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Research Article
Psephellus vanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from east Turkey
expand article infoBekir Dogan, Lütfi Behçet§, Ahmet Duran|, Davut Avlamaz§
‡ Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
§ Bingöl University, Bingöl, Turkey
| Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey
Open Access

Abstract

A new species, Psephellus vanensis A.Duran, Behçet & B.Dogan (Asteraceae) from Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated. The species grows on the serpentine stony field of the village of Çaldıran in the district of Başkale (Van province) in eastern Anatolia. It is morphologically similar to Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus (Boiss.) Wagenitz. Diagnostic characters are discussed, and a key to the most similar species is provided. Ecology, conservation status and notes on biogeography of the species are also presented. In addition, the geographical distribution of the new species and other related species in Turkey is mapped.

Keywords

Anatolia, Compositae, taxonomy

Introduction

The genus Psephellus Cass. embraces 75–80 species. Its distribution is centered in east Anatolia, the Caucasus and northwest Iran; only few species occur outside this area (Wagenitz and Hellwig 2000).

In Wagenitz and Hellwig (2000), 12 sections that had been included in the genus Centaurea were transferred to the genus Psephellus, namely P. sect. Psephelloideae (Boiss.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Psephellus (Cass.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Hyalinella (Tzelev) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Aetheopappus (Cass.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Odontolophus (Cass.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Xanthopsis (DC.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Amblyopogon (DC.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Heterolophus (Cass.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Czerniakovskya (Czerep.) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Odontolophoideae (Tzvelev) Wagenitz & Hellwig, P. sect. Uralepis (DC.) Wagenitz & Hellwig and P. sect. Sosnovskya (Takht.) Wagenitz & Hellwig. New combinations under the genus Psephellus were provided for these sections and 35 species, especially from Turkey and Iran. Some of these species occur only in Turkey.

In Turkey, Psephellus is represented by 31 species including some recently described species. After Wagenitz and Hellwig (2000), P. turcicus A.Duran & E.Hamzaoglu, P. recepii Wagenitz & Kandemir, P. erzincanii Wagenitz & Kandemir, P. coruhensis A.Duran & M.Öztürk, P. yusufeliensis O. Tugay & Uysal were described (Duran and Hamzaoğlu 2005, Wagenitz and Kandemir 2008, Duran et al. 2009, Tugay et al. 2009). Psephellus yusufeliensis was reduced to a synonym of P. coruhensis (Duran et al. 2014).

During a field trip, some specimens of the genus Psephellus were collected in easthern Anatolia, in the Van province. After examining carefully the specimens and the descriptions of Psephellus species in Wagenitz (1975), Dostal (1976), Davis et al. (1988), Wagenitz et al. (1998), Wagenitz and Hellwig (2000), Güner (2000), Duran and Hamzaoğlu (2005), Wagenitz and Kandemir (2008), Duran et al. (2009), as well as comparing with specimens in the Herbaria KNYA, ANK, GAZI, GOET, HUB, E, K and BM, it was determined that our specimens represent a species new to science. In this paper, this new species of Psephellus is described and illustrated.

In the description below, each numerical value is the average of ten measurements from different specimens. Our specimens of Psephellus vanensis sp. nov. were examined and compared with specimens of the related species P. pyrrhoblepharus and P. gilanicus collected in Turkey. With the new species described here, the total number of taxa in the genus Psephellus has risen to 32 in Turkey.

Taxonomic treatment

Psephellus vanensis A. Duran, Behçet & B. Doğan, sp. nov.

Figs 1, 2, 3

Diagnosis

Psephellus vanensis differs from P. pyrrhoblepharus in its stem 13–20 cm tall and tomentose (vs. (20–)30–50 cm, floccose-tomentose), basal leaves usually undivided and elliptic to lanceolate, rarely lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segments (vs. lyrate with very large broadly lanceolate terminal segment and 1–2 pairs of small lateral segment), involucre 11–17 × 11–14 mm, bowl-shaped (vs. 20–25 × 15–25 mm, ovoid to nearly globose), achenes 4–5 mm long (vs. 6–7 mm), pappus 5–6 mm long (vs. 4–7 mm long), inner row of scales 1–2 mm long (vs. 3–4 mm long).

Type

Turkey. Van: Başkale, Çaldıran village, steppe fields, 2000–2050 m a.s.l., 17 Jun 2009, Behçet & D. Avlamaz 1603 (holotype: KNYA, isotypes: GAZI, ANK, HUB, Bingöl Univ. Herb.).

Description

Perennial herb with a woody rootstock. Stem erect, striate, densely tomentose, 13–20 cm tall, 1.3–2 mm in diameter at base, simple, upper parts of stems leafless. Leaves concoloured, green, densely tomentose; basal leaves usually undivided and elliptic to lanceolate, 3–7 × 0.6–1.2 cm (including petiole), rarely lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segments; cauline and upper cauline leaves undivided and lanceolate, partly decreasing in size towards capitula, 1–2.5 × 0.2–0.9 cm. Capitula solitary, 18–28 × 11–15 mm (including flowers). Involucre 11–16 × 11–14 mm, bowl-shaped. Phyllaries nearly imbricate, glabrous; appendages conspicuous, large, concealing most of the basal part of phyllaries, scarious, pale-brownish, with distinct cilia, cilia 1–2 mm long, 8–10 cilia on each side. Corolla pink-violet. Marginal florets slightly longer than central florets, radiant, 12–13 mm long, without staminode, with 5 narrowly linear-lanceolate lobes 3–4 mm long; central flowers radiant, 10–11 mm long, without staminode, with 5 lobes 2–3 mm long. Achenes 4–5 mm, straw-colored to brownish, smooth, glabrous; pappus 5–6 mm, inner row of scales 1–2 mm, scabrous. Flowers in June-July and fruits in July–August.

Figure 1.

Holotype of Psephellus vanensis A.Duran, Behçet & B.Doğan.

Figure 2.

Phyllaries of Psephellus vanensis. A, B Outer phyllaries C Median phyllaries D, E Inner phyllaries. Scale bar: 6000 µm.

Figure 3.

Psephellus vanensis. A Habit B Capitulum at anthesis. Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus. C Habit D Capitulum at anthesis.

Ecology

The new species occurs on steppe fields, whereas Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus is found on rocks and slopes. Psephellus vanensis grows in plant communities with Asyneuma pulchellum (Fischer & C.A.Mey.) Bornm., Campanula conferta DC., Tanacetum kotschyi (Boiss.) Grierson, Bromus danthoniae Trin., Bromus tomentellus Boiss., Eryngium billardieri Delar., Helichrysum plicatum DC., Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. var. kotschyanus, Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam., Achillea vermicularis Trin., Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii, Erysimum echinellum Hand.-Mazz., Iris paradoxa Steven, Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. glomerata, Stipa pontica P.Smirnov, Prangos pabularia Lindley and Dianthus orientalis Adams.

Distribution and conservation status

Psephellus vanensis is endemic to east Anatolia, where it seems to be very local. It belongs to the Irano-Turanian element (Fig. 4). The species is known only from type gatherings and from an area of approximately 0,006 km2 (criterion B1). Because of overgrazing, the habitat of this species is under threat, and this situation leads to potential reduction in the number of individuals (criterion A). The population is in a poor condition, and the number of individuals is estimated to approximately 120–125 (criterion C2). Therefore the species should be regarded as Critically Endangered (IUCN 2014).

Figure 4.

Distribution maps of Psephellus vanensis (■), P. pyrrhoblepharus (●) and P. bornmuelleri (▲) in Turkey.

Key to the related Psephellus species

1 Stem taller than 20 cm, appendages straw-coloured, achenes 6–7 mm long 2
Stem shorter than 20 cm, appendages pale brownish, achenes 4–5 mm long P. vanensis
2 Cauline leaves pinnatilobate or undivided, appendages with ciliae 3–5 mm long, pappus 4–7 mm long P. pyrrhoblepharus
Cauline leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, appendages with ciliae 1–2 mm long, pappus 8–9 mm long P. gilanicus

Taxonomic position

The new species is placed in P. sect. Psephelloidei (Boiss.) Wagenitz & Hellwig according to the involucre and achene characters as determined by Wagenitz (1975), Wagenitz and Hellwig (2000).

Affinity

Psephellus vanensis is closely related to P. pyrrhoblepharus, which occurs in Central Anatolia and is endemic to Turkey. It mainly differs from P. pyrrhoblepharus in its stem 13–20 cm tall and densely tomentose (vs. 30–50 cm, floccose-tomentose), basal leaves usually undivided and elliptic to lanceolate, rarely lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segments (vs. lyrate with very large broadly lanceolate terminal segment and 1–2 pairs of small lateral segments).

Psephellus vanensis is also related to P. gilanica, which is endemic to Iran (Wagenitz 1980). It mainly differs from P. gilanica in its stem 13–20 cm tall (vs. 25–40 cm), tomentose (vs. sparsely floccose-tomentose), basal leaves usually undivided and lanceolate, rarely lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segments (vs. lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segments).

Additional characters of P. vanensis and the related species P. gilanica and P. pyrrhoblepharus are provided in Table 1.

Diagnostic characters of Psephellus vanensis, P. gilanicus and P. pyrrhoblepharus.

Characters Psephellus vanensis Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus Psephellus gilanicus
Stem 13–20 cm tall, tomentose 30–50 cm tall, floccose-tomentose 25–40 mm tall, sparsely floccose-tomentose
Basal leaves usually undivided and elliptic to lanceolate, rarely lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segment lyrate with very large broadly lanceolate terminal segment and 1–2 pairs of small lateral segments lyrate, 2–3 pairs of lateral segments
Cauline leaves undivided, lanceolate pinnatilobate or simple lanceolate to linear-lanceolate
Involucre 11–17 × 11–14 mm, bowl-shaped 20–25 × 15–25 mm, ovoid to nearly globose (14–)16–20 × (11–)14–18 mm, subglobose
Appendages pale-brownish straw-coloured straw-coloured
Appendages, cilia 8–10 cilia on each side, 1–2 mm long 7–8 cilia on each side, 3–5 mm long 8–14 cilia on each side, 1–2 mm long
Flowers pink-violet rose-purple pink-purple
Achenes 4–5 mm long 6–7 mm long 6–7 mm long
Pappus 5–6 mm long, inner row of scales 1–2 mm long 4–7 mm long, inner row of scales 3–4 mm long 8–9 mm long, inner row of scales 2–3 mm long

Psephellus vanensis also resembles P. bornmuelleri, which occurs in Central Anatolia and is endemic in Turkey. It mainly differs from P. bornmuelleri in its stem 13–20 cm tall and tomentose (vs. 35–70 cm, sparsely tomentose to glabrescent), basal leaves usually undivided and elliptic to lanceolate, rarely lyrate with 2–3 pairs of lateral segments (vs. pinnatipartite or lyrate, with 4–6 pairs of lateral segments), involucre 11–17 × 11–14 mm, bowl-shaped (vs. 15–20 × 15–25 mm, ovoid to nearly globose), appendages pale brownish (vs. straw-coloured), flowers pink-violet (vs. purple), achenes 4–5 mm long (vs. c. 7 mm long).

Phytogeography

The east Anatolia region is a botanically interesting area, occupying the Irano-Turanian phyto-geographical region. The area is very rich in local endemic plants (Akman et al. 2011; Koçyiğit and Bona 2013). Recently many articles were published on new species from this particular region, notably Ferula mervynii M. Sağıroğlu & H. Duman (Sağıroğlu and Duman 2007), Silene dumanii Kandemir, G. Ecevit Genç & İ. Genç (Kandemir and Genç 2009), Jurinea tortumensis A. Duran & B. Dogan (Dogan et al. 2010), Campanula hacerae A. İlçim (İlçim et al. 2011), Silene gevasica Hamzaoğlu (Hamzaoğlu et al. 2011), Allium shirnakiense L. Behçet & Rüstemoğlu (Behçet and Rüstemoğlu 2012), Rhabdosciadium urusakii E. Akalın (Akalın and Akpulat 2012), Onosma atila-ocakii O Koyuncu & Yaylacı (Koyuncu et al. 2013) and Crocus yakarianus Yıldırım & O. Erol (Yıldırım and Erol 2013).

Additional specimens examined

Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus: Turkey, B7 Elazığ: Harput, around the Anguzu Baba Türbesi, 1560 m., 14 Jun 2007, A. Duran 7464, B. Dogan & M. Öztürk (KNYA!); A6 Amasya: Akdağ, above Zefe köy, 1700 m., Tobey 1207 (E, photo!); B9 Bitlis: Kambos Da., above Hürmüz, 1800 m., 31 Jun 1954, Davis 23403 (E, photo!).

Psephellus bornmuelleri: Turkey, C5 Konya: between Ereğli-Niğde, 1400 m, 1904, W.Siehe (E, photo!); B3 Eskisehir: c. 15 miles from Polatli to Sivrihisar, 800 m, 12 Jun 1965, chalky fields, Coode & Jones 2252 (E, photo!); Ankara: Polatlı, Acıkır vicinity, 840–860 m, 2 Jun 1995, gypsum places, Aytaç 6893 & Adigüzel (GAZI!); Ankara: Polatlı, Acıkır vicinity, 840–860 m, 22 Jun 1993, Duman 4812 & Aytaç (GAZI!); Ankara: Polatlı, Acıkır vicinity, 840–860 m, 4 Jun 1991, Aytaç 3822 & Duman (GAZI!); B4 Ankara, between Şereflikoçhisar-Ankara, 10 km, saline places, 900–950 m, 5 Jun 2002, Aytaç 8374 & M.Ekici (GAZI!).

Psephellus gilanica: Iran, Tehran: prope Shekerabad, 2200 m, Bornmüller 7266 (B, photo!).

Note: Davis’s grid system was used for the coordinates.

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