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How many type specimens can be stored in old lesser-known herbaria with turbulent histories? – A Juncus case study reveals their importance in taxonomy and biodiversity research
expand article infoJarosław Proćków, Anna Faltyn-Parzymska, Paweł Jarzembowski, Małgorzata Proćków§, Anna Jakubska-Busse§
‡ Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
§ University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland
Open Access

Abstract

Many herbarium sets in Europe are still being catalogued and it is likely that many old-type collections are yet to be discovered. This research has the potential to facilitate the study of the biodiversity of many regions, especially regions for which collections are extremely scarce. This has been confirmed by a case study using Juncus (Juncaceae) examining the turbulent history of botanical collections at the WRSL herbarium and the evaluation of its importance to the study of taxonomy and biodiversity since 1821. The analysis revealed that the WRSL collection is rich in types (ca. 3.6%) and we identified 76 (of 78) new, historically and nomenclaturally important specimens (types, original material and so-called “topotypes”). Some of these type specimens represent duplicates of these that were stored in Berlin and destroyed during World War II. Many of the type specimens are from the United States of America, South Africa, India, and Canada. The largest number of Juncus type specimens stored at WRSL originate from South Africa (42.3% of all type specimens), even though Juncus is rare in Africa. Our study highlights that uncatalogued old collections that are under-explored and under-exploited have the potential to facilitate the discovery of specimens important for the study of biodiversity, conservation, taxonomy and nomenclature.

Keywords

biodiversity, conservation, historical collections, Juncaceae, Juncus, plant taxonomy

Introduction

The Natural History Museum of Wrocław University (Muzeum Przyrodnicze Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego) is the oldest natural history museum in Poland and its history dates back to 1814, when it was founded by Prof. Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst as the Zoological Museum. Currently, it houses both the botanical and zoological collections. The beginning of the herbarium in its present form was the Herbarium Horti Botanici Universitatis Wratislaviensis, which was established by Prof. Ludolph Christian Treviranus in 1821 (Wiktor 2002; Wanat 2013). The Herbarium Silesiacum was independently founded by the Silesian Association of Native Culture (Schlesische Gesellschaft für Vaterländische Cultur) and, until 1945, it was housed on Tamka Island, Wrocław. It developed independently from the other botanical collections, but following the Second World War, it was merged with the main part of the herbarium.

Many distinguished botanists have worked in the WRSL herbarium (Museum of Natural History, University of Wrocław, Poland, in Polish: Zielnik WRSL), including the directors or curators of Wrocław’s botany collections, for example, Ludolf Christian Treviranus (1821–1830), Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck (1830–1852), Heinrich Robert Goeppert (1852–1884), Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (1884–1889), Ferdinand Cohn (1884–1893) and Ferdinand Pax sen. (1893–1927). The Herbarium Silesiacum was curated by Julius Milde (1865–1870), Gustav Wilhelm Körber (1871–1885), Rudolf von Uechtritz (1886), Theodor Schube (1890–1929) and Emil Schalow (1930–1944) (Wiktor 2002).

Professor H.R. Goeppert expanded the botany collections and established the Botanical Museum (Botanisches Museum) in 1853 (Wanat 2013). The first known catalogue of the Museum (Goeppert 1884) included 26 different collections, including the Herbarium of the World, the Herbarium Silesiacum, the Herbarium Mycologicum, a wood collection and several fruit and seed sets. Goeppert also opened another museum in 1878 – The Museum of the Botanical Garden (Mularczyk 1998). In 1888, all these several botanical collections belonging to the University were moved to a building that is today located at 6/8 Kanonia Street. However, they still consisted of two separate collections (the Botanical Museum in charge of Prof. Cohn and collections of the Herbarium and the Museum of the Botanical Garden in charge of Prof. Engler). Due to the efforts of Prof. Engler, a private Silesian plant collection assembled by Rudolf von Uechtritz was purchased at this time and M. Winkler donated his herbarium to the Museum, which he had compiled for 30 years (Wiktor 2002).

At the end of nineteenth century, Ferdinand Pax (the elder) merged all the University botanical collections under the name of the Botanical Museum. His own collections were also included in the Museum at this time. Before merging, von Uechtritz’s herbarium of Silesian plants was handed over to the Herbarium Silesiacum (then still independent) on his initiative. In exchange for Uechtritz’s herbarium, the Botanical Museum later received the Herbarium Henschelianum (part of the Herbarium Silesiacum) with ca. 100,000 sheets.

As a result of these mergers and gifts, the Wrocław herbarium had acquired an extensive and significant collection of specimens from Europe (especially the Mediterranean) and the rest of the world. These were collected by botanists such as Hubert Winkler (a student of F. Pax the elder) in East Africa, Cameroon, Java, Sumatra and Borneo. In 1938, a collection of ca. 50,000 herbarium sheets (including numerous types) was donated to the Museum by Carl Adolf Georg Lauterbach, who travelled extensively in New Guinea and Melanesia. By 1914, the Herbarium had 540,000 sheets which, by 1939, had grown to ca. 600,000 sheets (Wiktor 2002; Wanat 2013). The oldest and most valuable collections of the Herbarium Silesiacum were those made by H.G. Mattuschka (1776 and 1779), A.J. Krocker (1787, 1790, 1814, 1823), A. Henschel (1830), a herbarium of fungi assembled by W.G. Schneider and an old herbarium of Paolo (Silvio) Boccone, a Cistercian monk, who moved to Wrocław in 1694 and donated his herbarium that consisted mainly of Mediterranean plants (Treviranus 1831; Rostański 1963). This herbarium is not mentioned by Stafleu et al. (1976), but is the oldest plant collection of a scientific nature in Poland. In 1935, the Herbarium Silesiacum housed over 80,000 sheets (Wanat 2013).

In autumn 1944, during the Second World War, German authorities evacuated all university botanical collections from Wrocław. The Herbarium Generale (combination of the various merged herbaria) was then located in Piotrowice castle near Kąty Wrocławskie (ca. 43 km S.W. of Wrocław), the Herbarium Lauterbachi in Siedlęcin near Jelenia Góra (ca. 95 km W. of Wrocław) and the other botanical sets in the garrison church in Oleśnica near Wrocław (ca. 27 km N.E. of Wrocław), which were unfortunately lost in a fire. The Herbarium Silesiacum was lodged, in turn, in the attic of one of the primary schools in south Wrocław (in the Tarnogaj district); however, it was not protected from destruction and the dusty and damp collection was rediscovered after the war unbound, mixed together with litter and broken glass (Wiktor 2002; Wanat 2013).

Shortly after the war, Polish authorities failed to discover traces of herbarium sets in the dilapidated buildings – these were found in the Piotrowice castle, Siedlęcin and south Wrocław only in 1946–1947, but only the Herbarium Lauterbachi was salvaged undamaged. The recovered collections were entrusted to Prof. Józef Mądalski, who was invited to Wrocław from Lviv (former Poland, now in the Ukraine). The war had damaged many of the specimens and repairs were successfully undertaken by Polish botanists. Rostański (1963) assessed the war damage in both herbaria (i.e. Herbarium Generale and Herbarium Silesiacum) as, after the war, only 200,000 herbarium sheets were discovered out of 600,000 that belonged to the University in 1939, together with 30,000 herbarium sheets from the former Herbarium Silesiacum which, in 1939, housed 80,000 sheets (it was confirmed then that the oldest Silesian flora sets of H.G. Mattuschka and A.J. Krocker had been destroyed).

Currently, the collections are estimated to contain over 515,000 sheets, including ca. 410,000 vascular plants, 27,000 bryophytes, 38,400 fungi and myxomycetes, 27,000 lichens and 12,600 algae (Mirek et al. 1997; K. Świerkosz, pers. comm., 2019). The herbarium WRSL has had a turbulent history and has enormous importance in the botanical history of Poland.

The aim of this investigation was to assess the value of the WRSL botanical collection using the genus Juncus as a case study. Type and other nomenclaturally and historically important specimens “hiding” in such under-appreciated collections are improtant for taxonomy, nomenclature and biodiversity studies. Using the WRSL herbarium, we address the importance of collections like WRSL as reservoirs of valuable data that are relevant to experts who are involved in taxonomic revision.

Methods

Assessing the significance of the WRSL collection

The WRSL herbarium is currently divided into three parts: the Herbarium Generale, the Herbarium Lauterbachi and the Herbarium Silesiacum. The Herbarium Generale (about 375,000 specimens including about 75,000 spore-bearing organisms) holds the plant and fungal material from around the world, excluding Lower Silesia, Poland, the Herbarium Lauterbachi (about 50,000 sheets) contains plants from New Guinea and Melanesia and the Herbarium Silesiacum (about 90,000 specimens) (K. Świerkosz, pers. comm., 2019) houses plants from Lower Silesia, Poland.

Generally, the importance of particular natural collections depends not only on their size, but also can be measured on the percentage or the absolute share of type specimen types (Sutory 1997). In 2017, digitalisation of the WRSL collection was initiated and was subsequently able to be accessed via GBIF.org (Świerkosz 2017); this work is on-going but only 25,000 specimens (4.9%) are currently listed in a database (K. Świerkosz, pers. comm., 2019). Therefore, we decided to assess the importance of using specimens of the genus Juncus (Juncaceae) stored in the Herbarium Generale (to date, no Juncus specimens from WRSL are included in GBIF.org database to facilitate this task). The reasons for this choice were: 1) type specimens of Juncus have never previously been assessed in the WRSL Herbarium; 2) the genus Juncus is rich in species from regions where the herbarium has geographical strengths, 311 are listed by Kirschner et al. (2002a, b) and 3) the first author of this paper is a specialist in Juncus taxonomy, which considerably aided the analysis of specimen status.

We evaluated the following factors (Sutory 1997): 1) the originality of the collection, including the number of types and other historically-important specimens; 2) the size of the collection, i.e. the total number of specimens; 3) the geographical scope of the collection; 4) the length of the period represented by the collection; 5) the number of duplicates and 6) the physical condition of the collection (well-prepared, well-preserved and undamaged and well-stored material with appropriate labels). Herbarium sheets with plants representing a single taxon that were gathered in the same locality and on the same date by the same collector, were regarded as duplicates. Additionally, we analysed the specimens with respect to: 1) the person who collected the material in the field; 2) the collection from which they came (i.e. to whom they belonged before accession in WRSL) and 3) the floras/exsiccatae from which they came.

We catalogued all Juncus specimens ourselves, paying particular attention to all types and other historical material, which we identified, based on the latest monograph (Kirschner et al. 2002a, b), from which we took the current nomenclature of the genus. The localities and dates of sets for historical collections, especially those of C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher and J.F. Drège, were deciphered from literature (Meyer 1832; Drège 1847, 1848; Buchenau 1875, 1890, 1906), which enabled us to recognise many Juncus types.

The Juncus sets are stored in seven herbarium boxes indexed as separate fascicles, numbered 151–157 and an extra 43 herbarium sheets were kept in a separate folder. We analysed 2,192 herbarium sheets in total. We treated a separate collection with its own label as a separate herbarium sheet, as specimens from three different localities could have been mounted on one herbarium sheet (we treated these as three separate herbarium sheets). We identified 2,222 taxonomic records, since part of the material represents mixed sets. We conducted our research from scratch, since only two Juncus types identified in the Herbarium Generale had been previously labelled using a red label. Thus, no other Juncus types stood out from other herbarium sheets. Our results were also compared with those within the Global Plants Database (plants.jstor.org, accessed on 16 Apr 2020) and additional herbaria, not mentioned by Kirschner et al. (2002a, 2002b) that store other type specimens/duplicates of names we assessed, are added to the last column of Table 1 and marked with an asterisk (*). Duplicates of selected type specimens stored at WRSL were also compared with those stored in other herbaria (present in the Global Plants Database). When comparisons were made, we considered the physical condition of specimens, quantity of materials, different annotations, kinds of labels and plant parts.

Table 1.

A list of historically- and nomenclaturally-important Juncus specimens identified in the Herbarium Generale at WRSL. A sequence of species alphabetically according to the basionym Juncus names. No. – Successive Number; N.f. – Number of fascicle (= herbarium box) at WRSL; underline text – new findings after examination of the protologues; grey rows – indicate types that were stored in Berlin and were destroyed during the WWII; * – asterisk indicates additional herbaria where Global Plants (plants.jstor.org) records duplicates.

No. N.f. Kind of type and type of (basionym) Current name Herbarium label data (original spelling) T: Type citation from protologue, including herbaria acronyms (according to Kirschner et al. (2002a, b)) and additional remarks (Rem.:)
Locality (label data) Date Leg. et det. Flora of / Herbarium
1 151 Authentic/original material of Juncus antonianus Steud. in W. Lechler, Berberid. Amer. Austral. (1857: 56), nom. inval. Juncus balticus subsp. andicola (Hook. 1848: 8, pl. 714) Snogerup in Snogerup, Zika & Kirschner, Preslia 74 (2002: 258) PERU. S. Antonio Jun 1854 W. Lechler 1808 (as Juncus andicola, 04 Dec 1887, Fr. Buchenau) W. Lechler, Pl. Peruvianae ed. R. F. Hochenacker / Herbarium Henschelianum Authentic/original material:
Peru, San Antonio, Jun 1954, W. Lechler 1808, G, GOET, K, KW*.
Rem.: After Kirschner et al. (2002b: 74) erroneous collection date of Jun 1954 to be corrected to Jun 1854.
2 151 Isoneotype of Juncus atratus Krock., Fl. Siles. 1 (1787: 562) Juncus atratus Krock., Fl. Siles. 1 (1787: 562) POLAND. Breslau [Wrocław], Oderdämme bei Carlowitz [Karłowice, now a settlement within Wrocław city] 10 Jul 1892 A. Callier 721 A. Callier Flora Silesiaca exsiccata / Herbarium Wagnerianum T: Silesia, A.J.Krocker; syn: not extant; Breslau, Oderdämme bei Carlowitz [Karlowice between Wrocław and Opole, Poland], 10 Jul 1892, A.Callier [Fl. Siles. Exs.] 721; neo: S, designated by Kirschner et al. (2002a: 178); isoneo: L, PRC, W, WU.
Rem.: After Kirschner et al. (2002a: 178) erroneous locality translated as ‘Karlowice [village] between Wrocław and Opole, Poland’ which is on the Stobrawa river [not Odra] and is ca. 55 km SE from the Karłowice [settlement] in Wrocław on the Odra river.
The status of the type was corrected (iso to isoneo) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
3 154 Syntype of Juncus brunneus
Buchenau, Junc. S. Amer. (1879: 403)
Juncus ebracteatus E. Mey., Syn. Junc. (1822: 28) PERU. Im paludosis prope Azangaro Jun 1854 W. Lechler 1749, det. Fr. Buchenau, 22 Jan 1879 W. Lechler, Pl. Peruvianae ed. R.F. Hochenacker / Herbarium Henschelianum T: Bolivia, La Paz, Larecaja, 2700–3800 m, G. Mandon 1436; syn: BM, G, K, MO, NY, P; Peru, Azangaro, W. Lechler 1749; syn: BR, G, GOET, K, O, P, S.
4 152 Isotype of Juncus buchenaui Sved., Juncac. Regn. Exp. (Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl.) 23(3), no 6 (1897: 9) Juncus marginatus Rostk., De Junco (1801: 38) BRASILIA. Brasiliae civit. Rio Grande do Sul, Quinta 07 Dec 1892 C.A.M. Lindman 857 Herb. Brasil. Regnell. Musei bot. Stockholm T: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Quinta prope opp. Rio Grande, 7 Dec 1892, C.A.M. Lindman A857; holo: S; iso: GH, W [cf. Juncus × buchenaui Dörfl. 1897. an prius?].
Rem.: After Kirschner et al. (2002a: 48) collection No. A875 (probably to be corrected).
5 152 Probably original material of Juncus bufonius var. halophilus Buchenau & Fernald, Rhodora 6 (1904: 39) Juncus ranarius Songeon & E.P. Perrier in P.C. Billot, Annot. Fl. France Allemagne (1859: 192) CANADA. Rivière du Loup Aug 1902 W.W. Eggleston 3036 Plants of the Lower St. Lawrence T: Canada, Quebec, Rivière du Loup, 2 Aug 1902, E.F.Williams & M.L.Fernald; holo: GH; iso: CM*, K, L, P, PH*.
Paratypes (see protologue): Rivière du Loup, 15 Aug 1892, G.G. Kennedy; Rivière du Loup, 8 Aug 1902, J.R. Churchill, W.W. Eggleston, M.L. Fernald. See also protologue for many other paratypes.
Rem.: After Kirschner et al. (2002b: 15) collection should be of E.F. Williams & M.L. Fernald but the herbarium label is marked as ‘Type’.
According to the protologue the paratype should be collected by J.R. Churchill, W.W. Eggleston, M.L. Fernald (instead of W.W. Eggleston only) and with the exact collection date (8 Aug 1902).
6 152 Holotype of Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) POLAND. Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus 31 May 1999 J. Proćków 990531/1 Herbarium J. Proćków T: Poland, Dolny Śląsk, Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus, 31 May 1999, J. Proćków; holo: WRSL; iso: WRSL; para: B, BIL, BM, BR, C, DBN, DRAPN, E, GOET, H, HAL, HBG, KRA, L, LAU, LG, LISU, M, MA, MSB, P, PBMA, POZ, S, TRN, TUB, WA, WRSL, WSRP, ZBI.
Rem.: After Proćków (2010: 420–423)
7–11 152 Isotype of Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) POLAND. Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus 31 May 1999 J. Proćków 990531/2 to 6 Herbarium J. Proćków T: Poland, Dolny Śląsk, Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus, 31 May 1999, J. Proćków; holo: WRSL; iso: WRSL; para: B, BIL, BM, BR, C, DBN, DRAPN, E, GOET, H, HAL, HBG, KRA, L, LAU, LG, LISU, M, MA, MSB, P, PBMA, POZ, S, TRN, TUB, WA, WRSL, WSRP, ZBI.
Rem.: After Proćków (2010: 420–423).
12 152 Paratype of Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) GERMANY. Leipzig, Dahlen, 2. Teich in Richtung Schmannewitz, Teichschlamm. 03 Aug 1984 Peter Gutte 34378 (WRSL 69420) Flora des Bezirkes Leipzig. T: Poland, Dolny Śląsk, Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus, 31 May 1999, J. Proćków; holo: WRSL; iso: WRSL; para: B, BIL, BM, BR, C, DBN, DRAPN, E, GOET, H, HAL, HBG, KRA, L, LAU, LG, LISU, M, MA, MSB, P, PBMA, POZ, S, TRN, TUB, WA, WRSL, WSRP, ZBI.
Herb. Univ. Lipsiensis. Pflanzen der DDR
Rem.: After Proćków (2010: 420–423).
13 152 Paratype of Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) CZECH REPUBLIC. Bohemia meridionalis, distr. České Budějovice; ad margines turfosas stagnorum prope rivulum Borovnický potok haud procul ab vico Borovnice, copiose, ca. 450 m s. m. 24 Aug 1962 J. Kučera 154 (WRSL 26580) Plantae Čechoslovacae Exsiccatae. Cura Sectionis Botanicae Musei Nationalis Pragae Editae. Centuria II T: Poland, Dolny Śląsk, Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus, 31 May 1999, J. Proćków; holo: WRSL; iso: WRSL; para: B, BIL, BM, BR, C, DBN, DRAPN, E, GOET, H, HAL, HBG, KRA, L, LAU, LG, LISU, M, MA, MSB, P, PBMA, POZ, S, TRN, TUB, WA, WRSL, WSRP, ZBI.
Rem.: After Proćków (2010: 420–423).
14 152 Paratype of Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) Juncus bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47 (2010: 412) POLAND. distr. Siedlce, Krzymosze, na obnażonej ziemi w borze bagiennym obok toru [on bare soil in marshy forest next to a railway track]. 27 Jul 1974 Z. Głowacki s. n. (WRSL 35948) Zielnik Zakładu Biologii Wyższej Szkoły Nauczycielskiej w Siedlcach T: Poland, Dolny Śląsk, Wrocław Leśnica, ad ripam et in aqua piscinae eutrophicae, situ meridiano-occidentali lacus, 31 May 1999, J. Proćków; holo: WRSL; iso: WRSL; para: B, BIL, BM, BR, C, DBN, DRAPN, E, GOET, H, HAL, HBG, KRA, L, LAU, LG, LISU, M, MA, MSB, P, PBMA, POZ, S, TRN, TUB, WA, WRSL, WSRP, ZBI.
Rem.: After Proćków (2010: 420–423).
15 152 Isolectotype of Juncus caespiticius E. Mey. in J.G.C. Lehmann, Pl. Preiss. 2 (1846: 47) Juncus caespiticius E. Mey. in J.G.C. Lehmann, Pl. Preiss. 2 (1846: 47) AUSTRALIA. ad fluvium Canning, Perth, novae Hollandiae. 02 Nov 1839 Preis. (L. Preiss) 1733 Herbarium Schumann T: [Western Australia, Perth, Canning R.] ad fluvium Canning (Perth) novae Hollandiae, 2 Nov 1839, L.Preiss [Pl. Austral. Occid.] 1733; lecto: W, designated by Kirschner et al. (2002a: 38); isolecto: BM, BREM, G*, K, L, LD*, MEL, NSW, P, W.
Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
16 155 Isotype of Juncus caffer Bertol., Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 3 (1851: 253, Pl. 19, fig. 3). Juncus kraussii Hochst. in C. Krauss Flora 28 (1845: 342) subsp. kraussii MOZAMBIQUE. ‘Inhambane Mozambici’ 06 Dec 1848 Fornasinio s.n. T: Mozambique, ’Inhambane Mocambici’, 6 Dec 1848, Fornasinio, holo: BOLO.
17 152 Syntype of Juncus capensis subsp. angustifolius var. ecklonii Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Paludosa ad pedem montis diaboli 19 & 28 Nov 1827 [after Buchenau 1875: 485] C.F. Ecklon 35 (as Juncus capensis Thbg. subsp. angustifolius var. eckloni Buchn, det. Fr. Buchenau, 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, Teufelsberg, C.F. Ecklon 897, Unio Itin., no 35 [annotated by E. Meyer under no 18]; syn: BOL, JE*, S, W.
Cap (1875: 485) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 485)] Rem.: Additional remark by Buchenau (1875: 485): ‘Un. it. No. 35’.
18 152 Syntype of Juncus capensis subsp. angustifolius var. ecklonii Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Paludosa planitiei capensis Dec 1827 [after Buchenau 1875: 485] C.F. Ecklon 899 (as Juncus capensis Thbg. subsp. angustifolius var. eckloni Buchn, det. Fr. Buchenau, 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, Teufelsberg, C.F. Ecklon 897, Unio Itin., no 35 [annotated by E. Meyer under no 18]; syn: BOL, S, W.
Cap (1875: 485) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 485)] Rem.: Kirschner et al. (2002a: 36) did not mention this type (C.F. Ecklon 899) but it is listed by Buchenau (1875: 485) in the protologue of the new taxon; additionally, the specimen really seen by Buchenau (with his own handwritten label); Kirschner et al. (2002a: 36) listed var. ecklonii as homotypic with Juncus capensis var. angustifolius E. Mey.; syn: JE*, W*.
19 152 Syntype of Juncus capensis subsp. angustifolius var. sphangnetorum f. frondescens Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 490) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 490)] Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, Tafelberg sine dato J.F. Drège aa (det. as Juncus capensis var. angustifolius E. M.), (det. as Juncus capensis Thbg. subsp. angustifolius var. sphangnetorum f. frondescens, det. Fr. Buchenau 11 Jan 1874) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, Tafelberg, J.F. Drège aa; syn: K*, P, S, W; Gipfel des Tafelberges, C.L.P. Zeyher 47; syn: B, destroyed.
20 152 Isolectotype of Juncus capensis subsp. longifolius var. gracilior Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 483) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 483)] Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Cap. B. Spei. 05 Mar 1816 C.H. Bergius s.n., det. K. Sprengel (gesamm. von Bergius, det. Fr. Buchenau 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Caput bonae spei, 5 Mar 1816, Bergius; lecto (as holo): B, destroyed, fide A.A. Obermeyer, in A.A. Obermeyer, J. Lewis & R.B. Faden, Fl. S. Afr. 4/2 (1985: 83); syn: W.
Rem.: There are more specimens mentioned in the protologue of a new taxon (Buchenau, 1875: 484) thus the lectotype was designated. Isolectotype (the only duplicate known) rediscovered at WRSL (the specimen includes the collection date (i.e. 5 Mar 1816), as in the the protologue). The syntype (Bergius specimen at W) does not have the collection date.
The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
21 152 Syntype of Juncus capensis subsp. longifolius var. gracilior Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 483) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 483)] Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. [Cape] zwischen Paarl und Franschehoek sine dato J.F. Drège b (det. as Juncus capensis β. angustifolius E. M.), (det. as J. capensis subsp. longifolius var. gracilior Buchenau, det. Fr. Buchenau 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Caput bonae spei, 5 Mar 1816, Bergius; lecto (as holo): B, destroyed, fide A.A. Obermeyer, in A.A. Obermeyer, J. Lewis & R.B. Faden, Fl. S. Afr. 4/2 (1985: 83); isolecto: W.
Rem.: A specimen not mentioned by Kirschner et al. (2002a: 37), but listed by Buchenau (1875: 484), thus it is a syntype because there are more specimens within the protologue of a new taxon; syn: S*.
The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
22 152 Holotype of Juncus capensis subsp. parviflorus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 491) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 491)] Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. ad ripas fl. Zonder Einde, Zwellendam Nov 1836 C. Krauss s.n. (det. as Juncus capensis Thbg. subsp. parviflorus Buchenau, leg. Ferd. Krauss, det. Fr. Buchenau, 11 Jan 1875; det. by C. Krauss as Juncus cephalotes Thunb.) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, Swellendam, Rivier Zondereinde, Nov 1838, C. Krauss s.n.; holo: WRSL; iso: W.
Rem.: Buchenau (1875: 491) listed only one specimen stored at ‘Herbarium der schlesischen Gesellschaft für vaterländische Cultur und des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens’, i.e. in Wrocław. Thus, this holotype of the name was confirmed by the following: 1) it was observed by Buchenau on 11 Jan 1875 and 2) it is only one specimen that lacks a clearly written collection year, which was misread by Buchenau in the protologue (1875: 491) as ‘Nov 1838’, however, identical sheets (from Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz & Herbarium Schumann, both at WRSL) read ‘Nov 1836’. Compare also with A.A. Obermeyer, in A.A. Obermeyer, J. Lewis & R.B. Faden, Fl. S. Afr. 4/2 (1985: 83).
The status of the type corrected (iso to holo (for WRSL), and lecto to iso (for W)) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
23 152 Isotype of Juncus capensis subsp. parviflorus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 491) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 491)] Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. ad ripas fl. Zonder-Einde, Zwellendam Nov 1836 C. Krauss s.n. (det. as Juncus cephalotes Thunb.) Herbarium Schumann Rem.: see above
24 152 Isotype of Juncus capensis subsp. parviflorus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 491) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 491)] Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. ad ripas fl. Zonder-Einde, Zwellendam (Cap. B. spei.) Nov 1836 C. Krauss s.n. (det. as Juncus cephalotes Thunb.) Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz Rem.: see above
25 152 Syntype of Juncus capitatus var. physcomitrioides Baen., Prosp. Herb. Eur. (1873: 4); Schriften Königl. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsberg 14 (1873: 16). Juncus capitatus Weigel, Observ. Bot. (1772: 28) POLAND. Danzig [Gdańsk], Strand bei Zoppot [Sopot] 08 Jul 1872 C. Baenitz s.n. Herbarium Schumann T: Danzig, Strand bei Zoppot [Poland, Gdańsk, Sopot], 8 Jul 1872, K.G. Baenitz; syn: L; additional authentic material from the same site: 5 Jul 1876, K.G.Baenitz [Herb. Eur.] 1506 (LD, W).
26 152 Additional material from type locality) [collected by the author of the name] of Juncus capitatus var. physcomitrioides Baen., Prosp. Herb. Eur. (1873: 4); Schriften Königl. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsberg 14 (1873: 16). Juncus capitatus Weigel, Observ. Bot. (1772: 28) POLAND. Danzig [Gdańsk], Ad mare balticum (Zoppot [Sopot]) 05 Jul 1876 C. Baenitz 1506 Dr. C. Baenitz, Herbarium Europaeum T: Danzig, Strand bei Zoppot [Poland, Gdańsk, Sopot], 8 Jul 1872, K.G. Baenitz; syn: L; additional material from the same site, collected by the author of the name: 5 Jul 1876, K.G.Baenitz [Herb. Eur.] 1506 (LD, W).
27 152 Additional material from type locality) [collected by the author of the name] of Juncus capitatus var. physcomitrioides Baen., Prosp. Herb. Eur. (1873: 4); Schriften Königl. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsberg 14 (1873: 16). Juncus capitatus Weigel, Observ. Bot. (1772: 16) POLAND. Danzig [Gdańsk], Ad mare balticum (Zoppot [Sopot]) 05 Jul 1876 C. Baenitz 1506 Dr. C. Baenitz, Herbarium Europaeum T: Danzig, Strand bei Zoppot [Poland, Gdańsk, Sopot], 8 Jul 1872, K.G. Baenitz; syn: L; additional material from the same site, collected by the author of the name: 5 Jul 1876, K.G.Baenitz [Herb. Eur.] 1506 (LD, W).
28 156 Syntype of Juncus cephalotes var. minimus Hochst., Flora 28 (1845: 342), p.p. Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. in arenos. plan. Cap. Nov [18]38 C. Krauss s.n. Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz T: [South Africa, Cape] ‘in arenosis planitiei capensis’, Nov 1828, C. Krauss; syn: W, K [both mixed collections]. Rem.: The material needs to be revised because W & K contain mixed collections; after Kirschner et al. (2002a: 73), the collection date was Nov 1828 (to be corrected to Nov 1838).
29 156 Syntype of Juncus cephalotes var. minimus Hochst., Flora 28 (1845: 342), p.p. Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. in arenos. plan. Cap. Nov [18]38 sine coll. [C. Krauss] s.n. Herbarium Schumann T: [South Africa, Cape] ‘in arenosis planitiei capensis’, Nov 1828, C. Krauss; syn: W, K [both mixed collections].
Rem.: Original material was from Krauss because the identical label is on a sheet from Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz where ‘Dr. Krauss’ was added; the material needs to be revised because W & K contain mixed collections; after Kirschner et al. (2002a: 73), the collection date is Nov 1828 (to be corrected to Nov 1838).
30 152 Syntype of Juncus cephalotes var. minimus Hochst., Flora 28 (1845: 342), p.p. Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. in arenosis plan. Cap. Nov [18]38 sine coll. [C. Krauss] s.n. (det. as Juncus cephalothes Thbg. var. varius Bchn., Fr. Buchenau, 23 Oct 1874) Herbarium Henschelianum T: [South Africa, Cape] ‘in arenosis planitiei capensis’, Nov 1828, C. Krauss; syn: W, K [both mixed collections].
Rem.: Original material was from Krauss because the identical label is on a sheet from Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz where ‘Dr. Krauss’ was added; the material needs to be revised because W & K contain mixed collections; after Kirschner et al. (2002a: 73), the collection date is Nov 1828 (to be corrected).
31 152 Isolectotype of Juncus cephalotes var. ustulatus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 451) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 451)] Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, Tafelberg Oct 1827 C.F. Ecklon Junc. 13., 2.12 (as Juncus capensis var. angustifolius E. M., det. C.F. Ecklon) Herbarium Schumann T: South Africa, Cape, Tafelberg, Oct 1827, C.F. Ecklon 13; lecto: BOL, fide R.S. Adamson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 50 (1935: 32); isolecto: W*.
32 152 Syntype of Juncus cephalotes var. ustulatus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 451) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 451)] or/and var. varius Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 451) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 451)]. Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Paludosa montis tabularis septentr. Nov 1826 C.F. Ecklon 901 Herbarium Schumann T: [South Africa, Cape] Camps Bay, C.F. Ecklon s.n. (BOL); syn: PRC*, S*.
Rem.: Mixed material containing var. ustulatus Buchenau & var. varius Buchenau, mentioned in both protologues, to be analysed.
33 152 Syntype of Juncus cephalotes var. varius Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 451) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 451)]. Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Worcester beim Waterfall sine dato C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher Junc. 8, 1.11 (as Juncus capensis var. minimus La Harphe, det. Ecklon & Zeyher) Herbarium Schumann T: [South Africa, Cape] Camps Bay, C.F. Ecklon s.n. (BOL).
Rem.: Kirschner et al. (2002a: 73) did not mention this type, but it is listed by Buchenau (1875: 452) within the protologue of the new taxon; however Buchenau (1875: 452) indicates stunted stamens in this material.
34 153 Syntype of Juncus clausonis Trab. in J.A. Battandier & L.C. Trabut, Fl. Algérie, ed. 2 (1895: 84). Juncus striatus Schousb. ex E. Mey., Syn. Junc. (1822: 27) ALGERIA. Ain Taya (Alger) Jul 1889 J.A. Battandier & L.C. Trabut 586 Battandier et Trabut, Pl. d’Algérie T: [Algeria] Ain Taya près Alger, Jun 1888, L.C. Trabut; syn: G; Jul 1889, J.A. Battandier & L.C. Trabut 586; syn: G, L, MPU*.
35 157 Isotype of Juncus delicatulus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 304) Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Africa australis [Cape, Grahamstown Valley] sine dato J.F. Drège 1604e Herbarium Henschelianum T: Africa australis [Cape, Grahamstown Valley], J.F. Drège 1604e; holo: P; iso: G, S, W.
36 152 Syntype of Juncus dregeanus var. conglomeratus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 463) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 463)]. Juncus dregeanus Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841: 344) subsp. dregeanus SOUTH AFRICA. Cap. Bon. Spei (Hassagaibosch [Assegaaibos]) sine dato C.L.P. Zeyher (C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher) Junc. 10, 26.1 (det. as Juncus cephalotes L’Harpe var. conglomerata Nees, det. Zeyher) Herbarium Schumann T: Hassagaibosch [Assegaaibos], C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 10; syn: BOL, W; Albany, C.F. Ecklon; syn: n.v.
37 156 Probable syntype of Juncus exsertus Buchenau, Monogr. Juncac. Cap (1875: 435) [Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen 4 (1875: 435)] Juncus exsertus Buchenau, Monogr. Juncac. Cap (1875: 435) [Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen 4 (1875: 435)] SOUTH AFRICA. Worcester, Waterfall sine dato C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 1. 11 (det. as Juncus punctorius Thbg) T: [Cape Provinces, Swartkops River] Zwartkops Rivier, C.L.P. Zeyher 103; syn: B [destroyed after having been selected as type by R.S.Adamson, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 50 (1935: 15)], BOL; Worcester, Waterfall, C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher [as Juncus punctorius 1. 11] p.p.; syn: B [destroyed], PRE; Zondagsrivier bei Graaff-Reinet [Sundays River at Graaff-Reinet], H. Bolus 188; syn: BOL, K*; ‘Camdeboosberg, 4–5000 Fuss’, J.F.Drège [Juncus oxycarpus ‘c’]; syn: W [only!].
Rem.: C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher [as Juncus punctorius 1. 11] pro parte as a syntype of the name (Kirschner et al. 2002a: 239).
38 153 Syntype of Juncus glaucus var. acutissimus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 417) Juncus inflexus L., Sp. Pl. (1753: 326) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, Wodehouse, Klein Buffels Vallei near Gaatjie sine dato J.F. Drège 8796 c Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, Wodehouse, Klein Buffels Vallei near Gaatjie, J.F. Drège 8796c; syn: E*, LE*, LD, S, W.
39 152 Syntype of Juncus inaequalis var. viridescens Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 455) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 455)] Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Worcester beim Waterfall sine dato C.F. Ecklon Junc 14., 1.11 Herbarium Schumann T: South Africa, Cape, Swellendam, C.L.P. Zeyher 4319; syn: BOL, K*, W [p.p., ut Juncus isolepoides Nees, nom. inval.]; Hottentotts-Holland, C.L.P. Zeyher 46; syn: BOL, W, S*; C.F. Ecklon 14; syn: n.v.
40 152 Probable original material of Juncus × inundatus Drejer, Naturhist. Tidsskr. 2 (1838: 181) Juncus balticus DENMARK. Thy, Jyllandia sine dato Drejer s.n. ex herb. Joh. Lange / Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz T: n.v. – BM*, C*, W*.
Willd., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. 3 (1809: 298) subsp. balticus × filiformis L., Sp. Pl. (1753: 326) Rem.: The protologue of Juncus × inundatus Drejer provided the following sites: Rors Klit in Thy district and at Bulbjerg (both found by Drejer) and Kollerup Klit in Vesterhanherred (found by Poulsen). However, they are cited only as geographic localities and not as specimens. Moreover, the date of collection in the protologue is July 1837. The specimen at WRSL was collected in Thy district, but no exact locality or collection date was provided; after Kirschner et al. (2002b: 141): type – n.v. [non vidi].
After Kirschner et al. (2002b: 141) place of publication is ‘Bot. Tidsskr.’ to be corrected to Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (Copenhagen), i.e. ‘Naturhist. Tidsskr.’.
41 154 Isolectotype of Juncus involucratus Steud. ex Buchenau, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen 4 (1875: 121) Juncus microcephalus Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth., Gen. Sp. 1 (1816: 237 [Quarto], 190 [Folio]) PERU. Tabina Jul 1854 W. Lechler 2078 W. Lechler pl. peruviana ed. R.F. Hochenacker / Herbarium Henschelianum T: Peru, Tabina, 1854, W.Lechler 2078; lecto: GOET, fide H.Balslev, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 68 (1996: 106); isolecto: G*, K, KW*, LE*, MO, O, S. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
42 154 Isolectotype of Juncus kotschyi Boiss. in C.G.T. Kotschy, Pl. Persiae Austr. [exsiccate series edited by R.F. Hohenacker, printed label description], no. 446 (1845) & Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 7 (1846: 101) Juncus fontanesii subsp. kotschyi (Boiss.) Snogerup in K.H. Rechinger, Fl.
Iranica 75 (1971: 25)
IRAN. In paludosi ad rad. M. Sabst-Buschom, pr. U. Schiras 31 May 1842 C.G.T. Kotschy 446 Th. Kotschy. Pl. Pers. austr. Ed. R.F. Hohenacker 1845 / Herbarium Schumann T: [Iran] m. Sabst-Buschon pr.[ope] u.[rbem] Schiras, 31 May 1842, C.G.T. Kotschy [Pl. Pers. Austr.] 446; lecto: G-BOISS, fide S. Snogerup, in K.H. Rechinger, Fl. Iranica 75 (1971: 25); isolecto: B*, BM, CAS*, CGE, CORD*, E*, FI*, G, GOET*, HAL*, K, KW*, MO*, P, PR, S*, UPS. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
43 154 Isolectotype of Juncus kotschyi Boiss. in C.G.T. Kotschy, Pl. Persiae Austr. [exsiccate series edited by R.F. Hohenacker, printed label description], no. 446 (1845) & Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 7 (1846: 101) Juncus fontanesii subsp. kotschyi (Boiss.) Snogerup in K.H. Rechinger, Fl.
Iranica 75 (1971: 25)
IRAN. In paludosi ad rad. M. Sabst-Buschom, pr. U. Schiras 31 May 1842 C.G.T. Kotschy 446 (det. Fr. Buchenau, 31 Jan 1875, as J. kotschyi) Th. Kotschy. Pl. Pers. austr. Ed. R.F. Hohenacker 1845 / Herbarium Henschelianum T: [Iran] m. Sabst-Buschon pr.[ope] u.[rbem] Schiras, 31 May 1842, C.G.T. Kotschy [Pl. Pers. Austr.] 446; lecto: G-BOISS, fide S. Snogerup, in K.H. Rechinger, Fl. Iranica> 75 (1971: 25); isolecto: B*, BM, CAS*, CGE, CORD*, E*, FI*, G, GOET*, HAL*, K, KW*, MO*, P, PR, S*, UPS. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
44 154 Isolectotype of Juncus kraussii Hochst. in C. Krauss Flora 28 (1845: 342) Juncus kraussii Hochst. in C. Krauss Flora 28 (1845: 342) SOUTH AFRICA. ad ripas Notsinakama R., distr. George Jan 1839 C. Krauss s.n. (C. Kraussii Specimen authenticum, Fr. Buchenau, 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: South Africa, George Distr., Notsinakama R., Jan 1839, C.Krauss; lecto: G-BOIS, fide S.Snogerup, Willdenowia 23 (1993: 57); isolecto: M, TUB*. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
45 154 Isolectotype of Juncus kraussii Hochst. in C. Krauss Flora 28 (1845: 342) Juncus kraussii Hochst. in C. Krauss Flora 28 (1845: 342) SOUTH AFRICA. ad ripas Notsinakama R., distr. George Jan 1839 C. Krauss s.n. Herbarium Schumann T: South Africa, George Distr., Notsinakama R., Jan 1839, C.Krauss; lecto: G-BOIS, fide S.Snogerup, Willdenowia 23 (1993: 57); isolecto: M, TUB*.
Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
46 154 Isotype of Juncus lomatophyllus Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2 (1821: 108) Juncus lomatophyllus Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2 (1821: 108) SOUTH AFRICA. Cap. B. Spe. sine dato C.H. Bergius s.n. (J. lomatophyllus Spreng., Bergius’sches Exemplar, bestimmt von K. Sprengel, 11 Jan 1875, det. Fr. Buchenau) Herbarium Henschelianum T: ‘in promontorio bonae spei’ [Cape Peninsula], Bergius; holo: B, destroyed.
Rem.: After Kirschner et al. (2002a: 31): holotype – B, destroyed. Isotype (the only duplicate known) rediscovered at WRSL.
47 156 Syntype of Juncus mauritanicus Trab., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 34 (1887: 396) Juncus punctorius L. f., Suppl. Pl. (1781: 208) ALGERIA. Aïn el Hadjar [Oran] 20 Jul 1887 J.A. Battandier & L.C. Trabut 294 Battandier et Trabut, Pl. d’Algérie T: [Algeria, Oran] Aïn el Hadjar, 1100 m, 20 Jul 1887; J.A. Battandier & L.C. Trabut [Pl. Alger.] 294; syn: G, L, MPU*, PR, WU; [Algeria] Batna, B.Balansa [Pl. Algér.] 739; syn: n.v.
48 156 Authentic/original material of Juncus minae Strobl ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. (1882: 749), nom. inval. Juncus pygmaeus Rich. ex Thuill., Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2 (1800: 178) ITALY. Ad oram maris Tyrrheni prope Finale 11 Apr 1874 P. Gabriel Strobl s.n Flora nebrodensis / Herbarium M. Winkler Authentic/original material: [Italy, Sicily] Flora Nebrodensis, prope Finale, G. Strobl (K, PR)
49 156 Authentic/original material of Juncus minae Strobl ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. (1882: 749), nom. inval. Juncus pygmaeus Rich. ex Thuill., Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2 (1800: 178) ITALY. Ad oram maris Tyrrheni prope Finale 11 Apr 1874 P. Gabriel Strobl s.n. (det. Uechtritz, as J. pygmaeus Th.) Flora nebrodensis / Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz Authentic/original material: [Italy, Sicily] Flora Nebrodensis, prope Finale, G. Strobl (K, PR)
50 155 Isolectotype of Juncus monticola Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 301) Juncus wallichianus J. Gay ex Laharpe, Essai Monogr. Jonc. (1825: 51) INDIA. In montibus Nilagiri sine dato R.F. Hohenacker 951 Pl. Indiae or. (M. Nilagiri) Ed. R.F. Hohenacker. 1851 / Herbarium Henschelianum T: [India] in montibus Nilagiri, R.F. Hohenacker [Pl. Ind. Orient.] 951; lecto: P, fide K.L. Wilson & L.A.S. Johnson, Telopea 9 (2001: 364); isolecto: E, G*, JE*, K, L, MPU*, P, PR, S*, W. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
51 155 Isolectotype of Juncus monticola Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 301) Juncus wallichianus J. Gay ex Laharpe, Essai Monogr. Jonc. (1825: 51) INDIA. In montibus Nilagiri sine dato R.F. Hohenacker 951 Pl. Indiae or. (M. Nilagiri) Ed. R.F. Hohenacker. 1851 / Herbarium Felsmann T: [India] in montibus Nilagiri, R.F. Hohenacker [Pl. Ind. Orient.] 951; lecto: P, fide K.L. Wilson & L.A.S. Johnson, Telopea 9 (2001: 364); isolecto: E, G*, JE*, K, L, MPU*, P, PR, S*, W.
Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
52 155 Isolectotype of Juncus monticola Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 301) Juncus wallichianus J. Gay ex Laharpe, Essai Monogr. Jonc. (1825: 51) INDIA. In montibus Nilagiri sine dato R.F. Hohenacker 951 Pl. Indiae or. (M. Nilagiri) Ed. R.F. Hohenacker. 1851 / Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz T: [India] in montibus Nilagiri, R.F. Hohenacker [Pl. Ind. Orient.] 951; lecto: P, fide K.L. Wilson & L.A.S. Johnson, Telopea 9 (2001: 364); isolecto: E, G*, JE*, K, L, MPU*, P, PR, S*, W. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
53 151 Syntype of Juncus multibracteatus Tineo in G. Gussone, Fl. Sicul. Prodr. Suppl. (1832: 105) acutus L., Sp. Pl. (1753: 325) subsp. acutus ITALY. In humentibus Castronuovo sine dato Todaro 556 Todaro Flora Sicula exiccata / Herbarium M. Winkler T: [Italy] ‘In humentibus Castronuovo’, A. Todaro 556; syn: BM, BR*, FI, K, W.
54 153 Probable original material of Juncus × obotritorum Rothm., Wiss. Zeitschr. Univ. Greifswald 14 (1965: 79) Juncus × obotritorum Rothm. Wiss. Zeitschr. Univ. Greifswald 14 (1965: 79) (= J. balticus Willd. subsp. balticus × J. effusus L. subsp. effusus) GERMANY. Prov. Mecklenburg, Dünenmoor zwischen Wustrow und Dierhagen/Fischland-Darss 15 Sep 1961 U. Schneider s.n. Flora Germanica / Herbarium Ulrike Schneider T: [Germany, Mecklenburg] inter Wustrow et Dierhagen prope Ribnitz Megalopolitanae, 16 Sep 1961, W. Rothmaler & U. Schneider; holo:
n.v. [not given in the protologue; probably JE or GFW]
Rem.: After Kirschner et al. (2002b: 141) the type material was collected on 16 Sep 1961, and by W. Rothmaler & U. Schneider.
55 155 Probable original material of Juncus obtusatus Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2 (1868: 495), nom. illeg., non Schult. (1814), nom. illeg. Juncus covillei var. obtusatus [Engelmann] C.L. Hitchc. in C.L. Hitchcock & al., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. Northw. 1 (1969: 193) USA. California sine dato H.N. Bolander s.n., det. Fr. Buchenau Herbarium Henschelianum T: California, Mariposa, Big Tree Grove, H.N. Bolander [G. Engelmann, Herb. Junc. Bor.-Amer. Norm.] 42;
syn: AAU, CAS*, DAO*, G*, K*, LE*, MO, NY*, PH*, PR, USCH*; H.N. Bolander 6028; syn: MO.
Rem.: A handwritten label by Fr. Buchenau.
56 155 Syntype of Juncus oxycarpus E. Mey. ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841: 336) Juncus oxycarpus E. Mey. ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841: 336) SOUTH AFRICA. Cap. b. spi. ([Cape Provinces] Liesbeek R) sine dato C.H. Bergius s.n. (det. Fr. Buchenau 11 Jan 1875 & remark by Buchenau: Bergiussches Exemplar mit der (falschen) Bestimmung v. K. Sprengel); det. by K. Sprengel as Juncus punctorius Herbarium Henschelianum T: [Cape Provinces] Liesbeek R., C.H. Bergius; syn: B [destroyed]; Paarl, Berg Rivier, J.F. Drège a; syn: K, P.
Rem.: A syntype at WRSL is shown according to an original publication of Kunth (1841: 337). This is a new syntype (and its only known duplicate) discovered at WRSL.
57 156 Syntype of Juncus parvulus E. Mey. ex Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 447) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 447)] Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, Namaqualand, Modderfontein 05 Nov 1830 J.F. Drège 2472b Herbarium Henschelianum T: South Africa, Cape, Namaqualand, Modderfontein, 5 Nov 1830, J.F. Drège 2472b; syn: BM*, BOL, E*, G*, K, L, LD*, LE*, NY*, PR, S, TUB*.
58 156 Syntype of Juncus persicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 7 (1846: 101) Juncus persicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 7 (1846: 101) IRAN. In planitie edita Kakan m. Kuh-Daëna 17 Jul 1842 C.G.T. Kotschy 683 Th. Kotschy. Pl. Pers. aust. Ed. R.F. Hohenacker 1845 / Herbarium Schumann T: [Iran] Kakun M Kuh-e Dinar, C.G.T. Kotschy 683; syn: BM, CGE, E, FI*, G, KW*, LE*, MO*, PR, WAG*.
59 156 Syntype of Juncus persicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 7 (1846: 101) Juncus persicus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 7 (1846: 101) IRAN. In planitie edita Kakan m. Kuh-Daëna sine dato C.G.T. Kotschy 683 (det. Fr. Buchenau, 04 Feb 1875) Pers. Austr. Inl. M. / Herbarium Henschelianum T: [Iran] Kakun M Kuh-e Dinar, C.G.T. Kotschy 683; syn: BM, CGE, E, FI*, G, KW*, LE*, MO*, PR, WAG*.
60 156 Syntype of Juncus pictus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 305) Juncus pictus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 305) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, Namaqualand, Kamiesberg, Leliefontein sine dato J.F. Drège 2472a Herbarium Henschelianum T: South Africa, Cape, Namaqualand, Kamiesberg, Leliefontein, J.F. Drège 2472a; syn: BM*, BOL, E*, G, K, KW*, L, LD*, NY*, P, PR, S.
61 156 Syntype of Juncus sikkimensis var. pseudocastaneus Lingelsh., in W.Limpricht, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 316 (1922) Juncus sikkimensis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6 (1892: 399) CHINA/INDIA [?]. Tatsienlu [Kangding]-Dawo [Dawu]. Gata (Tailing) auf der Passalm Dshaschi la ka [Tschaschilaka] (Hai tse schan) am Dshará (Iara ri), 4360 m 02 Jul 1914 W. Limpricht 1869, det. Lingelsheim, as Juncus sikkimensis var. pseudocastaneus Lingelsh. (on the additional label) Flora von Ost-Tibet T: Ngata (Taining), Tschaschilaka, zwischen Tatsienlu [Kangding] und Dawo [Dawu], Hai tse schan am Dshara, 2 Jul 1914, W. Limpricht 1869; syn: WRSL, n.v., WU.
Rem.: The specimen at WRSL is mentioned by Kirschner et al. (2002a: 126) but marked as n.v. [non vidi].
62 152 Isolectotype of Juncus ranarius Songeon & E.P. Perrier in P.C. Billot, Annot. Fl. France Allemagne (1859: 192) Juncus ranarius Songeon & E.P. Perrier in P.C. Billot, Annot. Fl. France Allemagne (1859: 192) FRANCE. Moutiers (Savoie) 31 Jun & 24 Aug 1858 Perrier 1787 (det. J. Stasiak, 29 Jan 1975, as Juncus ambiguus Guss. = J. ranarius Song. et Perr.) Reliquiae Mailleanae / Herbarium M. Winkler T: France, Savoie, Moutiers, 31 Jun & 21 Aug 1858, A. Perrier; lecto: P, fide T.A. Cope & C.A. Stace, Watsonia 12 (1978: 123); isolecto: BM*, G, K, LD, W.
Rem.: The status of this isolectotype should be validated while taking into account the following: 1) the analysis of the lectotype at P and 2) whether the lectotypification by Cope & Stace (1978: 123) is valid (the researchers did not specify which specimen at P they selected as a type and the original material of the name is usually very extensive).
Kirschner et al. (2002b: 15) erroneously noted the page of the lectotype indication as 127 and it should be corrected to 123.
63 156 Syntype of Juncus rupestris f. robusta Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 442) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 442)] Juncus rupestris Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3 (1841: 344) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, Kamiesberge, Eselsfontein sine dato J.F. Drège 2471a Herbarium Henschelianum T: South Africa, Cape, Kamiesberge, Eselsfontein, J.F. Drège 2471a; syn: BOL, E*, G, K, LD, PR, S.
64 156 Isolectotype of Juncus schimperi Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyssin. 2 (1851: 338) Juncus punctorius L. f., Suppl. Pl. (1781: 208) ETHIOPIA. In ripis uliginosis Adoam 01 Dec 1837 W. Schimper 56 (det. Fr. Buchenau, 11 Jan 1875 as Juncus punctorius Thbg.) Schimperi iter Abyssinicum, Sectio prima: plantae Adoënses / Herbarium Henschelianum T: [Ethiopia]. In ripis uliginosis prope Adoam [Adua], 1 Dec 1837, W. Schimper [C.F. Hochstetter, Herb. Un. It. Abyss.] 56; lecto: P [as ’holo’], fide K.A. Lye, in S. Edwards, Sebsebe D. & I. Hedberg, Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 6 (1997: 389); isolecto: BR*, G*, HAL*, M*, MPU*, K, KW*, LG*, S*, TUB*, WAG*, WU. Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
65 154 Syntype of Juncus schlagintweitii Buchenau, Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen Geschäftl. Mitt. 13 (1869: 255) Juncus himalensis Klotzsch in J.F. Klotzsch & C.A.F. Garcke, Bot. Ergebn. Reise INDIA. Western Himálaya, prov. Gărhvál, Nélong viâ Múkba across the Damdár or Hat ka Tsáũra Pass tu Ussilla in the Tons Valley 26 Sep to 06 Oct 1855 A. & H. Schlagintweit 9708, det. Fr. Buchenau Herbarium Schlagintweit from India and High Asia T: [Kashmir] Tibet, Dras, ‘Matai up to the Tsoje Pass’, 14 Oct 1868, A. & H. Schlagintweit 6668; syn: W, US*; India, Garhwal, ‘Nelong via Mukba across the Damdar’, 6 Oct 1855; A. & H.Schlagintweit 9708; syn: n.v.
Waldemar (1862: 60, tab. 97)
66 156 Syntype of Juncus schlechteri Buchenau, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 24 (1898: 459) Juncus cephalotes Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Terra Capensis, Regio occidentalis, Bain’s Kloof Nov 1896 F.R. Schlechter 9154 Plantae Schlechterianae Austro-Africanae T: South Africa, Cape, Bain’s Kloof, F.R. Schlechter 9154; syn: BM*, BOL, BR*, E*, G*, L, LD, LE*, PR, PRE, S, WAG*.
67 157 Isotype of Juncus singularis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 302) Juncus singularis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 302) SOUTH AFRICA. Cape, between Vanstadensberg and Bethelsdorp 1830 J.F. Drège 1604b Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, between Vanstadensberg and Bethelsdorp 1830, J.F. Drège 1604b p.p. [some gatherings with Juncus dregeanus]; holo: P; iso: B [destroyed, but picture deposited at W], G, S, W.
Rem.: Mentioned by Kirschner et al. (2002a: 57) as a doubtful taxon.
68 156 Syntype of Juncus sonderianus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 476) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 476)] Juncus sonderianus Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 476) [Abh. Naturwiss. SOUTH AFRICA. [Cape] Port Elizabeth sine dato J.F. Drège e (det. F. Buchenau as Juncus sonderianus Buchenau, 11 Jan 1875; det. J.F. Drège as cap. β. angustifol. E.M.) Herbarium Henschelianum T: [Cape] Port Elizabeth, J.F. Drège e; syn: E*, G, HBG*, K, LD, LE*, P, S*, W [’J.F.Drège e’ was generally proposed as a type by Adamson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 50 (1935: 26)]; [Cape] bei Cap Recief und Port Elizabeth, C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 9; syn: BOL, LD*, W, S; C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 780; syn: n.v. – W*.
Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 476)]
69 156 Isolectotype of Juncus sparganiifolius Boiss. & Kotschy ex Buchenau, Krit. Verz. Juncac. (1879: 88) Juncus sparganiifolius Boiss. & Kotschy ex Buchenau, Krit. Verz. Juncac. (1879: 88) TURKEY. In alvei glareosis dispersa et rara supra Ursusa pagum (Hatay, Arsuz) 02 Jul 1862 C.G.T. Kotschy 102 Th. Kotschy, Pl. Syriae bor. ex Amano occidentali supra Arsus 1862 T: Plantae Syriae borealis ex Amano occidentali supra Arsus, supra Ursusa pagum [Turkey, Hatay, Arsuz], 2 Jun 1862, C.G.T. Kotschy 102; lecto: Z, fide S. Snogerup, in P.H. Davis, Fl. Turkey 9 (1986: 19); isolecto: BM, G*, JE*, K, L, LE*, P, W [One of four isotype specimens from W bears a note in Buchenau’s hand: ’An excellent new species’ [translated], and should be given preference].
Rem.: The status of the type corrected (iso to isolecto) in accordance with the Shenzhen Code.
70 156 Isolectotype of Juncus sprengelii Nees ex Buchenau var. gracilior Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 449) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 449)] Juncus stenopetalus Adamson, J. S. African Bot. 8 (1942: 273) SOUTH AFRICA. Worcester, Waterfall sine dato C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 11, 1.12 (det. Fr. Buchenau, as J. sprengelii N. ab. Es., 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: South Africa, Cape, Tulbagh Waterfall, C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 11; lecto: BOL, fide A.A. Obermeyer, in A.A. Obermeyer, J. Lewis & R.B. Faden, Fl. S. Afr. 4/2 (1985: 88); isolecto: LD, S, W.
71 156 Isolectotype of Juncus sprengelii Nees ex Buchenau var. gracilior Buchenau, Monogr. Junc. Cap (1875: 449) [Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 4 (1875: 449)] Juncus stenopetalus Adamson, J. S. African Bot. 8 (1942: 273) SOUTH AFRICA. Worcester, Waterfall sine dato C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 11, 1.12 T: South Africa, Cape, Tulbagh Waterfall, C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher 11; lecto: BOL, fide A.A. Obermeyer, in A.A. Obermeyer, J. Lewis & R.B. Faden, Fl. S. Afr. 4/2 (1985: 88); isolecto: LD, S, W.
72 152 Isolectotype of Juncus sulcatus Hochst. in C. Krauss, Flora 28 (1845: 342) Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Ad rivulos in Zitzikama, Uitenhage Mar 1839 C. Krauss s.n. (det. Fr. Buchenau, as J. capensis Thbg. subsp. angustifolius var. flaccidus Bchn., f. depaup., 11 Jan 1875) Herbarium Henschelianum T: Cape, Uitenhage, Zitzikamma, Mar 1839, C. Krauss s.n.; lecto: W, fide Kirschner et al. (2002a: 36); isolecto: FI*.
73 152 Isolectotype of Juncus sulcatus Hochst. in C. Krauss, Flora 28 (1845: 342) Juncus capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1794: 66) SOUTH AFRICA. Ad rivulos in Zitzikama, Uitenhage Mar 1839 C. Krauss s.n. Herbarium Schumann T: Cape, Uitenhage, Zitzikamma, Mar 1839, C. Krauss s.n.; lecto: W, designated by Kirschner et al. (2002a: 36); isolecto: FI*.
74 157 Syntype of Juncus sylvaticus var. multiflorus Rochel, Pl. Banat. Rar. (1828: 31, tab. 1) & Juncus rochelianus Schult. & Schult. f., Syst. Veg. 7(2) (1830: 1658) Juncus thomasii Ten., App. Ind. Sem. (1827: sine pag.) SERBIA. Banatu [Banatus] 1815 A. Rochel s.n. Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz T: [Romania] Valle Kornia-Reva & ad pedes Kraku-Sanozy Banatus, A. Rochel; syn: n.v. – BM*, W*; Banatus, 1815, A. Rochel; syn: W.
75 151 Isolectotype of Juncus tommasinii Parl., Fl. Ital. 2 (1852: 315) Juncus littoralis C.A. Mey., Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer. (1831: 34) ITALY. […] bog, Monfalcone Grado sine dato M. Tommasini s.n. Ex herbario Florae Illyrico-litoralis / Herbarium R. v. Uechtritz 27 T: [Italy] ‘Nei paludi presso Monfalcone, Grado’, M.G.S. Tommasini, lecto: FI, fide S. Snogerup, Willdenowia 23 (1993: 40).
76 157 Isotype of Juncus triformis var. brachystylus Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2 (1868: 492) Juncus kelloggii Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2 (1868: 494) USA. Calif[ornia], Mendocino Co., Ukiah May 1866 H.N. Bolander & Kellogg 4646, det. Fr. Buchenau Herbarium Henschelianum T: USA, California, Mendocino Co., Ukiah, May 1866, H.N. Bolander 4646 [G. Engelmann, Herb. Junc. Bor.-Amer. Norm.]; holo: MO; iso: BM*, CAS, F*, G*, GH*, K*, MIN*, NY, PH*, PR, RM*, RSA*, US, USCH*, YU*.
77 157 Isolectotype of Juncus triformis var. stylosus Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2 (1868: 492) Juncus triformis Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2 (1868: 492) USA. Calif[ornia], Yosemite Valley, De Long’s ranch 10 Jun 1866 H.N. Bolander & Kellogg 4864, det. Fr. Buchenau Herbarium Henschelianum T: California, Yosemite Valley, De Long’s Ranch, 4000 ft. [ca. 1280 m], 10 Jun 1866, H.N. Bolander 4864 [G.Engelmann, Herb. Junc. Bor.-Amer. Norm. 30]; lecto: MO, fide F.J. Hermann, Leafl. W. Bot. 5 (1948: 114); isolecto: CAS, DAO*, G*, ISC*, K*, LE*, MICH, NEB*, NY, PH*, RM*, RSA*, US, USCH*, YU*.
78 156 Isotype of Juncus valdiviae Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2 (1855: 296) Juncus procerus E. Mey., Linnaea 3 (1828: 367) CHILE. ad ripam fluvii Valdivia Jan 1852 R.A. Philippi 43 (det. Fr. Buchenau, as Juncus procerus E. M., 3 Dec 1878) R.A. Philippi, Pl. chilenses, W.R.F. Hohenacker / Herbarium Henschelianum T: Chile, Valdivia, R.A. Philippi 43; holo: P; iso: FI*, G, GOET, K, KW*, MO, O, P, S.

Results

Type and other historically-important material

We found 78 specimens that are historically or nomenclaturally important (Table 1): two holotypes, 20 isolectotypes, 14 isotypes, 29 syntypes (including one probable syntype of Juncus exsertus Buchenau (1875: 435)), three paratypes, one isoneotype, five sheets of historically-relevant material (for names not validly published) or additional material from type localities collected by the author of the name (so-called “topotypes”) and four sheets of probable original material to be analysed in the future (Fig. 1). Holotypes, isotypes and isolectotypes constitute 46.2% of all types (and other historically- and nomenclaturally-important specimens) of Juncus specimens recognised at the WRSL. The most significant discovery was the identification of the three following Juncus types in the WRSL Herbarium (see also remarks for them in Table 1, last column of rows 46, 56, 20):

Figure 1. 

Percentage of different categories of Juncus specimens. Types, original material and specimens collected from the original type localities, by the author of the name (“topotypes”) at WRSL.

1) ISOTYPE of Juncus lomatophyllus Spreng. (1821: 108) [sine dato, Bergius s.n. (J. lomatophyllus Spreng., Bergius’sches Exemplar, bestimmt von K. Sprengel, 11 Jan 1875, det. Fr. Buchenau)]. – Holotype in B, destroyed. Isotype (the only duplicate known) rediscovered at WRSL.

2) SYNTYPE of Juncus oxycarpus E. Mey. ex Kunth (1841: 336) [sine dato, C.H. Bergius s.n. (det. Fr. Buchenau 11 Jan 1875 & remark by Buchenau: Bergiussches Exemplar mit der (falschen) Bestimmung v. K. Sprengel); det. by K. Sprengel as Juncus punctorius]. – A syntype at WRSL shown, according to the original publication of Kunth (1841: 337). This is a new syntype (and its only duplicate known) discovered at WRSL.

3) ISOLECTOTYPE of Juncus capensis var. gracilior Buchenau (1875: 483) [05 Mar 1816, Bergius s.n., det. K. Sprengel (gesamm. von Bergius, det. Fr. Buchenau 11 Jan 1875), current name: Juncus capensis Thunb. (1794: 66)]. – Additional specimens were mentioned in the protologue of the new taxon (Buchenau, 1875: 484). Thus, the lectotype was designated (in B, destroyed). Isolectotype (the only duplicate known) was rediscovered at WRSL (the specimen includes collection date (i.e. 5 Mar 1816), which corresponds to the date included in the protologue). The syntype (Bergius specimen at W) does not include a collection date.

The origin of Juncus type specimens at WRSL according to country is presented in Fig. 2.

Figure 2. 

Origin of Juncus historically- and nomenclaturally-important specimens at WRSL according to country. Y-axis: number of herbarium sheets. Specimens most frequently originated from South Africa (42.3%). Juncus type specimens were collected by many distinguished botanists. Amongst these, the four individuals gathered 37.2% of Juncus specimens: C.F. Ecklon & C.L.P. Zeyher, C. Krauss and J.F. Drège.

Most of the types and other historically- and nomenclaturally-important specimens come from the following collections: Herb. Henschelianum (30 sheets, i.e. 16.2% of the Juncus set at WRSL – see below “A Herbarium/Collection name”), Herb. Schumann (13 sheets, 16.9%), Herb. R. v. Uechtritz (7 sheets, 1.7%), Herb. J. Proćków (6 sheets), Herb. M. Winkler (3 sheets) and others (19 sheets). Additionally, eight paratypes of J. bulbosus f. submucronatus Proćków (2010: 412) are stored in the Herbarium Silesiacum at WRSL (Proćków 2010) and, thus, are not included in the statistics in this study that covers Herbarium Generale only (as a separate set of two ones at WRSL).

Species

Approximately 70 Juncus species are represented in the collection, most of them from Europe. Species from the rest of the world are less numerous, but still relatively frequent: J. capensis Thunb., J. subulatus Forssk. (incl. J. multiflorus Desf.), J. nodosus L., J. cephalotes Thunb., J. dichotomus Elliott, J. prismatocarpus R. Br., J. acuminatus Michx., J. xiphioides E. Mey., J. concinnus D. Don, J. wallichianus J. Gay ex Laharpe (incl. J. monticola Steud.), J. pelocarpus E. Mey., J. marginatus Rostk., J. microcephalus Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth. and J. punctorius L.f., J. littoralis C.A. Mey. (as J. tommasinii Parl.).

Date of collection

We found 2,193 herbarium labels with dates of collection recorded: 1,967 of these were collected before 1946, comprising ca. 89.7% of the Juncus set. The remaining 226 specimens were collected after 1945; 10.3% of the Juncus specimens.

Collector and herbarium collection name

In the Juncus set at WRSL, the sets of some individuals stand out in numbers of specimens (Fig. 3). The most outstanding collections of Juncus from particular included herbaria are (number of herbarium sheets are in parentheses): Herb. R. v. Uechtritz (415), Herb. M. Winkler (394), Herb. Henschelianum (185), Botanischer Tauschverein in Wien (80), Herb. Schumann (77), Herb. Wagnerianum (41), Herb. Dr. C. Baenitz (34), Herb. Emil Fiek (32), Herb. J.A. Allen (24), Reliquiae Mailleanae (24), Herb. F. Pax (21), Herbier P. Louis-Marie (20), Herb. A. Engler (18), Reliquiae Hildebrandianae (18), Herb. Felsmann (15), Herb. J. Duval-Jouve (14), Herb. Schlagintweit from India and High Asia (12), Herb. Hort. Bot. Calcuttensis (11) and Herbier Henri van Heurck (10). Almost half of the Juncus sp. sheets come from four individual collections. All were bought for, donated to or exchanged by the Museum. The number of duplicates in the collection is not large (4.6%, i.e. 103 out of 2,222 all taxonomic records).

Figure 3. 

Collectors’ names. Y-axis: number of herbarium labels analysed.

Country of collection

Herbarium sheets from eastern Poland and Germany (defined according to their post-war borders) dominate and are shown in Fig. 4. For 336 Juncus sheets (15.3%), we were unable to establish the country of origin, because no or illegible information on the locality was present on herbarium labels.

Figure 4. 

Country repsentation of Juncus specimens in WRSL. Y-axis: number of herbarium labels analysed. The African collection deserves particular attention (98 sheets (4.5%)), including sets from South Africa (64 sheets). The Asian collection (96 sheets) is dominated by plants from India (59). The percentage of plants from North America is as high as 10%.

Exsiccata series

In the WRSL Juncus set, the following exsiccatae are particularly well-represented (the number of herbarium sheets is shown in parentheses): Rchb. Fl. germ. excurs. (incl. Rchb. Fl. Germ. n.) (37), Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Typhaceae et Sparganiaceae Hungaricae exsiccatae (24), Reise durch das südliche Spanien 1873 (mainly of M. Winkler) (22), Flora of Sikkim (15), Pl. Indiae or[ientalis] (M. Nilagiri), ed. R.F. Hohenacker (13), Todaro Flora Sicula exiccata (11), Flora des NW. Himalaya (10).

Discussion

The Herbarium Generale of the mid-sized WRSL herbarium is rich in specimens relevant to the nomenclature of Juncus and contains 78 specimens (3.6% of all Juncus specimens examined, see Table 1), with an average of 11 sheets per fascicle (i.e. herbarium box). Seventy-six (of 78) of these historically-important specimens (types, original material and specimens collected at the type locality by the author of the name) were not identified as such before our study. This significant number of types highlights the significance of the analysed set and of WRSL more broadly, for the study of taxonomy and nomenclature (Sutory 1997). To put this into context, the approximate percentages of types stored in other historically-important herbaria are as follows: K (5%), W (3.6%), BM (2.6%) [cited from herbaria websites, which include the total number specimens stored]. Our study revealed that the Juncus set at WRSL is a valuable collection globally with respect to the number of historically- and nomenclaturally-relevant specimens. Often, specimens included are associated with research conducted involving a given group of plants in the academic centre housing collections. The majority of Juncus specimens (ca. 89.7%) date from before the Second World War and specialists studying the genus Juncus did not work at WRSL during that time. This suggests that the rest of the WRSL collection might also contain similarly high percentages of such historically- and nomenclaturally-relevant specimens.

As the genus Juncus is rich in species (311 species, Kirschner et al. (2002a, b)), we consider that extrapolation of our results to other genera is appropriate. We assume that descriptions of taxa new to science before 1946 were equally common within most taxonomic groups and specimens belonging to different plant genera/families were sent to the WRSL herbarium equally often.

Only a small fraction of global herbarium specimens had been computerised by the end of last decade (Lughadha and Miller 2009). Despite the recent acceleration of the digitisation of herbarium collections (as of early 2015, the number of scanned specimens within the world’s largest virtual herbaria was 18.4 million), we are far from fully digitising all collections (Seregin 2016). Even a small percentage (1–2%) of computerised specimens can drastically reduce research costs and help scientists focus on collections that are likely to contain the most information-rich specimens (O’Connell et al. 2004). In herbarium management, it is cheaper to produce and distribute scans than facilitate botanist visits (Seregin 2016). Digitisation is also important because young people who do not live near a natural history museum or herbarium can access natural history data and learn to use it and this early involvement in science may cultivate a love for the study of biology (Watanabe 2019). The continued digitisation of the WRSL herbarium (currently only 4.9% digitally available) will certainly reveal new material for botanists’ use.

Our results reveal the usefulness of lesser-known herbaria not only from a national or local point of view (Lavoie 2013), but also as a source of important collections and type specimens that are not duplicated in larger facilities (Snow 2005). For Juncus, only two of 78 nomenclaturally-relevant specimens identified here were cited by Kirschner et al. (2002a, 2002b), so 76 of the specimens in Table 1 were unknown before this study. Holotypes, isotypes and isolectotypes constitute 46.2% of all types (and other nomenclaturally important specimens) of Juncus recognised at the WRSL, highlighting the nomenclature relevance of the collection. Three specimens are particularly worth highlighting here: the holotypes of Juncus lomatophyllus Spreng. and Juncus capensis var. gracilior Buchenau and a syntype of J. oxycarpus E. Mey. ex Kunth were originally stored in Berlin (the herbarium of the Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin). These were destroyed during the Second World War (Hiepko 1987; Kirschner et al. 2002a) and our discovery of duplicates in WRSL will help with the correct application of these names.

Duplicates of nomenclaturally relevant specimens are often considered to be less important than holotypes, lectotypes and neotypes. Duplicates, however, may differ in physical condition, material quantity, different annotations, labelling, specimen content (plant parts, for example, young fruit vs. only a flowering twig, male vs. female flowers in diclinous plants, with roots vs. without roots) or may even represent mixed gatherings (different taxa). An isotype of Juncus singularis Steud. (J.F. Drège 1604b) at WRSL, for example, is a much larger, leafy specimen with five inflorescences, as compared with other specimens at G, P, S and W, listed and pictured at plants.jstor.org (accessed on 16 Apr 2020). Annotations by specialists can be very useful in understanding taxonomic concepts: 23 WRSL Juncus type specimens were annotated by Franz G.Ph. Buchenau (1831–1906), a Juncus specialist whose work remains unsurpassed to this day (annotations included new determinations and/or ‘specimen authenticum’ indications and were made by him throughout 1874–1875, 1878–1879 and 1887; see the ‘Leg. et det.’ column in Table 1). Thus, some ‘ordinary duplicates’ at WRSL are helpful for understanding taxonomists’ thinking.

We also found that many of the historically- and nomenclaturally-important Juncus specimens stored at WRSL originate from South Africa (42.3%). This over-representation might be explained by the origin of the collection. German botanists (together with the British and the Dutch) were a dominant force in the floristic exploration of Africa from the 17th to the early 20th century. The WRSL herbarium is, thus, an important resource for international researchers working on the flora of that hugely biodiverse, but still under-explored, part of the world.

Conclusions

The history of German-Polish herbaria, including WRSL, is very turbulent. A detailed examination of Juncus, as a case study, confirms the value of the WRSL collection in historical terms. That a significant number of historically- and nomenclaturally-important specimens at WRSL was acquired passively (Juncus was of no special interest to German or Polish scientists at the time) suggests that more such specimens may be found within the collection for other genera. Digitisation and taxonomic revision of material will facilitate the confirmation of the richness of the collection.

Other large type collections contain well-preserved specimens, well-prepared catalogues (often available on-line) and are well-known to scientists. However, the WRSL collection is not only unique, as confirmed here, but not well-known to date.

Some Juncus type specimens, listed here, can be found easily in a large number of other collections. However, some are preserved only at WRSL because many types, previously stored in Berlin, were destroyed during the Second World War. Although we researched only a few parts of the WRSL collection, we are convinced that duplicates of many type specimens destroyed in Berlin can be found in Wrocław. Uncatalogued herbaria like WRSL with turbulent histories can be a source of collections important for the study of biodiversity.

We selected Juncus as a case study since the collection at WRSL covers the entire distribution range of the genus. Therefore, it likely reflects the general situation in other groups of plants in the herbarium.

Currently, many herbarium sets in Europe are still being catalogued (and many remain undigitised). However, many old collections are indeed valuable and their type and other historical collections have the potential to facilitate taxonomy and nomenclature and, in addition, enhance our knowledge of biodiversity through application of correct names.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Krzysztof Świerkosz Ph.D. (curator of WRSL) for making the Juncus collections available to us and for providing the latest statistics connected with the WRSL herbarium. We wish to thank Magdalena Mularczyk Ph.D. who consulted with us on matters related to the turbulent history of the herbarium in Wrocław. We also gratefully acknowledge Ewa Lenard Ph.D., who provided the materials connected with an old herbarium of Paolo (Silvio) Boccone. The project is supported by the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) programme of the Wrocław Center of Biotechnology for years 2014–2018.

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