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A checklist of vascular plants and uses of some species for livelihood-making in Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia
expand article infoJamilah Mohd Salim, Gaik Ee Lee, Muhamad Razali Salam, Salwa Shahimi, Elizabeth Pesiu, Jarina Mohd Jani, Nurul Amira Izzaty Horsali, Rohani Shahrudin, Siti Mariam Muhammad Nor , Ju Lian Chong, Faridah Mohamad, Akmal Raffi§, Dome Nikong
‡ Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
§ Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching, Malaysia
Open Access

Abstract

The Setiu Wetlands, a unique area with nine interconnected habitats, comprises a considerable fraction of the total Peninsular Malaysia’s wetland flora. Although botanical collecting in the area has been active in the past 10 years, only a few studies dealing with the wetland flora have been published. Thus, a detailed checklist of this area is urgently needed to ensure the continuity of its inter-relating flora and fauna, as well as the livelihood of the local people. In this work we conducted a survey of the vascular plant flora of Setiu Wetlands and investigated the most important plants used by the local communities. Our checklist accounts for 406 taxa from 277 genera and 106 families, including 24 (6%) species of ferns and lycophytes, three gymnosperms, 257 (64%) dicotyledons and 122 (30%) monocotyledons. This comprehensive plant checklist will be a primary reference for the management of the newly gazetted Setiu Wetlands State Park covering more than 400 hectares of lands and water bodies.

Keywords

coastal ecosystem, diversity, flora, local community, Malesia, useful plants

Introduction

Wetlands are not only among the most productive and complex ecosystems (Costanza et al. 1997), but are also known to benefit humans with significant economic and ecological values (Barbier et al. 2011). The importance of wetlands has increased tremendously following the 2004 catastrophic tsunami which affected many places severely in the Asian region. The Setiu Wetlands (SW) constitutes the largest wetland complex in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia which is located in an arbitrary but exclusive zone referring to the larger Setiu district in Terengganu. The coastal lagoon is the largest part of the SW, stretching approximately 14 km, parallel to the coastline, from Lembah Bidong in the south up to Beting Lintang to the north, while the wetland basin covers about 23,000 ha of lands and 880 ha of water bodies (Nakisah and Fauziah 2003). In 2018, in lieu of protecting vital catchment areas and their natural heritage, the state government of Terengganu gazetted two new state parks, one of which was in the Setiu district. Driven by its importance for the local economy and the dire need to wisely manage SW for the sustainability, efforts to legally protect SW were initiated more than 20 years ago. However, it was not until recently that the state authority of Terengganu passed the Terengganu State Park Enactment 2017, under which, 432 ha of SW were gazetted as State Park in Phase 1 covering mainly the SW brackish lagoon and estuary (Fig. 1). In the near future, the gazettement for three more phases of this State Park will cover possibly one of the largest coastal freshwater lakes in Peninsular Malaysia, locally known as Tasik Berombak. Tasik Berombak is hydrologically important by supplying the primary source of freshwater into the brackish lagoon of SW (Sathiamurthy 2015) which is a hub for economic and livelihood activities of the SW local community. In addition, phases 3 and 4 of the gazettement intend to cover mostly mangrove islands in SW, but many issues and challenges, primarily related to land title, need to be addressed.

Figure 1. 

The boundaries (red line) of the forest to be gazetted in Setiu Wetlands as state park. Map courtesy of the Terengganu State Parks.

SW supports major wetlands ecosystem of marine, coastal vegetation, brackish and freshwater swamps with nine interconnected habitats of sea, beach, mudflats, lagoons, estuaries, rivers, islands, coastal and mangrove vegetation (Mohd Lokman and Sulong 2001; Nakisah and Fauziah 2003; Jamilah et al. 2014). The nine vegetation types (Fig. 2) including the beach-ridge vegetation or BRIS soil vegetation are lowland forest, mangrove swamp forest, peat swamp forest, freshwater swamp forest, riparian vegetation, beach vegetation, heath vegetation (coastal dunes forest), and disturbed vegetation. Each of the habitats is characterised by a unique yet intricate physical environment, supporting its biological entities. Intimate and complex interaction between wetlands, people and the environment could clearly be observed in Setiu district where most of the natural resources harvested from SW are vital for supporting local livelihoods (Faridah et al. 2015). Similar to other wetlands, SW integrity critically depends on the physical and biological environments. Vegetation or flora are the vital biological entity of the SW with many efforts conducted to document this entity (for example, Jamilah et al. 2014; Siti Fatimah et al. 2015; Razali et al. 2017; Rohani et al. 2017). Furthermore, the SW flora is edaphically adapted, for example, the BRIS soil vegetation which is largely confined to the sandy environment of Terengganu narrow coastal stripe and such unique vegetation is not found on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Jamilah et al. 2014).

Figure 2. 

The locality of Setiu Wetlands and the nine vegetation types.

Setiu lagoon supports several islets within the lagoon with healthy mangrove vegetation. However, the mangrove ecosystem here is also characterised by a relatively sandier habitat as compared to the typical mangroves on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Matang mangroves. Setiu mangroves are not only supporting the three classes of common mangrove vegetation, namely exclusive, non- exclusive and associate (Japar 1994), but also additional vegetation associated with sand ridges. This vegetation, including vascular plants, offers significant ecosystem services, such as providing food and shelter to animals residing in the area, with many being economically important. Furthermore, Setiu lagoon, which is the longest brackish wetlands in Terengganu, includes several patches of sandy-mudflats which support a healthy community of bivalves [including Scapharca cornea (local name: kepah bulu) and Meretrix meretrix (kepah minyak)] (Wan Bayani and Zaleha 2015) that are harvested by the Setiu locals for sale (Faridah et al. 2016). Two species of seagrasses (Halodule pinifolia and Halophila minor) are recorded to thrive well here (Syarifah et al. 2008). This seagrass-mangrove continuum is reported to be an important nursery ground for the juveniles of fishes such as grouper, and pink ear emperor fish, Lethrinus lentjan (Le et al. 2018). The mangroves of Setiu, and its lagoon, are also an important habitat for highly demanded mangrove crabs, Scylla spp. (Ikhwanuddin et al. 2010), and is the source of income for many local fishermen in the area. The geography and the vegetation cover of the area support it as a hub for aquaculture activities, covering brackish water cage culture, pond culture, pen culture especially on groupers, and also oyster farming (Suratman et al. 2014).

In terms of soil origin, the Setiu coastal plain originated from marine-based deposit, arranged in a series of ridges and depressions parallel to the shoreline (Ali and Mohamed 2007; Sathiamurthy 2015) known as BRIS (Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales). BRIS is oligotrophic or infertile and unsuitable for agriculture (Lim 2002) partly due to extreme water retention capacity and comprises 90% sand (Mohd Ekhwan et al. 2009). However, BRIS soil supports a distinct natural vegetation formation which is different from a typical evergreen rainforest (Jamilah et al. 2013). The ridge part supports heath-like ecosystem plants, while the depression site is usually a pocket of seasonal wetland with adapted vegetation (Jamilah et al. 2011).

The nine habitats in SW are increasingly being exposed to various anthropogenic and natural pressures. This could threaten the integrity and ability of those natural ecosystems to fulfil their ecological roles for the benefit of the local community and the coastal environment. As vegetation is the most important entity of the wetlands that supports other important life forms, it is essential to highlight the diversity of flora in SW. The aims of this paper are to provide the first comprehensive checklist of vascular plants of SW, and to understand the use of wild plants for livelihood continuity and sustainability in SW. The latter also further aims to understand how the local community’s utilisation affects the plants’ sustainability, so that sustainable resource management and conservation policy for SW can be achieved.

Materials and methods

The checklist is based on the plant collections carried out by JMS, EP, SMMN and DN with the help of field assistant, MRS. More than 30 different localities were visited after 2010 in the nine different ecosystems of SW. Specimens were deposited at the Herbarium of Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMTP). In addition, the checklist is also based on a search of the literature (e.g., Mohd Lokman and Sulong 2001; Jamilah et al. 2014; Siti Fatimah et al. 2015; Razali et al. 2017; Rohani et al. 2017; Pesiu 2018) as well as herbaria that store collections of specimens collected from SW, such as the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kepong (KEP) and the Herbarium of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bang (UKMB). The checklist includes family, species and local names, and life forms. It also provides the conservation status according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened species (IUCN 2020), Malaysia Plant Red List, Peninsular Malaysia Dipterocarpaceae (Chua et al. 2010), Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS) and Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

A total of 188 houses from six villages, i.e. Beting Lintang, Gong Batu, Pengkalan Gelap, Fikri, Mangkok and Penarek, were opportunistically selected for a rapid livelihood survey to determine their dependence on SW wild flora resources. In addition to that, a stratified sampling of 10 households belonging to identified resource users was later conducted in Beris Tok Ku, to provide a better representation of wild flora resource utilisation in the area.

Results and discussion

Families, genera and species diversity

We recorded 406 taxa (400 species, three varieties and three hybrids) from 277 genera and 106 families of vascular plants in the nine habitats of SW, including 24 species of ferns and lycophytes, three species of gymnosperms (Cycas edentata, Gnetum cuspidatum and G. gnemon), with 257 being dicotyledons, and 122 monocotyledons (Table 1). This represents 19% of 2168 species recorded growing in wetlands of Peninsular Malaysia (Said and Zakaria 1992) and also illustrates the fact that SW flora is relatively species rich. The most speciose family recorded from SW is Orchidaceae (56 species/28 genera), followed by Rubiaceae (24 species/20 genera) and Fabaceae (22 species/17 genera) (Fig. 3), while there are 43 families represented only by a single species e.g., Amaryllidaceae, Commelinaceae, Cycadaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Flagellariaceae and Pittosporaceae (see Appendix 1 for other families). Among the genera that contribute most to the total number of species are Dendrobium (11 species), Bulbophyllum and Syzygium with 10 species, while Bruguiera, Cyperus and Sonneratia have five species each. In terms of the life forms (Table 2), trees have the highest percentage (39.7%) followed by terrestrial herbs and epiphytes with 16.5% and 13.3% of the taxa, respectively. Apart from the trees, the herbaceous species which can be terrestrial, epiphytic or climbing, are represented by 27.8% of the species, which implies that trees and herbaceous flora are the most important components of the SW areas.

Table 1.

Number of families, genera and species from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu.

Families Genera Species
Ferns and lycophytes 12 16 24
Gymnosperms 2 2 3
Dicotyledons 73 191 257
Monocotyledons 19 70 122
Total 106 277 406
Table 2.

Number of species from Setiu Wetlands according to their life form.

Life form No. of species Percentage (%)
Trees 161 39.7
Terrestrial herbs 67 16.5
Epiphytic herbs and shrubs 54 13.3
Shrubs 39 9.6
Climbing herbs and shrubs 33 8.1
Ferns 23 5.7
Aquatic herbs 15 3.7
Palms 5 1.2
Parasitic herbs and shrubs 5 1.2
Palm-like (Pandanus spp.) 4 1
Total 406 100
Figure 3. 

The 12 largest families and genera of the vascular plants of Setiu Wetlands.

The Orchidaceae (Fig. 4) are well represented in SW, representing 23% of 245 orchid species recently reported in Terengganu (Besi et al. 2019). Thus, to date, there are 56 species of orchids found in SW from which 14 species were recorded by Siti Fatimah et al. (2015) and 42 represent new records in SW, mostly being recent collections by Dome Nikong. The highest number of orchid species in SW, as expected, are in the widespread genera Bulbophyllum and Dendrobium, similar to the results of Besi et al. (2019) in Tasik Kenyir logging sites. Both genera are found to be most abundant epiphytic orchids growing in disturbed and logged forests in which the weather and microclimate are favourable for growth and reproductive processes. However, orchid density is due in part to the severity of the disturbance in which highly disturbed logging sites harbour lower density than somewhat disturbed sites (Besi et al. 2019). Among the species recorded in SW, there are some that are exceptional. The orchid diversity in SW is enriched with the sighting of the uncommon Papilionanthe hookeriana that is confined to the freshwater swamp area of Tasik Berombak in SW. It usually coexists with shrubs and tall grasses for support (Pridgeon et al. 2014). On the other hand, the discovery of Vanilla griffithii in its uncharacteristic habitat of the BRIS forest signified its capability to thrive in xeric environment and supported its local genus distribution pattern suggested by Mohd Raffi et al. (2014) which was best described as constantly sparse, widespread and in many habitats.

Figure 4. 

A selection of Orchidaceae species from Setiu Wetlands. A Ania penangiana B Thrixspermum amplexicaule C Pinalia atrovinosa D Papilionanthe hookeriana E Phalaenopsis pulcherrima F Cymbidium finlaysonianum G Grammatophyllum speciosum H Strongyleria pannea I Callostylis pulchella J Bromheadia finlaysoniana K Vanilla griffithii L Arachnis flos-aeris M Dendrobium secundum N Bulbophyllum trigonopus O Dendrolirium lasiopetalum.

As for the mangroves, there are about 33 exclusive mangrove species including three hybrids i.e. Sonneratia × hainanensis, Bruguiera × rhynchopetala, Rhizophora × annamalayana and four individuals of Bruguiera hainesii located at Pulau Layat (Razali et al. 2017). However, the mangroves in SW and on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, in general, are not so diverse and widely distributed as compared to the west coast because the former are exposed to the lagoons and rivers (Latiff and Faridah-Hanum 2014), and are also threatened by strong waves during monsoon months as well as anthropogenic activities e.g., many mangroves in SW had been uprooted to make way for aquaculture, shrimp ponds and constructions of infrastructures.

The relatively species rich profile of SW reflects on the interconnected forest types in SW which consists of different plant communities (Fig. 5) including beach, mangroves, peat swamp and freshwater swamp plants. Beach vegetation includes Casuarinaceae and Convolvulaceae and mixed mangroves plants such as the families Avicenniaceae, Lythraceae and Rhizophoraceae. Peat swamp plants can be found behind the mangrove belt and further inland, Melaleuca swamp forest dominates the waterlogged area associated with BRIS soil (Jamilah et al. 2015). On the other hand, the heath-like dune landscape established on the ridge areas of Setiu coast is characterised by stunted and low stature vegetation growing in a clumping pattern (Jamilah et al. 2014).The vegetation on the sandy and dry ridge is dominated by Myrtaceae family (Melaleuca cajuputi, Baeckea frutescens, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and Syzygium spp.). Woody epiphytic shrubs (e.g., Ficus deltoidea) and herbaceous species such as orchids are adapted to grow underneath the clump on BRIS soil dune landscape (Jamilah et al. 2014). However, the natural ecosystem on BRIS soil ridge and swamps is becoming scarce and smaller in coverage due to various threats faced by the coastal ecosystem of SW. It has become more scattered and fragmented, resulting in difficulty in finding an area that could be a good representative of BRIS soil flora. Fragmentation and degradation also expose this natural ecosystem to the invasion of exotic invasive alien species, such as Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis and their hybrids (Jamilah et al. 2014). It is predicted that without legal protection and authority commitment to conserve BRIS soil natural vegetation, it will soon be replaced by these alien species, particularly Acacia spp. Although the gazettement of BRIS soil habitat is still underway, land conversion in BRIS is rampant and to prevent further land uses, ecotourism activity is recommended. Therefore, the hope is that in the near future, BRIS soil habitat would be included in the next phases of State Park gazettement which will likely have a significant effect in ensuring the conservation of this unique habitat.

Figure 5. 

Different plant communities in Setiu Wetlands. A Mangrove plants B Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans) population C Ceriops zippeliana D Pandanus tectorius E Ant plant, Hydnophytum formicarum attached to Bruguiera hainesii F Nepenthes ampullaria G Hoya coronaria H Ploiarium alternifolia.

As for the wetland or swamp, a rainfed swamp with a water table is highest during the monsoon months. The swamp is dominated by Melaleuca cajuputi trees with larger diameter of M. cajuputi trees relative to trees growing on the drier ridge of BRIS soil, as it grows better in waterlogged conditions as compared to dry sites (Suzuki 1999). This Melaleuca swamp harbours carnivorous species of pitcher plants (Nepenthes spp.), sundews (Drosera burmannii in particular) and Utricularia bifida which are adapted to freshwater swamp. The hydrological contribution of patches of Melaleuca swamp as a seasonal wetland is worth exploring and the wetlands may provide a critical ecosystem service of mitigating floods, particularly in monsoon months in Terengganu (Jamilah et al. 2015). In addition, SW also harbours a large freshwater lake, locally known as Tasik Berombak. The water is contributed by rain and a few small river tributaries (Sathiamurthy 2015) and comprises BRIS soil with heath-like vegetation on its ridge, but is less rich than natural BRIS ecosystem. The lake is invaded by thick bush of Hanguana malayana and other aquatic and semi aquatic non vascular plants.

The high diversity of wild orchids and other potentially useful plant species on coastal habitat of SW is indeed a natural capital for SW State Park and furthermore, the habitat supports an option value, which could be tapped in the future as outlined in Total Economic Value (TEV) (Costanza et al. 1997). The biodiversity resources in SW can be managed sustainably to support the local community green economy as an alternative to unsustainable economic activities such as sand mining. The SW State Park will also be crucial to protect the critically endangered Painted Terrapin (Batagur borneoensis (Schlegel & Muller, 1844)) and to serve as a refuge for some 29 mammals, 161 birds and 36 reptiles and amphibians (WWF-Malaysia). Furthermore, it is also classified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by Birdlife International.

Figure 6. 

Number of various wild flora species users according to villages.

Conservation status

Eight species have been classified as threatened species including one Critically Endangered (CR), Bruguiera hainesii, two Endangered (EN), Anisoptera marginata and Pterocarpus indicus, and five Vulnerable (VU) (Avicennia rumphiana, Halophila beccarii, Intsia bijuga, Ternstroemia wallichiana and Vatica pauciflora). The Critically Endangered, B. hainesii is only found in several localities in Southeast Asia including SW, and the lower estimates of mature individuals probably due to the low rates of propagation and germination (Polidoro et al. 2010). However, recent molecular analyses revealed that B. hainesii did not merit recognition of species as it has no unique haplotype/allele of its own but instead shared nuclear allele with B. cylindrica and B. gymnorhiza, and thus indicating the hybrid origin of B. hainesii (Ono et al. 2016). Five species partially met the classification thresholds under the threatened species category and therefore were listed as Near Threatened i.e. Cycas edentata, Myristica lowiana, Olax scandens, Phoenix paludosa, Sonneratia ovata, while 155 species are regarded either as Least Concern (LC) or Data Deficient (DD). However, about half of the vascular plants (59%) occurring in SW have not been assessed and categorised under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

For the Malaysia Plant Red List, two species have been classified as threatened species, namely Anisoptera marginata (EN) and Anodendron candolleanum (VU). There were nine species listed as Near Threatened i.e. Cycas edentata, Cerbera odollam, Cerbera manghas, Vatica pauciflora, Drosera burmannii, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Horsfieldia irya, Myristica lowiana, Olax scandens while 32 species were listed as Least Concern (LC). The other 369 species have not been assessed and categorised under the Malaysia Plant Red List but are available in MyBIS. On the other hand, there were 55 species (13%) listed under CITES of which 49 species were from Orchidaceae, three from Nepenthaceae, two from Ebenaceae and one from Cycadaceae. Almost all the orchids recorded (89%) in SW are listed in CITES. About 30,000 plant species have been listed and protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade of which more than half of the species assessed are orchids and cacti.

Wild flora based livelihoods in SW

We found that in the SW, the local households’ utilisation mainly focused on three species, namely Nypa fruticans (nypa), Lepironia articulata (Blue-grey sedge) and Pandanus tectorius (Sea Pandan, Sea screwpine). Figure 6 shows the number of flora user households based on the species utilised in each village. Nypa fruticans records the highest number of users with 34 households from five out of seven villages. Lepironia articulata is a close second, with recorded utilisation in 28 households in five villages as well. Meanwhile P. tectorius is the least utilised of the three species with only nine user households in total from four villages. The wide use of N. fruticans coincides with the highest variety of products that can be made using its various plant parts (see Fig. 7). The nypa palm is the most versatile wild plant among the three as different parts of the plant are used to make different kinds of products. For example, the young leaves are used to make tobacco wrappers, its dried midrib is weaved into baskets, while mature fronds with leaves are used to make roof-thatch. The midribs of the nypa, which are unsuitable for weaving lekar baskets, are used to make brooms. Due to this, nypa is the most preferred plant species used in SW. Its utilisation is well documented in Malaysia (see Latiff 2009; Tsuji et al. 2011). It is not only an important wild resource for the Malays but also for indigenous tribes such as the Mah Meri who use nypa leaves to produce decorative items for spirit huts, altars, homes and dancers (Baba et al. 2013).

Figure 7. 

Number of producers based on type of products made from wild flora.

As for Lepironia articulata, although it can be used to make similar types of products as those made using Pandanus tectorius, i.e. mats and bags, its livelihood-based utilisation in Malaysia appears less recorded compared to the latter. Instead, there appears to be more documentation on its utilisation in grey water treatment (see Sim et al. 2008; Wurochekke et al. 2014). However, its utilisation is significant for the users in SW, as it supplemented up to 45% of their monthly household income and represents a strong cultural link to the local tradition for the users who are mostly exclusive (not using other flora resource) users of this resource. The 11 users from SW produced mats, six users made sacks, while 10 users made accessories’ items such as hats and bags. Our findings suggest that current utilisation is at a sustainable level thanks to the user’s knowledge about the ecology of these plants. Its use therefore poses no threat to the integrity of the state park. According to MacDonald (2009), L. articulata is listed among eight major species that are commonly used for weaving activities by the Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) (Brink and Escobin 2003) due to their high suitability as a raw material for weaving activities, in particular their toughness, plasticity, sustainable strength and impermeability after being dried (Truyen et al. 2014).

The utilisation of L. articulata has been documented in other countries like Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and China where this plant is used to make handicraft or household materials such as bags, mats, baskets, and hats (Domyos and Te-Chato 2013; Truyen et al. 2014). Whereas P. tectorius is only used to make one type of product, i.e. mats by nine users in SW, although other types of handicrafts used to be made in the past. Indeed, while pandan mats are produced in various parts of Malaysia (Ismail and Nawawi 2011; Baba et al. 2013) the quality of pandan mats produced by Terengganu weavers is of excellent quality (Ismail and Nawawi 2013). Therefore, it is highly probable that the weavers in SW could also produce a variety of products (Fig. 8), just as the weavers of Mah Meri tribe who are well known for producing varied, exquisite handicrafts such as purses, pouches, mats and baskets in Pulau Carey, Selangor (Baba et al. 2013). However, there needs to be a steady market demand that guarantees a good income stream, which is provided to the Mah Meri weavers by the Gerai OA, an NGO that helps market their products through fairs and online marketing.

Figure 8. 

Utilisation of Lepironia articulata (A1–3), Pandanus tectorius (B1–3), and Nypa fruticans (C1–3ii) in Setiu Wetlands. From left to right 1 Harvesting 2 Part used 3 Finished products.

Conclusions

Our survey indicates that the nine connected habitats in SW are relatively rich in vascular plants, harbouring nearly 20% of Peninsular Malaysia wetland flora. The current checklist is far from complete as additional species will likely be found with wider sampling coverage and additional systematic inventories. The utilisation of plant resources for the livelihood of coastal communities in SW is still significant for the three main species used in the area (Nypa fruticans, Lepironia articulata and Pandanus tectorius). Local communities play an important role in the sustainability of SW, so it is essential to understand their dependence on the intricate network of wetland ecosystems and their plant species to ensure that they are not overlooked in the management plans of the Setiu Wetlands State Park.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Director of Terengganu State Parks, Muhammad Aizat Mohd Rashid and Nabila Husna Mohd Zohuri for providing and helping with the map, and Universiti Malaysia Terengganu for the facilities and utilities used during this study. Part of this paper is based on a research project awarded to JMJ (53131) undertaken for Universiti Malaysia Terengganu’s Niche Research Grant Scheme (NRGS) programme through funding by the Malaysian Ministry of Education. We are also grateful to the subject editor Ricardia Riina and two anonymous reviewers for providing very useful comments and also for suggesting substantial improvements to earlier drafts of this manuscript.

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Appendix 1

Checklist of vascular plants from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. The habitat for all species are abbreviated as MSF = Mangrove Swamp Forest; PSF = Peat Swamp Forest; RV = Riparian Vegetation; LF = Lowland Forest; HV= Heath vegetation including CDF= Coastal Dunes Forest; BV = Beach Vegetation; DV = Disturbed Vegetation; FSF = Freshwater Swamp Forest; and BRIS including Melaleuca vegetation (MV=Melaleuca vegetation). Six categories in the conservation status, EN: Endangered, VU: Vulnerable, NT: Near Threatened, LC: Least Concern, DD: Data Deficient, NE: Never Evaluated.

Family Species Local Name Life Form Habitat IUCN Status Malaysia Red List/MyBIS
LYCOPHYTES
Lycopodiaceae Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm. Sorok-sorok Fern RV, DV LC NE
FERNS
Aspleniaceae Asplenium longissimum Blume - Fern LF NE NE
Asplenium nidus L. Paku Sarang Burung, Daun Semun, Paku Langsuir, Paku Langsuyar, Paku Pandan, Paku Sakat, Rumah Langsuyar Fern LF NE NE
Blechnaceae Blechnum indicum Burm.f. - Fern CDF NE NE
Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.f.) Bedd. Paku Miding Fern LF NE NE
Davalliaceae Davallia denticulata (Burm.f.) Mett. ex Kuhn. Paku Tertutup, Paku Terutup Fern FSF, RV, DV NE LC
Davallia solida (Forst.) Sw. - Fern BV NE NE
Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium esculentum (G.Forst.) Cockayne - Fern LF NE NE
Lygodiaceae Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. Paku Ribu-ribu, Akar Sidin, Darai Paya Fern LF LC LC
Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br. Paku Ribu-ribu, Selada Fern DV LC LC
Nephrolepidaceae Nephrolepis auriculata (L.) Trimen Paku Hitam Fern DV DD NE
Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott Paku Hitam, Paku Larat, Paku Uban Fern DV LC LC
Polypodiaceae Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J.Sm. Paku Sakat Tupai, Sakat Laipang, Daun Kelapa Tupai, Daun Kepala Tupai Fern LF LC LC
Goniophlebium percussum (Cav.) Wagner & Grether Paku Pakis Fern LF LC LC
Phymatosorus cuspidatus (D.Don) Pic.Serm. Paku Pakis Fern LF, DV DD NE
Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm.f.) Pic.Serm. Paku Wangi, Sakat Hitam Fern LF, DV DD NE
Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Farw. Bulu Ayam, Sakat Batu, Tetumpang Fern BV,CDF LC LC
Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G.Price Duit-duit, Sakat Ribu-ribu, Sisik Naga Fern LF, MSF LC LC
Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm.f.) C.V.Morton Sakat, Suloi Fern LF, FSF, DV LC LC
Psilotaceae Psilotum nudum (L.) P.Beauv. - Fern CDF NE NE
Pteridaceae Acrostichum aureum L. Piai Raya, Paku Larat, Paku Laut Fern MSF LC LC
Acrostichum speciosum Willd. Piai Lasa Fern MSF LC LC
Salviniaceae Salvinia molesta D.S.Mitch. Kiambang Fern FSF NE NE
Schizaeaceae Schizaea dichotoma (L.) Sm. Janggut keli, Payung Ali, Misai Rimau, Paku Cakar Ayam Fern CDF LC NE
GYMNOSPERMS
Cycadaceae Cycas edentata De Laub. Pokok Sakat Tree CDF NT NT
Gnetaceae Gnetum cuspidatum Blume Melinjau akar Climbing Shrub LRW LC NE
Gnetum gnemon L. Melinjau/Cokok Tree BV LC NE
DICOTYLEDONS
Acanthaceae Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl Jeruju Putih Shrub MSF, RV, LF LC NE
Acanthus ilicifolius L. Jeruju Hitam Shrub MSF LC NE
Ruellia tuberosa L. - Terrestrial herb DV NE NE
Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. Akar Patuk Tuau, Akar Sebiak, Kacang Akar, Kelemai Merah, Sambung Nyawa, Tunbergia Putih Terrestrial herb DV NE NE
Anacardiaceae Anacardium occidentale L. Gajus, Jambu Golok, Jambu Monyet, Tree CDF NE NE
Anacardiaceae Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume Otak Udang Tumpul, Otak Udang, Katak Udang, Ketak Udang, Puah Pipit, Puan, Terentang Tikus Tree RV, CDF NE NE
Buchanania sessilifolia Blume Otak Udang Tumpul Tree LF DD NE
Campnosperma coriaceum (Jack) Hallier f. ex Steenis Terentang, Terentang Kelintang Tree SF, FSF NE NE
Campnosperma squamatum Ridl. Terentang, Terentang Daun Kecil, Tree SF NE NE
Gluta velutina Blume Rengas, Rengas air Tree SF, RV, CDF NE NE
Mangifera griffithii Hook.f. Asam Raba, Asam Rawa, Rawa Tree LF NE NE
Mangifera pentandra Hook.f. Pauh, Mangga, Mangga Air, Mangga Dodol, Mempelam Bemban Tree LF DD NE
Gluta wallichii (Hook.f) Ding Hou Rengas Tree PSF DD NE
Annonaceae Annona glabra L. Nona Licin Tree MSF NE NE
Ancistrocladaceae Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour.) Merr. Akar Julong Hitam, Jejulong Akar Shrub LF NE LC
Alyxia reinwardtii Blume Palusari Climbing shrub LF, PSF NE LC
Anodendron candolleanum Wight Akar kikat, Akar nirwali Climbing shrub PSF, RV NE VU
Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T.Aiton Remingu Shrub CDF, BV NE NE
Cerbera odollam Gaertn. Pong-pong, Buta-buta Tree SF NE NE
Cerbera manghas L. Pong-pong, Pong Pong Pong, Buta-buta, Nyan Tree MSF, BV NE NT
Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr. Akar Bano, Akar Kul Epiphytic herb BV NE NE
Dischidia nummularia R.Br. Daun Pitis Kecil Epiphytic herb FSF NE NE
Finlaysonia obovata Wall. Kalak kambing, Pelir Kambing Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Hoya carnosa (L.f.) R.Br. Akar Banok Jantan Climbing shrub BV NE NT
Hoya coronaria Blume Akar Setebal Epiphytic shrub MSF NE NE
Hoya coriacea Blume Akar Setebal Epiphytic shrub MSF NE NE
Ancistrocladaceae Hoya diversifolia Blume Akar Setebal Epiphytic shrub MSF NE NE
Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G.Don Akar Setebal Epiphytic shrub MSF NE NE
Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst.) Mabb. - Climbing shrub MSF, PSF, BV NE NE
Tylophora flexuosa R.Br. Akar Banok Jantan Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Aquifoliaceae Ilex cymosa Blume Mensirah, Mensirah Puteh Tree MSF NE NE
Araliaceae Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume Tumbuh Kelapa Tree LF NE NE
Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms. Cenama Gajah Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Apocynaceae Alstonia pneumatophora Baker ex Den Berger Pulai Paya Tree FSF LC NE
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don Kemunting Cina Shrub CDF, MSF NE NE
Sarcolobus globosus Wall. Buah Pitis Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Secamone elliptica R.Br. - Shrub DV NE NE
Asteraceae Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild Serenai Laut, Seremai, Serenah, Sunai Laut Climbing herb MSF, BV NE NE
Mikania micrantha Kunth Selaput Tunggul Climbing herb DV NE NE
Pluchea indica (L.) Less Beluntas Shrub MSF NE NE
Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski - Terrestrial herb DV NE NE
Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. - Terrestrial herb DV NE NE
Tridax procumbens L. Butang Baju Terrestrial herb DV NE NE
Avicenniaceae Avicennia alba Blume Api-api Putih, Api-api Hitam Tree MSF, RV LC NE
Avicennia officinalis L. Api-api Ludat, Api-api, Api-api Sudu Tree MSF LC NE
Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f. Api-api Bulu Tree MSF VU NE
Bignoniaceae Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) K.Schum. Tui, Poko Kulo, Tuj, Kulok Tree MSF LC NE
Bonnetiaceae Ploiarium alternifolium (Vahl) Melchior Riang-riang Tree FSF, DV NE LC
Calophyllaceae Calophyllum inophyllum L. Bintangor laut Tree CDF LC NE
Calophyllum rupicola Ridl. Bintangor Tree MSF, CDF NE NE
Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque Bitangor Jangkang Tree PSF NE NE
Mesua ferruginea (Pierre) Kosterm. Sembawang Tree PSF NE NE
Casuarinaceae Casuarina equisetifolia L. Rhu, Ru Tree CDF, BV NE NE
Celastraceae Gymnosporia littoralis (Backer) Jordaan - Shrub CDF NE NE
Salacia chinensis L. Akar pelanduk Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Chrysobalanaceae Licania splendens (Korth.) Prance Nyalas Tree PSF, LF LC LC
Parastemon urophyllus (Wall.ex A.DC.) A.DC. Malas Siangus Tree CDF, BV NE NE
Clusiaceae Garcinia hombroniana Pierre Beruas Tree CDF, BV NE NE
Garcinia nigrolineata Planch.ex T.Anderson Beruas Tree CDF NE NE
Garcinia brevirostris Scheff. Lulai, Kandis Tree CDF NE NE
Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Miq. Beruas Tree FSF NE NE
Combretaceae Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt Teruntum Merah Tree MSF LC NE
Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Teruntum Putih, Teruntum Bunga Putih Tree MSF LC NE
Combretum tetralophum C.B.Clarke - Climbing shrub PSF NE NE
Terminalia catappa L. Ketapang Tree MSF, CDF, BV NE NE
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet Seri pagi jalar Terrestrial herb CDF,BV LC NE
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br Tapak Kuda, Seri pagi Terrestrial herb CDF, DV, BV NE NE
Dilleniaceae Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff.) Martelli. Simpoh Air Tree LF,DV NE NE
Tetracera indica (Christm. & Panz.) Merr. Akar Mempelas Licin, Akar Mempelas, Mempelas, Mempelas Minyak, Mempelas Paya Climbing shrub LF,DV NE NE
Tetracera scandens (L.) Merr. Akar Mempelas Climbing shrub LF,DV,BV NE NE
Dioscoreaceae Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze Lekir Pasir Terrestrial herb CDF, BV LC NE
Dipterocarpaceae Anisoptera marginata Korth. Mersawa Paya Tree PSF EN EN
Vatica pauciflora Blume Resak raya Tree MSF VU NT
Droseraceae Drosera burmannii Vahl - Terrestrial herb LF LC NT
Ebenaceae Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh. Buey, Kayu Arang, Kayu Arang Tree MSF NE NE
Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb. Arang Tree LF NE NE
Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh. Kayu Arang, Siangus, Merpinang Daun Besar Tree PSF, LF NE NE
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus macrocerus (Turcz.) Merr. Mendong Tree FSF NE NE
Elaeocarpus mastersii King Mendong Tree LF, FSF, PSF NE LC
Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall Mendong Tree LF NE LC
Ericaceae Styphelia malayana (Jack) Spreng. Choreng atap, Chuchur Atap, Maki China, Tasek Timbul Tree CDF,BV NE NE
Vaccinium littoreum Miq. Inai batu Tree BV NE NE
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum cuneatum (Miq.) Kurz. Cinta Mula Tree CDF, BV NE NE
Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria agallocha L. Buta-buta, Buta-buta, Bebuta, Betak-betak Tree MSF LC NE
Macaranga hypoleuca (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg. Mahang Putih Tree LF,DV NE NE
Macaranga laciniata Whitmore & Airy Shaw. Mahang Tree LF,DV NE NE
Shirakiopsis indica (Willd.) Esser Gurah Tree MSF LC NE
Suregada multiflora (A.Juss.) Baill. Merlimau, Limau Hantu Tree LF NE NE
Fabaceae Aganope heptaphylla (L.) Polhill Ketui Besar, Omis omis Climbing shrub MSF, BV NE NE
Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I.C.Nielsen Petai Kera Tree PSF, DV NE NE
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Gorek Climbing shrub CDF, BV NE NE
Caesalpinia crista L. Akar Kuku Tupai Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. Kekacang Laut Terrestrial herb BV NE NE
Cynometra ramiflora L. Katak Puru Tree MSF NE NE
Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain Akar Kait, Api-api Jambu, Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Dendrolobium umbellatum (L.) Benth. Petai laut, Dedulang, Petai belalang, Petai laut Shrub MSF NE NE
Derris trifoliata Lour. Ketui, Tuba laut, Ketui, Salang, Selang, Setui Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. Sisik Naga Terrestrial herb PSF, DV LC NE
Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC. Sisik Naga Terrestrial herb LF, DV NE NE
Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. Sisik Naga Terrestrial herb DV LC NE
Fabaceae Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze Ipil, Merbau Ipil, Merbau Changkat, Merbau laut Tree MSF VU NE
Mimosa pudica L. Semalu Terrestrial herb DV LC NE
Ormosia sumatrana (Miq.) Prain Sepit-sepit Tree LF NE NE
Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K.Heyne Jemerlang Tree MSF, BV NE NE
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Mempari Tree MSF, BV LC NE
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Alston Malapari Tree RV,LF
Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Angsana Tree CDF VU NE
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Gelenggang Shrub LSF,DV NE NE
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link Gelenggang Pasir Shrub DV NE NE
Tamarindus indica L. Asam Jawa Tree LF LC NE
Gentianaceae Cyrtophyllum fragrans (Roxb.) DC. Tembusu Tree FSF, DV NE NE
Fagraea auriculata Jack Pelir Musang Tree CDF NE NE
Fagraea racemosa Jack Kahwa Hutan Tree LSF,DV NE NE
Fagraea fragrans Roxb. Tembusu Tree FSF, DV LC NE
Goodeniaceae Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. Ambong-ambong Shrub BV NE LC
Hemerocallidaceae Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. Siak-siak, Akar Siak, Benjuan, Jamaka, Lenjuang, Meroyan Bangkai, Setagit, Senjuang Terrestrial herb LF NE NE
Hypericaceae Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume Geronggang Tree PSF, DV LC LC
Lamiaceae Volkameria inermis L. Lampin Budak, Gambir Laut, Pawan, Tulang-tulang Shrub MSF NE NE
Gmelina elliptica Sm. Bulangan Shrub DV NE NE
Premna serratifolia L. Buas-buas, Bangkung Kayu, Sarunai, Shrub MSF, BV NE NE
Vitex pinnata L. Leban Tree DV NE NE
Vitex rotundifolia L.f. Langundi Shrub BV NE NE
Vitex trifolia L. Halban, Lagundi Tree MSF NE NE
Lauraceae Cassytha filiformis L. Cemar batu Parasitic herb CDF, BV NE NE
Neolitsea zeylanica (Nees) Merr. Teja pasir Tree CDF NE NE
Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr. Medang Tree LF NE NE
Lentibulariaceae Utricularia bifida L. - Herbaceous PSF LC NE
Loranthanceae Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. Dedalu Parasitic shrub LF NE NE
Lecythidaceae Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz. Putat Laut, Butong, Butun, Butung Tree BV LC LC
Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Spreng. Putat Sungai, Putal Kedul, Putat Air, Putat Ayam, Putat Darat, Putat Kampung, Putat Padi, Putat Rambai, Putat Sawah Tree MSF NE NE
Linaceae Indorouchera griffithiana (Planch.) Hallier f. Akar Ipoh Climbing shrub LF, PSF NE NE
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Bungor, Bungor Biru, Bungor Rya, Tibabah Tree DV NE NE
Sonneratia alba Sm. Perepat, Pauh Kijang Tree MSF LC NE
Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl. Berembang, Perapat, Perapat Laut, Perepat Tree MSF LC NE
Sonneratia x hainanensis W.C.Ko Gedabu Hibrid Tree MSF DD NE
Sonneratia lanceolata Blume Berembang Putih, Tree MSF LC NE
Sonneratia ovata Backer Gedabu, Kedabu, Rogam Tree MSF NT NE
Malpighiaceae Tristellateia australasiae A.Rich. - Climbing shrub MSF NE NE
Malvaceae Brownlowia argentata Kurz. Durian Laut Tree MSF,BV DD NE
Commersonia bartramia (L.) Merr. Angkut Besi Tree LF,DV LC NE
Heritiera littoralis Aiton Dungun, Bayur Laut, Buah Pelir Kambing, Atun Laut Tree MSF LC NE
Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell Baru-baru Laut, Bebaru, Bebaru Laut Tree MSF LC NE
Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa Bebaru, Baru Laut, Buah Keras Laut Tree MSF LC NE
Sida acuta Burm.f. Kelulut Putih Terrestrial herb DV NE NE
Urena lobata L. Pulut-pulut, Pepulut, Pulut Lembu Terrestrial herb DV DD NE
Melastomataceae Melastoma malabathricum L. Senduduk, Kenduduk Shrub LF DD NE
Memecylon caeruleum Jack Dali Dedali, Delek Jambu Tree LF LC LC
Memecylon edule Roxb. Delek Air, Nipis Kulit, Delek Ayer Tree LF LC LC
Meliaceae Xylocarpus granatum J.Koenig Nyireh Bunga, Nyireh Tree MSF LC LC
Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) M.Roem. Nyireh Batu Tree MSF LC/NT LC
Menyanthaceae Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze Telipot Aquatic herb DV LC NE
Moraceae Ficus deltoidea Jack Mas Cotek, Ara, Serapat Angin, Telinga Beruk Shrub LF DD NE
Ficus microcarpa L.F. Beringin, Ara Jejawi, Jawi Jawi Tree MSF LC NE
Ficus sundaica Blume Ara Bertih, Ara Punai Tree LF DD NE
Myrtaceae Baeckea frutescens L. Cucur Atap, Tuturun Atap, Rempah Rempah Tree PSF LC NE
Melaleuca cajuputi Powell Gelam Putih, Kayu Putih Tree PSF, MSF LC NE
Rhodamnia cinerea Jack Mempoyan, Mempoyan Bukit, Mengkoyan Pinang Tree LF LC NE
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Kemunting, Lidah Katak Laut Shrub BV LC NE
Syzygium antisepticum (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry Kelat Tikus, Gelam Tikus, Kelat Gelam Tree LF NE NE
Syzygium densiflora var. angustifolia Ridl. - Tree LF DD NE
Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp. & Wight Jambu laut, Jambu Air Laut, Kelat Jambu Laut Tree CDF NE NE
Syzygium oblatum (Roxb.) Wall. ex A.M. Cowan & Cowan Kelat Kecham Tree LF, PSF DD NE
Syzygium incarnatum (Elmer) Merr. & L.M.Perry Kelat Kertas, Kulat Gelam Tree LF, PSF DD NE
Syzygium leucoxylon Korth. Kelat Putih Tree PSF DD NE
Syzygium pyrifolium (Blume) DC. Kelat Putih, Kelat Lapis Tree LF, PSF NE NE
Syzygium palembanicum Miq. Jambu, Kelat Tree LF NE NE
Myrtaceae Syzygium syzygioides (Miq.) Merr. & L.M.Perry Kelat Hitam Tree LF NE NE
Syzygium zeylanicum (L.) DC. Kelat Gelam, Jambu, Gelam Tikus, Kelat Nenasi, Ubah Gelam Tree LF, FSF NE NE
Myricaceae Morella esculenta (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) I.M.Turner Telur Cicak, Kesami, Keteng, Lenketing Tree FSF LC LC
Myrisinaceaae Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco Teruntun, Kacang Kacang, Kuku Helang Tree MSF LC NE
Rapanea porteriana (Wall. ex A.DC.) Mez Dedahruang Tree MSF NE NE
Myristicaceae Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb. Pianggu, Penarahan Tree MSF, FSF LC NT
Knema conferta (King) Warb. Penarahan Hitam Tree LF LC NE
Knema globularia (Lamk.) Warb. Penarahan Padi, Chendarah Padi Tree LF NT NE
Myristica lowiana King Penarahan arang, Penarah Arang Gambut Tree PSF NT NT
Nepenthaceae Nepenthes ampullaria Jack Periok Kera Climbing shrub LF, FSF LC NE
Nepenthes gracilis Korth. Periok Kera Climbing shrub PSF LC NE
Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Druce Periok Kera Climbing shrub PSF,LF LC NE
Ochnaceae Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch.) A.Gray Bunga Kelat Merah, Mata Ketam, Kayu Luru Tree LF LC NT
Olacaceae Olax scandens Roxb. Kodak Aching, Meribut Shrub DV NT NE
Oleaceae Olea brachiata (Lour.) Merr. Menserah Tree BV NE NE
Opiliaceae Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. Chemperai Tree FSF LC NE
Cansjera rheedei J.F.Gmel. Chemperai Akar Shrub BV NT NE
Passifloraceae Passiflora foetida L. Buah Letup, Buah Tikus, Pokok Lang Bulu, Timun Denfdang, Timun Hutan Climbing herb RV, DV NE NE
Peraceae Chaetocarpus castanocarpus (Roxb.) Thwaites Membatu, Bebatu, Bedik Tree LF, PSF LC NE
Pentaphylacaceae Adinandra sarosanthera Miq. Tetiup, Kelat Pamah, Petuta Bukit, Pongpong Raya, Samak Tree LF NE NE
Ternstroemia wallichiana (Griff.) Engl. Medang Bunga Lawang Tree LF VU NE
Phyllanthaceae Antidesma cuspidatum Müll.Arg. Beruni, Berunai, Sebasah Bukit Tree LF, FSF NE NE
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. Beruni, Balong Ayam, Guncak Tree LF, PSF LC NE
Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. Hujan panas, Ambin Kera, Peringat, Saga, Sumbar Tree LF, BV LC NE
Glochidion littorale Blume Jambu Kera Tree BV, MSF LC NE
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum ferrugineum W.T.Aiton. Belalang Puak, Cemperai Ikan, Chabek Hantu Tree BV LC LC
Primulaceae Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco Kuku Lang, Kacang-kacang, Teruntun Tree MSF LC NE
Ardisia crenata Sims. Mata ayam, Akar Bebuluh, Mata Pelandok, Sirih Puyuh Shrub NE NE
Ardisia elliptica Thunb. Mata pelanduk, Buah Letus, Daun Bisa Hati, Jambulan Pantai, Jangkang, Kayu Lampilan, Mempenai Tree FSF NE E
Embelia ribes Burm.f. - Shrub/Climbing shrub LF NE NE
Rapanea porteriana (Wall. ex A.DC.) Mez. Kicar, Dedahruang Tree MSF NE NE
Rhizophoraceae Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume Berus-berus, Bakau Putih, Berus Putih Tree MSF LC NE
Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. ex Savigny Tumu Merah, Lenggadai Tree MSF LC NE
Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir Tumu Putih, Tumu Berau, Mata Buaya, Putut Tree MSF LC NE
Bruguiera hainesii C.G.Rogers Berus Mata Buaya Tree MSF CR NE
Bruguiera x rhynchopetala (W.C.Ko) N.C.Duke & X.J.Ge Tumu Hibrid Tree MSF DD NE
Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. Sisik Puyu, Merpuing, Meransi Tree LF, MSF, BV NE NE
Rhizophoraceae Ceriops tagal (Pers.) C.B.Rob. Tengar, Tengar Samak Tree MSF LC NE
Ceriops zippeliana Blume Tengar Tree MSF LC NE
Gynotroches axillaris Blume Mata Keli, Bulu Bulu, Kandis Batu Tree NE NE
Rhizophora apiculata Blume Bakau Minyak, Bakau Akik, Bakau Tandok, Bangkita Tree MSF LC NE
Rhizophora mucronata Lam. Bakau Kurap, Bakau Belukap, Bakau Gelukap, Bakau Jankar Tree MSF LC NE
Rhizophora x annamalayana Kathir. Bakau Hibrid Tree MSF DD NE
Rhamnaceae Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Bidara Laut , Peria Pantai Shrub BV NE NE
Rubiaceae Canthium confertum Korth. Kemuning Jantan Tree BV,LF NE NE
Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng. Duri Timbang Tahil Tree CDF NE NE
Catunaregam tomentosa (Blume ex DC.) Tirveng. Duri Timbang Tahil Tree BV NE NE
Gardenia tubifera Wall. ex Roxb. Mentiong Paya, Chempaka Hutan, Delima Hutan Tree LF DD NE
Guettarda speciosa L. Selar Malam, Bebaru Laut, Katapang Pasir Tree BV NE NE
Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq. Akar sulong, Akar Lampai Hitam Shrub LF NE NE
Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb. Siku-siku Terrestrial herb BV DD NE
Hydnophytum formicarum Jack Kepala Berok, Sarang Semut Epiphytic shrub PSF, BV NE NE
Hypobathrum racemosum (Roxb.) Kurz. Empawang Putih Tree LF NE NE
Ixora concinna R.Br.ex Hook.f. Jenjarum Shrub LF NE NE
Ixora grandifolia Zoll. & Moritzi Jenjarum, Jarum Hutan Shrub LF DD NE
Kailarsenia tentaculata (Hook.f.) Tirveng. Kecubong Paya, Kepayang Air Shrub RV NE NE
Morinda citrifolia L. Mengkudu Daun Kecil, Noni, Mengkudu, Mengkudu Besar Tree DV NE NE
Morinda umbellata L. Mengkudu akar, Mengkudu Hutan Climbing shrub BV,LF NE NE
Ixora congesta Roxb. Pecah Periok, Bunga Penaga Riam, Jarum Saluang Shrub LF NE NE
Rubiaceae Ixora umbellata var. multibracteata (H.Pearson ex King & Gamble) Corner Pecah Periok Shrub LF DD NE
Mussaenda glabra Vahl Balik Adap Shrub FSF, DV NE NE
Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack Periok Hantu Shrub MSF, FSF NE NE
Oxyceros longiflorus (Lam.) T.Yamaz. Akar Kekait, Akar Bedara Laut, Akar Duri Climbing shrub MSF DD NE
Psychotria sarmentosa Blume Akar Daldaru, Kaum Kopi Climbing shrub LF, FSF NE NE
Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F.Gaertn. Chengam Shrub MSF LC NE
Tarenna fragrans (Blume) Koord. & Valeton Julong-julong Jantan Tree LF,RV DD NE
Timonius flavescens (Jacq.) Baker Kurau, Kaum Kopi Tree LF,PSF LC NE
Uncaria acida (W.Hunter) Roxb. Gambir-gambir Climbing shrub LF NE NE
Rutaceae Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq. Jenjagong Tree LF LC NE
Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T.G.Hartley Tenggek burung, Pepauh, Chabang Tiga Shrub LF LC NE
Salicaceae Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Moritzi Rukam Tree RV NE NE
Scolopia macrophylla (W.& A.) Clos Rukam Hutan Tree MSF, RV NE NE
Santalaceae Dendrotrophe buxifolia (Blume) Miq. Setong Jundor Parasitic shrub BV DD NE
Viscum orientale Willd. Dedalu Parasitic shrub MSF DD NE
Viscum ovalifolium DC. Dedalu Emping, Api-api Parasitic shrub MSF LC LC
Sapotaceae Palaquium obovatum (Griff.) Engl. Taban Putih, Nyatoh, Nyatoh Putih Tree LF, FSF LC NE
Planchonella obovata (R.Br.) Pierre Nenasi, Misi, Nyatoh Laut, Nyatoh Kuning Tree MSF, BV NE NE
Sapindaceae Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch Buah Penancang, Congkol, Cungkil, Kasai, Kasai Daun Kecil Shrub LF, MSF, BV NE NE
Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. Serengan laut, Kayu Bertih Tree RV, BV LC NE
Guioa bijuga (Hiern) Radlk. Senyamok Tree LF NE NE
Guioa pleuropteris (Blume) Radlk. Senyamok, Samak, Kelentit, Nyamuk Laut, Pena-pena, Sempayan Ular Tree LF, RV NE NE
Sapindaceae Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh. Mertajam, Kelat Layu, Terajah Tree RV LC NE
Mischocarpus sundaicus Blume Suji Tree LF NE NE
Simaroubaceae Eurycoma longifolia Jack Tongkat Ali, Bidara Merah, Lempedu Pahit, Pasak Bumi, Setunjang Bumi Tree LF, BV NE NE
Quassia indica (Gaertn.) Noot. Kayu Pahit, Gatip pahit, Kacang-kacang Tree PSF, MSF NE NE
Symplocaceae Symplocos adenophylla Wall. ex G.Don Semugum, Jiak Tree LF DD NE
Thymelaeaceae Wikstroemia indica (L.) C.A.Mey Depu Shrub DV NE NE
Vitaceae Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin Galing-galing, Lakum Shrub LF, DV NE NE
Cissus hastata Miq. Akar Asam Riang, Akar Kerayong Shrub LF NE NE
Ximeniaceae Ximenia americana L. Bedara laut Tree BV LC NE
MONOCOTYLEDONS
Aizoaceae Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. Gelang Laut, Gelang Pasir, Saruni Air Terrestrial herb MSF, CDF NE LC
Amaryllidaceae Crinum asiaticum L. Bakong, Tembaga Suasa Terrestrial herb RV, LF, FSF NE NE
Araceae Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb.) Schott. Keladi Payau Aquatic herb MSF LC NE
Cryptocoryne cordata Griff. - Aquatic herb RV LC NE
Cryptocoryne griffithii Schott. - Aquatic herb PSF NE NE
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thw. Geli-geli Terrestrial herb PSF LC NE
Scindapsus hederaceus (Zoll. & Moritizi) Miq. Akar Lebang Aleh Climbing herb PSF NE NE
Arecaceae Calamus erinaceus (Becc.) J.Dransf. Rotan Bakau Palm MSF NE NE
Licuala spinosa Wurmb. Palas, Palas Duri Palm MSF NE NE
Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Nipah Palm MSF LC NE
Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack) Ridl. Nibong, Ibas, Linau, Nibung, Nibong Palm MSF NE NE
Phoenix paludosa Roxb. Kedangsa, Dangsa Palm MSF NT NE
Asparagaceae Dracaena porteri Baker Jarum-jarum Shrub LF, FSF NE NE
Commelinaceae Cyanotis cristata D.Don Petungan Terrestrial herb BV LC NE
Cymodoceaceae Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog - Aquatic herb FSF LC NE
Cyperaceae Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B.Clarke Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb FSF NE NE
Cyperus distans L.f. Rumput rusiga Aquatic herb RV,PSF LC NE
Cyperus digitatus Roxb. Rumput rusiga Aquatic herb PSF LC NE
Cyperus javanicus Houtt. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb MSF NE NE
Cyperus rotundus L. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb RV,BV LC NE
Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb BV LC NE
Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb RV LC NE
Eleocharis ochrostachys Steud. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb PSF LC NE
Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir.) Urb. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb RV LC NE
Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb RV LC NE
Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb MSF LC NE
Fimbristylis pauciflora R.Br. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb LF NE NE
Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb RV LC NE
Lepironia articulata (Retz.) Domin Kercut/Kerchut Aquatic herb FSF NE NE
Rhynchospora brownii Roem. & Schult. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb HV, BRIS NE NE
Remirea maritima Aubl. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb CDF,BV NE NE
Scleria levis Retz. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb FSF,DV NE NE
Scleria poaeformis Retz. Rumput rusiga Terrestrial herb FSH,DV NE NE
Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulon truncatum Buch.-Ham. ex Mart. - Aquatic herb DV LC NE
Eriocaulon willdenovianum Moldenke - Aquatic herb DV NE NE
Flagellariaceae Flagellaria indica L. Rotan Dini, Rotan Tikus, Rotan Kera Climbing shrub MSF, FSF NE NE
Hanguanaceae Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr. Bakong Aquatic herb RV, FSF LC NE
Hydrocharitaceae Blyxa aubertii Rich. - Aquatic herb FSF LC NE
Halophila beccarii Aschers. - Aquatic herb MSF VU NE
Halophila minor (Zollinger) den Hartog - Aquatic herb BV LC NE
Halophila ovalis (R.Brown) J.D.Hooker - Aquatic herb BV LC NE
Orchidaceae Acriopsis liliifolia (J. Koenig) Ormerod Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Appendicula cornuta Blume Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Appendicula uncata Ridl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Ania penangiana (Hook.f.) Summerh. Orkid Terrestrial herb BRIS NE NE
Arachnis flos-aeris (L.) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Arachnis hookeriana (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bromheadia finlaysoniana (Lindl.) Miq Orkid Terrestrial herb BRIS LC NE
Bulbophyllum acuminatum (Ridl.) Ridl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum apodum Hook.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum clandestinum Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum fenestratum J.J.Sim Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum macranthum Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS LC NE
Bulbophyllum patens King ex Hook.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum planibulbe (Ridl.) Ridl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum purpurascens Teijsm. & Binn. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum trigonopus (Rchd.f) P.T.Ong Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Callostylis pulchella (Lindl.) S.C.Chen & Z.H.Tsi Orkid Epiphytic herb HV, BRIS NE NE
Ceratostylis subulata Blume Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS LC NE
Claderia viridiflora Hook.f. Orkid Terrestrial herb BRIS NE NE
Cleisostoma teretifolium Teijsm. & Binn. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Coelogyne foerstermannii Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb HV, BRIS LC NE
Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb HV, BRIS NE NE
Cymbidium rectum Ridl. Orkid Epiphytic herb HV, BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium acerosum Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS LC NE
Orchidaceae Dendrobium angustifolium (Blume) Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium clavator Ridl. Orkid Merpati Epiphytic herb MSF, BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium lamellatum (Blume) Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium leonis (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium pachyphyllum (Kuntze) Bakh.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium rhodostele Ridl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrobium secundum (Blume) Lindl. ex Wall. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Dendrolirium lasiopetalum (Willd.) S.C.Chen & J.J.Wood Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Eulophia graminea Lindl. Orkid Terrestrial herb BRIS NE NE
Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume Orkid Harimau Epiphytic/Terrestrial herb BRIS NE NE
Liparis ferruginea Lindl. Orkid Terrestrial herb FWF NE NE
Luisia jonesii J.J.Sm. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Oberonia padangensis Schltr. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Papilionanthe hookeriana (Rchb.f.) Schltr. Orkid Epiphytic herb FWF NE NE
Phalaenopsis pulcherrima (Lindl.) J.J.Sm. Orkid Terrestrial herb HV, BRIS NE NE
Pinalia atrovinosa (Carr) Schuit., Y.P.Ng & H.A.Pedersen Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Pinalia floribunda (Lindl.) Kuntze Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Pinalia tenuiflora (Ridl.) J.J.Wood Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Plocoglottis lowii Rchb.f. Orkid Terrestrial herb BRIS NE NE
Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H.R.Sweet Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Renanthera elongata (Blume) Lindl. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Strongyleria pannea (Lindl.) Schuit., Y.P.Ng & H.A.Pedersen Orkid Terrestrial herb BRIS NE NE
Taeniophyllum pusillum (Willd.) Seidenf. & Ormerod Orkid hantu Epiphytic herb MSF,BRIS NE NE
Orchidaceae Thrixspermum amplexicaule (Blume) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb FSF NE NE
Thrixspermum calceolus (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Thrixspermum centipeda Lour. Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Thrixspermum scopa (Rchb.f. ex Hook.f.) Holttum Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Thrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook.f.) Kuntze Orkid Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Vanilla griffithii Rchb.f. Telinga Kerbau Terrestrial/Epiphytic herb BRIS NE NE
Pandanaceae Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. Mengkuang Paya Palm-like LF NE NE
Pandanus helicopus Kurz ex Miq. Mengkuang Paya, Rasau Palm-like LF NE NE
Pandanus tectorius Parkinson Mengkuang Laut, Pandan Duri, Pandan Laut Palm-like MSF LC NE
Pandanus yvanii Solms. Mengkuang Paya Palm-like LF NE NE
Philydraceae Philydrum lanuginosum Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn. Rumput Kipas Terrestrial herb FWS NE NE
Poaceae Chloris barbata Sw. Rumput Jari Kembong Terrestrial herb CDF,BV NE NE
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. Kemuncup Terrestrial herb CDF,BV NE NE
Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin. Kemuncup Besar Terrestrial herb CDF, BV NE NE
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Rumput Minyak Terrestrial herb BV, DV NE NE
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Sambau Terrestrial herb DV LC NE
Eriachne pallescens R.Br. - Terrestrial herb BV, DV NE NE
Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv. Lalang Terrestrial herb BV LC NE
Ischaemum muticum L. Rumput Tembaga Jantan, Rumput Terutus Tembaga Terrestrial herb BV LC NE
Leersia hexandra Sw. - Terrestrial herb FSF LC NE
Paspalum orbiculare G.Forst. - Terrestrial herb FSF NE NE
Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase - Terrestrial herb CDF,FSF DD NE
Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. - Terrestrial herb BV NE NE
Restionaceae Dapsilanthus disjunctus (Mast.) B.G.Briggs – & L.A.S.Johnson Terrestrial herb BV NE NE
Xyridaceae Xyris complanata R.Br. - Terrestrial herb RV LC NE
Xyris pauciflora Willd. - Terrestrial herb RV LC NE
Zingiberaceae Alpinia aquatica (Retz.) Roscoe Munkanang Terrestrial herb FSF, RV NE NE
Alpinia conchigera Griff. Lengkuas Ranting, Lengkuas Geting, Lengkuas Kecil, Lengkuas Padi Terrestrial herb FSF, DV NE NE
Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. Lengkuas Terrestrial herb LF NE NE
Alpinia javanica Blume Lengkuas Hutan Terrestrial herb LF LC NE
Alpinia oxymitra K.Schum. - Terrestrial herb LF NE NE