabrous except for the ciliate margins, which are crenate up to the apex.

Convolvulus stachydifolius Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 408. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 408).

Type

SYRIA/IRAQ, Aleppo to Mosul, Olivier s.n. (lectotype G-DC, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 243); isolectotypes P04209089!, P04209090!).

Description

Perennial herb with decumbent stems up to 1 m long from a central rootstock, vegetative parts pubescent with crisped, somewhat retrorse hairs, occasionally villous to subtomentose. Leaves petiolate, 1.5–6 × 1.5–5.5 cm, ovate-reniform, apex obtuse, margin undulate, crenate-dentate to sinuate-dentate, base cordate and cuneate onto the petiole; petioles 1–4.5 cm. Flowers 1–5 in pedunculate axillary cymes; peduncles 3–9 cm; bracteoles 3–8 mm, filiform; pedicels mostly 1–1.5 cm but sometimes longer resulting in a very lax inflorescence; outer sepals 6–8 × 4–5 mm, obovate or broadly oblong, obtuse, retuse or truncate and mucronate, scarious, pubescent, inner sepals membranous with a truncate base, glabrous or nearly so; corolla (1.5-)2.5–3.5 cm long, pink to purplish, unlobed, midpetaline bands thinly pilose; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous or with a few apical hairs, style glabrous or sparsely pilose, divided 5 mm above base, stigmas 4 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, strongly tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 243; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978 (plate 70); Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 216 (photo); Nowroozi 2002: 84 (plate), 105 (map)]

Notes

We recognise two varieties which can distinguished by indumentum and floral characters:

Convolvulus stachydifolius var. stachydifolius

Figure 4, t. 24–32.

Convolvulus quadriflorus Hochst., in J.A.Lorent, Wanderungen 335.1845. (Lorent 1845: 335).

Type. Bir, Lorent s.n. (?B†).

Distinguishing features

Indumentum of leaves and stem puberulent to pubescent; corolla 2.5–3.5 cm long.

Distribution

Eastern Mediterranean region east to Iran, growing as a weed, often in fallow fields: Turkey (Davis 42295, Davis & Hedge 28188); Iran (Wright & Bent 519-103, Koelz 14798, Bélanger 431); Iraq (Guest 1376, 1467, Rawi et al. 28127, Bornmüller 1529); Syria (Dinsmore 3651, Gaillardot 2059, Barkoudah 1262); Lebanon (Breidy et al. LEB-409); Palestine/Israel (Dinsmore 7651); Jordan (Dinsmore 10620); Egypt.

Convolvulus stachydifolius var. villosus Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 107. 1894 [pub.1893]. (Hallier 1894: 107).

Convolvulus damascenus Boissier & Gaillardot, Diag. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 122. 1859. (Boissier 1859: 122).

Type. SYRIA, Damascus, Gaillardot 2058 (holotype G, not seen).

Type

EGYPT, Aucher-Eloy 193 (lectotype W!, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 246).

Distinguishing features

Distinguished by its denser villous to tomentose indumentum combined with a smaller corolla about 1.5 cm long.

Distribution

Scattered over the range of the species. Examples seen include Maitland 477 (Lebanon), Gaillardot 2058 (Syria), Meyers & Dinsmore 81776 (Palestine/Israel) and Simpson 4714 (Egypt).

Notes

Convolvulus stachydifolius is usually easily distinguished from similar species by the sinuate-dentate leaves.

Convolvulus palaestinus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 11: 84. 1849. (Boissier 1849: 84).

Figure 4, t. 33–41

Convolvulus palaestinus var. diversifolius Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 11: 85. 1849. (Boissier 1849: 85).

Type. TURKEY (Bithynia) (Boissier 1875b: 107), Pestalozza s.n. (holotype G).

Convolvulus palaestinus var. stenophyllus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 3: 124. 1856. (Boissier 1856: 124).

Type. LEBANON, Blanche s.n. (holotype G; isotypes P00836226!, P00836227!, P00836228!).

Convolvulus stenophyllus (Boiss.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 4: 106. 1875. (Boissier 1875b: 106).

Type. Based on Convolvulus palaestinus var. stenophyllus Boiss.

Type

PALESTINE/ISRAEL, Boissier s.n. (holotype G; isotype P!).

Description

Perennial herb with trailing or twining stems from a woody base 0.4–1 m long; stem and vegetative parts adpressed tomentellous. Leaves petiolate, somewhat dimorphic; lower leaves 3–3.5 × 2–3 cm, broadly to narrowly ovate, acute, margin crenate, base broadly cordate and cuneate onto the petiole; middle and upper leaves with an acute triangular central lobe 3–5 × 0.4–0.6 cm, the margin entire to sinuate, basal auricles deeply lobed with many acute lobes; petioles 0.3–2.3 cm, diminishing in length upwards. Flowers 1–3 in pedunculate axillary cymes; peduncles 1.5–5.5 cm; bracteoles 2–4 mm long, filiform; pedicels 2–8 mm, frequently recurved; outer sepals 8–10 × 4–5 mm, obovate, obtuse, densely pubescent; inner sepals c. 1 mm shorter, obovate-elliptic, rounded and crenate at apex, scarious; corolla 2.2–3 cm long, yellow, unlobed, midpetaline bands shortly pubescent near apex; filaments glandular below; ovary pubescent; style glabrous, divided 8 mm above base, stigmas 2–3 mm. Capsule apically pubescent; seeds verruculose. [Sa’ad 1967: 238; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: plate 68; Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 217 (photo as Convolvulus stenophyllus)]

Distribution

Lebanon south to Sinai: Palestine/Israel (Meyers & Dinsmore 1776, 3776, Meyers 3409, Dinsmore 10829, Balls 1539); Lebanon (Bornmüller 12139); Syria (Gaillardot 2054); Egypt: Sinai (fide Boulos 2000: 251).

Notes

Resembles C. scammonia in its yellow flowers but inner sepals slightly shorter than outer sepals and plant tomentellous. The leaves are usually dimorphic; the type shows the ovate lower (or first) leaves while that of C. stenophyllus at P has both leaf forms.

Convolvulus galaticus Rostan ex Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 408. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 408).

Figure 5, t. 1–7.

Convolvulus agrophilos C.Koch, Linnaea 22: 745. 1849. (Koch 1849: 745).

Type. TURKEY, Tschorukthale, C.Koch s.n. (?B†).

Type

TURKEY, Ankara, Rostan s.n. (lectotype G-DC, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 227).

Description

Perennial herb with decumbent or prostrate stems spreading from a central tap root and reaching 50 cm, vegetative parts softly tomentose. Leaves petiolate, 1.5–4 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-triangular, apex acute to mucronate, margin undulate, sinuate or, above, weakly 5-lobed, base cordate and shortly attenuate onto the petiole, veins prominent below; petioles 0.5–1.4 cm. Flowers 1–2 in pedunculate, axillary cymes; peduncles 0.8–2.5 cm; bracteoles 2 –4 mm, linear to filiform; pedicels 0.5–1.4 cm; outer sepals 7–10 × 5–8 mm, broadly ovate, rounded and mucronate to acute, somewhat convex, tomentose, greyish, inner sepals c. 7 × 5 mm. glabrous, membranous; corolla 2.6–3 cm long, deep pink, unlobed, midpetaline bands adpressed pilose, terminating in a tooth; filaments glandular below; ovary pilose (or fide Sa’ad (1967: 230) glabrous), style glabrous or thinly pilose, divided 7 mm above base, stigmas 3–3.5 mm long. Capsule and seeds not seen. [Sa’ad 1967: 227; Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 215 (photo)]

Figure 5.

1–7 C. galaticus 1 leaves 2 bracteole 3 outer epal 4 middle sepal 5 inner sepal 6 stamen 7 ovary and style 1 from Siehe 182 (W) 2–7 from Bourgeau 171 (W) 8–13 C. germaniciae 8 leaf 9 bracteole 10 outer sepal 11 middle sepal 12 inner sepal 13 ovary and style. From Haussknecht s.n. (W) 14–22 C. coelesyriacus 14 leaves 15 bracteole 16 outer sepal 17 middle sepal 18 inner sepal 19 stamen 20 ovary and style 21 capsule 22 seed 14 from Davis 2979 (E) 15–20 from Davis 3033 (E) 21–22 from Meyer & Dinsmore 3619 (L) 23–30 C. althaeoides subsp. althaeoides 23 leaves 24 bracteole 25 outer sepal 26 inner sepal 27 stamen 28 ovary and style 29 capsule 30 seed 23–28 from van Soest 131 (L) 29–30 from Boulos s.n. (CAIM) 31–38 C. pitardii 31leaf and flower showing short peduncle and bracteoles 32 outer sepal 33 middle sepal 34 inner sepal 35 stamen 36 ovary and style 37 capsule 38 seed 31 from Souvage 2412 (RAB) 32–36 from Souvage 2413 (RAB) 37–38 from Souvage 14933 (RAB) 39–47 C. glaouorum 39 leaves 40 bracteole 41 outer sepal 42 middle sepal 43 inner sepal 44 stamen 45 ovary and style 46 capsule 47 seed. From Sauvage & Vindt 2412 (RAB).

Distribution

Almost restricted to Turkey: Turkey (Rix 322, Bornmüller 3176, Siehe 182, Sintenis 6078, Balls 516); Iraq? (Kotschy 73), Lebanon (fide Mouterde 1978: 37).

Notes

The small ovate-triangular leaves and the softly tomentose indumentum help to identify this species. It might be confused with some forms of C. stachydifolius but the sepals are ovate and rather larger.

Convolvulus germaniciae Boiss. & Hausskn., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 4: 104. 1875. (Boissier 1875b: 104).

Figure 5, t. 8–13

Type

TURKEY, Marash, Haussknecht s.n. (holotype G; isotypes JE, W!).

Description

Similar in overall morphology to Convolvulus galaticus but differing as follows: plant pilose with spreading hairs, leaves obscurely sinuate-margined but not crenate-lobed as commonly in C. galaticus, flowers mostly paired, the inflorescence commonly reflexed, sepals 7–9 × 3.5–5 mm, broadly elliptic, bicoloured, the apical part terminating in a distinct broad-based mucro; corolla white to pale pink, the ovary always hirsute, style pubescent below, divided 7–7.5 mm above base, stigmas 2–2.5 mm. Capsule pilose; seeds hirsute. [Sa’ad 1967: 230; Aykurt and Sümbül 2011c (photo, plate and full description)]

Distribution

Endemic to Turkey. Previously known only from the type collection but rediscovered in 2008 (Aykurt and Sümbül 2011c). It is clearly very rare.

Convolvulus coelesyriacus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 11: 85. 1849. (Boissier 1849: 85).

Figure 5, t. 14–22.

Convolvulus sintenisii Boiss., Fl. Orient., Suppl. 349. 1888. (Boissier 1888: 349).

Type. CYPRUS, Sintenis & Rigo 55 (holotype G; isotype W!).

Type

LEBANON, between Hasbey and Rasheiya, Boissier s.n. (holotype G, n.v).

Description

Annual herb, mostly branched at base, with decumbent or ascending stems to c. 30 cm, vegetative parts thinly pubescent. Leaves petiolate, 2–4(-5) × 1.5–3 cm, ovate or reniform, apex rounded, margin entire or undulate, base weakly auriculate, cordate and cuneate onto the petiole; petioles up to 10 cm on basal leaves but mostly 2–3 cm on cauline leaves. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate, becoming congested upwards; bracts resembling small leaves, but sometimes deeply palmately lobed with acute lobes; peduncles 0.5–5 cm, elongating and reflexing in fruit; bracteoles 3–4 mm, filiform to linear-lanceolate; pedicels 0.3–1.5 cm; sepals 3–6 × 3–4 mm, broadly oblong-obovate, prominently mucronate, stiffly hirsute with spreading hairs; corolla 1.5–2(-2.8) cm, pink or pinkish purple, unlobed, midpetaline bands pilose; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 4 mm above base, stigmas c. 1.5 mm. [Sa’ad 1967: 174; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: plate 57; Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 214 (photo); Meikle 1985: 1173]

Distribution

Eastern Mediterranean, apparently especially common in Cyprus: Cyprus (Davis 2979, 3033); Turkey; Syria (Hasbani 464, Barbey 612); Lebanon (Polunin 5208, Gombault 4497, 4499); Palestine/Israel (Davis 4214, 4500, Eig et al. 276).

Notes

The retuse, strongly apiculate sepals, reflexed fruiting peduncles and annual habit are distinctive.

Species 19–21.

Convolvulus pitardii, C. glaouorum and C. vidalii form a complex of species. C. vidalii is the most restricted in distribution and the best defined. Convolvulus pitardii and C. glaouorum are more widely distributed, their geographical patterning only partially defined with the former mostly in the Eastern Rif and Middle Atlas while the latter is mostly in the High Atlas. Most specimens are easily assigned to one or other species but further study is needed.

Convolvulus pitardii Batt., in Pitard, Explor. Sci. Maroc, Bot. 74. 1913. (Pitard 1913: 74).

Figure 5, t. 31–38.

Type

MOROCCO, Oued Cherrat, C.-J. Pitard 2977 (holotype P00332177!).

Description

Perennial herb with stout somewhat woody rootstock from which arise various short decumbent, subglabrous, pubescent to pilose stems to 50 cm. Leaves petiolate, 0. 8–3.2 × 7.5–3.5 cm, ovate-deltoid or reniform, rounded to obtuse, margin undulate to coarsely serrate, base cordate, usually shortly and softly tomentose-sericeous but sometimes with longer hairs, occasionally subglabrous; petioles 0.5–0 7 cm, often flexuose. Flowers solitary, borne on axillary peduncles; peduncles 0–1 cm; bracteoles 2.5–7 mm, filiform; pedicels 1–8.5 cm, commonly flexuose and somewhat deflexed in fruit; calyx in flower clearly longer than broad, sepals 4.5–9 × 3–6 cm, lanceolate to linear-oblong, acute to apiculate forming a narrow calyx, the inner sepals broader; corolla 2.2–3(-4) cm long, pink with a darker centre, midpetaline bands sericeous near apex; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 7 mm above base; stigmas 3–4 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds finely tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 239]

Notes

Distinguished from C. vidalii and C. glaouorum by the narrow calyx (lanceolate in outline) and the narrow sepals which are much longer than broad. This species is divided into two varieties:

Convolvulus pitardii var. pitardii

Distinguishing features

Leaves glabrous above

Distribution

Morocco (Only known from the type).

Convolvulus pitardii var. leucochnous (Benoist) Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 22: 57. 1931. (Maire 1931a: 57).

Convolvulus leucochnous Benoist, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 27: 112. 1921. (Benoist 1921: 112).

Type. MOROCCO, Ain Leuh, Benoist 384 (holotype P00332176!).

Type

Based on Convolvulus leucochnous Benoist

Distinguishing features

Leaves sericeous. The long flexuose pedicels are also very distinct. Much more common than the type variety.

Distribution

Endemic to Morocco where it usually grows on schists: Central Rif (Carine et al. 322; Jury & Shakwa 20997, Font Quer 358, Bowring 10) and Zaïan, east of Middle Atlas (Lynes 153, Jahandiez 80b, Davis 557, Gattefossé s.n. [3/4/1936], Maire s.n. [18/4/1926], Sauvage 1359, 8097, 8410).

Convolvulus glaouorum Braun-Blanquet & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 13: 18. 1922. (Braun-Blanquet and Maire 1922: 18).

Figure 5, t. 39–47

Convolvulus pitardii var. glaouorum (Braun-Blanquet & Maire) Sauvage et Vindt, Fl. Maroc 3: 28. 1954. (Sauvage and Vindt 1954: 28).

Type. Based on Convolvulus glaouorum Braun-Blanquet & Maire

Convolvulus mesatlanticus Andr., Ind. Hort. Bot. Univ. Budapest 1934: 112. 1934. (Andreánzky 1934: 112).

Type. MOROCCO, Azrou, no details of collector or collection given (holotype BP?).

Type

MOROCCO, Demnate, R. Maire s.n. (lectotype MPU 000022!, designated here; isolectotypes P!, AL?).

Description

Perennial herb with relatively slender rootstock (c. 3 mm wide) from which emerge various short decumbent or ascending stems 5–15 (-20) cm long, vegetative parts pubescent. Leaves petiolate, 2–4 × 1–3 cm, dimorphic, lower leaves ovate-deltoid, obtuse, margin undulate to dentate, base truncate to shallowly cordate and shortly cuneate on the petiole; upper leaves somewhat smaller, strongly dentate, apex acute; petioles 1–5 cm. Flowers solitary on axillary peduncles; peduncles 0.3–2.5 cm long, very variable in length; bracteoles 4–6 mm, filiform; pedicels 1–2.5 cm, commonly flexuose; calyx in flower about as long as broad, outer sepals 4.5–7 × 3.5–6 mm, oblong-obovate, mucronate, adpressed pubescent; inner sepals c. 7 × 5 mm, broadly obovate, mucronate, soon scarious; corolla 2.6–3.3 cm, white or pink, unlobed, midpetaline band terminating in a point, nearly glabrous (slightly scabrous); filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 9 mm above base; stigmas 4 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds finely tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 231]

Distribution

Endemic to Morocco: High Atlas (Davis 54093, Davis & King 68145, 68533, Jahandiez 7, Whiting & Richmond 228, Weiller 270, Maire s.n. [8/4/1926], Podlech 45982, Guzmán et al. s.n. [23/3/1989]) with isolated stations at Fez (Trethewy 370) and Djebel Tazzeka (Jury et al. 16800). Usually on limestone.

Notes

Similar to C. vidalii and C. pitardii, differing from the former by presence of peduncles, the colouring of the corolla and larger sepals and from the latter by its dwarf habit and obovate sepals, the calyx only slightly longer than broad. The short, possibly ascending stems are characteristic. Whiting & Richmond 59 (BM) seems intermediate between this species and C. pitardii in indumentum and sepal form.

It appears that the sheet with the original collection in Maire’s herbarium was cut in two and part deposited at Montpelier. This part is selected as the lectotype. The other part of the sheet may be at AL. We have not been able to trace type material of C. mesatlanticus but the illustration provided by Andreánszky (1934: 115) appears to be of C. glaouorum and this concurs with the opinion of Dobignard and Chatelain (2011: 338).

Convolvulus vidalii Pau, Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21: 279. 1921. (Vidal y López 1921: 279).

Type

MOROCCO, Vidal y López s.n. (holotype MA!; isotype BC).

Description

Perennial herb from a stout tap root with decumbent stems to 30 cm, vegetative parts pilose. Leaves petiolate, 0.7–2.8 × 0. 5–3.3 cm, dimorphic, lower leaves ovate-deltoid, obtuse, margin crenate, base cordate to truncate, upper leaves deltoid, apex acute, margin incised-lobed, base cordate; petioles 1–3 cm, flexuose. Flowers solitary, borne on axillary pedicels; peduncles absent; bracteoles 2–4 mm, filiform; pedicels 3–35 mm, becoming strongly recurved in fruit; sepals 2.5–5.5 × 2.5–5.5, ovate to obovate, acute or obtuse and apiculate; corolla 1.7–3 cm long, purple with cream centre and (usually) dark purple marks around throat, midpetaline bands pilose towards apex; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 5–9 mm above base; stigmas c. 4 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds finely tuberculate.

Distribution

Endemic to the Western Rif in Morocco (Carine et al. 239, Font Quer 318, Wall 22/5/1936).

Notes

Distinguished from the C. pitardii and C. glaouorum by the complete absence of peduncles, the strongly recurved fruiting pedicels, the shorter sepals and smaller corolla, this is purple with a cream centre and with five distinct dark purple markings in the throat.

Convolvulus althaeoides L., Sp. Pl. 156. 1753. (Linnaeus 1753: 156).

Figure 5, t. 23–30

Type

Southern Europe, (lectotype LINN 218.26!, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 210).

Description

Trailing or twining perennial herb with slender creeping rootstock; stems terete, to 2 m long; vegetative parts thinly pilose to densely sericeous-tomentose. Leaves petiolate, strongly dimorphic; lower leaves 2–4 × 1–3 cm, ovate-deltoid, apex apiculate, acute or obtuse, margin irregularly crenate, base cordate and shortly cuneate; upper leaves slightly larger, to 6 × 6 cm, similar in outline but deeply sinuate-lobed to 3–5-partite with narrowly oblong, entire to coarsely dentate segments; petioles 1–5 cm long. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, solitary or in a dichasial cyme with up to 4 flowers; peduncles 3–10 cm; bracteoles 3–12 mm, filiform, linear to narrowly linear-lanceolate; pedicels 5–13 mm; outer sepals 5–9 × 4–6 mm, variable in shape, elliptic to obovate, acute to obtuse, glabrous to hirsute, margin often scarious, undulate, inner sepals slightly broader with broad scarious margins, often basally auriculate; corolla (1.6-)1.8–4.5 cm long (very variable in size), pink (rarely white), very weakly lobed, midpetaline bands darker, shortly pubescent; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 5–10 mm above base; stigmas 2. 5–5 mm, relatively stout. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, obscurely tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 210]

Notes

A very variable species in indumentum, sepal form and flower size, this reflected in the extensive synonymy below. Two subspecies, sometimes treated as separate species, can usually be distinguished although intermediates occur occasionally, for example Fitz 74/1978 (W) from Tunisia, Dubuis 8549 (BM) from Algeria, Pampanini 3729 (FI), the type of var. angustisectus from Libya or Faure s.n. (MPU) the type of var. dissectus, from Algeria, all of which have the distinct linear leaf lobes of subsp. tenuissimus without the softly sericeous indumentum.

Convolvulus althaeoides subsp. althaeoides

Convolvulus gracilis Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 124. 1796, superfluous name for C. althaeoides L. (Salisbury 1796: 124).

Type. FRANCE, Sète [Cette], collector and whereabouts unknown.

Convolvulus bryonifolius Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 943. 1806. (Sims 1806: t. 943).

Type. Cultivated at Brompton, t. 943 (Sims 1806) based on a cultivated plant of uncertain origin.

Convolvulus hirsutus Tenore, Fl. Napol. 1: 60, t. 15. 1811-15, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus hirsutus M.Bieb. (1808). (Tenore 1811-15: 60).

Type. ITALY, Capri and Ischia, Tenore s.n. (NAP).

Convolvulus argyraeus DC., in Lamarck & de Candolle, Fl. Franc. ed. 3. 6: 423. 1815. (Lamarck and de Candolle 1815: 423).

Type. ITALY, Calabria (holotype G?).

Convolvulus italicus Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 266. 1819. (Roemer and Schultes 1819: 266).

Type. Based on Convolvulus hirsutus Tenore

Convolvulus alceifolius Bory & Chaub., Nouv. Fl. Pélop. 14. 1838. (Bory and Chaubard 1838: 14).

Type. GREECE, between Koron and Modon, Chaubard s.n. (lectotype P00608773!, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 212).

Convolvulus althaeoides var. nanus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. Not specified.

Convolvulus althaeoides var. hirsutus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. Based on Convolvulus hirsutus Tenore

Convolvulus althaeoides var. ferrugineus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. Not specified.

Convolvulus althaeoides var. sericeus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. Image in Thesaurus botanicus, t. 57. (Trattinnick 1805-1819).

Convolvulus althaeoides var. argyreus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] Prodr. 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. Based on Convolvulus argyraeus DC.

Convolvulus althaeoides var. angustisectus Pamp., Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1914: 15.1914. (Pampanini 1914: 15).

Type. LIBYA, Ras Tecut, Pampanini 3729 (holotype FI).

Convolvulus althaeoides var. albidiflorus Braun-Blanq. & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat Afrique N. 13: 19. 1922. (Braun-Blanquet and Maire 1922: 19).

Type. MOROCCO, Djebbel Amsitten, S de Mogador, Maire s.n. (holotype RAB 078144!).

Convolvulus althaeoides var. repandus Faure & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat Afrique N. 23: 200. 1932. (Maire 1932: 200).

Type. ALGERIA, Oran, Faure s.n. (holotype MPU 002967!).

Convolvulus althaeoides var. dissectus Faure & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat Afrique N. 23: 200. 1932. (Maire 1932: 200).

Type. ALGERIA, Lamoricière, Faure s.n. (holotype MPU 002968!).

Convolvulus althaeoides subsp. darnitanus Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat Afrique N. 30: 293 (Maire and Weiller 1939: 293).

Type. LIBYA, Cyrenaica, Wadi Derna, Maire & Weller 1117 (holotype MPU!).

Distinguishing features

Variably hirsute but hairs not appressed and sericeous. Leaves variously dissected but lobes not linear. [Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: plate 64; Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 213 (photo); Silvestre 2012: 257; Siddiqi 1977: 9 (Figure 3); Strid and Strid 2009: 390–391 (plate); Pignatti 1982: 389; Boulos 2000: 331].

Distribution

Madeira (MacGilvray 54); Canary Islands (Gilli 23/6/1977); Portugal (Moller 1177); Spain (Beltrán s.n. [5/1933]); France (Salis 1821); Sardinia (Titchen 123); Italy (Fiori & Beguinot 2145); Sicily (Zerny 337); Malta–Gozo (Hepper 4818); Morocco (Balls 2935); Algeria (Faure s.n. [30/4/1920], Choulette 375); Tunisia (Buxbaum & Schussnig s.n. [18/4/1924]); Libya (Pampanini 6179); Egypt (Boulos 19773); Palestine/Israel (Meyers & Dinsmore 620); Syria (Gombault 3998); Jordan (Swann s.n.[4/1976]); Lebanon (fide Tohmé and Tohmé 2007); Turkey (Davis 41803); Crete (Barclay 3637); Rhodes (Bourgeau s.n.[16/5/1871]); Cyprus (Sintenis & Rigo 59). Naturalised in the United States of America: California (True & Howell 7467).

Convolvulus althaeoides subsp. tenuissimus (Sm.) Batt., Fl. Algérie 592. 1890. (Battandier 1890: 592)

Convolvulus elegantissimus Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: 22. 1768. (Miller 1768: 22).

Type. A plant cultivated in the Chelsea Physic Garden, Miller s.n. (holotype BM001035799!).

Convolvulus sericeus Forssk., Fl. Egypt-Arab. 204. 1775, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus sericeus L. (1767). (Forsskål 1775: 204).

Type. TURKEY, Sea of Marmora, Forsskål (syntypes C).

Convolvulus tenuissimus Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr (Sibthorp & Smith) 1: 134. 1806. (Sibthorp and Smith 1806: 134).

Type. GREECE, collector unknown (holotype OXF-SIB0463A!).

Convolvulus althaeoides var. pedatus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. Without locality, Forsskål s.n. (lectotype BM001014569!, designated here).

Convolvulus althaeoides subsp. elegantissimus (Mill.) Quézel & Santa, Nouv. Fl. Algérie 758. 1963. (Quézel and Santa 1963: 758).

Type. Based on Convolvulus elegantissimus Mill.

Type

Based Convolvulus tenuissimus Sm.

Distinguishing features

Plant softly sericeous in all parts. Leaves finely dissected with narrow linear lobes. [Tohmé and Tohmé 2007: 215 (photo as C. elegantissimus); Pignatti 1982: 389 (as C. elegantissimus); Polunin 1980 (Plate 35); Strid and Strid 2009: 392–393 (plate as C. elegantissimus)].

Distribution

Mostly East Mediterranean region with scattered records in the west: Turkey (Davis 41184, Sintenis 338); Lebanon (Mouterde 12135); Aegean Islands (Platt 86, Rechinger 3816); Greece (Heldreich 235); Albania (Baldacci 1892); Croatia (Denis 121); Hungary (Degen 2934); Rumania (Degen 90); Italy (Fiori & Béguinot s.n. [1924]); Malta (Adler s.n. [12/5/1994]); France (Bruyas 3345); Malta (Davis 50632); Algeria (Gombault s.n. [24/3/1935]).

Notes

The species as a whole is widely distributed around the Mediterranean extending to Madeira and the Canary Islands, where it may be introduced. Subsp. tenuissimus is the predominant subspecies in SE Europe extending from southern Austria and Hungary to Italy, Malta, Algeria, the Aegean Islands and Turkey, perhaps centred on the Adriatic. It should be noted that if this subspecies is recognised at specific level its correct name is C. elegantissimus Mill. subsp. althaeoides is the only subspecies in the west Mediterranean region and the predominant subspecies in Cyprus, the Levant and North Africa. It is naturalised in California (Hickman 1993: 521). Records from Eritrea (Sebsebe 1999: 78), where it is presumably a garden plant or garden escape, do not specify a subspecies.

This species is morphologically very similar to C. capensis from South Africa. Both species are extremely variable and some forms are not easily distinguished except on geographical grounds. Molecular studies, however, indicate they belong to different clades and C. capensis has distinctly shorter, thicker stigmas (Williams et al. 2014).

Species 23–41. Southern African species

This group is exceptionally complex and there are few clearly demarcated species. Although C. sagittatus has long been recognised as the centre of a complex of species, the difficulties in species delimitation extend to almost every species in the group apart from perhaps C. argillicola and C. kilimandschari. Apparent intermediates between species are quite frequently found and in the absence of any clear evidence for hybridisation are difficult to explain. Any attempt to unite two taxa joined by intermediates will tend to result in a series of species collapsing into a single amorphous unit. Attempts have been made here to pick out what seem to be the core taxa and indicate the existence of intermediates. No attempt has been made to describe as new the occasional single collections, which cannot easily be accommodated. C. sagittatus, C. aschersonii, C. thomsonii, C. austroafricanus and C. farinosus form an especially complex group of species, which extend from South Africa northwards to Nigeria, Algeria, Ethiopia and SW Arabia but molecular studies tend to support their recognition as separate species The first two are very similar to the South American C. demissus and C. bonariensis respectively but molecular studies suggest they are not very closely related (Williams et al. 2014). The three species (C. capensis, C. bidentatus and C. namaquensis) share very short, somewhat stout stigmas, which set them apart from the other southern African species and are unusual in Convolvulus as a whole.

Convolvulus kilimandschari Engl., Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2: 348. 1892. (Engler 1892: 348).

Figure 6, t. 1–6

Convolvulus schimperi Engl., Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2: 347. 1892, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus schimperi Boiss. (1849). (Engler 1892: 347).

Type. ETHIOPIA, Begemeder, Schimper 1465 (holotype B†; isotype K).

Convolvulus kilimandschari var. glabratus Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 109. 1893 [“1894”]. (Hallier 1894: 109).

Type. Based on Convolvulus schimperi Engl.

Convolvulus cephalantha Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 69. 1894. (Baker 1894: 69).

Type. TANZANIA, Kilimanjaro, H.H. Johnston s.n. (holotype K).

Bonamia althoffiana Dammer, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C 329. 1895. (Engler 1895: 329).

Type. TANZANIA, Kilimanjaro, Kilema, Volkens 1559 (holotype B†; isotype BR).

Hewittia kilimandschari (Engl.) Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boiss 5: 1008. 1897. (Hallier 1897: 1008).

Type. Based on Convolvulus kilimandschari Engl.

Convolvulus keniensis Standl., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 68(5): 11. 1917. (Standley 1917: 11).

Type. KENYA, western slopes, Mt. Kenya, Mearns 1294 (holotype US).

Calystegia glabrata (Hallier f.) Chiov., Racc. Bot. Miss. Consol. Kenya 85. 1935. (Chiovenda 1935: 85).

Type. Based on Convolvulus kilimandschari var. glabratus Hallier f.

Type

TANZANIA, Kilimanjaro, H. Meyer 302 (holotype B†); TANZANIA, Kilimanjaro [Kilimanscharo], 4 miles below Bismarck Hut, 16 Jan 1955, B. Verdcourt 1207 (neotype EA, designated by Verdcourt 1963: 38); isoneotypes FT, K!, MO, PRE).

Description

Vigorous twining herb with stems reaching 2 m, vegetative parts varying from densely hirsute to subglabrous. Leaves petiolate, 3–8.5 × 1.8–6 cm, ovate-deltoid, acute, margin entire or obscurely crenate, base cordate (rarely hastate); petioles 7–30 mm. Flowers in many-flowered, axillary, pedunculate, bracteate heads; peduncles 1–13 cm long; bracteoles 5–10 × 3–7.5 mm, ovate, acute, scarious, tardily caducous; pedicels very short, 2–4 mm long; outer sepals 9–13 × 5–8 mm, broadly ovate, acute to apiculate, villous, becoming scarious; corolla 2.5–3(-4) cm long, very wide at the mouth, white, purplish or pink with a dark centre, unlobed, midpetaline bands pubescent; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 7 mm above base; stigmas 2–2.5 mm, linear, slightly shorter than the style arm. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, the surface with wavy, white-topped ridges. [Verdcourt 1963: 38–39 (plate); Sebsebe 2006 182]

Figure 6.

1–6 C. kilimandschari 1 leaf 2 outer sepal 3 inner sepal 4 calyx 5 stamen 6 ovary and style. From Gilbert 1086 (K) 7–16 C. thunbergii 7 leaf 8 leaf 9 bracteoles 10 outer sepal 11 middle sepal 12 inner sepal 13 stamen 14 ovary and style 15 capsule 16 seeds 7 & 10–14 from Schlieben 7092 (K) 8–9 & 15–16 from MacOwan 586 (K) 17–22 C. capensis 17 leaf 18 leaf 19 outer sepal 20 inner sepal 21 stamen 22 ovary and style 17 from Drège s.n. (OXF) 18–22 from Bolus 9971 (K) 23–31 C. dregeanus 23 leaves 24 bracteoles 25 outer sepal 26 middle sepal 27 inner sepal 28 stamen 29 ovary and style 30 capsule 31 seeds. From Gemmell 7/11/1949 (K) 32–40 C. argillicola 32 leaf 33 bracteole 34 outer sepal 35 middle sepal 36 inner sepal 37 stamen 38 ovary and style 39 capsule 40 seed. From Seydel 4170 (K).

Distribution

Mountains of eastern Africa from 1800 to 3500 m:. Ethiopia (Friis et al. 7359, de Wilde 8973); Kenya (Fries & Fries 459, Greenway & Kanuri 13886, Tweedie 1738); Uganda (Wesche 797); Tanzania (Verdcourt 1553, Richards 24124).

Notes

A very distinctive afromontane species because of its many-flowered capitate inflorescence but variable in indumentum, plants from Ethiopia commonly less hirsute and with slightly larger corollas than those from further south.

Convolvulus capensis Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (N.L. Burman) Prodr. Fl. Cap. 5. 1768. (Burman 1768: 5).

Figure 6, t. 17–22.

Convolvulus plicatus Desr., Encycl. [J. Lamarck et al.] 3: 558. 1792. (Desrousseaux 1792: 558).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Sonnerat s.n. (holotype P-Lam, not seen).

Convolvulus alceifolius Lam., Tabl. Encycl.1: 461. 1793. (Lamarck 1793: 461).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, sin col. (P [Herb. Lam.]).

Convolvulus falkia Jacq., Hort Schoenbr. 2: 38, t. 198. 1797, nom illeg., non Convolvulus falkia Thunb. (1794). (Jacquin 1797: 38).

Type. Icon, t.198 in Hort. Schoenbr.

Convolvulus filiformis Thunb., Fl. Cap. 2 :16. 1818, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus filiformis Desr. (1789). (Thunberg 1818: 16).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Thunberg s.n. (various syntypes UPS).

Convolvulus inconspicuus Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 106. 1893 [“1894”]. (Hallier 1894: 106).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Western Cape, Namaqualand, Lilyfontein, Drège s.n. (holotype B†; isotypes K!, L, W!).

Convolvulus capensis var. dissectus Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 105. 1893 [“1894”], nom. illeg., superfluous name for autonymic variety (Hallier 1893: 105).

Convolvulus capensis var. malvifolius Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 106. 189. 1893 [“1894”]. (Hallier 1893: 106).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Cape, Zeyher & Eckler 24 (syntype ?B†), Drege, ‘C. alceifolius’ a, b, (syntype ? B†).

Convolvulus capensis var. plicatus (Desr.) Baker, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 4(2): 78. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 78).

Type. Based on Convolvulus plicatus Desr.

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Cape, without collection data (holotype G, not seen).

Description

Perennial herb, usually coarsely brown-pubescent on all vegetative parts, occasionally glabresent or white-pubescent; stems to 1.5 m, climbing or prostrate, sometimes woody towards the base. Leaves petiolate, 1.5–5 × 1.5–4 cm, very variable in form but always palmately veined, oblong, ovate or reniform in outline, sometimes unlobed with coarsely crenate to laciniate margins, often deeply palmately lobed or palmatisect, base more or less hastate, apex acute or obtuse; petioles 0.4–1.5 cm. Flowers solitary or arranged in few-flowered cymes, peduncles 4–10 cm; pedicels 4–15 mm; bracteoles 4–7 mm, filiform to linear; outer sepals 8–13 × 5–8 mm, oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, often scarious-margined; corolla 2–3.2 cm, white, unlobed, fimbriate, the midpetaline bands thinly pilose, terminating in a small tooth; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 5–6 mm above base, stigmas 1.5–2 × 0.5–0.75 mm, very narrowly ellipsoid. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth except for the obscurely rugose angles. [Meeuse 1958: 692; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 40 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa: Eastern and Western Cape (Parker 4618, Bolus 5211, Thompson 768, Garside 1610, Acocks 14813, Galpin 10544).

Notes

Recognised by the large unlobed, often fimbriate, white corolla combined with palmately-veined leaves and very short, thick stigmas. Some specimens are almost indistinguishable from the Mediterranean C. althaeoides, except by the distinctive stigmas.

Plants from Namaqualand (northwestern Cape) have a shorter calyx (6–7 mm long) and smaller corolla (12–16 mm) and have been treated as a distinct species, C. inconspicuus. They resemble C. multifidus very closely but can be distinguished by the presence of a distinct peduncle. The more distinctly elongate, 2 mm long stigmas of the type suggest they might be hybrids: C. capensis × multifidus.

Convolvulus bidentatus Bernh. ex Krauss, Flora 27(2): 829. 1844. (Krauss 1844: 829).

Convolvulus hastatus Thunb., Prodr. Fl. Cap. 35. 1794, nom illeg., non Convolvulus hastatus Forssk. (1775). (Thunberg 1794: 35).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Thunberg s.n. (holotype UPS).

Convolvulus hastatus var. major, Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 105.1893 [“1894”], nom. illeg., based on Convolvulus bidentatus. (Hallier 1893: 105).

Type. Based on Convolvulus bidentatus Bernh. ex Krauss

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Western Cape, George near Zivarte valley, Krauss s.n. (holotype B†; isotypes FI!, W!).

Description

Perennial herb, glabrous to thinly pubescent in all vegetative parts; rootstock thick; stems to 3 m, prostrate or climbing. Leaves petiolate, very narrowly hastate, the central lobe 2–6 × 0.1–0.6 cm, linear to oblong, auricles very small, 0.2–1.2 × 0.1–0.4 cm, usually bifid, apex acute, margin entire; petioles 0.3–1.4 cm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, usually paired (rarely solitary), peduncles 3–8(-14) cm; bracteoles 3–4 mm, subulate to narrowly lanceolate; pedicels 2–11 mm; outer sepals (5-)6–9 × (4-)6–8 mm, obovate, the apex truncate or rounded and often mucronate, margins scarious; corolla (1.2-)1.5–2.5(-3) cm long, white or pinkish, shallowly lobed, the midpetaline bands thinly pubescent terminating in teeth; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 15 mm above base; stigmas ellipsoid, c 1 × 0.75 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, rugose with pallid ridges. [Meeuse 1958: 685; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 39 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa: along the southern fringes of Western and Eastern Cape (Acocks 23072, Bolus 2405, Johnson 1105, Fourcade 2626, Long 883, Zeyher 239).

Notes

Recognised by the very narrow, hastate leaves combined with rounded, scarious-margined sepals, 2-flowered peduncles and relatively large corolla. The distinctive stigma suggests a close affinity with C. capensis. Long 822 from Port Elizabeth has 3-flowered peduncles and stigmas 3 mm long and might be of hybrid origin but has the distinctive scarious sepals of C. bidentatus.

Meeuse (1958: 685) selected Thunberg s.n. (UPS) as a neotype but this was unnecessary as there are isotypes of the Krauss collection in the Webb herbarium at FI and at W.

Convolvulus namaquensis (Schltr. ex A.Meeuse) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov.

Convolvulus sagittatus Thunb. var. namaquensis Schltr. ex A.Meeuse, Bothalia 6: 682. 1958 [1957]. (Meeuse 1958: 682).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Western Cape, Schlechter 11124 (holotype PRE!; isotypes BM000930470!, K!, P!).

Description

Very similar to C. bidentatus differing in little more than the obovate, pubescent sepals, 6–7 mm long, which are abruptly narrowed to an acute to apiculate apex and are not scarious-margined. The peduncles can be up to 5-flowered. Leaves 1.4–4 × 0.8–1.5, narrowly ovate-deltoid to oblong in outline, hastate at base but auricles simple, margin sinuate or coarsely crenate; corolla 1.7–2 cm long; ovary conical, glabrous, style divided 5–6 mm above base; stigmas 1 mm, narrowly ellipsoid, sometimes unequal in length as in the isotype at K.

Distribution

South Africa (Western Cape, especially in the Clanwilliam area) and Namibia centred on Namaqualand (Le Roux 2836, Hardy & Bayliss 1073, Hugo 6993, Bolus 9424, Dickson 1879, Moss 17985, Macdonall 18, Galpin 10544, Leipoldt 321).

Notes

Molecular studies (Williams et al. 2014) suggest this species is distinct from C. sagittatus. The shape of the stigmas suggests a relationship with C. bidentatus and C. capensis, rather than C. sagittatus.

We have only cited the isotypes we have seen. The isotype at W appears to represent C. sagittatus and it is possible that not all collections of Schlechter 11124 represent C. namaquensis and this may explain why Meeuse treated this as a variety of C. sagittatus.

Convolvulus thunbergii Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 268. 1819. (Roemer and Schultes 1819: 268).

Figure 6, t. 7–16.

Convolvulus transvaalensis Schltr., J. Bot. 34: 502. 1896. (Schlechter 1896: 502).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Mpumalanga, Barberton, E.E.Galpin 430 (BOL, GRA, K!, PRE).

Convolvulus natalensis var. angustifolia C.H.Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 4(2): 77. 1904. (Wright 1904: 77).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Mpumalanga, Barberton, E.E.Galpin 430 (holotype K!; isotypes BOL GRA, PRE).

Convolvulus natalensis var. transvaalensis (Schltr.) A.Meeuse, Bothalia 6: 689. 1958 [1957]. (Meeuse 1958: 689).

Type. Based on Convolvulus transvaalensis Schltr.

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Cape. Thunberg s.n. (holotype BM000930466! ex Herb. Roemer; isotype UPS).

Description

Perennial herb, thinly pubescent in all vegetative parts; rootstock thin, woody; stems to 70 cm, prostrate. Leaves petiolate, relatively small, lanceolate to ovate in outline, the central lobe 1– 5 × 0.3–0.8, cm, oblong to lanceolate, dentate, pinnatisect to pinnatifid, characteristically cordate-deltoid, auricles prominent, usually bifurcate, 0.3–1.5 cm, usually dentate, apex acute or obtuse; petioles 3–12 mm. Flowers solitary (rarely paired), axillary, pedunculate, peduncles 0.8–3 cm; bracteoles 3–7 mm, subulate to linear; pedicels 3–12 mm; outer sepals 9–12 × 4–6 mm, ovate, acute to acuminate, inner sepals scarioius, pubescent only in central vertical lines; corolla 1.6–2.8 cm, white or pink, very shallowly lobed, the midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in a tooth; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 7 mm above base; stigmas 4 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth. [Meeuse 1958: 690; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 47 (map and plate)]

Distribution

South Africa: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, North West, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Limpopo (Moss 7122, Bolus 6847, Cooper 790, Meeuse 9376, Schlechter 3479); Lesotho (Dieterlen 387).

Notes

Distinguished by its essentially pinnately-nerved central leaf lobe. It seems close to C. natalensis particularly as represented by Hoggarth in Wood 4179, Dietelen 38751, Galpin 430 & Williams 154, which Meeuse (1958: 689) treated as var. transvaalensis of C. natalensis and is also close to some forms of C. austrafricanus differing in little more than the larger flowers. It has been much confused historically being also treated as a variety of C. capensis (Baker and Wright 1904).

Convolvulus dregeanus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 411. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 411).

Figure 6, t. 23–31

Convolvulus liniformis Rendle, J. Bot. 39: 61. 1901. (Rendle 1901: 61).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Zeyher 1220 (lectotype BM000930471!, designated here; isolectotype P!).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape, Drège 7828 (holotype G; isotypes BM!, L, P!).

Description

Completely glabrous perennial herb with decumbent to ascending stems to 30 cm long from a central taproot. Leaves shortly petiolate, 1–2 (-3) cm long, very variable in form on the same plant and between plants, sometimes linear with a hastate base and minute auricles (Zeyher 1220), more commonly dimorphic, the basal leaves ovate, weakly cordate and apically obtuse with coarsely serrate margins, becoming pinnatifid upwards, the upper leaves 5-fid with a long, linear central lobe and shorter basal lobes (Drège 7828); petioles 1–5 mm (shorter in linear-leaved plants). Flowers solitary, pedunculate; peduncles 0.5–3 cm long, pedicels 1– 5 mm, bracteoles 1–2 mm, linear-lanceolate to spathulate; outer sepals 4–5.5(-7) × 2.5–3 mm, obovate, rounded, rounded and mucronate or fimbriate; corolla 1–1.4 (-2) cm, white to pale pink, midpetalline bands glabrous; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 6–9 mm above base, stigmas 1.5 mm, slightly widened upwards. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, rugose. [Meeuse 1958: 671; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 41 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa except KwaZulu-Natal (Gemmell 4976, Acocks 20833, Hutchinson 3100, Verdoorn 899), Lesotho (Christol s.n. [1907-8]).

Notes

Distinct for being completely glabrous with small, delicate leaves and short obovate, rounded to slightly fimbriate sepals.

Convolvulus boedeckerianus Peter, Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] 4(3a): 36. 1891. (Peter 1891: 36).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Free State, Boedecker s.n. (lectotype GOET-002454, designated by Meeuse and Welman 2000: 40).

Description

Perennial herb with woody taproot from which spread numerous stems to 60 cm, plant covered in adpressed brown to silvery hairs. Leaves 1–2.5 × 0.5–2 cm, lanceolate to ovate in outline, variable in form from pinnatisect to palmately 5-lobed, often with the terminal lobe much longer and deeply toothed and the basal lobes bifid, base truncate to shallowly cordate; petioles 1–5 mm long. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedicellate but not pedunculate (rarely peduncle to 1mm); bracteoles 1–2 mm long, subulate; pedicels 2–6(-10) mm, outer sepals 4–5(-6) × 2–3 mm, ovate to oblong-elliptic, acute; corolla 7–10 mm long, pink or white, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent with brown hairs; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 2.5 mm above base; stigmas 2.5 mm, slightly widened upwards. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth but muricate on angles. [Meeuse 1958: 674; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 40 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa except KwaZulu-Natal (Prosser 1529, Werger 289, Shaw 123, Brierley 173, Flanagan 2112, Duparquet 107).

Notes

Distinguished by the solitary, pedicellate flowers and near absence of peduncles combined with the very small calyx, the sepals usually about 5 mm long and thinly covered in brownish hairs. The inflorescence is similar to that of C. ocellatus but in that species the calyx is >6 mm long and the whole plant is densely tomentose. It can be confused with C. multifidus but in C. multifidus the calyx is larger. It could also be confused with C. austroafricanus but that species usually has several flowers which are always borne on a peduncle.

There are specimens apparently intermediate with C. austroafricanus including Moss 4718 from Belmont, Goosseno 728 from Free State and Eyres 1820 and Jacobsen 1772 from Zimbabwe. These have short but very distinct peduncles 5–10 mm long which bear 1–2 flowers, similar in dimensions to C. boedeckerianus. Unlike C. austroafricanus these plants are not very hirsute. Given the increasing evidence for hybridisation within Convolvulus these specimens may represent plants of hybrid origin.

Convolvulus multifidus Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 35. 1794. (Thunberg 1794: 35).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Eastern Cape, Thunberg s.n. (holotype UPS!).

Description

Perennial herb similar in facies to C. boedeckerianus, densely villous to tomentose in all vegetative parts; rootstock a thickened, woody taproot; stems 15–75 cm long, prostrate. Leaves 0.5–2.5 × 0.5–1 cm, palmately lobed with the central lobe pinnatisect, more or less ovate in outline with weakly cordate base; petioles 3–8 mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 0–8 mm, pedicels 8–15 mm; bracts linear 2–7 × 0.5 mm; outer sepals 6.5–9 × 5–mm, broadly elliptic, acute, villous, somewhat glabrescent towards the margins; corolla 10–13 mm, pale pink or white, deeply lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent with brownish hairs; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, stigmas 3.5–4 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth except for muricate angles. [Meeuse 1958: 675; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 43 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa, almost endemic to the Cape (Burchell 1839, Acocks 21861, Baur 1020).

Notes

Distinguished from C. boedeckerianus by the larger calyx and (usually) pedunculate flowers.

Convolvulus argillicola Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 48: 348. 1912. (Pilger 1912: 348).

Figure 6, t. 32–40

Type

NAMIBIA, Dinter 1892 & 2153 (syntypes B†, SAM).

Description

Densely hispid-pilose perennial with prostrate/trailing stems from a central taproot to 70 cm; hairs rusty-brown in colour. Leaves petiolate, 1–3.5 (-5) × 0.5–2.5 cm, ovate in outline, deeply pinnatisect, abruptly narrowed and cuneate onto the petiole; petioles 1–8 mm. Flowers 1–2, axillary, subsessile; peduncles to c. 0.3 cm; pedicels 0; bracts filiform, 5–9 × 0.5 mm; outer sepals broadly ovate with a long caudate apex, c. 7–8 mm at anthesis, accrescent to 12–13 mm, becoming somewhat scarious, the margin crisped; corolla 10–12 mm long, deeply lobed for c. 4 mm, nearly concealed by calyx, white with pilose midpetaline bands; ovary glabrous, divided c. 4 mm above base; stigmas 2 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, rugose. [Meeuse 1958: 670; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 37 (map)]

Distribution

Namibia (Seydel 3695, 4170, Merxmuller 1032, Pearson 9562, Dinter 4284). 1500–2000 m. Acacia bushland on sand; apparently rare.

Notes

Very distinct because of the subsessile flowers and accrescent calyx, which almost conceals the corolla.

Convolvulus ocellatus Hook., Bot. Mag. 70: t. 4065. 1844. (Hooker 1844: t.4065).

Figure 7, t. 7–14

Convolvulus ornatus Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 247. 1888. (Engler 1888: 247).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape, Marloth 716 (holotype B†; isotype PRE).

Convolvulus ocellatus var. ornatus (Engl.) A.Meeuse, Bothalia 6: 673. 1958 [1957]. (Meeuse 1958: 673).

Type. Based on Convolvulus ornatus Engl.

Convolvulus dinteri Pilger, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 219. 1910. (Pilger 1910: 219).

Type. NAMIBIA, Kraaifontein, Dinter 812 (holotype B†; isotypes SAM, PRE, not seen).

Type

Plate 4065 in Curtis, Botanical Magazine 70 (1844); epitype (designated here): SOUTH AFRICA, North West Province, Gauteng, Magaliesberg, Burke 119 ex Herb. Hooker (K!).

Description

Perennial herb with all vegetative parts tomentose with brown or grey hairs; rootstock stout, woody; stems 20–100 cm long, decumbent and trailing to erect, occasionally apparently rambling over shrubs, often woody towards the base. Leaves subsessile or shortly petiolate, 1–2.5 × 0.1–1.5 cm, narrowly oblong with or without basal auricles to palmately 5-fid (var. ornatus), the central lobe much longer than the bifid basal lobes, margin characteristically revolute, petioles 0.5–3 mm. Flowers almost always solitary; peduncles 0–5 mm long; pedicels 3–11 mm; bracts 1–5 mm, linear; outer sepals 6–8 × 3–4, oblong-lanceolate, abruptly contracted above middle and then narrowed to an obtuse to subacute apex; corolla 12–14 mm long, pink or white, distinctly lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent with brown hairs; ovary pilose or glabrous; style thinly pilose or glabrous, divided c. 5 mm above base; stigmas 3.5–4 mm, linear; Capsule pilose at the apex; seeds smooth. [Meeuse 1958: 673 p. p.; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 45 (map)]

Figure 7.

1–6 C. farinosus 1 leaf 2 outer sepal 3 middle sepal 4 inner sepal 5 stamen 6 ovary and style. From Voeke 3803 (GOET) 7–14 C. ocellatus 7 leaf 8 outer sepal 9 middle sepal 10 inner sepal 11 stamen 12 ovary and style 13 bracteoles, calyx and capsule 14 seeds. From Adams 10/1920 (K) 15–22 C. randii 15 leaf 16 bracteoles 17 outer sepal 18 middle sepal 19 inner sepal 20 stamen 21 ovary and style 22 calyx and capsule. From Leach and Muller 11720 (K) 23–28 C. aschersonii 23 leaf 24 bracteoles showing flower buds 25 outer sepal 26 inner sepal 27 stamen 28 ovary and style. From Moss 6304 (BM) 29–35 C. natalensis 29 leaf 30 leaf 31 outer sepal 32 inner sepal 33 stamen 34 ovary and style 35 calyx and capsule 29 & 31–35 from Hilliard 5023 (K) 30 from Drège s.n. (OXF) 36–42 C. sagittatus 36 leaf 37 outer sepal 38 inner sepal 39 stamen 40 ovary and style 41 calyx and capsule 42 seeds. From Wood 3239 (BM) 43–51 C. austroafricanus 43 leaf 44 bracteole 45 outer sepal 46 middle sepal 47 inner sepal 48 stamen 49 ovary and style 50 calyx and capsule 51 seed. From Noorgrann 423 (K).

Distribution

South Africa (Burke 119, Burchell 2412, Leistner 2036); Namibia (Merxmuller & Giess 1160, Engler 6243, Wanntorp 762); Botswana (Skarpe 201). Often in dry semi-desert conditions.

Notes

Usually easily recognised by the densely tomentose indumentum combined with revolute leaf margins. The calyx and corolla are similar in size to that of C. multifidus but the sepals are abruptly contracted above the middle and then gradually narrowed to the apex.

Convolvulus randii Rendle, J. Bot. 40: 189. 1902. (Rendle 1902: 189).

Figure 7, t. 15–22

Convolvulus ocellatus var. plurinervius Verdc., Kirkia 1: 28, pl. 4. 1961. (Verdcourt 1961: 28).

Type. ZIMBABWE, Wild 3926 (holotype K!; isotypes EA, SRGH).

Type

ZIMBABWE, Gweru, Rand 274 (holotype BM000930474!).

Description

Perennial herb, all vegetative parts covered in appressed sericeous hairs; rootstock woody, very stout, apparently horizontally spreading; stems erect or ascending, rarely rambling over shrubs, 20–80 cm high. Leaves shortly petiolate, 0.8–3 × 0.2–2 cm, oblong to obovate, apex acute to apiculate, margin entire to crenate, not revolute, base truncate to cordate, prominently veined especially on the lower surface; petioles 0.5–3 mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate; peduncles (0.1-)0.3–2.5 cm; bracteoles 3–5 mm, linear; pedicels 2–10 mm; outer sepals 8–10 × 3–6 mm, broadly to narrowly ovate, tapered to an apiculate apex; corolla 16–20 mm long, white or pale pink, shallowly lobed, the midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in teeth; ovary glabrous, finely acuminate; style glabrous, divided 5 mm above base, stigmas 5 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous seeds smooth.

Distribution

Endemic to Zimbabwe, gowing in grassland on serpentine deposits, 1270–1700 m. (Brummitt & Drummond 15281, Drummond 6166, Wild 5594, Chase 7247).

Notes

Somewhat variable in habit but readily recognised by the broad oblong-obovate leaves, silvery sericeous indumentum, acute sepals and larger corollas. Walters 2433 could be interpreted as a hybrid with C. ocellatus – it is geographically and morphologically intermediate.

Convolvulus austroafricanus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov.

Figures 2a and 7, t. 43–51

Diagnosis

Affine C. farinosi L. et C. aschersonii Engler sed pilis asperis, longis instructis et lobis medianis foliorum inciso-dentatis distinctis.

Convolvulus aschersonii sensu Meeuse (1958: 677).

Type

ZIMBABWE, Salisbury [Harare], a weed, 29 June 1927, R.G. Young 18497 (holotype BM001035803!; isotype PRE).

Description

Perennial herb, all vegetative parts pubescent with somewhat asperous, sometimes rufous hairs; rootstock a woody taproot; stems prostrate or twining, up to 2 m long. Leaves petiolate, 3–6 × 0.5–2.5 cm, variable in shape, ovate-deltoid, auriculate, sometimes the auricles lobed, the central lobe commonly oblong, apex acute, the margins undulate, sinuate-dentate to pinnatisect, base hastate; petioles 3–30 mm. Flowers 1–6 together (very rarely all solitary on the same plant) in axillary pedunculate cymes; peduncles 10–35 mm; pedicels 2–15 mm, bracts 2.5–4 mm, linear; sepals very unequal, outer sepals 6–8 × 4–5 mm, ovate to elliptic, acute; inner sepals 4–6 × 3–4 mm, nearly glabrous, apiculate; corolla 9–12 mm long, white or pale pink, lobed, the midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in prominent teeth; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 3 mm above base, stigmas 2.5 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth. [Meeuse and Welman 2000: 38 (map), under Convolvulus aschersonii]

Distribution

South Africa (Codd 8732, Meeuse 2237, Hutchinson 2895, Codd 8732); Zimbabwe (Blenkison in Moss 14811, Peter 51118, Drummond 4904, Leach 8369); Zambia (Fanshawe 6566); Ethiopia (Mooney 5548). It is centred on Northern South Africa-Zimbabwe and is absent north of southern Zambia apart from two collections from Ethiopia.

Notes

This species was treated as C. aschersonii by Meeuse (1958) and Meeuse and Welman (2000) but is very different from the type of that species. It is distinguished from all similar species by the spreading pubescent, slightly asperous indumentum of stem, leaves and flower parts, the pinnatisect leaves and (usually) the 4–6-flowered cymes. Towards the north of its range it tends to have fewer flowers and specimens intermediate with C. thomsonii and C. aschersonii are sometimes found. Although quite often united with C. sagittatus molecular studies (Williams et al. 2014) support of the retention of C. austroafricanus as a distinct species.

Convolvulus austroafricanus is common in the area where Zimbabwe and South Africa meet and should be classified as Least Concen (LC) using IUCN (2012) guidelines. The epithet “austroafricanus” meaning southern Africa refers to its distribution.

A cultivated plant (Meeuse 9237A) looks very like a hybrid between C. austroafricanus and C. farinosus.

Convolvulus aschersonii Engl., Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2: 349. 1892. (Engler 1892: 349).

Figure 7, t. 23–28

Convolvulus hastatus var. multiflorus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 407. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 407).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape, Drège 7829 (lectotype L, designated here; isolectotype P!).

Convolvulus ulosepalus Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 18: 103. 1893 [“1894”]. (Hallier 1893: 103).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape, Drège 7829 (lectotype L, designated by Meeuse and Welman 2000: 46); isolectotype P!).

Convolvulus rhynchophyllus Baker & Engl. ex Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 534. 1898. (Hallier 1898a: 534).

Type. Bolus 252 (K, lectotype, designated here).

Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. linearifolius Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 534. 1898, as “Convolvulus sagittatus var. grandiflorus subvar. linearifolius”. (Hallier 1898a: 534).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Mpumalanga, Barberton, Galpin 1037 (isotypes K!).

Convolvulus sagittatus var. linearifolius (Hallier f.) Baker & C.H.Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey et al.) 4(2): 72. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 72).

Type. Based on Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. linearifolius Hallier f.

Convolvulus sagittatus var. ulosepalus (Hallier f.) Verdcourt, Kew Bull. 12:346. 1957. (Verdcourt 1957: 346).

Type. Based on Convolvulus ulosepalus Hallier f.

Type

ETHIOPIA, Schimper 660 (holotype B†; isotypes BM001011617!, E005-7479!).

Description

Perennial herb, all vegetative parts similarly obscurely puberulent to pubescent; rootstock a woody taproot; stems prostrate or twining, up to 2 m long. Leaves petiolate, (0.5-) 2–10 × 0.2–4 cm, variable in shape, narrowly deltoid in outline, auriculate with the basal auricles simple or, more commonly bifurcate, the central lobe oblong to oblong-lanceolate, much longer than the auricles, apex acute to apiculate, margin entire to undulate, base commonly more or less truncate and briefly cuneate onto the petiole, leaves near base of stem often with a broader central lobe than those near apex; petioles 5–25 mm. Flowers (1-) 2–6 together (very rarely solitary) in compact axillary, pedunculate cymes; peduncles 8–35 mm; bracteoles 2–5 mm, linear or linear-lanceolate; pedicels 1–10 mm, outer sepals 5–6 (-7) × 2–3 mm, lanceolate to ovate, acute, usually pubescent, inner sepals up to 5 mm wide, suborbicular, apiculate, margins scarious, glabrous or pubescent on the midrib only; corolla 7–12 mm long, white or pink, lobed, the midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in prominent teeth; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 3–4 mm above the base; stigmas c. 3 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth. [Collenette 1999: 232 (as Convolvulus sagittatus); Meeuse 1957: 678 as C. ulosepalus; Meuse and Welman 2000: 436. p. p.; Verdcourt 1963: 44 p. p.; Sebsebe 2006 185 as C. sagittatus var. aschersonii]

Distribution

South Africa (Baur 901, Bolus 252, Tyson 124, Moss 14129); Namibia (Merxmuller 813, Wanntorp 815); Lesotho (Dinter 144, Dieterlen 97); Botswana (de Winter 7403, Brown 7952); Mozambique (Macuácua 1333); Madagascar (White s.n. [16/9/1929]), Baron 5213); Angola (Welwitsch 6204); Zimbabwe (Rand 510, Chubb 375); Zambia (Fanshawe 5519, Sanane 307); Malawi (Patel & Kwatha 2708); Democratic Republic of the Congo (Symoens 13595); Ruanda (Troupin 4802); Tanzania (Grimshaw 93463, Richards 26827); Kenya (Mearns 1157, Lugard 168); Uganda (Scott Elliot 1145); Somalia (Thulin 10918); Ethiopia (Schimper 1130, Hildebrandt 498, Scott 305, Bidgood et al. 4970, Cufodontis 47); Eritrea (Schweinfurth & Riva 1061, Schweinfurth 1739, Ryding 1116); Yemen (Spellenberg 5426); Saudi Arabia (Collenette 5367); Nigeria (Lely 362).

Notes

The type of C. aschersonii (Schimper 660) has leaves with a relatively broad central lobe 5–10 mm wide and this is matched in South African material (Dieterlen 97a has even wider leaves) but narrower lobes are much more common in southern Africa. Plants towards the northern end of the range have few-flowered cymes, quite frequently reduced to single flowers. They are often more strongly pubescent and with less pronounced, often simple basal auricles whereas bifurcate auricles are the norm further south. Examples of this northern form include Simwanda 108 from Zimbabwe, Robinson 8 from Zambia, Symoens 13595 from Congo, Eggeling 2593 from Uganda, Bally 5592 from Kenya, Newbould 774 from Somalia, Scott Jones 32 from Eritrea, Wood 3281 from Yemen and Collenette 5367 from Saudi Arabia,

Convolvulus aschersonii is most readily distinguished from C. austroafricanus by the leaf shape and the short pubescence. The central leaf lobe is entire and often very narrow, most notably in specimens from Namibia. Possible hybrids or intermediates with C. austroafricanus with strongly sinuate leaf lobes occur quite frequently in Transvaal but are hardly known elsewhere. (Hanekom 2528, Meeuse 9020, Frieberberg 3195, Wilms 983, Mogg 12299, Acocks 2169, Marais 36). From C. sagittatus and C. thomsonii it is distinguished by the usually 2–5-flowered peduncles, bifurcate auricles and corolla less than twice as long as the calyx, rarely exceeding 12 mm in length. Intermediates or possibly hybrids with C. sagittatus also occur in South Africa, (Baur 350, Galpin 1037, Wilms 2158, Meeuse 10253, Pillans 5605), Zimbabwe (Eyles 8473) and Zambia (Best 107). These have larger flowers than typical of C. aschersonii but the peduncles are 2-flowered and the leaves like those of C. aschersonii. These were, at least mostly, treated as “C. sagittatus subsp. grandiflorus var. linearifolius” by Meeuse (1958: 683).

Convolvulus farinosus L., Mant. Pl. 2: 203. 1771 (Linnaeus 1771: 203).

Figure 7, t. 1–6

Convolvulus cordifolius Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 35. 1794. (Thunberg 1794: 35).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Cape, Thunberg (holotype UPS, not seen).

Convolvulus quinqueflorus Vahl., Symb. Bot. 3: 31. 1794 (Vahl 1794: 31).

Type. Bourbon ex Herb. Thouin (holotype C10009603!).

Convolvulus micranthus Willd. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 601. 1824, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus micranthus Roem. & Schult. (1819). (Sprengel 1824: 601).

Type. Of unknown origin, sin col. (holotype B-W 03636-010).

Convolvulus sprengelii Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 416. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 416).

Type. Based on Convolvulus micranthus Willd. ex Spreng.

Convolvulus penicillatus A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 74. 1851. (Richard 1851: 74).

Type. ETHIOPIA, Quartin Dillon & Petit (holotype P-04067180!).

Convolvulus schweinfurthii Engl., Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2: 348. 1892. (Engler 1892: 350).

Type. ETHIOPIA, Anedehr, Schimper 599 (holotype B†; isotype BM001035801!).

Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. abyssinicus Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 533. 1898. (Hallier 1898a: 534).

Type. Based on Convolvulus penicillatus A.Rich.

Convolvulus hilsenbergianus Rendle, J. Bot. 39: 61. 1901. (Rendle 1901: 61).

Type. MADAGASCAR, Hilsenberg & Bojer s.n. (lectotype BM-000930463!, designated here).

Convolvulus sagittatus var. abyssinicus (Hallier f.) Baker & Rendle, Fl. Trop. Africa (Oliver et al.) 4(2): 96. 1905. (Baker and Rendle 1905: 96).

Type. Based on Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. abyssinicus Hallier f.

Convolvulus variegatus Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus.Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 246 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 246).

Type. Cultivated plant, Vocke 3803 (holotype GOET!).

Type

Cultivated plant grown at Uppsala (lectotype LINN 218.6!, designated by Meeuse 1958: 684).

Description

Perennial herb, appressed pubescent to farinose in all vegetative parts, especially the younger stems; rootstock not known; stems to c. 1 m, twining or prostrate. Leaves petiolate, 3–9 × 2–6 cm, characteristically cordate-deltoid, auricles usually acute, apex acute to acuminate, margin entire, undulate or serrate; petioles 1–4.5 cm. Flowers 1–6 in axillary pedunculate cymes, peduncles 1.5–5 cm; bracteoles 1–2 mm, subulate; pedicels 1–15 mm; outer sepals 6–8 × 3–5 mm, lanceolate, ovate or elliptic, acute the apex often slightly reflexed, pubescent, inner sepals suborbicular with scarious margins, glabrous; corolla 10–15 mm, white or pinkish, lobed, the midpetaline bands pubescent; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 4 mm above base, stigmas 1–1.5 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, rugose. [Sa’ad 1967: 225; Meeuse 1958: 684 (map); Meeuse and Welman 2000: 42; Gonçalves 1987: 28–30 (plate); Verdcourt 1963: 41; Silvestre 2012: 257]

Distribution

South Africa (Salter 9401, Moss 14480, Schlechter 2132); Swaziland; Madagascar (Bosser 12002); Reunion (Bosser 21493); Mozambique (Nuvunga & Boane 296, Junod 423); Zimbabwe (Chase 5314); Zambia (Hutchinson & Gillett 3387); Malawi (Pawek 13136); Congo (Cambridge Congo Exped. 18); Ruanda (Michel 4893); Tanzania (Bidgood et al. 548, Schlieben 881); Kenya (Fries & Fries 198); Uganda (Purseglove 3709); Ethiopia (Schimper 599); Eritrea (?), Yemen (Wood 2990, 3192). Naturalised in Portugal (Welwitsch 805), the Azores and also apparently in Mexico (Bourgeau 362 at K, P, Argüelles 2000 at NY).

Notes

Usually readily recognised by the triangular-ovate, shortly pubescent to farinose, very acute leaves and small, deeply lobed corolla. However, occasionally plants are seen in which the leaves are ovate or sinuately lobed to more or less palmatisect, particularly in South Africa (Meeuse 9035, Moss 9855) and these are best distinguished from C. austroafricanus by the appressed pubescent indumentum. Occasional specimens suggest possible hybridisation with C. aschersonii, such as Archbold 2546 from Tanzania or Pawek 11875 from Malawi. As the only real difference between the two species lies in the leaf shape any intermediate specimen could be the result of hybridisation.

Convolvulus sagittatus Thunberg, Prodr. Pl. Cap. 35. 1794. (1794: 35).

Figure 7, t. 36–42

Convolvulus paradoxus Poir., Encycl. Suppl. [J. Larmarck et al.] 5(2): 720. 1817. (Poiret 1817: 720).

Type. Not found at P.

Convolvulus steudneri Engl., Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2: 350. 1892. (Engler 1892: 350).

Types: ETHIOPIA, Tauta bei Magdala, Steudner 956 (syntype B†) and Talenta, Rohfls s.n (syntype B†); ETHIOPIA, Sennen, Schimper 165 (neotype W!, designated here; isoneotype K).

Convolvulus angolensis Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 67. 1894. (Baker 1894: 67).

Type. ANGOLA, Cuenza, H.H.Johnson (holotype K!).

Ipomoea huillensis Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 70. 1894. (Baker 1894: 70).

Type. ANGOLA, Huilla, Welwitsch 6131 (holotype BM001035800!; isotypes COI, G, K!, P!).

Convolvulus sagittatus var. parviflorus Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 533. 1898 (Hallier 1898a: 533).

Type. No specimens cited; based on subvarieties.

Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. australis Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 533. 1898, illegitimate name for autonymic subvariety (Hallier 1898a: 533).

Convolvulus sagittatus var. grandiflorus Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 534. 1898. (Hallier 1898a: 534).

Type. No specimens cited; based on subvarieties.

Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. subcordata Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 534. 1898, “Convolvulus sagittatus var. grandiflorus subvar. subcordata” (Hallier 1898a: 534).nom. illeg. for autonymic subvariety. (Hallier 1898a: 533).

Type. Based on Convolvulus steudneri Engl., C. angolensis Baker and Ipomoea huillensis Baker.

Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. graminifolia Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 534. 1898, as “Convolvulus sagittatus var. grandiflorus subvar. graminifolia” (Hallier 1898a: 534).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, KwaZulu-Natal, Rehmann 7823 (holotype Z, not seen).

Convolvulus phyllosepalus Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 535. 1898. (Hallier 1898a: 535). Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Rehman 3796 (lectotype Z, designated by Meeuse 1957: 681).

Convolvulus hirtellus Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 536. 1898. (Hallier 1898a: 536).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Burke s.n. (lectotype K!, designated by Meeuse 1957: 681).

Convolvulus hastatus Thunb. var. natalensis Baker in Baker & C.H.Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey et al.) 4(2): 72. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 72).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, KwaZulu-Natal, Gerrard 1333 (lectotype K 000097310, portion at top of sheet, designated here).

Convolvulus sagittatus var. graminifolius (Hallier f.) Baker & C.H.Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey et al.) 4(2): 72. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 72).

Type. Based on Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. graminifolia Hallier f.

Convolvulus sagittatus var. latifolius C.H.Wright in Baker & Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey et al.) 4(2): 72. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 72).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Transvaal, October (18)76, E. Holub 1948-1951 (lectotype K, designated here). This appears to be a single sheet, rather than four separate numbers.

Convolvulus huillensis (Baker) Rendle, Fl. Trop. Africa [Oliver et al.] 4(2): 97. 1905. (Baker and Rendle 1905: 97).

Type. Based on Ipomoea huillensis Baker

Convolvulus sagittatus var. subcordata (Hallier f.) Baker & Rendle, Fl. Trop. Africa [Oliver et al.] 4(2): 97. 1905, nom. illeg., autonymic variety based on “Convolvulus sagittatus var. grandiflorus subvar. subcordata Hallier f.” (Baker and Rendle 1905: 97).

Type. Based on Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. subcordata Hallier f.

Convolvulus thymoides Schwartz, Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 10: 202. 1939. (Schwartz 1939: 202).

Type. YEMEN, Von Wissmann 2097 (lectotype HBG!, designated here).

Convolvulus sagittatus var. phyllosepalus (Hallier f.) A.Meeuse, Bothalia 6: 681. 1958 [1957], as “Convolvulus sagittatus subsp. sagittatus var. phyllosepalus” (Meuse 1958: 681).

Type. Based on Convolvulus phyllosepalus Hallier f.

Convolvulus sagittatus var. hirtellu s (Hallier f.) A.Meeuse, Bothalia 6: 682. 1958 [1957], as “Convolvulus sagittatus subsp. sagittatus var. hirtellus” (Meuse 1958: 682).

Type. Based on Convolvulus hirtellus Hallier f.

Convolvulus sagittatus subsp. grandiflorus (Hallier f.) A.Meeuse, Bothalia 6: 683. 1958 [1957]. (Meuse 1958: 683).

Type. Based on Convolvulus sagittatus var. grandiflorus Hallier f.

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Cape, Thunberg s.n. (lectotype UPS, sheet 1, designated by Meeuse 1958: 679).

Description

Very variable perennial herb, the vegetative parts usually thinly to densely pubescent, very rarely glabrous; stems decumbent, trailing, rambling or ascending usually < 60 cm long; rootstock a stout taproot. Leaves petiolate, sometimes dimorphic with ovate-deltoid (below) and narrowly lanceolate leaves on the same plant, 1–2.8 (-5.5) × (0.1-) 0.3–1.4 cm, ovate-deltoid to narrowly lanceolate, apex acute, margin entire (very rarely undulate), base sagittate or hastate, the basal auricles not bifid, varying greatly in width; petioles 2–4 (-7) mm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, 1(-2); peduncles (3-) 6–33 mm; bracteoles 2–3 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate; pedicels 2–5 (-12) mm, outer sepals 5.5–8 × 4–5 mm, ovate, broadly oblong to obovate, acute to obtuse, the apex often somewhat bent outwards, glabrous or pubescent, inner sepals glabrous; corolla (1-) 1.2–1.7 cm. pink or white, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in a tooth; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided 3–4 mm above base; stigmas 2–4 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, minutely rugose. [Meeuse 1958: 679 p. p.; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 46 p. p.; Sebsebe 2007: 184 as Convolvulus steudneri]

Distribution

South Africa (Moss 10572, Schlechter 3362, 3484, Bolus 10905, Burtt-Davy 2316, Bester 4286, Gerard 1333); Lesotho (Dieterlen 97b p. p.); Botswana (Baum 180); Namibia (?); Zimbabwe (Gilliland 1900, Wild 4917, Whellan & Davis 988); Angola (Pritchard 310, Santos 577); Ethiopia (Schimper 169, Hall 128, Degen s.n. [4/1902], Mooney 4725); Yemen (Wood 75/381, 3239, 3245); Saudi Arabia (Hillcoat 56); Algeria: Hoggar (fide Quezel and Santa 1963: 758). The lack of records from East Africa seems to reflect a real absence. It is more obviously montane in Ethiopia and SW Arabia.

Notes

Distinguished from related species by the solitary pedunculate flowers, the corolla typically 1.2–1.7 cm long. The leaves are essentially ovate-deltoid, becoming linear in some cases, although often very narrowly so and the basal auricles are simple. The petioles are often very short.

The type of C. sagittatus has narrowly lanceolate leaves, whereas the type of C. phyllosepalus has broadly ovate leaves with very short petioles and conspicuous broad sepals. However, as noted above, both leaf forms can occur on the same specimen.

Although our concept of C. sagittatus is narrower than that of Meeuse and Welman (2000) or of Verdcourt (1963), it still represents an aggregate, which certainly contains distinct varieties and possibly distinct species. All the four cited specimens from Angola have ovate, acute to acuminate outer sepals and could be recognised as C. angolensis. Plants from Ethiopia and SW Arabia were separated off by Wood (1997) as C. thymoides and by Sebsebe (2006) as C. steudneri and could be recognised under the latter name. They have broadly oblong, obtuse, pubescent outer sepals but they are scarcely distinct from some forms of C. sagittatus found in South Africa including the lectotype of C. hirtellus. The syntypes of C. steudneri in Berlin were destroyed. No isotype is known so we have designated Schimper 165 (W) as a neotype. This was identified as C. steudneri by Hallier in December 1892, comes from the correct part of Ethiopia and may well be distributed elsewhere, as are many of Schimper’s collections. Another distinct form with very narrow, hirsute leaves is represented by Eyles 8473 from Zimbabwe and Baum 180 from Botswana. Santos 554 from Angola has unusual oblong leaves. All these have relatively large solitary flowers and it seems best to retain them in C. sagittatus until more detailed study can clarify their status.

Convolvulus thomsonii Baker, Bull Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 67. 1894. (Baker 1894: 67).

Convolvulus sagittatus subvar. villosus Hallier f., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 533. 1898, as “Convolvulus sagittatus var. parviflorus Hallier f. subvar. villosus Hallier f.” (Hallier 1898a: 533).

Type. Based on Convolvulus thomsonii Baker

Convolvulus sagittatus var. villosus (Hallier f.) Rendle, Fl. Trop. Africa (Oliver et al.) 4(2): 96. 1905. (Baker and Rendle 1905: 96).

Type. Based on Convolvulus subvar. villosus Hallier f.

Convolvulus bussei Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 295. 1908. (Pilger 1908: 295).

Type. TANZANIA, Songea District, Busse 938 (holotype B†; isotype EA).

Convolvulus hallierianus Schulze-Menz, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 377. 1939. (Schulze-Menz 1939: 377).

Type. TANZANIA, Matengo hills, Zerny 17 (holotype W!).

Convolvulus zernyi Schulze-Menz, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 377. 1939. (Schulze-Menz 1939: 377).

Type. TANZANIA, Matengo hills, Zerny 370 (holotype W!).

Type

TANZANIA, N. of Lake Nyasa, Thomson s.n. (holotype K!).

Description

Prostrate perennial herb, densely tomentose on all vegetative parts, often brownish when dry. Leaves petiolate, 1.2–5 × 0.5–2.5 cm, variable in shape, ovate, lanceolate-deltoid or, most commonly oblong, margin undulate to crenate, base hastate to sagittate; petioles 3–6 (-20) mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate; peduncles solitary or, occasionally, paired, 1.5–4 cm, often arching; bracteoles 5–7 mm, linear; pedicels 3–8 (-15) mm; outer sepals 9–11 × 5 mm, ovate, acute to shortly acuminate, densely hairy; corolla (1.3-)1.5–1.8 cm long, white, unlobed, midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in a tooth; ovary glabrous. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, nearly smooth but somewhat rugose on the angles. [Verdcourt 1963: 42 (as Convolvulus zernyi)]

Distribution

Malawi (Synge WC 251, Pawek 13111, Richards 20646); Tanzania (Lovett et al. 2089, Mgaza 121). 1800–2100 m.

Notes

We have widened the concept of this species from that of Verdcourt (1963) to include plants with a somewhat smaller corolla and calyx, including the type of C. thomsonii, which is atypical in its relatively short calyx and corolla but is clearly an immature specimen of this taxon. This species appears to be frequent in the highlands of northern Malawi and southern Tanzania. It is very close to C. sagittatus but differs in the larger sepals, 9–11 mm in length and the tomentose indumentum, which dries brown. The rather long, often arching peduncles are also very characteristic. An unusual feature is the occasional presence of paired peduncles. It can be distinguished from C. aschersonii and C. austroafricanus by the larger solitary flowers as well as the tomentose indumentum. It is also close to C. galpinii differing principally in the longer, gradually narrowed sepals.

As with many other African species, intermediates with other species are found. These have the same indumentum, relatively large corollas and sepals of Convolvulus thomsonii but inflorescences of 2–3 flowers. Phillips 2738 and 3920 from northern Malawi and Richards 6071 from Zambia appear to be intermediate with C. austroafricanus or possibly C. aschersonii.

Convolvulus galpinii C.H.Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 4(2): 75. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 75).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, Eastern Cape, E.E.Galpin 2110 (holotype K!; isotypes BOL, GRA, PRE).

Description

Perennial herb, densely brownish or whitish villous in all vegetative parts; rootstock not known; stems to 60 cm, slender, twining or (?) prostrate. Leaves petiolate, 2–4 × 0.7–1.2 cm, deltoid with cordate, hastate or sagittate base, apex acute, margin undulate or crenate; petioles 4–7 (-12) mm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, solitary or paired, peduncles 1.5–2 (-6) cm; bracteoles 6–7 mm, linear; pedicels 3–6 (-10) mm; outer sepals 8 × 4 mm, ovate, abruptly narrowed above the middle to an acuminate apex; corolla 16–21 mm long, white, shallowly lobed, the midpetaline bands densely pilose, terminating in a tooth; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 8–10 mm above the base, stigmas 2.5 mm linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, obscurely rugose with pallid ridges, not puberulous as stated by Meeuse (1957: 687). [Meeuse and Welman 2000: 43 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa: Eastern Cape (Phillipson 1541, Krook 841).

Notes

Distinguished by the relatively slender, twining stems, dense indumentum, hastate or sagittate leaves and abruptly acuminate sepals.

Convolvulus natalensis Bernh. ex Krauss, Flora 27(2): 829. 1844. (Krauss 1844: 829).

Figure 7, t. 29–35

Convolvulus calycinus Drège ex Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 408. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 408), nom. illeg., non Convolvulus calycinus Kunth (1818).

Type. SOUTH AFRICA, Cape, Drège s.n. (isotypes K!, L, OXF!, MO!).

Convolvulus natalensis var. integrifolia C.H.Wright, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 4(2): 77. 1904. (Baker and Wright 1904: 77).

Type. LESOTHO, Cooper 929 (lectotype K 000405826!, designated here).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, KwaZulu-Natal, Pietmaritzburg, Krauss 465 (holotype B†; isotypes BM000930469!, BOL, W!).

Description

Perennial herb, densely hirsute with brownish hairs in all vegetative parts; rootstock woody; stems to c. 1 m, apparently trailing (rarely climbing), relatively stout. Leaves petiolate, 1–6 × 0.8–4 cm, ovate-deltoid, simple, apex acute, margin undulate to irregularly dentate, base cordate; petioles 5–10 (-15) mm. Flowers 1–5; peduncles 2–6.5 cm; pedicels 3–6 (-15) mm; bracteoles 6–12 × 1–2 mm, linear, narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblanceolate; outer sepals 14–18 × 7–9 mm, broadly to narrowly ovate, obtuse or acute, margin undulate or crenate; corolla 15–30 mm, white or cream, shallowly lobed, the lobes broadly triangular, acute, c. 5 mm long, the midpetaline bands densely pilose; ovary glabrous, acuminate; style glabrous, divided 5–8 mm above base, stigmas 6 mm, linear. Capsule glabrous; seeds tuberculate. [Meeuse 1957: 687; Meeuse and Welman 2000: 44 (map)]

Distribution

South Africa: centred on KwaZula-Natal extending to Eastern Cape, Free State, Lesotho, Swaziland and Northern Province (Hilliard 5023, Sanderson 282, Codd 7655, Wood 3462, Rudatis 633, Strey 3460).

Notes

Distinguished by its tomentose, entire, ovate to oblong, cordate hirsute leaves. Plants described as var. integrifolia are somewhat similar to C. galpinii in leaf shape but 2-3 flowers are borne on each peduncle and the corolla is similar to C. natalensis in size.

Convolvulus bullerianus Rendle, J. Bot. 39: 62. 1901. (Rendle 1901: 62).

Type

SOUTH AFRICA, KwaZulu-Natal, Mooi River, J. Medley-Wood [J.M. Wood] 6206 (holotype BM000930467!; isotype PRE).

Description

Perennial herb, shortly pilose with stiff spreading hairs in all vegetative parts; rootstock not known; stems to at least 80 cm, apparently trailing. Leaves petiolate, very narrowly hastate, the central lobe 2 -5 × 0.2–0.4 cm, linear-lanceolate, basal auricles 3 -4 mm long, bifid, apex acute to apiculate, margin entire; petioles 5–16 mm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, 1 (–2), peduncles 3–5.5 cm; bracteoles 6–10 mm, linear; pedicels 3–8 mm, noticeably more densely hirsute than peduncles; outer sepals 14–18 × 8 mm, ovate, long acuminate, margin undulate, inner sepals distinctly shorter; corolla 25–30 mm, yellow-green, deeply lobed, the lobes triangular, acuminate, c. 10 mm long, the midpetaline bands densely pilose, terminating in the apex of the lobes; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided 6–10 mm above base, stigmas 3–5 mm.

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal (Wood 4071, 4382; Johnston 191, 778) and Eastern Cape (Bester 1479).

Notes

Included by Meeuse (1958) in C. natalensis but distinct in its leaves, profoundly lobed corolla and long acuminate sepals.

Species 42–55. American species

Apart from two anomalous species (C. simulans and C. hasslerianus) all species are perennial trailing or twining herbs with distinctly petiolate leaves, the lamina with a hastate, truncate or sagittate base. Dimorphic leaves are mainly features of C. equitans and C. chilensis. Only C. hermanniae subsp. erosus has a hirsute ovary and capsule. Taxonomy is based much on sepal and corolla size, number of flowers in each cyme and on indumentum. C. hasslerianus is the only American species with a woody xylopodium being adapted to the cerrado biome. It has erect stems and subsessile leaves, the lamina abruptly narrowed at the base.

The first two species treated here, C. equitans and C. carrii are clearly closely related and share several unusual even unique characters: auriculate sepals, styles pubescent below stigmas, persistent in fruit and somewhat exserted. Curiously these characters are present in some but not all specimens of both species. However, the presence or absence of these characters does not correlate well with other characters and shows no obvious geographical patterning. While C. carrii is easy to identify, it represents a very local population and it is not impossible that similar distinct local populations may be revealed elsewhere within the range of C. equitans following intensive field studies.

The taxonomy of the American species is difficult as can be appreciated by the synonomies listed under many species, the same infraspecific entity being placed variously under different species. However, we believe that O’Donell (1957, 1959) had correctly assigned most specimens to the correct species.

Convolvulus equitans Benth., Pl. Hartw. 16. 1839. (Bentham 1839: 16).

Type

MEXICO, León, Hartweg 98 (lectotype K-000613111!, portion placed diagonally across sheet ex Herb. Bentham with Bentham’s annotation, designated here; isolectotypes K ex Herb. Hooker K-000613113!, W!).

Description

Pubescent perennial herb from a stout tap root; stems decumbent or trailing to at least 1 m. Leaf blade very variable in size and form, 1.5–4 (-6.5) × 1–2.5 cm, most commonly with a narrow linear-ligulate central lobe much longer than the small lobed or bifurcate auricles, sometimes palmatisect, sometimes broadly ovate-deltoid, auriculate, usually densely and finely pubescent, apex acute, base cordate, margin entire, undulate or (rarely) crenate-serrate; petioles 0.5–2.5 cm. Flowers 1–3 in pedunculate, axillary cymes; peduncles 1.5–9 cm; bracteoles 1.5–2.5 × 1 mm, linear-lanceolate; pedicels 2–9 (-17) mm; outer sepals 6–8(-12) mm, narrowly elliptic, truncate to auriculate at base, margin entire to crenate, apex truncate and mucronate to acute; corolla 1.4–1.8(-3.0) cm long, white, white with dark centre or pink, shallowly lobed; midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in a mucro; filaments eglandular; ovary glabrous; style glabrous or pubescent just below the stigmas, somewhat persistent, divided 5–7 mm above base; stigmas 2 mm, weakly exserted. Capsule glabrous, seeds minutely rugose. [Turner 2009: 400 (maps); Carranza 2008: 8]

Notes

A very variable plant in many respects. However the vast majority of specimens have small leaves with a narrow linear-ligulate central lobe and short bifurcate or otherwise lobed auricles. In most plants the outer sepals are abruptly narrowed to auriculate at the base, but in many specimens including the type, they are gradually narrowed to the base. Plants are usually densely pubescent. The recognition of the following varieties only account for some of the great variation seen in this species.

Convolvulus equitans var. equitans

Figure 8, t. 1–8

Convolvulus incanus auct. mult., non Vahl (1794).

Convolvulus hermannioides A.Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 2(1): 216. 1878. (Gray 1878: 216).

Type. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Texas, no collection specified.

Distinguishing features

Flowers relatively small; sepals 6 – 8 mm long; corolla 1.4–1.8(2.3) cm long, usually pink.

Distribution

Mexico: north and central (Palmer 147, Parry & Palmer 629, Pringle 6635); United States: semi-desert states from Texas and Kansas west to Arizona and Colorado, California (?) (Lindheimer 470, Correll 15376, Pringle s. n. [20/5/1884], Fendler 661).

Figure 8.

1–8 C. equitans 1 leaves 2 bracteoles 3 outer sepal 4 inner sepal 5 stamen 6 ovary and style 7 capsule 8 seed 1–2 & 5–8 from Correll 27128 (TEX) 3–4 from Turner 21-787 (TEX) 9–16 C. crenatifolius 9 (North American) leaves 10 bracteole 11 outer sepal 12 inner sepal 13 stamen 14 ovary and style 15 capsule 16 seed 9–14 from Runyon 2599 (TEX) 15–16 from Runyon 4479 (TEX) 17–24 C. carrii 17 leaf 18 bracteole 19 outer sepal 20 inner sepal 21 stamen 22 style 23 calyx 24 seed. From Correll & Correll 38844 (TEX) 25–31 C. crenatifolius subsp. montevidensis 25 leaves 26 bracteole 27 outer sepal 28 inner sepal 29 stamen 30 ovary and style 31 capsule. From Hawkes et al. 3263 (K) 32–39 C. chilensis 32 leaves 33 bracteole 34 calyx 35 outer sepal 36 middle sepal 37 inner sepal 38 stamen 39 ovary and style showing stigma variation. From Cuming s.n. (OXF) 40–46 C. crenatifolius subsp. crenatifolius 40 leaf 41 outer sepal 42 inner sepal 43 stamen 44 ovary and style 45 capsule 46 seed 40–44 from Buchtien 2450 (K) 45–46 from Wood 17714 (K).

Convolvulus equitans var. lindheimeri J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov.

Diagnosis

A var, typo floribus grandioribus, sepalis 11 – 12 mm longis, corolla 2.5–3 cm longa, plerumque alba, in centro atropurpurea.

Convolvulus sagittifolius Scheele (1849: 747), nom illeg., non C. sagittifolius Michx. (1803).

Type. Texas, “Neubraunfels”, Lindheimer s.n. (B†).

Type

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Texas, New Braunfels, F. Lindheim er, fasc. IV No. 469 (holotype K; isotypes BM, FHO, LE, P, W).

Distinguishing features

Distinguished by it is larger flowers; sepals 11–12 mm long; corolla 2.5–3 cm long, usually white but often with a dark centre.

Distribution

United States, Texas: widely distributed but not common in at least seven Texan counties (Lindheimer fasc. 3: 469, Siedo 447, Logan Smith 774, Hutchins 1035).

Notes

Intermediates with var. equitans occur and var. lindheimeri may have arisen as a result of hybridisation between C. carrii and C. equitans although it is not sympatric with C. carrii.

Convolvulus carrii B.L.Turner, Phytologia 91: 394. 2009. (Turner 2009: 394).

Figure 8, t. 17–24

Type

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Texas, B.L. Turner & Jana Kos 09-03 (holotype TEX; isotype OXF!).

Description

Trailing or twining herb with stems at least 60 cm long from a central rootstock, the vegetative parts densely pubescent to whitish-tomentellous. Leaves petiolate, 2–5 × 1.3–3 cm, ovate-deltoid to broadly oblong, obtuse or acute, margin undulate to incised-dentate, base shallowly cordate and cuneate onto the petiole, auricles simples or toothed, veins very prominent on lower surface; petioles 1–2.5 cm. Flowers 1(-2) borne on long axillary peduncles; peduncles 3–5 cm, often bent at apex; bracteoles 1–2 mm, minute, linear-lanceolate; pedicels 3–14 mm; sepals 9–12 × 5 mm, broadly oblong, apex rounded to emarginate and mucronate, base truncate to somewhat auriculate; corolla 2.5–3 cm long, white, usually with a maroon centre, unlobed, midpetaline bands pilose, terminating in a tooth; ovary glabrous; style divided c. 8–10 mm above base, glabrous or, just below the stigmas, pubescent; stigmas 2 mm, weakly exserted. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth, black. [Turner 2009: 398–9, figs 1–3]

Distribution

Endemic to Texas in the United States of America: restricted to Holocene sands in Brooks and Hidalgo Counties (Carr 26646, Correll & Correll 38844).

Notes

A recently described species which requires further study. It may prove only to be an unusually distinct form of C. equitans.

Convolvulus chilensis Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 180. 1805. (Persoon 1805: 180).

Figure 8, t. 32–39

Convolvulus dissectus Cav., Icon. 5: 54, tab. 480(1). 1799, nom. illeg., non C. dissectus Jacq. (1767). (Cavanilles 1799: 54).

Type. CHILE, Chillán, Née s.n. (lectotype MA-475569!, sheet with corolla, designated here).

Convolvulus canescens Phil., Linnaea 33: 182. 1864. (Philippi 1864: 182).

Type. CHILE, San Felipe de Aconcagua, Landbeck s.n. (?SGO).

Convolvulus dissectus var. canescens (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 120: 828. 1907. (Reiche 1907: 828).

Type. Based on Convolvulus canescens Phil.

Type

Based on Convolvulus dissectus Cav.

Description

Thinly to densely pubescent herb from a thick rootstock, sometimes sericeous on young parts, but more or less glabrescent; stems trailing (rarely twining), up to 2.5 m long. Leaves petiolate, 2–8 × 2–6 cm, very variable in form, usually linear or oblong with prominent elongate bifurcate basal auricles, but occasionally ovate-deltoid to suborbicular with rounded auricles, apex usually acute, margin entire or undulate, base cordate to truncate; petioles 0.5–3.5 cm. Flowers 1–2 (-3), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 2–4 (-6.5) cm; bracteoles 2–4 mm, lanceolate; pedicels 5–10 mm; outer sepals 7–9 × 5–7 mm, elliptic, obtuse, mucronate; corolla 1.5–2.5 cm long, pink, very shallowly lobed with slightly fimbriate margins, midpetaline bands dark, pilose, terminating in a pilose mucro; ovary glabrous; style divided 6–10 mm above base, stigmas 1.5–3.5 mm, cylindrical to linear, unusually variable. Capsule glabrous; seeds rugose. [O’Donell 1957: 161–166 (Figure 6); Hoffmann 1998: 207]

Distribution

Endemic to central Chile from Antofagasta south to Santiago (Worth & Morrison 16236, Bridges s.n., Gardner & Knees 5652, 8467, DCI 1791). 0–1800 m.

Notes

This polymorphic species is usually easily distinguished from all other South American species by the leaves with bifurcate auricles combined with pink corollas usually around 2–2.5 cm long. However, some specimens from Coquimbo (Simon 312 (MICH, RSA), Wagenknecht 18445 (F)) have small, suborbicular sericeous leaves and merit further study. The type location is given as Chillán, but this is almost certainly an error as the plant has never subsequently been collected so far south (O’Donell 1957: 161).

Convolvulus bonariensis Cav., Icon. 5: 54, pl. 480(2). 1799. (Cavanilles 1799: 54).

Aniseia diversifolia Walpers, Nov. Act. Acad, Caes. Leop. Carol. Nat. Cur. 367. 1843. (Walpers 1843: 367).

Type. CHILE, Valparaiso, Meyen s.n. (holotype B?†).

Convolvulus triflorus Phil., Linnaea 33: 183. 1864, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus triflorus Vahl (1794). (Phillipi 1864: 183).

Type. CHILE, Santiago, Philippi s.n. (whereabouts unknown).

Ipomoea cordobana Peter, Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] 4(3a): 36. 1891. (Peter 1891: 36).

Type. ARGENTINA, Cordoba, Lorentz 130 (lectotype GOET005724, designated by Staples et al. 2012: 676).

Convolvulus bonariensis var. multiflorus Phil., Anal. Univ. Santiago 90: 222. 1895. (Phillipi 1895: 222).

Type. CHILE, Santiago, Quinta Normal, Phillipi s.n. (SGO, not seen).

Convolvulus dissectus var. diversifolius (Kunze ex Walp.) Reiche, Anal. Univ. Chile 120: 827. 1907. (Reiche 1907: 827).

Type. Based on Aniseia diversifolia Walpers

Type

ARGENTINA, Pampas de Buenos Aires, Née s.n. (lectotype MA-475568!, sheet with location “pampas de Buenos Ayres” and determination by O’Donell, designated here).

Description

Finely adpressed-pubescent herb from a thick rootstock, sometimes sericeous on young parts; stems trailing, up to 2 m long, 1–3 mm in diameter. Leaves petiolate, 3–6 (-11) × 1.2–3 (-6) cm, very variable in shape but usually oblong-lanceolate or strap-shaped with pronounced (rarely bifurcate) auricles, occasionally ovate-deltoid, characteristically 5 times as long as broad, apex usually obtuse, mucronate, margin undulate to crenate or serrate, base hastate to cordate; petiole 5–40 mm. Flowers (1-) 2–5 in axillary, pedunculate cymes; peduncles 0.6–4 (-6) cm; bracteoles 2–4 mm, narrowly lanceolate; pedicels 3–12 mm; outer sepals 6–8 × 3–5 mm, elliptic, acute; corolla 1–1.5 cm long, pink, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent terminating in teeth; ovary glabrous, style divided 3–6 mm above base; stigmas c. 1.5 mm, narrowly ellipsoid. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth to indistinctly tuberculate. [O’Donell 1957: 159-160 (Figure 5); O’Donell 1959: 267–270 (Figure 44)]

Distribution

Argentina (Hieronymus 916, Grisebach 130, Pedersen 8251); Uruguay (King s.n.); Chile (Gay s.n., Phillipi s.n.). 0–1950 m. Records from Bolivia are errors.

Notes

The adpressed pubescent, lanceolate to strap-shaped leaves combined with the small corolla are characteristic. Flower size and usually leaf shape serve to distinguish it from C. chilensis, with which it sometimes grows in Chile. It is morphologically extraordinarily similar to C. aschersonii from South Africa which differs in its paler, more deeply lobed corollas and usually shorter sepals.

Convolvulus demissus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 404. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 404).

Convolvulus andinus Phil., Linnaea 33: 184. 1864. (Phillipi 1864: 184).

Type. CHILE, Santiago, Philippi s.n. (holotype SGO, not seen).

Convolvulus ovatus Phil., Anal. Univ. Santiago 90: 221. 1895. (Phillipi 1895: 221).

Type. CHILE, Maule, Rio Maule, Phillipi s.n. (holotype SGO, not seen).

Convolvulus demissus var. andinus (Phil.) Reiche, Anal. Univ. Chile 120: 826 (Reiche 1907: 826).

Type. Based on Convolvulus andinus Phil.

Convolvulus demissus var. ovatus (Phil.) Reiche, Anal. Univ. Chile 120: 826 (Reiche 1907: 826).

Type. Based on Convolvulus ovatus Phil.

Type

CHILE, Coquimbo, Gay s.n. (holotype G; several isotypes P!).

Description

Glabrous or puberulent herb from a deep rootstock. Stems 30(-50) cm long, numerous, trailing. Leaf blade 0.6–2 × 0.4–1.6 cm, ovate-deltoid; base truncate and briefly cuneate onto the petiole, auricles not well-developed; apex obtuse and mucronate or acute; margin entire; petiole 4–8 (-12) mm. Flowers solitary (rarely paired), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 10–18 mm; bracteoles 2–6 mm, linear; pedicels 2–4 mm; outer sepals 7–10 × 5–7 mm, elliptic, obtuse; corolla (1-) 1.5 (-2) cm long, pink, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands pilose, terminating in small teeth; ovary glabrous; style divided 4–5 mm above base, stigmas 2–3 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth but with slightly muricate angles. [O’Donell 1957: 165–167 (Figure 7); O’Donell 1959: 276]

Distribution

Central Chile (Morisson 16746, Cuming 214, Gardner et al. 52, UCEXC 43) and adjacent parts of Argentina (fide O’Donell 1959: 277). 1500–2700 m.

Notes

This is an Andean species variable in indumentum with a superficial resemblance to C. arvensis but with much larger sepals and ovate-deltoid leaves with poorly developed basal auricles. It is also very similar to some forms of the African C. sagittatus.

Convolvulus schulzei O’Donell, Lilloa 26: 360, f. 3. 1953. (O’Donell 1953: 360).

Type

ARGENTINA, Chaco, Schulz 3556 (holotype LIL!).

Description

Finely pubescent trailing or twining herb from a thick rootstock, stems up to 1 m long. Leaves petiolate, 1–5 × 0.5–2 cm, ovate-deltoid, auriculate, apex obtuse and mucronate, margin weakly crenate, base cordate; petioles 3–13 mm. Flowers 1–4 in axillary, pedunculate cymes; peduncles 1–3 (-8.5) cm; bracteoles 1.5–2.5 mm, narrowly ovate; pedicels 5–15 mm; outer sepals 4–6 × 4–5 mm, broadly elliptic to obovate, obtuse, inner sepals truncate; corolla 0.7–0.8 cm long, pale pink, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands pilose in the upper half terminating in small teeth; ovary glabrous, acuminate; style glabrous, divided 3.5–4 mm above base; stigmas 1.5 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds strongly tuberculate. [O’Donell 1959: 291]

Distribution

Endemic to Argentina: Corrientes and Chaco (Pedersen 4418).

Notes

A local endemic with a small corolla growing on sand deposits in river valleys.

Convolvulus laciniatus Desr., Encycl. [Lamarck et al.] 3: 546. 1792. (Desrousseaux 1792: 546).

Figure 9, t. 1–7

Convolvulus laciniatus var. hirsutus Desr., Encycl. [Lamarck et al.] 3: 546. 1792. (Desrousseaux 1792: 546).

Type. URUGUAY, Commerson (holotype P, not found).

Convolvulus lasianthus Cav., Icon. 5: 53, t. 479(1). 1799. (Cavanilles 1799: 53).

Type. CHILE, Talcahuano, Née (lectotype, MA-475572!, sheet numbered “1365” with rootstock and two corollas, designated here).

Convolvulus laciniatus var. peduncularis Meisn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 7: 314. 1869. (Meisner 1869: 314).

Type. Brazil. Sello s.n. (lectotype P03560958, designated here).

Ipomoea polymorpha Meisn. var. glabra Griseb. Symb. Bot. Arg. 264. 1879. (Grisebach 1879: 264).

Type. ARGENTINA, Tucuman, (GOET?).

Convolvulus geranioides Phil., Anales Univ. Santiago 90: 222. 1895. (Phillipi 1895: 222).

Type. CHILE, Bucalemu and Cahuil, L. Sanfurgo (syntypes SGO, not seen).

Type

URUGUAY, Montevideo, Commerson s.n. (holotype P-Juss!).

Description

Very variable perennial herb with numerous, often branched, trailing stems from a stout central rootstock, most commonly glabrous, sometimes thinly pubescent and rarely white-tomentose. Leaves petiolate, 1–3(-5) × 1–3(-5) cm, very variable in form but always deeply divided, usually profoundly palmatisect or pinnatisect with narrow laciniate segments, rarely with broader segments; apex obtuse or acute; margin undulate or entire; petioles 3–15 mm. Flowers 1–2(-3), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 1–3(-5) cm; bracteoles 2–3.5 mm; pedicels 2–10 mm; outer sepals 6–9 × 5–6 mm, elliptic to obovate, margins scarious; corolla 1–2 cm long, white or white with purple centre, lobed with acute apices, exterior glabrous to thinly pilose in correlation with overall plant indumentum, midpetaline bands present or absent but if present dark violet, pilose; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 5–11 mm above base; stigmas 1.5–2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth, black. [O’Donell 1957: 169 -172, Figure 9; O’Donell 1959: 281]

Figure 9.

1–7 C. laciniatus 1 leaf 2 outer sepal 3 inner sepal 4 stamen 5 ovary and style 6 capsule with calyx and bracteoles 7 seeds. From Wood et al. 22627 (K) 8–15 C. hermanniae subsp. erosus 8 leaves 9 bracteoles 10 outer sepal 11 inner sepal 12 stamen 13 ovary and style 14 capsule, apically hirsute 15 seeds. From Buchtien 15/11/1885 (OXF) 16–21 C. montanus 16 leaves 17 outer sepal 18 inner sepal 19 stamen 20 ovary and style 21 calyx and capsule. From Tutin 1008 (BM) 22–28 C. crispifolius 22 leaf 23 outer sepal 24 middle sepal 25 inner sepal 26 stamen 27 ovary and style 28 calyx and capsule. From Chinnock 2915 (AD) 29–36 C. microsepalus 29 leaf and bracteole (left) 30 outer sepal 31 middle sepal 32 inner sepal 33 stamen 34 ovary and style 35 calyx and capsule 36 seed. From Orchard 211 (AD) and Badman 32 (AD) 37–43 C. angustissimus 37 leaves showing three forms on same plant 38 outer sepal 39 inner sepal 40 stamen 41 ovary and style 42 calyx and capsule 43 seeds. From Spicer 31/1/1875 (OXF).

Distribution

Argentina (Tressens et al. 2282, Pastore 1262), Chile, Uruguay (Gibert 40); Brazil (fide O’Donell 1959: 284); Bolivia (Wood 22627, Bang 959, Fiebrig 2587). 0–3800 m.

Notes

An extremely variable species easily recognised by its deeply divided leaves and white flowers, which are occasionally with dark violet midpetaline bands. The following specimens are outstanding and could each constitute a distinct taxon, but which I hesitate to recognise in the absence of any matching material: Venturi 8624 (BM, K, MO) from Argentina, which has very large leaves 5 × 5 cm with broad segments, the peduncles up to 6 cm long bearing up to three flowers and is apparently similar to C. geranioides from Chile; Sandoval & Stark 1025 (K) from Chile, which has small pinnatisect, white-tomentose leaves. There are also densely pubescent specimens from Uruguay (Gay s.n., Seijo et al. 2381, for example) which may accord with var. hirsutus Desr. Corolla indumentum and colouring are also outstandingly variable, some corollas completely glabrous while in others the midpetaline bands are pubescent.

Two specimens from Bolivia (Wood et al. 21956 and Bastian 783, both LPB) have finely dissected leaves like C. laciniatus but a hairy apex to the ovary. They probably represent the hybrid between C. laciniatus and C. hermanniae subsp. erosus, certainly Wood 21956 was growing in the vicinity of both parents.

Convolvulus hermanniae L’Hér., Stirp. Nov. 67. 1788, t 33. 1788. (L’Héritier 1788: 67).

Type

PERU, Huara, Dombey (lectotype P-00608800!, sheet labelled “Perou Dombey”, designated here; isolectotypes P!, BM000953290!).

Description

Trailing or (less commonly) twining herb from a thickened woody rootstock c. 1 cm thick, all vegetative parts grey-tomentose. Stems up to 1 m long, apparently more slender in twining plants, numerous. Leaves petiolate, 2–6.5 × 0.5–3 cm, ovate to ovate-deltoid, the auricles not well-developed, apex acute to obtuse, margin undulate to irregularly dentate, base cordate; petioles 5–12 (-22) mm. Flowers 1–2 (-3), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 1–3 (-6)cm, often shorter than the leaves; bracteoles 2–4 mm, linear-lanceolate; pedicels 5–12 mm; outer sepals 7–10 × 4–6 mm, (narrowly) elliptic, usually acute; corolla 1.4–1.8 cm long, white, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands extended into mucros, tomentose; ovary conical, 1.5–2 mm, glabrous or apically pilose, style divided 5–7 mm above base, glabrous except immediately above ovary, stigmas 2.5–3 mm. Capsule glabrous or apically pilose; seeds smooth.

We recognise two subspecies based on ovary and capsule indumentum:

Convolvulus hermanniae subsp. hermanniae

Convolvulus incanus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 23. 1794. (Vahl 1794: 23).

Type. PERU, Dombey s.n. (lectotype C!, sheet with Dombey’s name, designated here).

Ipomoea hermanniae (L’Hér.) G. Don, Gen Hist. 4: 276. 1838. (Don 1838: 276).

Type. Based on Convolvulus hermanniae L’Hér.

Distinguishing features

Ovary and capsule completely glabrous.

Distribution

The principal or only subspecies in Ecuador and Peru extending south into Bolivia: Ecuador (Spruce 5810); Peru (Thomas 3/1, Mathews 377); Bolivia (Badcock 607, Beck et al. 31637), northern Argentina (Fortunato et al. 4648). 2200–2880 m.

Notes

The name C. incanus was, and still is (Hyam 2011: 554), commonly misapplied to C. equitans from North America, although it is clearly indicated that the type was collected by Dombey; perhaps it was grown from seeds with the same origin as those from which the type of C. hermanniae was grown.

Convolvulus hermanniae subsp. erosus (Desr.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov.

Figure 9, t. 8–15

Convolvulus erosus Desr., Encycl. [Lamarck et al.] 3: 558. 1792. (Desrousseaux 1792: 558).

Type. URUGUAY, Montevideo, Commerson s.n. (holotype P-Juss!).

Convolvulus crenatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 31. 1794, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus crenatus Jacq. (1789). (Vahl 1794: 31).

Type. BRAZIL, Thouin s.n. (?C. not seen).

Convolvulus vahlii Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg, ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 280. 1819. (Roemer and Schultes 1819: 280).

Type. Based on Convolvulus crenatus Vahl

Convolvulus costatus Meyen, Reise Erde 1: 264. 1834. (Meyen 1834: 264).

Type. CHILE, Santiago, Meyen s.n. (B†).

Aniseia costata (Meyen) Walp., Nov. Act.Acad, Caes, Leop. Carol.Nat. Cur.367 (1843). (Walpers 1843: 367).

Type based on Convolvulus costatus Meyen

Convolvulus hermanniae var. elongatus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. URUGUAY, Montevideo, Commerson s.n. (holotype P [Herb. Juss.]).

Convolvulus hermanniae var. viridis Meisn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 7: 312. 1869. (Meisner 1869: 312).

Type. URUGUAY, Montevideo, Sellow s.n. (not found).

Convolvulus mollis var. albidovillosus Chodat & Hassl., Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 5: 699. 1905. (Chodat and Hassler 1905: 699).

Type. PARAGUAY, Valenzuela, Hassler 7103 (holotype G).

Convolvulus hermanniae var. albidovillosus (Chodat & Hassl.) Hassl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 195. 1911. (Hassler 1911: 195).

Type. Based on Convolvulus mollis var. albidovillosus Chodat & Hassl.

Type

Based on Convolvulus erosus Desr.

Distinguishing features

Ovary and capsule apically pilose. [O’Donell 1957: 167 p. p.; O’Donell 1959: 271 p.p.].

Distribution

The only subspecies present in the Southern Cone extending north to Bolivia and Brazil: Chile (Cuming 280, Buchtien s.n. [19/11/1895]); Bolivia (Wood 19217, Bang 990); Argentina (Seijo 1354, Venturi 5464); Uruguay (Gibert s.n.); Brazil (Glaziou 19668). 0–2800 m.

Notes

Convolvulus hermanniae is distinguished from C. crenatifolius by its few-flowered peduncles and dense white-tomentellous indumentum. From C. bonariensis it differs in its white-tomentellous leaves. Subsp. erosus is unique amongst American taxa because of its hirsute ovary and capsule. O’Donell 1957: 167–169 Figure 8; O’Donell 1959: 277.

Convolvulus montanus Ooststr., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijksuniv. Utrecht 7, 30: 199, f. 1, 3. 1933. (Ooststroom 1933: 199).

Figure 9, t. 15–21

Type

PERU, Junin, Huancayo, Killip & Smith 22018 (holotype F!; isotypes BM001035802!, MA!, US).

Description

Herb apparently from a deep rootstock, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs on vegetative parts, stems trailing, 5–15 cm long. Leaves petiolate, 0.6–1.6 × 0.5–1.3 cm, ovate, apex more or less rounded, margin strongly crenate, base truncate; petioles 3–8 mm. Flowers 1(-2), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 1.2–1.6 cm; bracteoles 2.5–4 mm, oblong; pedicels 2–5 mm; outer sepals 6–8 × 4.5–6 mm, obovate-elliptic, concave, scarious, emarginate, inner sepals similar emarginated or mucronulate; corolla 1.2–1.5 cm long, white to pale pink with a dark centre, deeply lobed, midpetaline bands glabrous terminating in a small tooth; ovary glabrous, style divided 5–7 mm above base, stigmas c. 2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth, glabrous. O’Donell 1959: 288–290 (Figure 47).

Distribution

Peru: Junin, Cusco (Stafford 220); Bolivia: La Paz (Gütte 141); Argentina: Mendoza, Buenos Aires (Melis et al. 427). Unusually disjunct geographically and altitudinally: 3300–3500 in Peru and Bolivia but below 2000 m in Argentina.

Notes

A distinctive nearly glabrous species with small ovate, basally truncate, crenate leaves.

Convolvulus incisodentatus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, nom. nov.

Convolvulus incisus Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 409. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 409).

Type. PERU, Chinchin, Dombey s.n. (holotype P-03537718!, possible isotype MA 814635!).

Type

Based on Convolvulus incisus Choisy.

Description

Perennial herb from a tap root, thinly pubescent on all vegetative parts. Stems 15-40 cm long, trailing. Leaf blade1–2.3 × 0.6–1.2 cm, ovate-deltoid; base cordate and briefly cuneate onto the petiole, auricles prominent; apex shortly mucronate; margin incised-dentate; petiole 3–5 mm. Flowers solitary (rarely paired), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 8–14 mm; bracteoles 1–2 mm, filiform; pedicels 3–5 mm; outer sepals 6–7 × 4mm, ovate, obtuse; inner sepals 6-7 × 6-7mm, suborbicular, rounded, slightly scarious; corolla 1.5–1.6 cm long, white, lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent, terminating in triangular teeth; ovary glabrous; style divided 4–5 mm above base, stigmas 2.5 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth, glabrous.

Distribution

Moquegua (Dillon et al. 3327) and Piura in Peru, 600–700 m.

Notes

A poorly-known species growing at low altitudes in Peru but easily recognised by its incised-dentate leaves. Morphologically it would appear to lie between C. laciniatus and C. montanus.

Convolvulus crenatifolius Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. 2: 10. 1799. (Ruiz and Pavón 1799: 10, tab. 118).

Type

PERU, Huanuco Ruiz & Pavón s.n. s.n. (lectotype MA-814634, designated here; isolectotypes MA 814632, 814633).

Description

Pubescent to densely hirsute herb; stems twining up to 3 m high. Leaves petiolate, 3–8 × 1–4 cm, ovate-deltoid, strongly auriculate, usually large, apex usually obtuse and mucronate, margin undulate to sinuate, base broadly cordate to hastate with midrib area cuneate onto petiole; petioles 7–15 mm. Flowers (1-) 3–7 in compact axillary, pedunculate umbellate cymes; peduncles 1.5–12 cm; bracteoles 2–5 mm, narrowly lanceolate; pedicels 2–12 mm, apparently accrescent after anthesis; outer sepals 6–6.5 × 3.5–5 cm, elliptic, obtuse or acute; corolla 1.1–1.5 cm long, white to pink, deeply lobed, midpetaline bands brownish, pilose, terminating in a mucro; ovary glabrous; style divided c. 7 mm above base; stigmas 3 mm, more or less included. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth. [O’Donell 1959: 271 p. p., Carranza (2008: 4ff.)]

Notes

We recognise two subspecies, which are distinct through most of their range, but intergrade in parts of northern Argentina (Morel 5885 from Formosa, Schwarz 6391 from Misiones and Risso 30 from Santiago de Estero are examples) and in the São Paulo area of Brazil (Hoehne 265), mostly at altitudes of around 1000 m.

Convolvulus crenatifolius subsp. crenatifolius

Figure 8, t. 40–46

Convolvulus crenatifolius var. peruvianus Hallier f., Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 16, beiheft 3: 34. 1899, nom illeg. superfluous name for autonymic variety (Hallier 1899: 34).

Distinguishing features

Distinguished by the more numerous flowers (there are nearly always some cymes with >3 flowers), the relatively short pedicels, the cymes usually forming rather tight umbellate clusters, and the smaller, usually pinkish, lobed corolla.

Distribution

Amphitropical, Andes and southern Brazilian highlands in South America; United States of America and Mexico in North America: Ecuador (Lodiro 113/5); Peru (Stafford 1041, Lechler 2116); Bolivia (Wood 17714, Bang 1158); Argentina (Meyer 5018, Villa 543); Brazil (Meireles et al. 2783, Tamandaré & Brade 6987); United States: Texas (Runyon 2599, 4479, Correll & Wasshausen 27684); Mexico: Guadelupe (Schmitz 1098 (W), Hidalgo, Rose et al. 8946 (P, US). Approximately 1500–3000 m in South America but to near sea level in Texas.

Notes

In South America this species appears to be distinctly montane in distribution being limited to the Andes and the higher mountains of southeastern Brazil. Specimens from Andean Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador are very consistent in habit. Its status in North America is uncertain. The leaves are often more strictly triangular and more coarsely dentate than in South American plants but some specimens such as Dusén 7788 from Paraná, Brazil are indistinguishable. It may be an introduction in North America like C. farinosus – we have seen no specimens collected before the 20th century – but equally it may be the result of long-term dispersal. Species of Convolvulaceae in varous genera, such as Ipomoea amnicola Morong and Evolvulus arizonicus A.Gray show a disjunct amphitropical distribution between North and South America so a distribution of this kind is not improbable.

Convolvulus crenatifolius subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland., stat. nov.

Figure 8, t. 25–31

Convolvulus montevidensis Spreng., Syst. Veg. [Sprengel] 1: 604. 1824. (Sprengel 1824: 604).

Type. URUGUAY, Montevideo, Sellow s.n. (B†); [URUGUAY], Montevideo, Sellow 278 (neotype NY 00318926, designated here).

Ipomoea montevidensis (Spreng.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 276. 1838. (Don 1838: 276).

Type. Based on Convolvulus montevidensis Spreng.

Ipomoea ottoensis Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 378. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 378).

Type. URUGUAY, Montevideo, Otto s.n. (P, not found).

Convolvulus ottonis Meisn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 7: 311, t. 113. 1869. (Meisner 1869: 311).

Type. BRAZIL, Minas Gerais, Lindberg 165 and URUGUAY, Montevideo, Otto s.n. (syntypes B†).

Convolvulus montevidensis var. megapotamicus Meisn., Fl. Bras. (Martius)7: 312. 1869. (Meisner 1869: 312).

Type. specimen annotated Convolvulus megapotamicus Spreng. (holotype B†).

Convolvulus crenatifolius var. montevidensis (Spreng.) Hallier f., Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 16, Beih. 3: 34. 1899. (Hallier 1899: 34).

Type. Based on Convolvulus montevidensis Spreng.

Convolvulus crenatifolius var. argentinicus Hallier f., Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 16, beiheft 3: 34. 1899. (Hallier 1899: 34).

Type. ARGENTINA, Lorentz & Hieronymus 1057, 945, Lorentz 1538, Kuntze s.n.Dec. 1891 (syntypes B, all†)

Convolvulus montevidensis var. ottonis (Meisn.) Chodat & Hassl., Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 5: 699. 1905. (Chodat and Hassler 1905: 699).

Type. Based on Convolvulus ottonis Choisy

Type

Based on Convolvulus montevidensis Spreng.

Distinguishing features

Distinguished from subsp. crenatifolius by the more slender stems (c. 1 mm diameter on flowering shoots), 1–3-flowered cymes, relatively long pedicels, so inflorescence appears rather lax, and the larger (1.5–2.5 cm long), almost unlobed cream corollas with stigmas very slender, often exserted. The reddish-brown, somewhat scarious, slightly larger (7–9 mm long) outer sepals are often distinctive too. O’Donell 1959: 271–276 p. p., figure 45 under C. crenatifolius.

Distribution

Northern Argentina (Renvoize 3072, Tweedie 379, Tressens et al. 2467, Hawkes et al. 3263); Paraguay (Pedersen 60, Jorgensen 4033, Lourteig 2061, Balansa 1066); Uruguay (St.-Hilaire 2384, 2430); Southern Brazil, particularly Rio Grande do Sul (Rambo 46807) and Parana (Kissmann 7788); Bolivia (Villarroel et al. 1466). 0–?1500 m (Upper limit uncertain). Apparently centred on Paraguay.

Notes

According to the image in Flora Brasiliensis, C. ottonis represents a plant with broadly elliptic sepals similar to the neotype of C. montevidensis. The neotype may or may not represent part of the original collection on which Sprengel’s description was based but was collected by Sellow at Montevideo and originates from the Berlin herbarium. It shows the large corolla and reddish brown sepals so characteristic of this subspecies which is common in parts of Paraguay, southern Brazil, northern Argentina and Uruguay.

There is at least one collection from Paraguay (Hansen 7679 [C, NY]) which shows evidence of introgression with C. hasslerianus. The calyx is that of C. crenatifolius subsp. montevidensis but the flowers are solitary and the leaves are very shortly petiolate with subentire margins.

Convolvulus lilloi O’Donell, Lilloa 29: 293. 1959. (O’Donell 1959: 285).

Type

ARGENTINA, Corrientes, Ituzaingó, Meyer 5786 (holotype LIL!).

Description

Densely pubescent or tomentose trailing or twining herb from a thickened rootstock, stems to at least 1 m long, relatively stout. Leaves petiolate, 2–7(-10) × 0.7–2.8 cm, lanceolate-oblong with pronounced basal auricles, these sometimes lobed, apex acute and mucronate, margin entire to weakly undulate, base hastate; petioles 3–10(-15) mm. Flowers solitary (very rarely paired), axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 2–5 cm; bracteoles 2–5 mm, linear-lanceolate; pedicels 10–15 mm; outer sepals 10–13 × 5–6.5 mm, elliptic, obtuse; corolla 2.5–4 cm long, white with dark centre, shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands pilose, extended into teeth; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided c. 16 mm above base, stigmas 2–3 mm, cylindrical. Capsule glabrous; seeds smooth to finely tuberculate. [O’Donell 1959: 285–288 (Figure 46)]

Distribution

Argentina: Corrientes and Misiones (Pedersen 1912, Ferraro 3094); Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (Lindeman et al. 8417, Ferreira 110). 0–500 m.

Notes

An apparently very distinctive local endemic characterised by its large, usually solitary flowers and densely hairy indumentum. However, a number of specimens indicate that it is more variable than O’Donell supposed. Ibarrola 1305 from Corrientes probably fits but the sepals are only 9 mm long and the corolla a mere 2.5 cm in length. Dusén 7310 and Smith & Kiela 7814 from southern Brazil appear to be intermediate with C. hasslerianus as the leaves are only very shortly petiolate.

Convolvulus ensifolius P.P.A.Ferreira & Simão-Bianchini, Phytotaxa 135: 29. 2013. (Ferreira et al. 2013: 29).

Type

BRAZIL, Rio Grande do Sul, P. P.A. Ferreira 300 (holotype ICN; isotypes K!, SP).

Description

Prostrate perennial with woody base, the stems winged, twining at the apices. Leaves shortly petiolate, 2–6 × 0.2–0.4 cm, linear-oblong, base sagittate, apex acute, glabrous; petiole 2–6 mm. Flowers solitary; peduncles 25–60 mm, shortly winged; bracteoles 3–5 nn, lanceolate, deciduous; pedicels 8–12 mm; outer sepals 6–8 × 3–4 mm, obovate, truncate, mucronulate, glabrous or canescent, the margins ciliolate; inner sepals similar but with scarious margins; corolla 1.8–2.2 cm long, white, glabrous, midpetaline bands sericeous; ovary glabrous, subglobose; style divided 6–9 mm above base; stigmas 3–4 mm. Capsule glabrous, apiculate; seeds black, glabrous.

Distribution

Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná).

Notes

Resembling C. lilloi and C. hasslerianus in the solitary flowers and shortly petiolate leaves but near glabrous, the leaves linear-oblong and the sepals much shorter.

Convolvulus hasslerianus (Chodat) O’Donell, Lilloa 23: 430. 1950. (O’Donell 1950: 430).

Breweria hassleriana Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss, ser, 2, 5: 683. 1905. (Chodat and Hassler 1905: 683).

Type. PARAGUAY, Carimbatay, Hassler 4541 (holotype G; isotype NY!).

Type

Based on Breweria hassleriana Chodat

Description

Usually erect but occasionally decumbent to ascending cerrado perennial with woody xylopodium, vegetative parts villous with long spreading cobwebby hairs; stems several, erect, herbaceous, 20–30(-50) cm high. Leaves sessile or very shortly petiolate, 1.5–4.5 × 0.8–1.5 cm, ovate to oblong-ovate; base rounded, truncate to subcordate or sagittate; apex acute or (above) apiculate; margin entire; petiole 0(-2) mm. Flowers solitary (rarely paired); peduncles 20–50 mm; bracteoles 3–5 × 0.5–1 mm, linear-lanceolate, finely acuminate; pedicels 5–10 mm; outer sepals 10–15 × 5–7 mm, ovate, acuminate; corolla 3.2–4 cm long, white, unlobed, midpetaline bands pink, long-pilose, terminating in a mucro; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 8–12 mm above base, persistent in fruit; stigmas 3 mm. Capsule glabrous, unusually large, c. 1 cm diameter; seeds smooth. [O’Donell 1950: 430–431, f. 3]

Distribution

Paraguay (Krapovickas et al. 45901, Hassler 9123, Balansa 1056); Brazil: Parana (Hatschbach 3675, 20011, 30722), Rio Grande do Sul (Gaudichaud 659). 0–800 m.

Notes

Unique species because of its adaptation to the cerrado biome. The erect habit, xylopodium, woolly, often cobwebby indumentum, subsessile leaves and large corolla all render it distinct from other American species.

Species 56–69. Australasian species

Herbaceous trailing or twining species, relatively slender compared with species from other regions. Leaves petiolate, with the lamina narrowed to a sagitate or hastate base, commonly dimorphic or even trimorphic; basal leaves often simple, stem leaves often lobed with narrow segments. The ovary, style and capsule are always glabrous. Although Johnson (2001) describes all species as perennials, several appear at least sometimes to be annuals and we have seen specimens of C. crispifolius, C. eyreanus and C. recurvatus, which certainly appear to be annuals. All three are species with recurved fruiting peduncles, a character which is often associated with the annual habit in Convolvulus.

The taxonomy of Australasian species is difficult. Many species are superficially similar especially when young or showing only one leaf form, and the taxonomy is often based on the direction of the fruiting peduncle and seed sculpture so non-fruiting specimens and incomplete specimens can be impossible to name. In many herbaria, all species from this region were once filed under the name C. erubescens following Bentham (1869), but this is clearly a gross oversimplification. However, it seems probable that further intensive study is needed before species delimitation is entirely satisfactory–C. angustissimus and C. clementii in particular appear to embrace a variety of forms from which the more distinct entities have been separated off as separate species.

Australian species are recorded as adventives or naturalised in other countries including the British Isles (Sell and Murrell 2009) and New Zealand (Heenan et al. 2003), usually under the name C. erubescens. We have not seen any of these collections and it is not certain to which Australian species these records refer.

Convolvulus microsepalus R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 2: 410. 1987. (Johnson 1987: 410).

Figure 9, t. 29–36

Type

AUSTRALIA, South Australia, Orchard 2626 (holotype AD!; isotypes NCU, COLO).

Description

Perennial herb from a central taproot with trailing stems to 1 m, plant adpressed pubescent to glabrescent. Leaves petiolate, 1–2 × 0.4–05 cm, lanceolate-deltoid, acute, margin entire to slightly undulate, base shallowly cordate and auriculate, the auricles entire or bifid; petioles 3–8 mm long. Flowers solitary, pedunculate, axillary, becoming recurved in fruit; peduncles mostly 1–2 cm long; bracteoles filiform, 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 3–12 mm; outer sepals 2–3(-4) × 2–3 mm, obovate to broadly elliptic, rounded and minutely apiculate, scarious, glabrous or thinly appressed pubescent; inner sepals similar; corolla 5–7 mm long, white or pink, very shallowly lobed, midpetaline bands almost glabrous except for a few hairs at apex; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 2 mm above base, stigmas c. 1.5–2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds coarsely and irregularly tuberculate. [Johnson 1987: 410–411, figure 1; Johnson 2001: 10, figs 3–4, map 1].

Distribution

Australia: South Australia and adjacent New South Wales (Orchard 211, Badman 32, Copley 192; Vonow 584, Mueller 1852).

Notes

Very distinctive because of the tiny calyx, lanceolate-deltoid leaves with basal auricles and the distinctive seed ornamentation.

Convolvulus graminetinus R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 12. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 12).

Type

AUSTRALIA, Queensland, R.W.Johnson 5300 (holotype BRI; isotypes CANB, K!, NE, NSW).

Description

Perennial herb with trailing or twining stems to at least 50 cm, plant thinly pubescent to glabrescent. Leaves petiolate, dimorphic; petioles 2–10 mm; lowermost leaves 2.5–4 × 0.6–1.6 cm, deltoid, obtuse and finely mucronate, entire, base truncate and briefly cuneate onto the petiole, auricles absent; middle leaves similar but base more or less cordate, auricles present, often bifid or tridentate, the central lobe longer and narrower; middle and upper leaves with a narrowly linear-lanceolate central lobe 3–6 × 0.1–0. 6 cm, the basal auricles more or less reflexed so base sagittate, inconspicuous, bifid or trifid, 3–5 mm long, segments usually very narrow. Flowers solitary (very rarely paired), pedunculate, axillary; peduncles 1.2–3.5(-5.5) cm, recurved in fruit; bracteoles 1–2.5 mm, filiform; pedicels 4–12 mm; sepals 4–6 × 2.5–3 mm, obovate or elliptic, rounded and mucronate, scarious-margined, glabrous or pubescent on dorsal surface near apex; corolla 0.7–1.6 cm long, pink, shallowly lobed with triangular lobes, midpetaline bands pilose; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 3–4 mm above base, stigmas 1.5–2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds with prominent wavy tubercles. [Johnson 2001: 12–14, figs3–4, map 2]

Distribution

Australia: Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales (Evans 3248, Must 1510, Johnson 2075, Hubbard 3171, McDonald 46, Clemens s.n. [9/1945], McBarron 14875, Melville 3425). Reported from New Zealand (Heenan et al. 2003) but possibly extinct.

Notes

Very immature plants could be confused with C. arvensis but the corolla is much smaller. More mature plants without lower leaves are similar morphologically to C. remotus but the fruiting peduncle is recurved. The strongly tuberculate seeds and the leaves with a very long narrow central lobe combined with the small bifid auricles are also rather distinct.

Convolvulus remotus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland 483. 1810. (Brown 1810: 483)

Convolvulus preissii de Vriese, Pl. Preiss. 1: 346. 1845. (Lehmann 1845: 346).

Type. WESTERN AUSTRALIA, Cape Riche, Preiss 1927 (holotype LD!).

Convolvulus huegelii de Vriese, Pl. Preiss. 1: 346 1845. (Lehmann 1845: 346).

Type. WESTERN AUSTRALIA, Maddington, Canning River, Preiss 1928 (holotype LD, not seen).

Type

AUSTRALIA, South Coast, Bay 10 (Port Lincoln) R. Brown 2766 (lectotype BM!, portion on left side of sheet, designated here; isotype K!, possible isotype MEL).

Description

Perennial herb with twining or (occasionally) trailing stems to at least 50 cm, plant adpressed pubescent to more or less strigose. Leaves petiolate, not strongly dimorphic, 2.1–7.5 × 1–1.5 cm, narrowly deltoid, basally truncate and shortly cuneate onto the petiole, the central lobe linear, oblong, lanceolate or oblanceolate, acute, entire, 2–6 mm wide, basal auricles always present, 2–10 mm long, usually simple, occasionally bifurcate or toothed; petioles 6–10 (-20) mm. Flowers solitary or paired (rarely 3), pedunculate, axillary; peduncles mostly 1–3.5 cm long, not recurved in fruit; bracteoles 1.5–2.5 mm long, filiform; pedicels 4–10 mm; sepals 4.5–6 × 3–4.5 mm, broadly elliptic to obovate, rounded and mucronate at apex, margin somewhat scarious, dorsal surface pubescent; corolla 1–1.8 cm long, pink, lobed with broadly triangular lobes, midpetaline bands pilose towards apex; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 4–6 mm above base, stigmas c. 2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds nearly smooth with obscure tubercles. [Johnson 2001: 14–15, f. 3–4, map 3]

Distribution

Widespread in Australia, except the east coast, but most abundant in South Australia and Western Australia (Chorney 991, Symon 3578, Aplin 1792; Lazarides & Palmer 005; Elkins & Sweedman 20050042, Rechinger 58286).

Notes

The usually very obviously twining stems with adpressed indumentum and narrowly deltoid auriculate leaves and straight peduncles serve to distinguish this species. The seeds are only obscurely tuberculate unlike those of C. graminetinus.

Robert Brown did not cite either a precise location or specimen in the protologue so Johnson was wrong to cite the Port Lincoln collection as holotype as there is another syntype mounted on the same sheet from a different location. In order to avoid future uncertainty we are formally designating the Port Lincoln collection at BM as lectotype. There is an isolectotype at Kew.

Convolvulus crispifolius F.Muell., Linnaea 25: 423. 1853. (Mueller 1853: 423).

Figure 9, t. 22–28

Type

SOUTH AUSTRALIA, Cudnaka [Kanyaka], Mueller s.n. (holotype MEL; isotypes MEL, P!).

Description

Perennial herb with trailing stems to 1 m, vegetative parts covered in long, whitish appressed velvety hairs, densely so on young growth. Leaves dimorphic: leaves of non-flowering shoots long-petiolate, 1–2 × 0.6–1.5 cm, ovate-deltoid, rounded, margin serrate, base truncate (very rarely slightly auriculate) and shortly cuneate onto the petiole, petiole 1–2 cm; leaves of flowering shoots 1–1.5(-2.5) × 0.5–1.4 cm, ovate-deltoid in outline but deeply toothed and incised towards the base; petioles 0.2–0.8 cm. Flowers solitary, pedunculate, axillary; peduncles 0.3–0.8 (-1.2 )cm, becoming recurved in fruit; bracteoles linear c. 1 mm; pedicels 1–3 mm; outer sepals 4 × 3.5 mm, elliptic, apiculate, the point recurved, sericeous; inner sepals similar but with fewer hairs; corolla 5–6 mm long, white or pink, lobed with somewhat triangular lobes, midpetaline bands sericeous; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided 2–2.5 mm above base; stigmas c. 1.5 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds slightly winged and with low irregular sinuate ridges. [Johnson 2001: 15–19, f. 5–6, map 4]

Distribution

Australia: Southern South Australia and adjacent parts of Victoria and New South Wales (Alcock 652, Kuchel 1470, Chinnock 2915, Hill et al. 5426). Johnson (2001) cites Copley 571 but this looks like an error for C. eyreanus as the peduncles are 1.5–2 cm long and mostly bear two flowers while the leaves are not so strongly sericeous.

Notes

This species shares with C. eyreanus a dense indumentum of longish appressed hairs. Fruiting specimens can be recognised by the short recurved peduncles bearing single flowers, small capsules (4–4.5 mm in diameter) and small seeds (< 3 mm long).

Convolvulus eyreanus R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 2: 408. 1987. (Johnson 1987: 408).

Type

AUSTRALIA, South Australia, Donner 3531 (holotype AD).

Description

Perennial herb similar in general habit and distinctive features to Convolvulus crispifolius but generally larger: leaves on flowering shoots 0.7–4 × 5–2.5 cm, the basal half very incised-lobed almost to the midrib; peduncles commonly 2-flowered, (1-)1.2–2.9(-5) cm, rather tardily reflexing; pedicels 5–8 mm; outer sepals 4.5–6 × 3–4 mm, obovate-elliptic; corolla 6–8 mm long; ovary, style and capsule glabrous (or, fide Johnson, with a few hairs). Capsule 5–5.5 mm diameter, seeds 3.2–4.5 mm. [Johnson 2001: 19–20, f. 5–6, map 4]

Distribution

Australia: northeastern South Australia and adjacent Queensland (Whibley 3455, Filson 3330, Cornwall 109, O’Leary 4541, Weber 8851).

Convolvulus clementii Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 539. 1928. (Domin 1928: 539).

Comvolvulus clementii var. biflorus Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 539. 1928. (Domin 1928: 539).

Type. AUSTRALIA, Queensland, Dividing Range, Jericho, Domin (holotype PR, not seen).

Type

AUSTRALIA, Western Australia, between Ashburton and Grey Rivers, Clement s.n. (holotype PR; isotype K!).

Description

Perennial herb from a taproot with trailing (sometimes twining) stems to at least 75 cm, vegetative parts pubescent with adpressed or spreading hairs. Leaves petiolate, very plastic in shape, more or less trimorphic; petioles 0.3–3 cm, diminishing in length upwards; lowermost leaves 1–3 × 0.6–1.5 cm, deltoid, acute, margin undulate to crenate, base truncate and shortly cuneate onto the petiole; lower leaves sometimes distinct, 3–4 × 3–4 cm, deeply laciniate; middle leaves with elongate oblong undulate- or crenate-margined middle lobe, 2.5–3.5 × 0.4–0.8 cm and deeply lobed, more or less laciniate auricles; upper leaves with a very narrowly oblong central lobe 2–3.5 × 0.2–0.5 cm, two slightly shorter ascending lateral lobes and smaller bifurcate basal lobes. Flowers solitary or paired, pedunculate, axillary, not recurved in fruit; peduncles 0.6–3 cm; bracteoles 1–2 mm, filiform; pedicels 3–8 mm; sepals 4–5 × 2.5–4 mm, obovate or elliptic, acute or rounded, mucronate, pubescent; corolla 7–9 mm, white or pink, weakly lobed, midpetaline band pubescent; ovary and style glabrous; style divided 2–3 mm above base, stigmas c. 1.5 mm. Capsule glabrous, 4–6 mm in diameter; seeds winged, raised-tuberculate. [Johnson 2001: 35–37, f. 9–10, map 8]

Distribution

Generally distributed in Australia but most common in central-western areas (Hill 167, Macdonald 435, Newby 10756, Pedley 914, Jacobs 2106).

Notes

This species is extremly variable in leaf form and flowering specimens are indistinguishable from C. recurvatus.

Convolvulus tedmoorei R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 37. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 37).

Type

AUSTRALIA, New South Wales, Moore 5863 (holotype CANB; isotypes BRI, NSW).

Description

A local endemic close to C. clementii but differing in its robust prostrate habit: stems stout almost to the apex, leaves up to 5 × 4 cm, capsules 6–7 mm wide, the seeds unwinged and rather large reaching 3.8 × 3.2 mm, more finely appressed tuberculate. The ripe capsules are suborbicular, 6–7 mm in diameter, conspicuously larger than in C. clementii. [Johnson 2001: 37–38, f. 9–10, map 5].

Distribution

Australia: New South Wales (Bates 56321).

Convolvulus recurvatus R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 32. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 32).

Type

AUSTRALIA, South Australia, Copley 827 (holotype AD; isotype K!).

Description

Perennial herb with trailing stems to at least 50 cm, vegetative parts sparsely to roughly pubescent with adpressed or spreading hairs. Leaves dimorphic, petiolate; petioles 5–20 mm; leaves of non-flowering shoots 1–2.5 × 0.5–0.9 cm, oblong-subrectangular, truncate at apex and base, sometimes cordate and weakly auriculate, margins coarsely dentate; leaves of flowering shoots 1.2–3 × 0.5–1.6 cm, ovate or lanceolate in outline but deeply incised lobed, characteristically with the terminal lobe prominent, linear or narrowly oblong, acute to emarginate, the margin undulate to coarsely dentate, basal part deeply bi-quadrilobed. Flowers solitary (rarely paired), pedunculate, axillary; peduncles 0.8–2.2 cm, becoming recurved in fruit; bracteoles c. 1 mm, linear; pedicels 2–6 mm; sepals 3–5 × 3–3.5 mm, obovate or elliptic, acute or rounded with a small recurved mucro; corolla 5–9 mm, white or pink, weakly lobed, midpetaline band pubescent; ovary and style glabrous; style divided 2 mm above base, stigmas 1–2 mm. Capsule glabrous, 4–4.5 mm in diameter; seeds obscurely winged and with irregular ridging. [Johnson 2001: 312–35, f. 9–10, map 5]

Notes

We recognise two subspecies:

Convolvulus recurvatus subsp. recurvatus

Distinguishing features

Larger in all its parts, the sepals 4–5 mm and corolla 7–9 mm.

Distribution

Australia: eastern South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria (Lothian 2422, Blaylock 606, Browne 557).

Convolvulus recurvatus subsp. nullarborensis R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 33. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 33).

Type

AUSTRALIA, South Australia, Wilson 1692 (holotype AD; isotypes BRI, MEL).

Distinguishing features

A relatively distinctive subspecies because of the small corolla 5–7 mm in length and the very small calyx, the sepals 3–4 mm long. The leaves on the flowering stems are usually sparsely hairy and the central lobe is narrowly oblong with a distinctive emarginate apex.

Distribution

Australia: South Australia and adjacent parts of Western Australia centred on the Nullabar plains (Ising 6/9/1920, Ising 1528, Donner 7216, Crisp 181, Weber 7921).

Notes

Convolvulus recurvatus is very similar to C. clementii differing only in the recurved fruiting peduncles and the more strongly tuberculate seeds. Flowering specimens cannot be safely distinguished.

Convolvulus wimmerensis R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 22. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 22).

Type

AUSTRALIA, Victoria, Beauglehole 82670 (holotype MEL).

Description

Perennial herb with densely adpressed pubescent, trailing or twining stems, similar in facies to Convolvulus recurvatus with which it shares the distinctive recurved fruiting peduncle. It differs principally in the larger corolla, c. 0.9–1.2 cm long. The leaves are strongly dimorphic, the basal leaves triangular-ovate with undulate margin and poorly developed spreading, obtuse auricles. Flowers 1–2; corolla pink; seeds unwinged. [Johnson 2001: 22–23, f. 5–6, map 5]

Distribution

Australia: Victoria and New South Wales (Jeanes 1703, Harvey 1854, Mueller 1868).

Notes

This species occupies a situation somewhat intermediate both geographically and morphologically between C. recurvatus and C. angustissimus and might just be of hybrid origin.

Convolvulus erubescens Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1067. 1807. (Sims 1807: t. 1067).

Type

Plate in Bot. Mag. t.1007 (1807), lectotype, designated here; AUSTRALIA, plant from Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, collected by R. Brown on left side of sheet Brown s.n. [Bennett 2767] (epitype BM!, designated here).

Description

Perennial herb with trailing or twining stems reaching at least 50 cm, stems crisped-pubescent, stouter than in other Australian species, commonly exceeding 2 mm in width. Leaves petiolate, variable in size but not markedly dimorphic, 2.5–8 × 1–3.5 cm, deltoid, apex obtuse and mucronate, margin crenate or repand, base broadly cordate and cuneate onto the petiole with prominent auricles, these variable, simple, toothed or laciniately lobed; petioles 1.2–2.5 cm, diminishing in size upwards. Flowers 1–4, usually clearly cymosely arranged, axillary, pedunculate, not recurved in fruit; peduncles 1–2 per axil, 2–6 cm, usually straight; bracteoles 1–3 mm long, filiform; pedicels 8–25 mm, very variable in length and strikingly unequal in individual inflorescences, often sinuate; sepals 5.5–7 × 3.5–5 cm. narrowly elliptic, terminating in a recurved mucro; corolla 1.2–1.5 cm, pinkish, lobed with triangular lobes, midpetaline bans pubescent near apex; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 3–7 mm above the base, stigma 2 mm. Capsule glabrous, seeds tuberculate, unwinged. [Johnson 2001: 20–22, f. 5–6, map 2]

Distribution

Australia: eastern coast of New South Wales and Queensland (Beckler s.n., McBarron 4110, Coveny 11781, Mossman 1854), apparently rather rare.

Notes

The most robust Australian species, the peduncles usually bearing several flowers and unusually sometimes with two peduncles per leaf axil. Most similar to C. clementii but leaves more obviously deltoid in form, the corolla larger and the seeds unwinged. Johnson 3364 (P) from Northern Territory will key out here (unwinged fruit, paired 2-flowered cymes) but flowers and location fit C. clementii.

All Australian and New Zealand native species were once treated under this name following Bentham (1869).

Convolvulus angustissimus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland 482. 1810. (Brown 1810: 482).

Figure 9, t. 37–43

Convolvulus geniculatus Lehm., Index Seminarum (HBG) 1826: 17. 1826. (Lehmann 1826: 17).

Type. None cited.

Convolvulus acaulis Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 406. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 406).

Type. SOUTH AUSTRALIA, Kangaroo Island, coll. not known (holotype P).

Convolvulus erubescens var. angustissimus (R.Br.) Choisy, Prodr. [A.P. de Candolle] 9: 412. 1845. (Choisy 1845: 412).

Type. Based on Convolvulus angustissimus R.Br.

Convolvulus adscendens de Vriese, Pl. Preiss 1: 346. 1845. (Lehmann 1845: 346).

Type. WESTERN AUSTRALIA, York District, Preiss 1924 (holotype LD; isotypes MEL 689918, MEL689919).

Convolvulus ascendens Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6: 540. 1846, lapsus [spelling mistake] for Convolvulus adscendens de Vriese (1845). (Walpers 1846: 540).

Convolvulus subpinnatifidus de Vriese, Pl. Preiss 1: 346. 1845. (Lehmann 1845: 346).

Type. AUSTRALIA, Beljarup, Hay, Preiss 1925 (holotype LD!; isotypes MEL689916, MEL689917).

Convolvulus erubescens var. fililobus Wawra, Itin. Princ. S. Coburgi 1: 102. 1883. (Wawra 1883: 102).

Type. AUSTRALIA, Victoria, Wawra 438. (holotype W!).

Convolvulus erubescens var. albus Guilf., Austral. Pl. Gard. 117. 1911. (Guilfoyle 1911: 117).

Type. AUSTRALIA, no type specified.

Convolvulus angustissimus subsp. fililobus (Wawra) R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 30. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 30).

Type. Based on Convolvulus erubescens var. fililobus Wawra

Convolvulus angustissmus subsp. omnigracilis R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 27. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 27).

Type. AUSTRALIA, Victoria, Forbes & Scarlett 1867 (holotype MEL; isotype BRI).

Convolvulus angustissimus subsp. peninsularum R.W.Johnson, Austrobaileya 6: 31. 2001. (Johnson 2001: 31).

Type. AUSTRALIA, South Australia, Alcock 4733 (holotype AD; isotype SYD).

Type

AUSTRALIA, Tasmania, “Van Dieman’s Land near Risdon Cove” R. Brown s.n. [Bennett 2765] (lectotype BM!, portion on right side of sheet, designated here, isolectotype K!, also perhaps MEL).

Description

Perennial herb with trailing or twining stems, pubescent to subglabrous to at least 40 cm but commonly short. Leaves extremely variable and often di/trimorphic on the same plant, petiolate, petioles 0.5–7 cm, diminishing in length upwards; lowermost leaves (if present) 1–2 × 0.3–1.5 cm, ovate-deltoid, obtuse, margin entire, undulate or sinuate-lobed especially towards the base, base cordate or truncate, the auricles poorly developed, entire to bi(tri-)fid; lower stem leaves 2–3 (-6) × 1.3–5 cm, broadly or narrowly ovate-deltoid in outline, entire undulate or deeply sinuate lobed, the basal auricle prominent, lobed with a short ascending lobe; upper stem leaves usually finely lobed, the central lobe linear-oblong, mostly 2.5–4.5 × 0.1–0.3 cm, acute or apiculate; auricles usually with a prominent ascending lobe resembling the terminal lobe but half its length together with short bifid reflexed lobes. Flowers pedunculate, axillary, usually solitary; peduncles 0.5–5 cm long, becoming recurved in fruit; bracteoles filiform, 1–2 mm long; pedicels 3–20 mm; sepals 4–7 × 2–2.5 mm, elliptic, rounded or acute, minutely mucronate, inner sepals slightly smaller; corolla 1.2–2 cm long, usually pink, weakly lobed, midpetaline bands pubescent only near apex; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 3–10 mm above the base, stigmas 1–2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds 3–4 mm long, covered in low reticulate ridges. [Johnson 2001: 23 -32, f. 7–8, map 7]

Distribution

Principally southeastern Australia: Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia (Milligan 90, Scarlett 83-395, Aston 2367, Hoogland 3078, Lea 1885, Coveny & Hind 11502, Jeanes 2084, Tilden 723, Coomber 2215, Gunn 721).

Notes

Johnson’s (2001) division of this species into four subspecies is not satisfactory. In the first place the type subspecies is a plant whose leaves have entirely linear segments quite unlike the subsp. angustissimus illustrated by Johnson (2001: 28). There are in fact quite a lot of specimens which accord well with Robert Brown’s type collection including Wawra 438, the type of var. fililobus and Morrison 1445, Robertson 221, Constable 56058 and Burns 7. The second difficulty with Johnson’s infraspecific classification is that the majority of specimens we have seen are not accommodated satisfactorily in any one or other of his subspecies. Specimens which accord with a particular subspecies can be recognised but a large residue which fit none remains. In this account, therefore, C. angustissimus is treated as a single variable species without recognised subspecies, usually easily identified by its relatively large corolla, 1.2–2 cm long. However, specimens from Western Australia and South Australia have smaller corollas and seem to intergrade with C. remotus. Examples of specimens showing this introgression include Lea 26/9/1885, Andrews 657, Black 12, Koch 5/1898.

Convolvulus fractosaxosus Petrie, Trans & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 45: 271. 1913 [1912]. (Petrie 1913: 271).

Type

NEW ZEALAND, South Island, Cockayne s.n. (holotype WELT-4828).

Description

Greyish-pubescent creeping herb arising from underground rhizome; stems to 30 cm. Leaves petiolate, 1.5–3.6 × 0.2–0.8 cm, dimorphic and very variable, mostly deltoid or ovate, sometimes hastate and always with some leaves with an oblong or linear terminal lobe 1–5 cm long, combined with small basal auricles arising at right angles to the terminal lobe; petioles 1–5 cm. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 2–6 cm long, 1-flowered, slender, pubescent; bracteoles 2–3 mm long, linear; pedicels 2–6 mm, pubescent; outer sepals 6–8 × 5–6 mm, broadly ovate, pubescent, larger than inner sepals; corolla 1.7–2 cm long, white, midpetaline bands pink; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 6–7 mm above base. Capsule glabrous; seeds finely tuberculate. [Moore and Irwin 1978: 157]

Distribution

New Zealand: South Island (Travers 1864, Hombron 1841), 300–1600 m.

Notes

Similar to forms of the Australian C. angustissimus found in Tasmania and Victoria but corolla and sepals slightly longer.

Convolvulus verecundus Allan, Fl. N. Zeal. 1: 967. 1961. (Allan 1961: 967).

Type

NEW ZEALAND, South Island, A.W. Anderson 15 Jan 1941 (holotype CHR 76122).

Description

Perennial herb from an underground rhizome, stems decumbent and trailing to ascending up to 20 cm long, thinly pubescent on vegetative parts. Leaves petiolate, 6.5–11.5 × 5–12.5 mm, deltoid, ovate or broadly oblong, always lacking basal auricles, retuse or obtuse at apex, margin undulate, base more or less truncate and shortly cuneate; petioles 1.5–2 cm. peduncles 1–3 cm, 1-flowered, very slender; bracteoles 1–3 mm, linear; pedicels 2–6 mm, pubescent; sepals 4 × 3.5–3.8 cm, obovate or broadly oblong, margin fimbriate and translucent, abaxially pubescent; corolla 18–19 mm, white or pink, unlobed, midpetaline bands pink, pubescent upwards; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided 5–8 mm above base, stigmas 1.5–2 mm, unequal. Capsule glabrous, seeds glabrous, covered in low ridges and tubercles.

Distribution

New Zealand: South Island (Cockayne 2370), 200–1000 m, always inland.

Convolvulus waitaha (Sykes) Heenan, Molloy & de Lange, New Zealand J. Bot. 41: 450. 2003. (Heenan et al. 2003: 450).

Convolvulus verecundus subsp. waitaha Sykes, New Zealand J. Bot. 25: 154. 1987. (Connor and Edgar 1987: 153-154).

Type. NEW ZEALAND, Melville et al. 5059 (holotype CHR-129450; isotype K!).

Type

Based on Convolvulus verecundus subsp. waitaha Sykes

Description

Similar in overall morphology to C. verecundus but a more vigorous plant with stems to 80 cm differing in being almost completely glabrous to thinly pubescent, the corolla smaller (8–13 mm long) with greenish, glabrous midpetaline bands, the undivided part of the style < 3 mm long and the seeds more prominently tuberculed and ridged. The fruiting peduncles are recurved but no fruiting material of C. verecundus has been seen.

Distribution

New Zealand: North and South Islands (Colenso 131, Melville 5714, Douglass 65208, Védel 1847). Mostly coastal, 0–500 m in moister areas than other species.

Species 70–85. Old World species with petiolate leaves not markedly hastate or sagittate at base

This is a morphologically and geographically heterogeneous group formed from Clade B (Figure 1) which includes the spiny shrub C. leiocalycinus, the submaritime C. persicus, the lianas from Macaronesia and a number of mostly trailing undershrubs. The only morphological character holding the group together, albeit weakly, is that the petiolate leaves show a tendency to be cuneate, rounded or truncate at the base, rather than hastate or sagittate. Species 75–81 form a relatively distinct subgroup which possesses a distinctly conical ovary and a robust, often liana-like habit. They are restricted to Madeira, the Canary Islands and Portugal.

Convolvulus leiocalycinus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 7: 28. 1846. (Boissier 1846: 28).

Figure 10, t. 1–8

Type

IRAN, “In rupestris apricis. inter Abuschir et Schiras”, Kotschy 39 (lectotype G, designated by Sa’ad. 1967: 67); isolectotypes E!, GOET, K!, OXF!, P!, W!).

Description

Intricately branched spiny shrub reaching 1 m in height; branches woody, finely appressed sericeous, small stem spines present. Leaves shortly petiolate, 1–2.4 × 0.5–0.9 cm, variable in shape, oblong, lanceolate, ovate or suborbicular, acute, entire, base cuneate, truncate or auriculate, glabrous, pubescent or sericeous; petioles 2–4 mm. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, solitary; peduncle 1–10 mm, stout, woody; bracteoles minute, c. 1 mm, squamose, caducous or absent; pedicels 2–7 mm, compressed, finely pubescent, often not differentiated from peduncle; sepals lax, somewhat scarious, 4–7 × 2.5–5 mm, ovate or broadly elliptic to obovate, obtuse or acute, obviously veined or not, somewhat scarious, becoming more or less erect and adpressed to capsule in fruit or spreading or reflexed; corolla 2–3 cm long, white or pinkish, unlobed, midpetaline bands pilose near the tips only; filaments glandular below; ovary pubescent or glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 10 mm above the base, stigmas c. 2 mm. Capsule glabrous; seeds glabrous, smooth. [Sa’ad 1967: 67; Austin and Ghazanfar 1979: 10; Petrov 1935: 133 (plate), Nowroozi 2002: 19 (plate), 100 (map); Breckle and Rafiqpoor 2010: 417 (photo)]

Figure 10.

1–8 C. leiocalycinus var. leiocalycinus 1 leaves 2 outer sepal 3 middle sepal 4 inner sepal 5 stamen 6 ovary and style 7 capsule 8 seed 1–2 from Kotschy 39 (W) 3–6 from Strauss s.n. (W) 7–8 from Bornműller 3884 (B) 9–14 C. leiocalycinus var. retrosepalus 9 leaves 10 outer sepal 11 middle sepal 12 inner sepal 13 stamen 14 ovary and style. From Lindberg 317 (W) 15–21 C. dryadum 15 leaf 16 bracteole 17 outer sepal 18 middle sepal 19 inner sepal 20 stamen 21 ovary and style. From Sennen & Mauricio 9471 (W) 22–30 C. persicus 22 leaves 23 bracteole 24 outer sepal 25 middle sepal 26 inner sepal 27 stamen 28 ovary and style 29 capsule 30 seed. 22 from Dubiansky s.n. (W) 23–28 from Aznavour s.n. (W) 29–30 from Szovitz s.n. (W) 31–36 C. maireanus 31 leaf 32 outer sepal 33 inner sepal 34 stamen 35 ovary and style with 3 stigmas 36 apex of style with 2 stigmas. From Pampanini 6206 (G) 37–45 C. lanjouwii 37 leaf 38 bracteole 39 outer sepal 40 middle sepal 41 inner sepal 42 stamen 43 ovary and style 44 capsule 45 seed. From Griffith 678 (K).

Notes

Convolvulus leiocalycinus is the only spiny species in Central Asia with leaves abruptly narrowed at the base into a distinct petiole. Another unusual feature is the lax sepals which are not appressed to the base of the corolla. It is a variable species in many details but always with a common facies. Variety glaber was described on the basis of its glabrous leaves, C. olgae on its sericeous leaves and C. lycioides on its oblong leaves but the species, in fact, shows a wide range of leaf shape and indumentum with no obvious geographical patterning. We recognise two varieties.

Convolvulus leiocalycinus Boiss. var. leiocalycinus

Convolvulus lycioides Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 7: 28. 1846. (Boissier 1846: 29).

Type. IRAN, “In collibus calcareis inter Abuschir et Schiras”, Kotschy 39 (holotype G; isotypes K!, OXF!, P!).

Convolvulus lasiophlaeus Jaub. & Spach, Illustr. Plant Or. 4: 105, t. 368. 1852. (Jaubert and Spach 1852: 105).

Type. IRAN, Shiraz, Aucher-Eloy 4935 (holotype P).

Convolvulus leicalycinus var. stocksii Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 2(3): 123. 1856. (Boissier 1856: 123).

Type. IRAN, Shiraz, Aucher-Eloy 4935 (lectotype G, designated by Sa’ad 1967: 68).

Convolvulus leicalycinus var. lycioides (Boiss.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 4: 86. 1875. (Boissier 1875b: 86).

Type. Based on Convolvulus lycioides Boiss.

Convolvulus olgae Regel & Schmalh., Izv. Imp. Obsc. Ljubit. Estesv. Moskovsk. Univ. 34(2): 55. 1882. (Regel 1882: 55).

Type. TAJIKISTAN, Mount Daschti Kasi, Fedstchenko 31/5/1869 (holotype LE!).

Convolvulus campanulatus Zapr., Trans. Tajikst. Acad. Sc. 1: 73. 1933, nom. illeg., non Convolvulus campanulatus Spreng. (1825). (Zaprjagiev 1933: 73).

Type. TAJIKISTAN, Mount Karatau, Zaprjagaev 55 (location not certainly known ? TAK).

Convolvulus leiocalycinus var. glaber Ghaz., Fl. W. Pakistan 126: 11. 1979. (Austin and Ghazanfar 1979: 126).

Type. PAKISTAN, Balochistan, Sultan ul Abedin 4893 (holotype KUH, not seen).

Distinguishing features

Characterised by the lanceolate to ovate or obovate outer sepals 4–7 × 2.5–5 mm wide, these patent to erect in fruit. Leaves and ovary glabrous or hirsute.

Distribution

Tajikistan (Varivtseva 209, Botchantsev & Egorova 690, M.Popov 932); Iran (Bornműller 3884b, Stapf 2325, Edmondson & Miller 1547, Davis & Bokhari 56083); Afghanistan (Rechinger 33380, 3875); Pakistan (Duthie 18841, Stocks 870, Lamond 710); Oman (McLeish 3736).

Convolvulus leiocalycinus var. retrosepalus (Sa’ad) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov.

Figure 10, t. 9–14

Convolvulus retrosepalus Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 69. 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 69).

Type

AFGHANISTAN, Lindberg 317 (holotype W!).

Distinguishing features

This differs from var. leiocalycinus by the narrowly lanceolate, reflexed sepals, c. 7 × 1 mm, the veins usually conspicuous. The leaves and ovary are glabrous.

Distribution

Restricted to Afghanistan, Farah Province (Hedge & Ekberg 7252, Hedge et al. 7739, Grey-Wilson & Hewer 557, Carter 824).

Note

Intermediates with var. leiocalycinus occur quite frequently (Grey-Wilson & Hewer 534, Podlech 21729, Rechinger 33380, Koie 4414). These are similar to var. retrosepalus in their lack of hairs but the sepals are obovate and spreading.

Convolvulus dryadum Maire, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 253. 1913. (Maire 1913: 253).

Figure 10, t. 15–21

Type

ALGERIA, Djebel Babor, Maire s.n. (holotype AL?; isotypes MPU005286!, P00417695!, P00417696!).

Description

Perennial herb from a rhizomatous rootstock with branched trailing stems to at least 40 cm; stem and vegetative plants adpressed pubescent or (rarely) glabrous. Leaves petiolate, 2–5 × 1.5–3 cm, ovate-deltoid, apex obtuse, margin undulate to sinuate, base truncate to very shallowly cordate; petioles 0.3–0.8(-1.5) cm. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate; peduncles 4–9 cm, often bent at apex; bracteoles 1–2 mm, filiform; pedicels 5–7 mm; outer sepals 9–10 × 4–5 mm, broadly elliptic, mucronate; inner sepals slightly larger c. 11 × 6 mm, somewhat scarious; corolla 2.5–3.1 (-4.5) cm long, white with dark centre, midpetaline bands pink, pubescent near the apex, unlobed but margin slightly undulate; filaments glandular; ovary glabrous, conical; style glabrous, divided c. 12–14 mm above base; stigmas 2–3 mm, stout. Capsule and seed not known. [Sa’ad 1967: 223]

Distribution

Djebel Tazekka and Rif Mountains of Morocco (Sennen & Mauricio 9471, Davis 54878, Ait Lafkih et al. 127) and Algeria.

Notes

Distinctive because of the long pedunculate, solitary flowers, triangular, basally more or less truncate leaves and very long style.

A distinctive variety was described from Djebel Tazekka, an isolated massif in Morocco, by Sauvage and Vindt (1954: 31) based on the glabrous or subglabrous leaves and large corolla up to 4.5 cm in length. This “var. tazekkensis” (based on Guinet et al. 68) was never validly published but merits further investigation.

Convolvulus persicus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 158. 1753. (Linnaeus 1753: 158).

Figure 10, t. 22–30

Type

TURKEY, Constantinople, G. V. Aznavour (neotype BM!, designated by Staples in Staples and Jarvis 2006: 1021); isoneotypes B, E!, P!).

Description

Perennial branched undershrub with woody rootstock and lower branches, the whole plant shortly tomentose; stems very stout, 3–5 mm thick. Leaves petiolate, coriaceous, 2–5 × 1–3.5 cm, elliptic, oblong-elliptic or obovate, apex obtuse to rounded, margin entire, base broadly cuneate to rounded, slightly asymmetric; petioles 0–6 cm. Flowers solitary, axillary, pedunculate, usually arising from the middle part of the stem; peduncles 0.8–3.3 cm; bracteoles 3–5 × 1–3 mm, ovate to oblong-elliptic, acute; pedicels 5–7 mm; sepals 12–15 × 7–9 mm, ovate, obtuse or acute; corolla 3–4.5 cm, white, unlobed, undulate, midpetaline bands pilose; filaments glandular below; ovary very narrow, thinly pilose at apex; style divided c. 18 mm above base; stigmas 2 mm, narrowly elliptic. Capsule glabrous, seeds tuberculate. [Sa’ad 1967: 163; Nowrooze 2002: 103 (map); Grigoriev 1953: 11 (plate)]

Distribution

Coasts of the Black Sea: Georgia (Cosson 8 in Hohenacker), Turkey (Olivier & Brugière s.n., Uslu 2141), Bulgaria (Bosseva et al. 88), Romania (Grintescu 1094b) and Caspian Sea: Russia [Daghestan] (Becker 1876), Azerbaijan (Lewandowsky 519, Kerimov 32), Iran (Aucher-Eloy 4940), Turkmenistan (Dubiansky s.n. [14/7/1932]). Coastal sand dunes.

Notes

A very distinct, apparently isolated species.

Convolvulus maireanus Pamp., Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 12: 178. 1936. (Pampanini 1936b: 178).

Figure 10, t. 31–36

Type

LIBYA, Cyrenaica, “Messe a ovesti di Cirene Sfonta–Ruheina, 8 Mag 1934,” Pampanini & Pichi-Sermolli 6207 (syntype FI)

Description

Perennial trailing, scrambling or twining herb with puberulent, sharply 4-angled to weakly winged stems of “a considerable height”, presumably 1–2 m. Leaves petiolate, somewhat dimorphic, 2.5–7 × 2–5.5 cm, younger leaves ovate, apex acute to obtuse, margin undulate to irregularly dentate with some large teeth, base cordate and briefly cuneate with a broad right-angled sinus, minutely adpressed pubescent; mature leaves more deltoid, deeply lobed with acute segments in the lower part, strongly auriculate; petioles 0.5–2 cm, puberulent. Flowers in a terminal cluster of up to 7 at the apex of a long axillary peduncle; peduncles 8–22 cm, pubescent; bracteoles filiform to linear, 4–8 mm, pubescent; pedicels 3–8 mm, pubescent; outer sepals 8–9 × 5–6 cm, broadly obovate-elliptic, mucronate, pubescent; inner sepals 4–5 cm wide,less hirsute and with scarious margins; corolla 2.8–4.5 cm, white with purplish throat, unlobed, basal tube narrow, midpetaline bands thinly adpressed pubescent; filaments glandular; ovary pilose; style divided c. 9 mm above base; stigmas 2 or 3, 2 mm long, rather stout. Capsule and seeds not seen. [Sa’ad 1967: 234]

Distribution

Libya: Cyrenaica (Sandwith 2625, Park 506, Pampannini & Pichi-Sermolli 6206).

Notes

A remarkable species with flowers clustered at the apex of a very long peduncle. The stigmas are short and stout and commonly 3 in number.

Convolvulus lanjouwii Sa’ad, Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 281: 232. 1967. (Sa’ad 1967: 232).

Figure 10, t. 37–45

Type

AFGHANISTAN, Griffith 678/K.D. 5872 (holotype K!; isotype P!).

Description

Trailing or scrambling herb, probably branched at base with stems to at least 40 cm, all vegetative parts densely pubescent to tomentose. Leaves petiolate, 2.2–3.5 × 0.7–1.5 cm, ovate-deltoid, apex acute, margin entire, base truncate; petioles 4–5 mm. Flowers up to 3 in pedunculate, axillary cymes, but often reduced to 1–2; peduncles 2.5–5 cm; bracteoles 2–3 mm, linear-lanceolate; pedicels 3–6 mm; outer sepals 9–10 × 4–4.5 mm, broadly oblong-rectangular, obtuse to truncate and mucronate, inner sepals scarious-margined and subglabrous; corolla 2.5–2.7 cm, colour unknown, unlobed, midpetaline bands thin, pilose; filaments glandular near base; ovary glabrous; style glabrous, divided c. 6 mm above base, stigmas 2 mm, relatively stout. Capsule glabrous, seeds minutely hirsute.

Distribution

Afghanistan–only known from the type collected at “Seh Baba”.

Notes

This species and C. rectangularis have unique, distinct, broadly oblong-rectangular sepals.

Convolvulus rectangularis Rech.f., Biol. Skr. 10(3): 81. 1959. (Rechinger 1959: 81).

Type

AFGHANISTAN, Volk 1018 (holotype W!).

Description

Perennial herb with woody rootstock from which arise many wiry, probably scrambling stems to at least 25 cm; stems striate, glabrescent. Leaves very shortly petiolate, 1–3.5 × 0.4–0.6 cm, lanceolate-deltoid, acute, margin entire to sinuate-lobed, base truncate to auriculate, shortly crisped pubescent when young, glabrescent; petioles 1–3 mm. Flowers 1–3, borne on axillary peduncles; peduncles 1–1.5 cm; bracteoles 2.5 mm, filiform; pedicels 4–10 mm; outer sepals 9–10 × 6 mm, broadly oblong-rectangular, truncate and minutely mucronate, margin scarious, purplish, pubescent and with ciliate margins, inner sepals oblong, c. 4 mm wide; corolla 2.3–3.2 cm long, pinkish, midpetaline bands pubescent; filaments glandular below; ovary glabrous, style glabrous, divided c. 7 mm above base; stigmas not seen. Capsule glabrous; seeds wrinkled. [Sa’ad 1967: 104; Rechinger 1963: 17]

Distribution

Afghanistan (Rechinger 35902, 37103).

Notes

Although placed as distantly related in different sections by Sa’ad, C. rectangularis and C. lanjowii are quite close and might prove to be conspecific. The description above is based on the two widely distributed Rechinger collections cited above. These differ clearly in their sparse indumentum and in the sinuate-lobed narrower leaves with a rather rigid texture from C. lanjouwii. However the type and Amsel s.n. (W) are much more hirsute and with unlobed leaves so approaching C. lanjouwii. Further collections are needed to confirm whether two distinct species are really involved.

Convolvulus massonii F. Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. 2: 377. 1816. (Dietrich 1816: 377).

Figure 11, t. 1–7

Convolvulus saxatilis Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 124 (1796), nom. illeg., non Convolvulus