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Twenty-six additional new combinations in the Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) of China and Vietnam
expand article infoChristopher B. Callaghan, Siak K. Png
‡ Australian Bicentennial Arboretum, Sydney, Australia
Open Access

Abstract

In accordance with the previous reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae (Magnoliaceae) into the genus Magnolia, twenty-six new nomenclatural combinations are formally made by transferring to Magnolia some additional Chinese and Vietnamese taxa from the segregate genera of Manglietia, Michelia and Yulania. The following nine new combinations are created from Manglietia, namely Magnolia admirabilis, M. albistaminea, M. guangnanica, M. jinggangshanensis, M. maguanica, M. pubipedunculata, M. pubipetala, M. rufisyncarpa and M. sinoconifera. Also, twelve new combinations are created from Michelia, namely Magnolia caloptila, M. caudata, M. fallax, M. gelida, M. hunanensis, M. maudiae var. rubicunda, M. multitepala, M. platypetala, M. rubriflora, M. septipetala, M. sonlaensis, M. xinningia. Finally, five new combinations are created from Yulania, namely Magnolia baotaina, M. pendula, M. pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia, M. puberula and M. urceolata.

Keywords

Magnolioideae, Manglietia, Michelia, morphological features, synonyms, Yulania

Magnolia maguanica (formerly Manglietia maguanica (photo taken by SK Png at South China BG on 21.04.2017).

Introduction

Richard B. Figlar (2012), a past president and present scientific advisor of Magnolia Society International, provides a concise but thorough background to the complex generic history of subfamily Magnolioideae of family Magnoliaceae, starting with J.E. Dandy in the early part of the previous century. This pre-eminent British plant taxonomist, specialising in Magnoliaceae, recognised the family as consisting of 2 tribes, the Liriodendreae representing the single distinct genus Liriodendron, with the remainder of the family, about which Dandy (1927) acknowledges there had never been uniformity of opinion, forming the Magnolieae, comprising 9 genera, which he subsequently increased by 2.

Revisions were to follow Dandy’s death in late 1976, including the classification of the leading Chinese Magnoliaceae researcher, Liu Yu-hu (aka Law Yuh-wu). His proposed Taxonomic System of Magnoliaceae (Law 1984), republished in Magnolias of China in the year he died (Liu et al. 2004), basically added a further 4 genera to those of Dandy. Representatives of 10 of the 15 genera included in subfamily Magnolioideae in Liu’s classification occur in China.

H.P. Nooteboom, who was to succeed Dandy at the forefront of Magnoliaceae research in Europe, realised that his predecessor had been mistaken in his interpretation of certain morphological characters and thus commenced his reduction of Magnolioideae (Nooteboom 1985), to just 6 genera. Ultimately, with the advent of molecular DNA sequencing data (Azuma et al. 1999, 2000, 2001, Kim et al. 2001, Nie et al. 2008, Wang et al. 2006, Kim and Suh 2013), combined with comparative morphological research (Figlar 2000, Figlar and Nooteboom 2004), showing the remaining genera, including Manglietia Blume and Michelia Linnaeus, residing among the other sections of Magnolia, Figlar and Nooteboom proposed a new classification system in their 2004 paper. Their new system includes Magnolia at the head of a now monogeneric Magnolioideae subfamily comprising subgenus Magnolia with 8 sections and 7 subsections, subgenus Yulania with 2 sections and 6 subsections, and subgenus Gynopodium with 2 sections.

This system was not followed in the Flora of China treatment of Magnoliaceae (Xia et al. 2008), where previously recognised genera such as Manglietia and Michelia were retained, two former sections of Magnolia were given generic status as Houpoea N.H. Xia & C.Y. Wu and Oyama (Nakai) N.H. Xia & C.Y. Wu, and former genera, such as Lirianthe Spach and Yulania Spach of 1839 were reinstated. Since then, authors describing new species from China have followed this classification, a few examples being Manglietia pubipedunculata Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu (Hu et al. 2019), Michelia caudata M.X. Wu, X.H. Wu & G.Y. Li (Wu et al. 2015) and Yulania dabieshanensis T.B. Zhao, Z.X. Chen & H.T. Dai (Dai et al. 2012).

However, Figlar and Nooteboom’s (2004) classification system is now widely accepted by the scientific community, with many authors following this broad view of Magnolia, such as Arroyo et al. (2013), Ninh et al. (2020), Pérez et al. (2016) and Zou et al. (2020).

Figlar (2012) advised against the alternative classification system now operating:

In a one genus system only Manglietia, Michelia and 3 minor genera require new names in Magnolia. In a 13 genera system, it would be necessary to dismantle the largest and most well-known genus, Magnolia, and rename the constituents into 10 new genera. That would be enormously destructive to the long-established Magnolia-centric nomenclature and literature, causing unnecessary and undesirable consequences to science, conservation and horticulture.

With this in mind, 26 new combinations are created here, representing nine species of Manglietia, eleven species and one variety of Michelia, plus four species and one variety of Yulania. Most of these taxa were named and described over the past decade, but include some older previously synonymised, now reinstated taxa, that are herein transferred to Magnolia, as will be numerous other taxa in a sequel to this paper (Callaghan and Png 2019a, 2020).

Materials and methods

The new combinations proposed in this paper are made in compliance with the rules and recommendations of the 2018 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), known as The Shenzhen Code (Turland et al. 2018), in particular ICN Article 41 and Recommendation 41A in respect of new combinations.

Where available, digital images of type specimens of newly named taxa posted to the internet at the websites of various herbaria have been sighted and these are indicated in the text by ‘online image!’ appearing after the herbarium acronyms whose representative names are listed in the appendix following the references. Additional sighted specimens are indicated by ‘!’ after the herbarium acronym.

Consultation of the relevant literature was made to determine whether a number of taxa previously determined as synonyms of earlier named taxa were, in fact, genuine independent species or varieties as they had been originally described. Differences in numerous morphological features, natural distributions and/or elevations and where appropriate, the incompatible phenology of flowering and/or fruiting periods, are tabulated and referred to in the notes under the relevant taxa to fully substantiate their independent status.

Floras and other literature dealing with the Magnoliaceae of China that have been consulted during this study are cited in the text, with some of the more important sources of information including a number of papers by Dandy (1928 a–c, 1930), The Magnoliaceae of China (Chen and Nooteboom 1993), Magnoliaceae in Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Law et al. 1996), Magnolias of China (Liu et al. 2004), Magnoliaceae in Flora of China Vol. 7 (Xia et al. 2008), A Taxonomic Revision of the Magnoliaceae from China (Sima 2011) and the recent Ex Situ Cultivated Flora of China : Magnoliaceae (Yang et al. 2016), which documents the diversity of Magnoliaceae plants in Chinese botanical gardens.

The Biodiversity Heritage Library website (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org) proved indispensable in accessing a number of articles on earlier-named Magnoliaceae dating back to the early nineteenth century and beyond. A good proportion of the numerous relevant scientific and mainstream literature consulted during this research is internet accessible via the links included with the references. The links included in the 2019 unpublished version of this paper were rechecked to confirm their current accessibility.

Results

In accordance with the previous reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae (Magnoliaceae) into the genus Magnolia, twenty-six new nomenclatural combinations are formally made by transferring to Magnolia some additional Chinese and Vietnamese taxa from the segregate genera of Manglietia, Michelia and Yulania that were described during the past decade and occasionally earlier, plus a few formerly synonymised, now reinstated taxa.

The following nine new combinations are created from Manglietia, namely Magnolia admirabilis (Y.H. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex L. Fu, Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. albistaminea (Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & S.X. Qin) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. guangnanica (D.X. Li & R.Z. Zhou ex X.M. Hu, Q.W. Zeng & L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. jinggangshanensis (R.L. Liu & Z.X. Zhang) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. maguanica (H.T. Chang & B.L.Chen) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. pubipedunculata (Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. pubipetala (Q.W. Zeng) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. rufisyncarpa (Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & F.G. Wang) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png and M. sinoconifera (F.N. Wei) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png.

Also, twelve new combinations are created from Michelia, namely Magnolia caloptila (Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. caudata (M.X. Wu, X.H. Wu & G.Y. Li) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. fallax (Dandy) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. gelida (T.B. Zhao, Z.X. Chen & D.L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. hunanensis (C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. maudiae var. rubicunda (T.P. Yi & J.C. Fan) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. multitepala (R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. platypetala (Hand-Mazz.) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. rubriflora (Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex F.G. Wang, Q.W. Zeng, R.Z. Zhou & F.W. Xing) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. septipetala (Z.L. Nong) C.B. Callaghan & S.K.Png, M. sonlaensis (Q.N. Vu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png and M. xinningia (Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex Q.X. Ma, Q.W. Zeng, R.Z. Zhou & F.W. Xing) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png.

Finally, five new combinations are created from Yulania, namely Magnolia baotaina (D.L. Fu, Q. Zhang & M. Xu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. pendula (D.L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia (Z.Z. Zhao & Z.W. Xie) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, M. puberula (D.L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png and M. urceolata (D.L. Fu, B.H. Xiong & X. Chen) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png.

Discussion

The transfer of the above twenty-six taxa to Magnolia is necessary following the present near universal acceptance by the scientific community and horticultural industry that the Magnolioideae is one of two monogeneric subfamilies within Magnoliaceae and the fact that the majority of resulting new combinations and names arising from the relegation of Manglietia and Michelia into Magnolia have previously been made by various authors such as Figlar (2000) for the majority of the Michelia species, with Sima (2001) transferring some additional Michelia species, Kumar (2006) transferring the majority of Manglieta species, Nooteboom transferring a number of species from both the previous genera plus Yulania in Flora of China Vol. 7 (Xia et al. 2008: 49–50) and most recently Callaghan and Png (2013) transferring species from these three genera that were mainly described and named subsequent to the publication of Flora of China.

Conclusions

To maintain these twenty-six predominantly recently described taxa in limbo in segregate genera will contribute to further instability and inevitable confusion in the scientific and popular literature, as well as within the botanical world and the horticultural industry, which has resulted from having two diverse systems operating simultaneously.

The authors would like to take this opportunity to suggest that to further substantiate their now reaffirmed species or varietal status, comparative DNA barcoding (Caddy-Retalic and Lowe 2012), should be undertaken of these and other taxa, often with small remnant populations and/or disjunct geographic distributions, that have been previously subsumed in synonymy under earlier-named species having much larger populations of widespread occurrence. As a result of becoming virtual non-entities, this can be detrimental to their conservation and ultimate survival in nature. Consequently their potential benefits to mankind, such as the medicinal properties that some Magnoliaceae species are known to possess, including present and prospective production of anti-cancer drugs and treatments (He et al. 2017, Huang et al. 2017, Lu et al. 2017, Ma et al. 2020, Prasad and Katiyar 2018, Zhang et al. 2020), are never assessed or realised.

Taxonomic section

Magnolia admirabilis (Y.H. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex L. Fu, Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia admirabilis Y.H. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex L. Fu, Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu, Novon 23(1): 37, fig. 1 (2014).

Chinese name

奇异木莲 meaning “distinctive Manglietia

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Maguan County, Gulinqing, Chuntianping, ca. 1300 m, limestone montane evergreen broad-leaved forests, 12 May 1986, Zhou Ren-zhang 98 (holotype: IBSC n.v.). Guangdong Province: Guangzhou, Magnolia Garden of South China Botanical Garden, ca. 50 m, 3 May 2011, Lin Fu 20110503 (paratype: IBSC n.v.)

Note

There is no data or images held at IBSC for the holotype (Huang Xiangxu, pers. comm., July 2019).

Magnolia albistaminea (Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & X.S. Qin) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia albistaminea Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & X.S. Qin. In: X.S. Qin et al., Novon 16: 260, fig. 1 (2006).

Chinese name

白蕊木莲 meaning “white-stamened manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Guangdong Province: South China Botanical Garden, Guangzhou (collected from plant introduced in 1982 from Mt. Jianfengling, Ledong County, Hainan), 10 May 2001, R.Z. Zhou 130 (holotype: IBSC n.v.; isotype: MO n.v.). Same locality (collected from plant introduced as above) 23 April 1999, R.Z. Zhou 9916 and R.Z. Zhou 0136 (paratypes: IBSC n.v.).

Manglietia fordiana Oliv. var. hainanensis (Dandy) N.H. Xia. In: Xia et al. (2008: 58), p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia albistaminea Y.W. Law et al.

Manglietia fordiana Oliv. In: Sima and Lu (2009: 23) and Sima (2011: 88), both p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia albistaminea Y.W. Law et al.

Note

There are no data or images held at IBSC for the holotype (Huang Xiangxu, pers. comm., July 2019), nor could the isotype be located at MO (Jim Solomon, pers. comm., July 2019).

Magnolia baotaina (D.L. Fu, Q. Zhang & M. Xu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Yulania baotaina D.L. Fu, Q. Zhang & M. Xu. In: D.L. Fu et al., Amer. J. Agric. and Forest. 7(5): 231–232, fig. 1 (2019c).

Chinese name

宝台山玉兰 meaning “Mount Baotai yulania”

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Yongping County, Mount Baotai, 2600 m, 12 March 2017, D.L. Fu 2017031201 (holotype: CAF n.v.). Same locality, 9 September 2017, D.L. Fu 2017093001 (paratype: CAF n.v.).

Note

The type specimens of Yulania baotaina cannot be located at the Beijing herbarium of CAF (Wang Hongbin, pers. comm., March 2020).

Magnolia caloptila (Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu. In: Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(2): 152, 154: fig. s.n. (1984).

Chinese name

美毛含笑 meaning “beautiful-haired michelia”

Type

CHINA. Jiangxi Province: Zixi County, Nangang, Matoushan, 450 m, in woods, 17 September 1980, Jiangxi gong-da linxue-xi (JXAU) 80069 (holotype: IBSC! + online image!; isotypes: LBG online images!).

Digital images of type specimens below accessed 19 March 2019:

holotype [IBSC: 0003281]: http://www.docin.com/p-1050989203.html (Sima 2011: 316, photo 2-58).

isotype [LBG: 00004082]: http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spm/LBG/00004082

isotype [LBG: 00004123]: http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spm/LBG/00004123

Michelia fujianensis Q.F. Zheng. In: Xia and Deng (2002: 130) and Xia et al. (2008: 83), both p.p. quoad syn. Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu.

Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu. In: Sima (2011: 234), p.p. excl. syns. Michelia concinna H. Jiang & E.D. Liu and Michelia septipetala Z.L. Nong.

Note 1

Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu was listed as a dubious species in Chen and Nooteboom (1993: 1088), in which it was noted that specimens had not been seen. It was subsequently reduced to a synonym of Michelia fujianensis as noted above. It is recognised as a genuine species by Law et al. (1996: 189), Liu et al. (2004: 228), Deng and Yang (2015: 167), Yang et al. (2016: 237) and Sima (2011: 234), wherein M. caloptila is in Michelia subsection Micheliopsis, series Micheliopsis and M. fujianensis is in Michelia subsection Velutinae. Differences between the abaxial indumentum of the 9–16 cm long leaves of M. caloptila and of the 6–11 cm long leaves of M. fujianensis are illustrated in Plate 3-2E (M. caloptila) and Plate 3-3E (M. fujianensis) of Sima (2011: 325; 326). Further substantiation of the specific status of M. caloptila is evident from a comparison of its morphological features with those of M. fujianensis, as shown in Table 1 on the following page.

Differentiating features of the species Michelia caloptila and Michelia fujianensis.

Plant feature Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu Michelia fujianensis Q.F. Zheng
maximum dimensions to 15 m × 30 cm dbh to 16 m × 100 cm dbh
bark colour grey greyish-brown (greyish-white)
indumentum of branchlets brown tomentose densely cinnamon tomentose
indumentum of buds brown tomentose densely cinnamon tomentose
leaf shape narrowly elliptic or elliptic oblong or narrowly obovate-elliptic
leaf dimensions 9–16 × 2.5–5 cm 6–11 × 2.5–4 cm
leaf apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate acute
leaf indumentum adaxially entirely glabrous densely short-tomentose at midrib
leaf indumentum abaxially minutely brown tomentose densely ferrugineus or brownish-yellow appressed sericeous
secondary lateral leaf veins 7–12 pairs 8–9 pairs (not 9–15§,¶)
petiole length and indumentum 5–10 mm, brown tomentose 10–15 mm, densely cinnamon tomentose
tepal number 6–9 15–16 (12–17)
gynophore in fruit ca. 20 mm long 2–2.5 mm long
fruit aggregate length 4–10 cm 2–3 cm
mature carpels broadly ovate or suborbicular, 1–1.8 cm long with 1–4 seeds obovoid, 1.5–2 cm × ca. 1.2 cm with 1 seed
fruiting period September October–November

Note 2

As a consequence of the above substantiation of the species status of Michelia caloptila, plus the past reduction to Magnolia of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae, Michelia caloptila is here transferred to Magnolia.

Magnolia caudata (M.X. Wu, X.H. Wu & G.Y. Li) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia caudata M.X. Wu, X.H. Wu & G.Y. Li. In: X.H. Wu et al., Acta Bot. Bor-Occid. Sin. 35(5): 1058, fig. 1 (2015).

Chinese name

尾叶含笑 meaning “caudate-lobed michelia”, referring to shape of leaf apex.

Type

CHINA. Zhejiang Province: Qingyuan County, Songyuan town, Jiaokeng village, Guanmenao Conservation Area, in evergreen broad-leaved forests, ravines, 460 m, 12 April 2010, Ye Qing-jiao & Wu Xia-hua 1096 (holotype: ZJFC n.v.). Zhejiang Province: Qingyuan County, Songyuan town, Jiaokeng village, 460 m, 26 September 2010, Ma Dan-dan, Li Gen-you, Wu Ming-xiang QY20100922 (paratype: ZJFC n.v.).

Magnolia fallax (Dandy) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia fallax Dandy. In: Notes, Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 16(77): 130 (1928c).

Chinese names: 灰绒含笑 meaning “grey-velvet michelia”, referring to the grey indumentum covering branchlets, buds, etc. Also: 大叶含笑 meaning “large-leaved michelia”

Type

CHINA. Hunan Province: near Wukang-chow (=Wugang), Yunshan, ca. 950 m, in lofty shady forests, 12 July 1918, Handel-Mazzetti 12281 p.p. quoad fruiting specimen (holotype: WU online image!; isotypes: A online image!, K online image!).

Digital images of holotype and isotype specimens below accessed 19 March 2019:

holotype [WU: 0039581]: http://herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=70940

isotype [A: 00039058]: https://s3.amazonaws.com/huhwebimages/6C9726D2157D489/type/full/39058.jpg

isotype [K: K000681458]: http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000681458

Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. In: Chen and Nooteboom (1993: 1058), Frodin and Govaerts (1996: 55), Wu and Chen (2006: 56), Sima and Lu (2009: 50), Sima (2011: 214), Deng and Yang (2015: 148), each p.p. quoad syn. Michelia fallax Dandy.

Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. var. cavaleriei. In: Xia et al. (2008: 84), p.p. quoad syn. Michelia fallax Dandy.

Note 1

James E. Dandy (1928c: 130), provides background information concerning the division of the fruiting and flowering collections made under number 12281 by Handel-Mazzetti on 12 July 1918 and by his servant Wang Te-hui in April 1919 respectively. From his study of these collections, Dandy came to the realisation that they represented two distinct species, retaining Handel-Mazzetti’s name Michelia platypetala for Wang’s flowering material and publishing the name Michelia fallax for Handel-Mazzetti’s fruiting material.

Note 2

An undated identification label in the name of J.E. Dandy, affixed to the Kew Herbarium isotype specimen of M. fallax, indicates his subsequent determination of it as M. cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. This specimen and the other above seen type specimens are all ca. 20 cm in length and 6 cm wide, roughly only about two-thirds of Dandy’s original description of the leaves of M. fallax being “usque ad ca. 30 cm longa et 8.5 cm lata” (up to about 30 cm long and 8.5 cm wide). Dandy’s dimensions are not a misprint, since there are a number of M. fallax specimens of different provenances (and provinces) posted to the Chinese Virtual Herbarium (CVH) website with leaves approaching this size, which is alluded to in one of this species two Chinese names translating as “large-leaved michelia”. The above noted dimensions must be presumed to be those of the other specimen noted in Dandy’s description, the undated specimen Dalziel s.n., collected at about 900 m near Thai-yong, 97 km west of Swatow (Shantou) on Guangdong’s northeastern coast, sometime between 1895 and 1902 (this specimen was not located for the current research).

Note 3

Subsequent to Dandy, M. fallax has been listed as a synonym of M. cavaleriei and of M. cavaleriei var. cavaleriei by the authors cited in the section preceding Note 1. However, the present authors consider that while these two species are superficially similar in the shape of their leaves, that the known comparative features recorded in Table 2 below distinguish Michelia fallax as an independent species. Also, it does not key out with the original validating descriptions for Michelia hunanensis or M. xinningia with which it shares synonymy under M. cavaleriei var. cavaleriei in Flora of China. Therefore, consistent with the past reduction to Magnolia of the remaining segregate genera of subfamily Magnolioideae, Michelia fallax is here transferred to Magnolia.

Differentiating features of the species Michelia fallax and Michelia cavaleriei.

Plant feature Michelia fallax Dandy Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep.
indumentum of branchlets appressed grey tomentose, becoming tawny near apex silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose§
indumentum of buds appressed shiny grey tomentose silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose§
leaf shape elliptic-oblong, oblong or narrowly oblong narrowly oblanceolate-oblong or narrowly oblong§
leaf apex acuminate or subacuminate acuminate or short-acute§
leaf base obtuse or sub-rounded cuneate or broadly cuneate§
leaf dimensions up to ca. 30 × 8.5 cm (ca. 29 × 9 cm) 10–20 × 3.5–6.5 cm§
leaf indumentum abaxially short appressed grey pubescent glaucous, silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose when young§
secondary lateral leaf veins ca. 14–16 pairs 11–15 pairs
petiole length and indumentum ca. 2.5 cm, initially appressed grey or yellow-brown tomentose, later glabrescent 2 cm, puberulus (0.7–1.5 cm# silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose§)
gynoecium indumentum appressed grey tomentellous glabrous except for few bristly hairs towards apex of carpels††
number of ovules ca. 10 2
fruiting peduncle indumentum appressed glossy grey or yellowish-brown tomentose silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose§
fruit aggregate length 10–12 cm 5–10 cm§
mature carpels length up to ca. 2.5 cm 1.5–2 cm
fruiting period July September–October‡,§

Magnolia gelida (T.B. Zhao, Z.X. Chen & D.L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia gelida T.B. Zhao, Z.X. Chen & D.L. Fu. In: Y.F. Hu et al., Advances Orn. Hort. China 2013: 39–40, fig. 1 (2013).

Chinese name

耐冬含笑 meaning “winter resisting michelia”

Type

CHINA. Henan Province: Jinling County, Changge city, cultivated (native to Zhejiang Province: Fuyang County), 24 March 2010, Zhao Tian-bang, Fu Da-li et al. 201003245 (holotype: HEAC, fol, fl. n.v.)

Magnolia guangnanica (D.X. Li & R.Z. Zhou ex X.M. Hu, Q.W. Zeng & L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia guangnanica D.X. Li & R.Z. Zhou ex X.M. Hu, Q.W. Zeng & L. Fu, Novon 23(2): 172, figs. 1, 2 (2014).

Chinese name

广南木莲 meaning “Guangnan manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Guangnan County, Heizhiguo town and village, Mt. Gulu, in limestone montane evergreen broad-leaved forest, 1710 m, 17 October 1993, Zhou Ren-zhang & Zeng Qing-wen 93049 (holotype and isotype: IBSC n.v.). Same locality, 12 May 1992, D.X. Li & Z.Q. Ouyang 920512 (paratype: MO n.v.). Same locality 16 April 2003, R.Z. Zhou 03046 (paratype: IBSC n.v.). Yunnan Province: Guangnan County, Mount Houshan, near Zhujie village of Zhujie town, 1600 m, 4 October 1993, R.Z. Zhou 9304 (paratype: IBSC!). Yunnan Province: Kunming Botanical Garden, cultivated, 1 May 2010, X.M. Hu & Q.W. Zeng 00166 (paratype: IBSC n.v.).

Note

The holotype and isotype specimens of Manglietia guangnanica could not be found by herbarium staff at IBSC, nor could the paratype specimen at MO be located (Jim Solomon, pers. comm., July 2019). However, the paratype that was received from IBSC, R.Z. Zhou (Zhou Ren-zhang) 9304 collected at 1600 m, inexplicably has the locality and collection date as for the holotype / isotype above and not Mount Houshan on the 4 October 1993 as is noted in the 2014 paper for this paratype.

Magnolia hunanensis (C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia hunanensis C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan. In: C.L. Peng et al., J. Hunan Forest. Tech. Coll. 1995(1): 15 (1995).

Chinese name

湖南含笑 meaning “Hunan michelia”

Type

CHINA. Hunan Province: Xinning County, without elevation or collection date, L.H. Yan & C.L. Peng 93018 (holotype: HFBG n.v.; isotype: HFTC n.v.).

Magnolia maudiae (Dunn) Figlar var. hunanensis (C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan) Sima (2001: 33).

Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. In: Xia & Deng (2002: 132) and Sima (2011: 214), both p.p. quoad syn. Michelia hunanensis C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan—Sima & Lu (2009: 50), p.p. quoad syns. Michelia hunanensis C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan and Magnolia maudiae (Dunn) Figlar var. hunanensis (C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan) Sima.

Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. var. cavaleriei. In: Xia et al. (2008: 84), p.p. quoad syn. Michelia hunanensis C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan.

Note 1

The holotype specimen was irretrievably damaged during repeated relocations of the HFBG herbarium (Yan Lihong, pers. comm.). Photographs were sent in its place.

Note 2. The numerous known differentiating features compiled in Table 3 below confirm Michelia hunanensis as an independent species and not a variety of Magnolia maudiae, nor a synonym of Michelia cavaleriei var. cavaleriei as noted above.

Differentiating features of Michelia hunanensis, M. maudiae and M. cavaleriei.

Plant feature Michelia hunanensis C.L. Peng & L.H. Yan Michelia maudiae Dunn Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep.
maximum height 20 m 31 m§ 10 m¶¶
indumentum of buds greyish-pilose glabrous (covered with white powder††) silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose¶¶
leaf shape oblong or broadly oblong oblong-elliptic or occasionally ovate-elliptic†† narrowly oblanceolate-oblong or narrowly oblong¶¶
leaf dimensions 13–33 × 6–9 cm 7–18 × 3.5–8.5 cm†† 10–20 × 3.5–6.5 cm¶¶
leaf apex cuspidate obtuse acuminate (occasionally long-acuminate) acuminate or short-acute¶¶
leaf base rounded or obtuse acute or cuneate cuneate or broadly cuneate¶¶
undersides of leaves greyish pubescent glabrous, as is the entire plant††, except for the silky grey pubescent stamens# glaucous and silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose when young¶¶)
lateral leaf veins 8–14 pairs 8–12 pairs 11–15 pairs§§
petiole length and indumentum 2–3.5 cm, pilose 2.5–3 cm, glabrous (1–3 cm‡‡) 2 cm, puberulus (0.7–1.5 cm)##, silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose¶¶
tepal number 9 9–11‡‡ 10–12##
tepal shape and size (outer 3) obovate, 6–7 cm long
(width not specified)
obovate,
5–7 × 3.5–4 cm††
obovate-elliptic (2.5–4 cm long¶¶)
tepal shape and size (inner 3) obovate-lanceolate, 4–4.8 × 1.2–1.4 cm obovate, elliptic to broadly spathulate, 4.5–5 × 1.8–2.5 cm obovate-elliptic, 2.5 × 1.5 cm
length of stamens ca. 1cm 1.5–2.2 cm 1.2–1.4 cm§§
gynoecium length, shape and indumentum 1 cm, cylindric, pubescent 1.5–1.8 cm (1.0–1.3 cm, subcylindric), glabrous 1 cm, narrowly ovate, with a few hairs only near the carpel apex
gynophore length 5–8 mm ca. 10 mm ca. 4 mm§§
fruit aggregate length 8–17 cm 10–12(–14) cm 5–10 cm¶¶
flowering period March–April January–March†† March§§, ¶¶
fruiting period August–September October–November†† September–October§§,¶¶

Magnolia jinggangshanensis (R.L. Liu & Z.X. Zhang) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia jinggangshanensis R.L. Liu & Z.X. Zhang. In: Fedd. Repert. 130(3): 289, 290 fig. 1, 291 fig. 2 (2019)

Chinese name

井冈山木莲 meaning “Jinggangshan manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Jiangxi Province: Jinggangshan, in evergreen forest, 980 m, 8 May 2001 (fl.), R.L. Liu 20010012 (holotype: BJFC!; isotypes: PE n.v., K n.v.)

Note

The isotypes at PE and K could not be located (Xiaohua Jin, PE, Beijing, pers. comm., July 2019 and Clare Drinkell, assistant curator, Kew, pers. comm., July 2019).

Magnolia maguanica (Chang & B.L. Chen) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia maguanica Chang & B.L. Chen. In: B.L. Chen, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1988(1): 109 (1988).

Chinese name

马关木莲 meaning “Maguan manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Maguan County, Bazhai, near Xiaoshan, in woods, ca. 1800 m, 7 October 1986, B.L. Chen & Y.H. Su 86s-053 (holotype: SYS! + online image!; isotype: L online image!).

Digital image of specimens below accessed 19 March 2019:

holotype (SYS): http://www.docin.com/p-1050989203.html (Sima 2011: 312, photo 2-42).

isotype [L: L0204985]: http://medialib.naturalis.nl/file/id/L0204985_MLN/format/large?fpi=1

Manglietia insignis (Wall.) Blume. In: Chen and Nooteboom (1993: 1044), Frodin and Govaerts (1996: 52), J. Li (1997: 132), Wu and Chen (2006: 10), and Xia et al. (2008: 56), each p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia maguanica Chang & B.L. Chen.

Magnolia insignis Wall. In: Khuraijam and Goel (2015: 109), p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia maguanica Chang & B.L. Chen.

Note

Manglietia maguanica is listed as a synonym of M. insignis in Chen & Nooteboom (1993) and subsequently by the authors noted above. However, both are recognised as independent species in the majority of the more recent Chinese publications, including Liu et al. (2004: 164, 156), Xing et al. (2009: 198, 196), Sima and Lu (2009), Sima (2011: 98, 102), Deng and Yang (2015: 48, 54) and Yang et al. (2016: 192, 181).

Magnolia maudiae Dunn (Figlar) var. rubicunda (T.P. Yi & J.C. Fan) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia maudiae Dunn var. rubricunda T.P. Yi & J.C. Fan. In: J.C. Fan et al., J. Sichuan Forest. Sci. Tech. 30(4): 68, plate 1 (2009).

Chinese name

红花深山含笑 meaning “red-flowered deep mountains michelia”

Type

CHINA. Sichuan Province: Dujiangyan, cultivated at the Arboretum of Sichuan Agricultural University, 22 February 2009, T.P. Yi 09001 (holotype: SAUT=SIFS, fl. n.v.). Other specimens recorded: same locality, 13 September 2008, T.P. Yi 08005 (SAUT=SIFS, fr. n.v.). Sichuan Province: Dujiangyan Juyuan Nursery, 20 August 2008, T.P. Yi 08004 (SAUT=SIFS, fr. n.v.). [Introduced from Tongdao County, Hunan Province].

Magnolia multitepala (R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia multitepala R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian. In: S.G. Jian et al., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 44: 65, fig. 1 (2007).

Chinese name

多瓣含笑 meaning “multi-tepalled michelia”

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Xichou County, Fadou Mountain, in moist evergreen broad-leaved forest, 1300–1500 m, March 2003, R.Z. Zhou 0401 (holotype: IBSC n.v.). Same locality, July 2004, R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian 20040701 (paratype: IBSC n.v.).

Michelia macclurei Dandy. In: Xia et al. (2008: 85), p.p. quoad syn. Michelia multitepala R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian.

Michelia doltsopa Buch.-Ham. ex DC. In: Sima and Lu (2009: 53) and Sima (2011: 196), both p.p. quoad syn. Michelia multitepala R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian.

Note 1

There is no data or images held at IBSC for the holotype (Huang Xiangxu, pers. comm., July 2019).

Note 2

The authors of Michelia multitepala noted that it closely resembles M. ingrata B.L. Chen & S.C.Yang and M. macclurei Dandy, but recorded in their comparative diagnosis sufficient morphological differences with these species to substantiate and name Michelia multitepala as a distinct new species. M. multitepala is recorded as a synonym of M. doltsopa Buch.-Ham. ex DC. by the above noted authors. However, in Liu’s classification system of Magnoliaceae (Liu et al. 2004: 381), both M. macclurei and M. ingrata are placed in Michelia section Anisochlamys Dandy while M. doltsopa is placed in Michelia section Michelia.

Note 3

Michelia multitepala is sufficiently distinct from M. doltsopa (Candolle 1818), to justify its species status, as shown by their known differentiating features compiled in Table 4 below. Additionally, M. multitepala is known only to occur at 1300–1500 m on Fadou Mountain in the southeast of Yunnan Province, whereas M. doltsopa occurs between 1500–2300 m throughout its widely dispersed geographical area from Yunnan to N Myanmar, NE India, Bhutan and SE Xiyang (Liu et al. 2004: 242), or 2100–2500 m from central Nepal and Burma (Myanmar) to Sichuan and Yunnan (Polunin and Stainton 1999: 19). As a consequence of the substantiation of its specific status, Michelia multitepala is here transferred to Magnolia in accordance with the past reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae to the genus Magnolia.

Differentiating features of the species Michelia multitepala and M. doltsopa.

Plant feature Michelia multitepala R.Z. Zhou & S.G. Jian Michelia doltsopa Buch.-Ham. ex DC
tree dimensions 15 m tall, 30 cm diameter 30 m tall†,§, 1 m diameter
indumentum of leaf buds rufous appressed-tomentellous rufous or greyish-white appressed pubescent§, orange-rusty hairs on pale green scales
leaf texture leathery thinly leathery§
leaf shape and dimensions elliptic, 14–18 × 5–6.5 cm elliptic-oblong, 10–22 × 5–7 cm§ (10–18(–22) × 3.5–8 cm††)
leaf apex acuminate or short acuminate short acute or long acute§
leaf base broadly cuneate obtuse or broadly cuneate§
leaf beneath pale green pale green and somewhat glaucous beneath#, glaucous with orange pubescent veins
lateral leaf veins 13–15 pairs 10–14 pairs
petiole length and indumentum 1.5–3 cm, rufous appressed tomentellous 1–2 cm‡‡, slightly silky grey pubescent, later glabrescent
stipular scars none to ca. 1/5 of petiole length§
peduncle indumentum rufous appressed-tomentellous densely appressed-villose§
tepal number, shape and size 11–12, oblong-lanceolate, 4–6.5 × 0.8–1.7 cm (8–)12–16, narrowly obovate spoon-shaped 3.6–7.5 × 1.4–3 cm††
stamen length 14–16 mm 8–15 mm††
gynoecium length 2–2.5 cm 1.5–2 cm
fruit aggregate length 8–15 cm 4–7 cm§ (6–10 cm‡‡)
shape of carpels ellipsoid globose
flowering period February–March March–April§

Magnolia pendula (D.L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov .

Basionym

Yulania pendula D.L. Fu. In: D.L. Fu et al., Amer. J. Agric. and Forest. 7(5): 220–221, figs. 5 & 6 (2019c).

Type

CHINA. Sichuan Province: Beichuan County, Guixi town, Linfeng village, Yaowang Valley, secondary forest, 1200 m, 2 April 2012, D. L. Fu 2012040201 (holotype: CAF n.v.). Same locality, 13 September 2012, D. L. Fu 2012091308 (paratype, CAF n.v.).

Chinese name

垂枝玉兰 meaning “weeping yulan”

Note

The type specimens of Yulania pendula cannot be located at the Beijing herbarium of CAF (Wang Hongbin, pers. comm., March 2020).

Magnolia pilocarpa Z.Z. Zhao & Z.W. Xie var. ellipticifolia (D.L. Fu, T.B. Zhao & J. Zhao) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Yulania pilocarpa (Z.Z. Zhao & Z.W. Xie) D.L. Fu var. ellipticifolia D.L. Fu, T.B. Zhao & J. Zhao. In: D.L. Fu et al., Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 27(5): 526; figs. 1C–D (2007).

Chinese name

椭圆叶罗田玉兰 meaning “elliptical-leaved Luotian yulan”

Type

CHINA. Henan Province: Xinzheng City, 23 March 2002, T.B. Zhao et al. 200203231 (holotype: HEAC, flos. n.v.). Same locality, 21 September 2002, T.B. Zhao et al. 200209211 (paratype: HEAC, folia, ramulus et peruli-alabastrum; n.v.).

Yulania pilocarpa (Z.Z. Zhao & Z.W. Xie) D.L. Fu. In: Xia et al. (2008: 76), p.p. quoad syn. Yulania pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia D.L. Fu et al.

Yulania denudata var. pilocarpa (Z.Z. Zhou & Z.W. Xie) Sima & S.G. Lu. In: Sima (2011: 163), p.p. quoad syn. Yulania pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia D.L. Fu et al.

Note 1

The genus Yulania Spach (Spach 1839) was resurrected in Flora of China (Xia et al. 2008), but there has not been universal acceptance of this in China, with Yulania again recognised as a subgenus under Magnolia (Ying et al. 2009, Yang et al. 2016).

Note 2

Yulania pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia is sufficiently distinguished from Y. pilocarpa to maintain its varietal status by the following features: indumentum of the branchlets (densely pubescent, later glabrous vs. glabrous [Law et al. 2004: 93]); the leaf shape (elliptical, rarely inverted-triangular vs. obovate to broadly obovate [Law et al. 2004]) and the shape and size of the inner 6 tepals (petaloid, 5–7 × 2–3.2 cm vs. nearly spathulate, 7–10 × 3–5 cm [Law et al. 2004]). Additionally, the two taxa are geographically isolated (central Henan Province vs. SE Hubei Province). The illustration of the leaves accompanying the original description of Yulania pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia (Fu et al. 2007: fig.1D) shows them to be in stark contrast to the leaves of Magnolia pilocarpa illustrated in Liu et al. (2004: 93).

Magnolia platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia platypetala Hand.-Mazz. In: Handel-Mazzetti, Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 58(12): 89 (1921).

Chinese name

阔瓣含笑 meaning “broad-petalled (tepalled) michelia”

Type

CHINA. Hunan Province: Yunshan, near Wukang-chow (= Wugang), ca. 950 m, lofty shady forests, April 1919, Wang Te-Hui (De-Hui Wang) 12281 (p.p. quoad flowering material only, in Handel-Mazzetti, 1921) (holotype: W (possibly destroyed in WWII); isotypes: A online image!, K online image!, SYS!, WU online image!).

Digital images of isotype specimens below accessed 19 March 2019:

isotype [A: 00039059]: http://kiki.huh.harvard.edu/databases/image.php?id=304833

isotype [K: K000681459]: http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000681459

isotype [WU: 0039591]: http://herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=71255

Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. In: Chen and Nooteboom (1993: 1058), Frodin and Govaerts (1996: 55), Wu and Chen (2006: 56), each p.p. quoad syn. Michelia platypetala Hand.-Mazz.

Magnolia maudiae var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) Sima (2001: 33).

Magnolia cavaleriei var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) Noot. In: Xia et al. (2008: 49).

Michelia cavaleriei var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) N. H. Xia. In: Xia et al. (2008: 85).

Note 1

Dandy (1928c: 130) provides relevant background information concerning the type collections of Michelia platypetala and M. fallax from the same general locality in Hunan Province in consecutive years and how they were both initially confused as the former species.

Note 2

As recorded in the synonymy section preceding Note 1, Michelia platypetala is noted as a synonym of M. cavaleriei and has been made a variety of both Magnolia maudiae and Michelia cavaleriei, the 2001 and 2008 publications with a noted elevational range of 1200–1500 m despite Handel-Mazzetti’s type collection being made at ca. 950 metres. However, M. platypetala retains its species status in Law et al. (1996: 177), Liu et al. (2004: 306), Sima (2011: 219), Deng and Yang (2015: 144) and Yang et al. (2016: 306).

Note 3

Grimshaw and Bayton (2009: 500) record a personal communication received from Richard Figlar in 2007 advising that “this taxon (Magnolia maudiae var. platypetala) probably ought to be recognised at the specific level, as Magnolia platypetala, as it differs considerably from M. maudiae both in its hairiness and its later bud-break”. Sima (2011: 327), illustrates the contrasting difference between the indumentum of the undersurfaces of the leaves of M. platypetala (Plate 3-4H) and that of the leaves of M. maudiae (Plate 3-4C). Additionally, in a study by Zhang and Xia (2007) on leaf architecture and its taxonomic significance in respect of subtribe Micheliinae of Magnoliaceae, the pronounced contrast in the leaves of Michelia platypetala and M. cavaleriei as revealed by stereoscopic magnified imaging (shown at figs. 36 and 37 in their paper), resulted in these authors concluding that these two taxa should be recognised as independent species”. It is apparent that there is now an almost unanimous consensus of the species status of Michelia platypetala, which is confirmed by the comparison of its morphological features with those of M. cavaleriei compiled in Table 5 below. In view of its distinctive characteristics and accepting the majority recognition by the above-mentioned Chinese authors of Michelia platypetala as a genuine species, it is here transferred to Magnolia as a consequence of the past reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae to the genus Magnolia.

Differentiating features of the species Michelia platypetala and M. cavaleriei.

Plant feature Michelia platypetala Hand-Mazz. Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep.
life form medium-sized tree to 20 m small-sized tree 7–10 metres
indumentum of branchlets rufous sericeous silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose
indumentum of buds rufous sericeous silver-grey or rufous appressed pilose
leaf shape oblong or elliptic-oblong narrowly oblong or narrowly oblanceolate-oblong
leaf dimensions 11–18(–20) × 4–6(–7) cm (12–17 × 4.5–6.5 cm) 10–20 × 3.5–6.5 cm (8–21 × 2.5–5 cm#)
leaf apex acuminate or abruptly narrowed short-acuminate acuminate or short-acute
leaf base broadly cuneate or obtuse cuneate or broadly cuneate
leaf indumentum abaxially greyish-white appressed puberulent or rufous appressed hairs silver-grey or rufous pilose, appressed when young
lateral leaf veins 8–14 pairs 11–15 pairs§
petiole length 2–3 cm 2 cm (0.7–1.5 cm#)
pedicel (peduncle) length 0.5–2 cm 1.5–2.5 cm§
bract scar number 2 2–3
tepal number and shape 9 (9–11), obovate-elliptic or elliptic ca. 12 (10–12#): obovate-elliptic
tepal length (outer 3) 5–7 cm 2.5 cm (2.5–4 cm)
stamen / anther length ca. 1 cm / ca. 6 mm 1.2–1.4 cm / ca. 8 mm§
gynoecium shape, length and indumentum cylindric, 6–8 mm, grey or golden puberulent narrowly ovoid, ca.10 mm, glabrous except for few bristly hairs towards apex of the carpels
gynophore length ca. 5 mm ca. 4 mm§
number of ovules ca. 8 in each immature carpel 2 in each immature carpel
fruit aggregate length 5–15 cm 5–10 cm
mature carpels shape and size ellipsoid, rarely globose or ovoid, 1.5–2(–2.5) × 1–1.5 cm obovoid or ellipsoid, 1.5–2 cm long§
flowering period March–April March§

Magnolia puberula (D.L. Fu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Yulania puberula D.L. Fu. In: D.L. Fu et al., Amer. J. Agric. and Forest. 7(5): 208–209, fig. 3 (2019a).

Chinese name

短毛玉兰 meaning “short-haired yulan”

Type

CHINA. Hubei Province, Wudang Mountain, ca. 970 m, 26 March 2018, D.L. Fu 2018032601 (holotype: CAF, fl. n.v.). Same locality, 8 October 2017, D.L. Fu 2017100801 (paratype: CAF, fr. n.v.).

Note

The type specimens of Yulania puberula cannot be located at the Beijing herbarium of CAF (Wang Hongbin, pers. comm., March 2020).

Magnolia pubipedunculata (Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia pubipedunculata Q.W. Zeng & X.M. Hu. In: X.M. Hu et al., PloS ONE l4 (3): 4–5, fig. 1 (e0210254: 2019). [13 March 2019 – epublished]

Chinese name

柔毛花梗木莲 meaning “pubescent-peduncled manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Wenshan Prefecture, Maguan County, Miechang Town, Daxinzhai Village, Donggualin, Huashikeng, evergreen broad-leaved forests, 1453 m, 104°05'21"E; 22°54'50"N, 14 May 2004, Q.W. Zeng 89 (holotype: IBSC n.v.). Same locality, 9 September 2003, Q.W. Zeng 80 (paratype: IBSC n.v.).

Note

There are no data or images held at IBSC for the holotype (Huang Xiangxu, pers. comm., July 2019).

Magnolia pubipetala (Q.W. Zeng) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia pubipetala Q.W. Zeng. In: Q.W. Zeng et al., Pakistan J. Bot.(6): 1917, 1919 + 1918, fig. 1 (2007).

Chinese name

毛瓣木莲 meaning “hairy-tepals manglietia” (this Chinese name is often erroneously applied to Manglietia rufibarbata which has glabrous tepals)

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Maguan County, Bazhai, evergreen broad-leaved forests, ca. 1500 m, 14 May 2002, Ren-zhang Zhou 0256 (holotype: IBSC online image!). Yunnan Province: Xichou County, Fadu, Hemawan, evergreen broad-leaved forests, ca. 1600 m, 2 May 1979, Gao Ting-xiang & Zhu Dai-qing 05 (paratype: IBSC n.v.). Yunnan Province: Kunming Botanical Garden, introduced 1987 from Yunnan Province’s Malipo County, Jingchang, evergreen broad-leaved forests, 1400 m, 3 May 2003, Zheng Qing-wen 67 (paratype: IBSC!).

holotype (IBSC): http://www.docin.com/p-1050989203.html (Sima 2011: 313, photo 2-48).

Manglietia rufibarbata Dandy. In: Xia et al. (2008: 60), Sima and Lu (2009: 30) and Sima (2011: 68), each p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia pubipetala Q.W. Zeng.

Note

Manglietia pubipetala Q.W. Zeng is considered as conspecific with M. rufibarbata Dandy by the above authors. However, M. pubipetala can be sufficiently differentiated from M. rufibarbata Dandy to justify its species status, as shown by the comparative morphological features included in Table 6 on the following page (adapted from Table 1, Zeng et al. 2007). M. pubipetala is therefore transferred to Magnolia consistent with the past reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae to the genus Magnolia.

Differentiating features of species Manglietia pubipetala and M. rufibarbata.

Plant feature Manglietia pubipetala Q.W. Zeng Manglietia rufibarbata Dandy
indumentum of branchlets brown villose densely rufous villose
leaf shape narrowly obovate-elliptic oblanceolate or oblanceolate-oblong or obovate-oblong
leaf apex caudate-acuminate acuminate or subacuminate
leaf base cuneate cuneate or obtuse or occasionally rounded
leaf dimensions 13–17.5 × 4.5–6 cm 10–25 × 4–9 cm
leaf indumentum abaxially glaucous, densely brown villose rufous pubescent, especially near midrib
leaf texture papery thinly leathery
secondary lateral leaf veins ca. 10–12 pairs ca. 12–18 pairs
petiole length / indumentum 1.2–1.5 cm, brown villose up to 3 cm, rufous villose or tomentose
stipules brown villose, adnate to petiole stipules externally densely rufous villose, adnate to petiole only lower 1/3
tepal number 9 11 (9–12)
tepal size (outer 3) and indumentum 3.8–4.0 × 2.5–2.7 cm, pale brown pubescent ca. 3 × 2 cm , glabrous
stamen scars length 6–7 mm ca. 10–12 mm
gynoecium shape narrowly obovoid-ellipsoid ovoid-oblong

Magnolia rubriflora (Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex F.G. Wang, Q.W. Zeng, R.Z. Zhou & F.W. Xing) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia rubriflora Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex F.G. Wang et al., Pakistan J. Bot. 37(3): 559, fig. 1 (2005).

Chinese name

红花含笑 meaning “red-flowered michelia”

Type

CHINA. Hainan: Mount Jianfengling, 500–600 m, 31 October 2001, Zhou Ren-zhang 0265 (holotype: IBSC n.v.). Guangdong Province: Guangzhou, Magnolia Garden of Guangdong Forest Research Institute, 8 October 2001, Zhou Ren-zhang 0265b (paratypes: IBSC!; P online image!).

Digital image of paratype specimen below accessed 19 March 2019:

paratype [P: P00852399]: http://mediaphoto.mnhn.fr/media/1445779250360OrFutLDauT0PI7UU

Michelia mediocris Dandy. In: Xia et al. (2008: 85), p.p. quoad syn. Michelia rubriflora Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou.

Note

While Michelia rubriflora is noted as a synonym of M. mediocris in Flora of China (Xia et al. 2008), the present authors agree with Wang and co-authors that Michelia rubriflora can be more than sufficiently differentiated from M. mediocris by the diagnostic features of these two species included in Table 1 of their paper (Wang et al. 2005), to substantiate its species status. A more comprehensive analysis of their differentiating features is compiled in Table 7 below. Michelia rubriflora also does not key out with the original validating description for M. subulifera (Dandy 1930:212), with which it shares synonymy under M. mediocris in Flora of China. Evidently an independent species, Michelia rubriflora is transferred in the present paper to the genus Magnolia by reason of the past reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae to that genus.

Differentiating features of the species Michelia rubriflora and M. mediocris.

Plant feature Michelia rubriflora Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou Michelia mediocris Dandy
tree dimensions to 15 m × 25 cm dbh 35 m x 90 cm dbh (30 m x 190 cm dbh)
indumentum of buds greyish-white or pale brown appressed pilose rufous appressed puberulent
indumentum of branchlets greyish-white or pale brown appressed pilose appressed grey or yellowish-brown tomentose
leaf shape ovate-elliptic elliptic or elliptic-oblong
leaf dimensions 5–9 × 2.5–3.5 cm 6–13 × 3–5 cm§
leaf indumentum abaxially greyish-white or pale brown appressed pilose initially appressed greyish pubescent (greyish-white appressed puberulent)
leaf texture leathery thinly leathery
lateral leaf veins 9–11 either side of midrib 12–15 either side of midrib
stipular scars 1–2 mm long none
petiole length and indumentum 1–2.5 cm, greyish-white or pale brown appressed pilose 1.5–3 cm§, initially appressed grey tomentellous, then glabrescent
tepal number /colour 9, red 9–10#, white
tepal size and shape 2.5–3.5 × 1.0–1.2 cm, lanceolate 1.8–2.2 × 0.5–0.8 cm, spathulate§
stamen length /colour 1.5–1.7 cm, red 1.0–1.5 cm§, yellowish-green
gynophore not exserted above androecium extended well above androecium (illustration)
flowering period October–November December–January [China]
February–March # [Vietnam]
fruiting period October–November of the next year August–September [China] September–October# [Vietnam]
of the same year

Magnolia rufisyncarpa (Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & F.G. Wang) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia rufisyncarpa Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & F.G. Wang. In: F.G. Wang et al., Nordic J. Bot. 24(5): 519, fig. 1 (2004).

Chinese name

红雌蕊木莲 meaning “red gynoecium manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Yunnan Province: Wenshan, Mount Laojun, 1600 m, 12 May 2001, Zhou Ren-zhang 008 (holotype IBSC!; isotype: IBSC n.v.). Same locality, 1800 m, 26 April 2001, Zhou Ren-zhang 0134 (paratype: IBSC n.v.). Guangdong Province: South China Botanical Garden, 30 April 1997, Zhou Ren-zhang 134 (paratypes: IBSC n.v.; P online image!). Digital image of paratype specimen below accessed 15 March 2020:

paratype [P: P00634914]: http://mediaphoto.mnhn.fr/media/1443127138308WwtO3rNrsfBvSzZP

Manglietia insignis (Wall.) Blume. In: Xia et al. (2008: 56), Sima and Lu (2009: 26) and Sima (2011: 102), each p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia rufisyncarpa Y.W. Law et al.

Magnolia insignis Wall. In: Khuraijam and Goel (2015: 109), p.p. quoad syn. Manglietia rufisyncarpa Y.W. Law, R.Z. Zhou & F.G. Wang.

Note

Manglietia rufisyncarpa is listed as a synonym of M. insignis in Flora of China (Xia et al. 2008), by Sima and Lu (2009) and by Sima (2011). However, the present authors agree with Wang and co-authors that M. rufisyncarpa can be more than sufficiently differentiated from M. insignis (Wall.) Bl. by the diagnostic characters of these two species compiled by Wang et al. (2004: Table 1), to substantiate its independent species status. Additionally, M. rufisyncarpa flowers from April–May whereas M. insignis flowers from May–June (Liu et al. 2004: 156). Also, among the many Manglietia photos in Magnolias of China, the bright red gynoecium of this species, alluded to in its Chinese name, is particularly noticeable as one of only a few exhibiting this colour, with M. insignis displaying a green gynoecium. Manglietia rufisyncarpa also does not key out with the original validating descriptions for M. maguanica Chang & B.L. Chen, M. yunnanensis Hu or Magnolia shangpaensis Hu, with which it shares synonymy under Manglietia insignis in Flora of China. In view of the above, M. rufisyncarpa is transferred in the present paper to Magnolia, consistent with the past reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae to the genus Magnolia.

Magnolia septipetala (Z.L. Nong) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia septipetala Z.L. Nong. In: Guihaia 13(3): 220–221, fig. 1 (1993).

Chinese name

七瓣含笑 meaning “seven-petals (tepals) michelia” (the tepals in fact are recorded as 7–9)

Type

CHINA. Jiangxi Province: Xinfeng County, Jinpen Shan, in woods, 21 May 1986, Nong Zhi-lin 086067 (holotype: IBK, fl. white n.v.). Other specimens recorded: Same locality? Nong Z.L. 086167. Jiangxi Province: Shangyou County, Wuzhifeng, Guangu Shan, 670 m, 23 November 1976, Nong Z.L. 760347 (JXAU online images!). Digital images of specimen 760347 with collector noted as Shi Xinghua, accessed 19 March 2019:

[JXAU: 0001182]: http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spm/JXAU/JXAU0001182

[JXAU: 0001183]: http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spm/JXAU/JXAU0001183

[JXAU: 0001184]: http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spm/JXAU/JXAU0001184

Michelia fujianensis Q.F. Zheng. In: Xia and Deng (2002: 130) and Xia et al. (2008: 83), both p.p. quoad syn. Michelia septipetala Z.L. Nong.

Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu. In: Sima (2011: 234), p.p. quoad syn. Michelia septipetala Z.L. Nong.

Note

The holotype specimen of Michelia septipetala cannot be found at IBK (Xu Wei-bin, pers. comm., July 2019). However, M. septipetala can be easily differentiated from both M. fujianensis and M. caloptila, the 2 species under which it is noted in synonymy above, by the comparison of their morphological and phenological characteristics summarised in Table 8 below.

Differentiating features of Michelia septipetala, M. fujianensis and M. caloptila.

Plant feature Michelia septipetala Z.L. Nong Michelia fujianensis Q.F. Zheng Michelia caloptila Y.W. Law & Y.F. Wu
maximum height 28 m (30 m) to 16 m§ ca. 15 m
bark colour greyish-white greyish-brown grey
indumentum of buds densely ferrugineus-tomentose densely cinnamon-coloured tomentose brown tomentose
indumentum of branchlets densely ferrugineus-tomentose densely cinnamon-coloured tomentose brown tomentose
leaf shape oblong-elliptic oblong or narrowly obovate-elliptic narrowly elliptic or elliptic
leaf dimensions 8–16 × 2.8–5.5 cm 6–11 × 2.5–4 cm 9–16 × 2.5–5 cm
leaf apex / base short acuminate
/ broadly cuneate
acute / rounded acuminate or caudate-acuminate / cuneate
leaf indumentum adaxially almost glabrous densely short-tomentose at midrib glabrous
leaf indumentum abaxially ferrugineus-pubescent, denser at midrib densely ferrugineus or brownish-yellow appressed sericeous minutely brown tomentose
lateral leaf veins 11–13 pairs 8–9 pairs 7–12 pairs
petiole length / indumentum 5–7 mm, densely ferrugineus pubescent 10–15 mm, densely cinnamon tomentose 5–10 mm, brown tomentose
peduncle indumentum densely ferrugineus-tomentose densely cinnamon-coloured tomentose not known
tepal number and shape 7–9: external 3 tepals obovate, internal tepals narrowly obovate 15–16: spathulate-oblong (12–17, outer 3 tepals narrowly obovate, inner tepals obovate, or narrowly ovate§) 6–9: obovate-oblong#
stamen number and length ca. 20, 10–15 mm number not known,
4–5.5 mm
ca. 35 (photo#), length not known
filament length 4–5 mm 1–1.5 mm not known
gynoecium length narrowly cylindric, ca. 20 mm cylindric, ca. 5 mm not known
gynophore length ca. 8 mm ca. 1 mm not known
immature carpels ca. 20, densely yellow-brown sericeous, with 2–3 ovules each carpel pubescent, most aborted not known
gynophore in fruit yellow-brown tomentose, 18–25 mm long pilose, 2–2.5 mm long ca. 20 mm long
fruit aggregates 7–13 cm long 2–3 cm 4–10 cm long
mature carpels sessile, oblong or rounded, 1–1.8 × 0.9–1.3 cm with 1–3 seeds obovoid, 1.5–2 cm × ca. 1.2 cm with 1 seed broadly ovate or
suborbicular, 1–1.8 cm long with 1–4 seeds.
flowering period May (–June?) January–February December–January§ not known
fruiting period November October–November§ September

Magnolia sinoconifera (F.N. Wei) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Manglietia sinoconifera F.N. Wei. In: Guihaia 13(1): 5, fig. s.n. (1993).

Chinese name

那坡木莲 meaning “Napo manglietia”

Type

CHINA. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Guilin Botanical Garden (cultivated; introduced from Napo County, W Guangxi), 3 June 1991, Wei Fa-nan 1910 (holotype: IBK n.v.).

Manglietia dandyi (Gagnep.) Dandy. In: Xia et al. (2008: 54), p.p. quoad syn. ?Manglietia sinoconifera F.N. Wei.

Note 1

The holotype specimen of Manglietia sinoconifera cannot be found at IBK (Xu Wei-bin, pers. comm., July 2019).

Note 2

Some of the features distinguishing Manglietia sinoconifera from M. dandyi, under which it is questionably placed as conspecific in Flora of China due to uncertainty over its status (because the holotype could not be sighted), are listed in Table 9 below. M. sinoconifera (to 10 m) also does not key out with the description for the large-leaved M. megaphylla Hu & W.C. Cheng (1951), a tree to 40m (Liu et al 2004), with which it shares synonymy under M. dandyi in Flora of China. Manglietia sinoconifera is recognised as a genuine species in Yang et al. (2016: 213–214), wherein its introduction to Guilin Botanical Garden from Napo County is recorded as 1973 (18 years earlier than stated in the protologue).

Differentiating features of the species Manglietia sinoconifera and M. dandyi.

Plant feature Manglietia sinoconifera F.N. Wei Manglietia dandyi (Gagnep.) Dandy
life form ca. 10 m to 15 m
indumentum of branchlets densely light reddish-brown initially soft red pilose, finally ash-grey and almost glabrous
leaf shape oblanceolate ovate or broadly lanceolate
leaf dimensions 15–24 × 5.5–8 cm 16–17 × 7–8 cm (16–24 × 5–8.5 cm)
leaf apex cuspidate short acuminate
leaf base cuneate obtuse
leaf indumentum abaxially appressed brown pubescent red pilose
petiole length and indumentum 2.2–3 cm, appressed brown pubescent 3 cm (1.2–2.3 cm), red pilose
lateral leaf vein pairs 14–19 8–13
tepal number and shape 11: outer 3 oblong, inner 8 generally obovate and spathulate 9–11: outer 3 obovate-oblong, intermediate obovate, innermost oblanceolate
tepal dimensions and indumentum (outer 3) 6.5 × 3.5 cm, glabrous 2–2.2 × 1.5–1.7 cm, pubescent externally at base
stamen length 10–13 mm 5.5–7 mm
gynoecium length ca. 25 mm 10–13 mm
ovules in each carpel 12 2–10
flowering period May April

Magnolia sonlaensis (Q.N. Vu) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia sonlaensis Q.N. Vu. In: Q.N. Vu et al., Nordic J. Bot. 37(9): 2–3, figs. 1,2 (2019).

Vietnamese name: Giổi sơn la, meaning “Son La michelia”

Type

VIETNAM. Son La Province: Yen Chau District, Muong Lum Municipality, Lum village, degraded secondary vegetation, 2270 m, 104°28'44.25"E, 21°00'56.53"N, 1 May 2018, Nam 152018.2 (holotype: VNF!). Same locality, 2275 m, 104°29'30"E, 21°00'47"N, 2 March 2001, D.K. Harder et al. 7092 (paratypes: HN!, MO n.v.). Same locality, 2270 m, 104°28'44"E, 21°00'56"N, 19 May 2017, Nam 1952017 (paratype: VNF n.v.). Same locality, 2272 m, 04°28'44.30"E, 21°00'60"N, 13 April 2019, Nam 1342019 (paratype: VNF n.v.). Same region, 915 m, 104°28'?"E, 21°00'59"N, 29 December 2010, Nam 291210.5; Nam 291210.6; Nam 291210.7 (paratypes: VNF n.v.).

Magnolia urceolata (D.L. Fu, B.H. Xiong & X. Chen) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Yulania urceolata D.L. Fu, B.H. Xiong & X. Chen. In: D.L. Fu et al., Amer. J. Agric. and Forest. 7(5): 219–220, fig. 4 (2019b).

Chinese name

宽瓣玉兰 meaning “wide-capsuled yulan”

Type

CHINA. Lectotype: Liu Yuhu in Zheng W.J. (Ed) Flora of Trees of China 1: 459; fig. 139 (1983). Guizhou Province: Weining County, 2300 m, 30 September 2017, D.L. Fu 2017093001 (paratype: CAF, fr. n.v.). D.L. Fu 2009052401 (paratype: CAF, young fr.). Henan Province: Zhengzhou City (cultivated), D.L. Fu 2012032001 (paratype: CAF, fl. n.v.).

Note

The type specimens of Yulania urceolata cannot be located at the Beijing herbarium of CAF (Wang Hongbin, pers. comm., March 2020).

Magnolia xinningia (Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex Q.X. Ma, Q.W. Zeng, R.Z. Zhou & F.W. Xing) C.B. Callaghan & S.K. Png, comb. nov.

Basionym

Michelia xinningia Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou ex Q.X. Ma et al., Pakistan J. Bot. 37(1): 37, fig. 1 (2005).

Chinese name

新宁含笑 meaning “Xinning michelia”

Type

CHINA. Hunan Province: Xinning County, Ziyunshan, in evergreen broad-leaved forests, 1500 m, 20 September 1992, R.Z. Zhou 197 (holotype: IBSC n.v.; isotype: IBSC n.v.).

Michelia cavaleriei Finet & Gagnep. var. cavaleriei. In: Xia et al. (2008: 84), p.p. quoad syn. Michelia xinningia Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou.

Michelia foveolata Merr. ex Dandy. In: Sima & Lu (2009: 55) and Sima (2011: 216), both p.p. quoad syn. Michelia xinningia Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou.

Note 1

Digital images of R.Z. Zhou 197 and 0197 were received from IBSC in 2019, but with the collection dates in April 1988 and April 1996 (Ziyunshan, 800 m) respectively, so probably represent paratypes not mentioned in the 2005 protologue.

Note 2

In Flora of China (Xia et al. 2008), the 9-tepalled Michelia xinningia from Hunan, with a published height by the naming authors of 20 m, appears incongruously as a synonym of the ca. 12-tepalled M. cavaleriei var. cavaleriei with a height to 10 m (Liu et al. 2004: 229; Xia et al. 2008: 8; Deng and Yang 2015: 148). This would indicate that this remains about the maximum height of M. cavaleriei since being described as a small tree of 4–7 metres more than a century earlier (Finet and Gagnepain 1906: 573), based on a collection from Guizhou ca. 400 km distance from the type locality of Michelia xinningia in Hunan. This discrepancy in their heights indicates that M. xinningia was evidently meant to appear in Flora of China as a synonym of the then new combination M. cavaleriei var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) N.H. Xia of the same height. However, the present authors agree with the abstract and Latin diagnosis of the authors of M. xinningia which indicate it to be sufficiently distinguished from M. cavaleriei var. platypetala (Ma et al. 2005: Table 1), to warrant species status, as has been recognised in Xing et al. (2009: 212) and Yang et al. (2016: 331). Also, Michelia xinningia can easily be differentiated from M. foveolata, under which it is made a synonym by Sima and Lu (2009) and included as such in Sima (2011: 216), by the comparative features compiled in Table 10.

Differentiating features of the species Michelia xinningia and M. foveolata.

Plant feature Michelia xinningia Y.W. Law & R.Z. Zhou Michelia foveolata Merr. ex Dandy
maximum height 20 m 30+ m
bark colour greyish-brown pale grey or dark grey#
indumentum of buds golden villose densely rufous tomentellous#
indumentum of branchlets golden villose densely rufous tomentellous#
leaf shape narrowly elliptic oblong-elliptic, elliptic ovate or broadly lanceolate#
leaf dimensions 12–18 × 4.5–5.5 cm 17–23 × 6–11 cm#
leaf texture Leathery thickly leathery#
lateral leaf veins 8–9 pairs 16–20 pairs (16–26 pairs§)
leaf abaxially golden villose with brown pilose midrib densely coppery-red tomentellous#
petiole length and indumentum 1–1.5 cm (1.5–2 cm), golden villose 1.5–4 cm††, silky brown pubescent
tepal number, colour, with shape and size of outer 3 9, white, obovate, 4–5 × ca. 2 cm (7–9 tepals in photo Xing et al. 2009: 213) 9–12, pale yellow with purplish base, broadly ovate, 6–7 cm long#
staminal complex length ca. 15 mm ca. 22–25 mm
stamen number 30–35 ca. 50§
filament colour Red dark purple#
anther length ca. 0.8 cm 1.5–2 cm§
gynoecium length ca. 1.6 cm 2–3 cm§
gynophore length 15–20 mm 12–15 mm
flowering period April–May March–May#
elevation and distribution 900–1500 m, Xinning, Hunan# 500–1800 m, Guangdong, S Guangxi, SE Guizhou, W Hubei, S Hunan, Jiangxi, SE Yunnan#

Note 3

Bearing in mind the above discussion and comparative features, Michelia xinningia is an obviously distinct species. Therefore it is here transferred to Magnolia due to the past reduction of the previous segregate genera of subfamily Magnolioideae to the genus Magnolia.

Note 4

A search of the literature has found that Michelia xinningia is in cultivation at 4 Chinese botanical gardens, each in which M. platypetala and M. foveolata are also cultivated (Callaghan and Png 2019b).

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance received from Miguel Garcia, Research Librarian at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Australia. Also from William Hastie, Research Librarian at the CSIRO Black Mountain Library, Canberra, Australia and Dr Kang Wang at Beijing Botanical Gardens during our search for relevant literature.

Thanks are expressed to the following herbaria curators or research staff who sent the authors requested type specimens: Prof. Zhang Zhixiang and Dr Wang Ao at BJFC, Dr Chen Zhihui and Dr Huang Xiangxu at IBSC, Dr Fan Qiang and Mrs. Luo at SYS, all in China plus Dr Do Van Hai at HN and Assoc. Prof. Vu Quang Nam at VNF, both in Vietnam.

Also our thanks to Dr Yan Lihong at HFBG in China who sent photos when the requested specimen of Michelia hunanensis was no longer available. We are grateful to Waiyin Wee in Sydney, Australia, for translating a perplexing Chinese name of one of the Manglietia species

We would like to express our gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Priscilla Muriel (Ecuador) and an anonymous reviewer for their reviews of the final version of the manuscript. Also to the 2 anonymous reviewers of the original manuscript when submitted to another journal in 2019 and subsequently rejected by the editor because “ it does not fit within the scope or focus” of the journal.

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Appendix 1

List of the acronyms of institutional herbaria appearing in this paper.

A Arnold Arboretum Herbarium (of Harvard University Herbaria), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

BJFC Forestry Herbarium, Beijing Forestry University, Xiaozhuang, Beijing, China

CAF Dendrological Herbarium, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Haidian, Beijing, China

HEAC Henan Agricultural University Herbarium, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

HFBG Herbarium, Forestry Botanical Garden of Heilongjiang, Dongliqu, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China

HFTC Herbarium, Hunan Forestry Technical College, Hengyang, Hunan, China

HN Herbarium, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam

IBK Herbarium, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Yanshan, Guilin, Guangxi, China

IBSC Department of Taxonomy Herbarium, South China Institute of Botany, (SCBI) Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

JXAU Dendrological Herbarium, Department of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Meiling, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China

K Royal Botanic Gardens Herbarium, Kew, Surrey, London, UK

L Leiden University Branch (Rijksherbarium), National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden, the Netherlands

LBG Herbarium, Lushan Botanical Garden, Lushan, Jiangxi, China

MO Herbarium, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

P Herbarium National de Paris, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

PE Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiang Shan, Beijing, China

SIF Dendrological Herbarium, Forestry School of Sichuan, Dujiangyan, Sichuan, China

SYS Biology Department, Botanical Division Herbarium, Zhongshan University (Sun Yat-sen University), Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

VNF Vietnam Forestry Herbarium, Hanoi, Vietnam

W Herbarium, Natural History Museum, Wien, Austria

WU Herbarium, Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria

ZJFC Dendrological Herbarium, Department of Forestry, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan, Zhejiang, China

Herbaria references

The above herbarium acronyms and their institutes were located in the following publications:

Chen SC, Li JL, Zhu XY, Zhang ZY (1990) Bibliography of Chinese Systematic Botany (1949–1990). Guangdong Science & Technology Press, Guangzhou. iv + 810 pp. [In Chinese and English] [Chinese Herbaria, pp. 667–684; Herbarium Abbreviations, pp. 685–698]

Fu LK, Zhang XC, Qin HN, Ma JS (Eds) (1993) Index Herbariorum Sinicorum. China Science and Technology Press, Beijing. vii + 458 pp. [In Chinese and English]

Holmgren PK, Holmgren NH, Barnett LC (Eds) (1990) Index Herbariorum. Part 1. The Herbaria of the World. Eighth Edition. Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 120, New York Botanical Garden (on behalf of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy), The Bronx, New York, x + 693 pp.

Herbaria acronyms may now be searched at: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/ [acc: 27.04.2020]

Jin SY, Chen YL (1994) A Catalogue of Type Specimens (Cormophyta) in the Herbaria of China. Science Press, Beijing. xi + 716 pp. [In Chinese] [Magnoliaceae: pp. 453–457; Herbaria acronyms: pp.696–708]