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An annotated checklist of the coastal forests of Kenya, East Africa
expand article infoVeronicah Mutele Ngumbau§|, Quentin Luke|, Mwadime Nyange|, Vincent Okelo Wanga#, Benjamin Muema Watuma#, Yuvenalis Morara Mbuni|#, Jacinta Ndunge Munyao#, Millicent Akinyi Oulo#, Elijah Mbandi Mkala#, Solomon Kipkoech#, Malombe Itambo|, Guang-Wan Hu#, Qing-Feng Wang#
‡ Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
§ Sino-Africa Joint Research Center (SAJOREC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Kenya
| National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
¶ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
# Sino-Africa Joint Research Center (SAJOREC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
Open Access

Abstract

The inadequacy of information impedes society’s competence to find out the cause or degree of a problem or even to avoid further losses in an ecosystem. It becomes even harder to identify all the biological resources at risk because there is no exhaustive inventory of either fauna or flora of a particular region. Coastal forests of Kenya are located in the southeast part of Kenya and are distributed mainly in four counties: Kwale, Kilifi, Lamu, and Tana River County. They are a stretch of fragmented forests ca. 30−120 km away from the Indian Ocean, and they have existed for millions of years. Diversity of both fauna and flora is very high in these relicts and the coastal forests of Eastern Africa, extending along the coast from Somalia through Kenya and Tanzania to Mozambique, are ranked among the priority biodiversity hotspot in the world. In spite of the high plant species richness and their importance towards supporting the livelihoods of the communities that live around them, floristic studies in these forests have remained poorly investigated. Hence, based on numerous field investigations, plant lists from published monograph/literature, and data from BRAHMS (Botanical Records and Herbarium Management System) database at East African herbarium (EA), we present a detailed checklist of vascular plants recorded in this region. Our results show that Kenyan coastal forests play an essential role in the flora of Kenya and the plant diversity of the coastal forests of East Africa. The checklist represents 176 families, 981 genera, 2489 species, 100 infraspecific taxa, 90 endemic plants species, 72 exotic species, and 120 species that are included in the current IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as species of major concern. We also discovered three new species to the world from these relicts. Thus, Kenyan coastal forests present a remarkable and significant center of plant diversity.

Keywords

Biodiversity, checklist, coastal forests, endemic, threatened species

Introduction

Africa is among the world’s major centers of endemism and species-rich biodiversity regions (Burgess and Clarke 2000; Linder 2001). It hosts several centers of diversity with the eastern moist forests, which include coastal forests of East Africa and Eastern Arc forests as one of the significant centers of diversity (Lovett 1998). Another important center is the Congo Basin rainforest, which forms the second largest extent of continuous rainforest in the world (Linder 2014). Hamilton (1974, 1982) presented four centers of endemism in Africa, which include Kivu, the East African coast, Cameroon Gabon area, and possibly small refugia in West Africa. Brenan (1978), working with data arranged according to country, identified the same regions as being rich in endemism.

Coastal forests of Eastern Africa are ranked among the 35 identified world’s biodiversity hotspots due to the concentration of many endemic species and habitat loss (Mittermeier et al. 1998, 2004; Olson and Dinerstein 1998). Together with the Eastern Arc mountains, they contain approximately 2000 endemic plant species (WWF–US 2003b) . These forests have lived for millions of years, of which they existed as a continuous belt of forest between the East and West coast referred to as the ancient Pan-African forest. However, fluctuation of climate, during the last 2 million years, caused their fragmentation, leading to loss of some lowland dry forests in Africa (Hawthorne et al. 1981). Today, these forests have lost considerable amounts of their wilderness due to anthropogenic pressures leading to small fragments up to less than 5 km2, with the most extensive patches recorded in the Kenya coastal forests (Wass 1995; Habel et al. 2017).

Loss of habitat due to human activities is the most severe threat to biodiversity and has become a major global environmental problem (Collinge 1996), hence, plant diversity protection has attracted more attention. Coastal forests of East Africa are ranked among the world’s ten most threatened forest hotspots because they have lost more than 90% of their original habitat. Similarly, Brooks et al. (2002) and Azeria et al. (2007) pointed out that Northern Kenya and Southern Tanzania coastal forests should be highly prioritized because they are in danger of losing most of their biodiversity in coming times.

Floristic studies, however, provide a basic outline for plant conservation. Based on these studies, it is possible to determine the condition of an ecosystem, the primary relationships of species with each other or with the environment, and the identity of rare species or widespread species (Ivanauskas et al. 2007). Therefore, they must be carried out not only in a particular area but also over time (Mota et al. 2017). In spite the coastal forests of Kenya acting as significant reservoirs of carbon and biodiversity, and supporting the livelihoods of rural people, plant species diversity remains poorly studied. Despite a substantial amount of floristic research having been performed over the last decades on some of the Kenyan coastal relicts, (Robertson and Luke 1993; Lehmann and Kioko 2005; Luke 2005), a comprehensive study of the whole coastal region of Kenya is still extremely urgent due to its vast area and large number of threatened and endemic taxa. In addition, these forests are vital in providing ecological services at local, national, and global levels; it is therefore, crucial to understand their composition. Here we aim at presenting a detailed checklist of vascular plants recorded in the whole coastal region of Kenya. We achieved this through numerous field investigations carried out from 2015 to 2018, checking of plant species data from published monographs or literature (Beentje 1994; Luke 2005; Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA) 1952–2012), and obtaining data documented in the BRAHMS (Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System) database at the East African Herbarium (EA). We also document endemic and threatened species found in this region.

Material and methods

Study area

The study was carried out in the Kenyan coastal region located in the southeast part of Kenya (Fig. 1). Coastal forests are mainly distributed in four counties in the coastal province of Kenya, lying within the latitude of 1°40' to about 4°40' south and between 0–ca. 840 m a.s.l. especially at around Kilibasi (Moomaw 1960; Robertson and Luke 1993). They are part of the larger coastal forests of East Africa which cover an area of approximately 3170 km2 (Azeria et al. 2007; Wegner et al. 2009) of which, Kenyan coastal forests cover about 787 km2 (Younge et al. 2002; Burgess et al. 2003). They contain various forest patches with Arabuko Sokoke, and Shimba hills National Reserves forests being the largest remaining forests patches (Burgess et al. 1998, 2003; Younge et al. 2002; Matiku et al. 2013). Younge et al. (2002), estimated a total area covered by the coastal woodland/bushland to be 120 000 ha. Of this, 114 460 ha are in national reserves, 50 790 ha is in forest reserves, 16 000 ha remains ungazetted, and 10–200 ha are in the sacred Kaya Forests. The coastal region of Kenya supports a mosaic of different vegetation types. Much of the area supports bushland or thicket habitats, transition woodland, swampy forests, edaphic grasslands habitats, moist forests, and dry forests. The littoral vegetation includes mangrove vegetation along some parts of the coast and shoreline vegetation (Githitho 2004).

Figure 1. 

A map showing the study area and distribution of forest patches along the Kenyan coastline.

Plant collection and nomenclature

Plant species data for the checklist of Kenya coastal forests were obtained from three primary sources. Firstly, collection records collected during floristic surveys carried out between 2015 and 2018. Different forest patches were visited and surveyed at different seasons to mainly cover the area where there had been few or no previous collections. The investigations included random walks while collecting fertile plant specimens. Details of collected specimens were recorded in a notebook. Information such as habit, habitat, location, and collector details were recorded as well. All collected materials were then processed (pressed and dried) and later deposited at the East Africa herbarium (EA). Duplicates were stored at Wuhan Botanical Garden (HIB). Secondly, plant species data were obtained from the BRAHMS (Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System) database in the East Africa herbarium (EA). Lastly, plant species data for coastal forests of Kenya were assembled from monographs and published literature (Beentje 1994; Luke 2005; FTEA 1952–2012).

Further information about the species recorded at the coastal forests was checked on specimens found in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (www.gbif.org). Identification of collected specimens was made using taxonomic monographs/floras (FTEA) also through checking and comparing with identified specimens at the East African Herbarium (EA). Family and species circumscription, as well as spelling, authorities, and synonyms of scientific names, were updated based on online databases such as African plant database (www.villege.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa), Catalogue of life (Roskov et al. 2019), and Tropicos (www.tropicos.org). Finally, we identified threatened and near threatened species based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2019).

Results and conclusion

Species diversity

A total of 2489 vascular plant species and 100 infraspecific taxa (subspecies and varieties) belonging to 981 genera and 176 families are comprehensively listed and presented here. This represents 39.55%, 63.78%, and 78.67%, respectively, of the total number of taxa found in Kenya flora (FTEA 1952–2012). Also, it represents more than half the total number of plant species found at the coastal forests of East Africa (WWF–US 2003b). 120, 89, and 72 entries represent threatened and near threatened, endemic, and exotic species of the coastal forests of Kenya, respectively (Tables 5, 7, 9). Three new species were discovered and described from these relicts; Adenia angulosa Passifloraceae (Ngumbau et al. 2017) recorded from the coastal forests of Kenya and Tanzania, Zehneria monocarpa, Curcubitaceae (Ngumbau et al. unpublished) from Kenyan coastal relicts, and Croton kinondoensis, Euphorbiaceae, (Ngumbau et al. in press). Morphology and ITS sequence of Croton kinondoensis placed it under the Adenophorus group, which is known to be endemic to Madagascar and Comoros Islands. This new entity represented an independent dispersal of Croton from Madagascar to Africa mainland (Ngumbau et al. in press).

The top 5 most species-rich families for coastal forests of Kenya are Fabaceae (226 species), Poaceae (207 species), Rubiaceae (137 species), Malvaceae (117 species), and Cyperaceae (111 species). The top 5 most species-rich genera are Cyperus (48 species, Cyperaceae), Euphorbia (28 species, Euphorbiaceae), Justicia (27 species, Acanthaceae), Ipomoea (25 species, Convolvulaceae), and Crotalaria (23 species, Fabaceae) (Table 1).

The 10 largest families and genera of the vascular plants of Kenya coastal region.

Family Genus Species Genus Species
Fabaceae 80 226 Cyperus 48
Poaceae 72 207 Euphorbia 28
Rubiaceae 63 137 Justicia 27
Malvaceae 30 117 Ipomoea 25
Cyperaceae 18 111 Indigofera 24
Acanthaceae 30 108 Crotalaria 23
Apocynaceae 53 101 Berlaria 19
Euphorbiaceae 26 87 Ficus 19
Asteraceae 49 82 Combretum 19
Lamiaceae 18 67 Hibiscus 18
Orchidaceae 23 60 Grewia 17

Growth forms

The growth forms (trees, shrubs, lianas, and herbs) have widely different mechanical architectures, which can also vary phenotypically with the environment (Rowe and Speck 2005). In the coastal forests of Kenya, herbs represent the highest percentage of life form with 48.09%, followed by shrubs 19.96%, trees 15.79%, climbers 8.28%, lianas, 6.07%, and epiphytes 1.81% (Table 2).

Growth habit of the plants of Kenya coastal region.

Habit No. of species Percentage
Trees 393 15.79%
Shrubs 497 19.96%
Lianas 151 6.07%
Climbers 206 8.28%
Herbs 1197 48.09%
Epiphytes 45 1.81%
Total 2489 100%

Species in need of conservation attention

The Red List and Red Data species system is an approach developed by the IUCN for evaluating the conservation status of species, and in particular for identifying and documenting species in need of conservation attention (IUCN 2019). According to this system, 120 species from the coastal forests of Kenya (Table 5), belonging to 39 families and 98 genera were categorized as Extinct in the wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), and Near Threatened (NT). Of 120 species recorded, one taxon was recorded as extinct in the wild, 11 were critically endangered, 20 endangered, 52 vulnerable, and 26 near threatened (Table 3). The top three families which had most of its members threatened and near threatened were Acanthaceae 21 species (17.5%), followed by Fabaceae 18 species (14.17%), and Annonaceae 14 species (11.67%) (Table 4).

IUCN category and number of species representing in each category.

IUCN category No. of Species Percentage
Extinct in wild (EW) 1 0.83%
Critically endangered (CR) 11 9.17%
Endangered (EN) 30 25%
Vulnerable (VU) 52 43.33%
Near threatened (NT) 26 21.67%
Total 120 100%

Families with the largest to the smallest number of threatened and near threatened taxa and their percentage representatives.

Family No. of species Percentage (%)
Acanthaceae 21 17.5
Fabaceae 17 14.17
Annonaceae 14 11.67
Rubiaceae 9 7.5
Moraceae 5 4.17
Asphodelaceae 4 3.33
Loranthaceae 4 3.33
Araceae 3 2.5
Asteraceae 3 2.5
Malvaceae 3 2.5
Orchidaceae 3 2.5
Burseraceae 2 1.67
Combretaceae 2 1.67
Euphorbiaceae 2 1.67
Melastomataceae 2 1.67
Meliaceae 2 1.67
Putranjivaceae 2 1.67
Sapotaceae 2 1.67
Anacardiaceae 1 0.83
Apocynaceae 1 0.83
Burmanniaceae 1 0.83
Buxaceae 1 0.83
Canellaceae 1 0.83
Connaraceae 1 0.83
Crassulaceae 1 0.83
Ebenaceae 1 0.83
Gesneriaceae 1 0.83
Lamiaceae 1 0.83
Lythraceae 1 0.83
Menispermaceae 1 0.83
Montiniaceae 1 0.83
Myristicaceae 1 0.83
Picrodendraceae 1 0.83
Rhamnaceae 1 0.83
Rutaceae 1 0.83
Salicaceae 1 0.83
Sapindaceae 1 0.83
Zosteraceae 1 0.83
Totals 120 100

List of threatened and near threatened plant taxa found in Kenya coastal region.

Family Species Life form IUCN Version
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe fadeniorum Raadts Herb Extinct in the wild 3.1
Acanthaceae Justicia drummondii Vollesen Herb Critically Endangered 3.1
Megalochlamys tanaensis Vollesen Herb Critically Endangered 3.1
Annonaceae Uvaria puguensis D.M. Johnson Liana Critically Endangered 3.1
Burmanniaceae Afrothismia baerae Cheek Herb Critically Endangered 3.1
Combretaceae Combretum tenuipetiolatum Wickens Tree Critically Endangered 2.3
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia tanaensis P.R.O. Bally Tree Critically Endangered 3.1
Gesneriaceae Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. rupicola (B. L. Burtt) Christenh. Herb Critically Endangered 3.1
Lamiaceae Karomia gigas (Faden) Verdc. Tree Critically Endangered 2.3
Loranthaceae Taxillus wiensii Polhill Shrub Critically Endangered 3.1
Malvaceae Cola porphyrantha Brenan Tree Critically Endangered 3.1
Rubiaceae Vangueriopsis shimbaensis A.P. Davis & Q. Luke Tree Critically Endangered 3.1
Acanthaceae Asystasia linearis S. Moore Herb Endangered 3.1
Barleria lukei I. Darbysh. Herb Endangered 3.1
Barleria maculata S. Moore Herb Endangered 3.1
Blepharis kenyensis Vollesen Herb Endangered 3.1
Cephalophis lukei Vollesen Herb Endangered 3.1
Barleria whytei S. Moore Herb Endangered 3.1
Justicia faulknerae Vollesen Shrub Endangered 3.1
Justicia breviracemosa Vollesen Shrub Endangered 3.1
Monanthotaxis faulknerae Verdc. Liana Endangered 3.1
Toussaintia orientalis Verdc. Tree Endangered 3.1
Uvariodendron gorgonis Verdc. Tree Endangered 3.1
Uvaria faulknerae Verdc. Liana Endangered 3.1
Asteraceae Aspilia macrorrhiza Chiov. Herb Endangered 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe kilifiensis Christian Herb Endangered 3.1
Araceae Stylochaeton bogneri Mayo Herb Endangered 3.1
Ebenaceae Diospyros shimbaensis F. White Tree Endangered 2.3
Fabaceae Newtonia erlangeri (Harms) Brenan Tree Endangered 3.1
Crotalaria laburnoides var. nudicarpa Polhill Herb Endangered 3.1
Cynometra lukei Beentje Tree Endangered 3.1
Gigasiphon macrosiphon (Harms) Brenan Tree Endangered 2.3
Bauhinia mombassae Vatke Shrub Endangered 3.1
Dalbergia gloveri Q. Luke, ined. Liana Endangered 3.1
Loranthaceae Englerina ramulosa (Sprague) Polhill & Wiens Shrub Endangered 3.1
Agelanthus microphyllus Polhill & Wiens Shrub Endangered 3.1
Malvaceae Cola octoloboides Brenan Tree Endangered 3.1
Montiniaceae Grevea eggelingii var. keniensis (Verdc.) Verdc. Shrub Endangered 3.1
Orchidaceae Habenaria stylites Rchb.f. & S. Moore Herb Endangered 3.1
Polystachya teitensis P.J. Cribb Epiphytic herb Endangered 3.1
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus robertsoniana Beentje Tree Endangered 3.1
Rubiaceae Multidentia sclerocarpa (K. Schum.) Bridson Shrub Endangered 3.1
Acanthaceae Barleria usambarica Lindau Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Justicia galeata Hedrén shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Asystasia minutiflora Ensermu & Vollesen Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Barleria maritima I. Darbysh. Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Blepharis pratensis S. Moore Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Dicliptera inconspicua I. Darbysh. Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Anisotes galanae (Baden) Vollesen Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Justicia brevipila Hedrén Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Justicia heterotricha Mildbr. Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Annonaceae Isolona cauliflora Verdc. Tree Vulnerable 3.1
Uvariodendron kirkii Verdc. Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Annonaceae Xylopia arenaria Engl. Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Mkilua fragrans Verdc. Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Apocynaceae Pleioceras orientale Vollesen Tree Vulnerable 3.1
Asteraceae Emilia bellioides (Chiov.) C. Jeffrey Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Araceae Gonatopus petiolulatus (Peter) Bogner Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Asphodelaceae Aloe massawana Reynolds Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Aloe ukambensis Reynolds Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Buxaceae Buxus obtusifolia (Mildbr.) Hutch. Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Canellaceae Warburgia stuhlmannii Engl. Tree Vulnerable 3.1
Euphorbiaceae Pycnocoma littoralis Pax Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Fabaceae Newtonia paucijuga (Harms) Brenan Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Sesbania speciosa Taub. Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Angylocalyx braunii Harms Tree Vulnerable 3.1
Cynometra webberi Baker f. Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Dalbergia vacciniifolia Vatke Liana Vulnerable 2.3
Diospyros greenwayi F. White Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Prioria msoo (Harms) Breteler Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Loranthaceae Erianthemum alveatum (Sprague) Danser Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Lythraceae Ammannia parkeri var. longifolia (Verdc.) S.A. Graham & Gandhi Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Malvaceae Hibiscus holstii Mwachala Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Melastomataceae Memecylon verruculosum Brenan Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Warneckea mouririifolia (Brenan) Borhidi Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Menispermaceae Cissampelos nigrescens Diels var. nigrescens Climber Vulnerable 3.1
Moraceae Dorstenia tayloriana Rendle var. tayloriana Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Ficus faulkneriana C.C. Berg Tree Vulnerable 3.1
Myristicaceae Cephalosphaera usambarensis (Warb.) Warb. Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Orchidaceae Ansellia africana Lindl. Epiphytic herb Vulnerable 3.1
Picrodendraceae Aristogeitonia monophylla Airy shaw Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Putranjivaceae Drypetes natalensis var. leiogyna Brenan Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Drypetes usambarica var. trichogyna Radcl.-Sm. Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Rubiaceae Pavetta linearifolia Bremek. Shrub Vulnerable 3.1
Tarenna drummondii Bridson Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Vangueria pallidiflora (Bullock) Lantz Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Afrocanthium kilifiense (Bridson) Lantz Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Pavetta tarennoides S. Moore Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Rothmannia macrosiphon (K. Schum. ex Engl.) Bridson Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Rutaceae Vepris sansibarensis (Engl.) Mziray Shrub Vulnerable 2.3
Sapindaceae Chytranthus obliquinervis Radlk. ex Engl. Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Sapotaceae Mimusops riparia Engl. Tree Vulnerable 3.1
Pouteria pseudoracemosa (J.H. Hemsl.) L.Gaut. Tree Vulnerable 2.3
Zosteraceae Zostera capensis Setch. Herb Vulnerable 3.1
Acanthaceae Chlamydacanthus lindavianus H. Winkl. Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Justicia anisophylla (Mildbr.) Brummitt Herb Near Threatened 3.1
Anacardiaceae Lannea schweinfurthii var. acutifoliolata (Engl.) Kokwaro Tree Near Threatened 2.3
Annonaceae Uvaria kirkii Oliv. ex Hook. f. Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Uvaria denhardtiana Engl. & Diels Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Asteranthe asterias (S. Moore) Engl. & Diels Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Huberantha stuhlmannii (Engl.) Chaowasku Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Ophrypetalum odoratum Diels Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Araceae Callopsis volkensii Engl. Herb Near Threatened 3.1
Asteraceae Brachylaena huillensis O. Hoffm. Tree Near Threatened 2.3
Asphodelaceae Aloe deserti A. Berger Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Burseraceae Commiphora obovata Chiov. Shrub Near Threatened 2.3
Burseraceae Commiphora pseudopaolii J.B. Gillett Tree Near Threatened 2.3
Combretaceae Conocarpus lancifolius Engl. & Diels Tree Near Threatened 2.3
Connaraceae Ellipanthus madagascariensis (G. Schellenb.) Capuron ex Keraudren Tree Near Threatened 2.3
Fabaceae Dialium orientale Baker f. Shrub Near Threatened 2.3
Dalbergia eremicola Polhill Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. Shrub Near Threatened 2.3
Erythrina sacleuxii Hua Tree Near Threatened 3.1
Meliaceae Lovoa swynnertonii Baker f. Tree Near Threatened 3.1
Pseudobersama mossambicensis (Sim) Verdc. Tree Near Threatened 3.1
Moraceae Dorstenia hildebrandtii Engl. var. hildebrandtii Herb Near Threatened 3.1
Dorstenia goetzei Engl. Herb Near Threatened 3.1
Dorstenia warneckei Engl. Herb Near Threatened 3.1
Rubiaceae Coffea pseudozanguebariae Bridson Shrub Near Threatened 3.1
Salicaceae Bivinia jalbertii Tul. Tree Near Threatened 2.3

Endemic species of Kenyan coastal forests

From our results, 551 species were endemic to coastal forests of East Africa. 185 plant species are endemic to Kenya and Tanzania coastal forests and 89 species are only found in Kenya coastal forests (Tables 6, 7). In terms of life forms herbs (44 species, 49.44%) had the highest number of endemic species recorded at the coastal region followed by shrubs (24 species, 26.97%), trees (13 species, 14.6%), climbers and lianas recorded the least numbers of endemic species. (Table 8).

Number of endemic species in coastal of East Africa forests found in Kenya coastal forests.

Region No. of endemic species
Kenyan coastal forests 90
Kenyan and Tanzanian coastal forests 185
East Africa coastal endemic 551

The endemic plants of Kenya coastal forest.

Family Species Life form
Acanthaceae Blepharis kenyensis Vollesen Herb
Dicliptera maculata subsp. A Herb
Justicia drummondii Vollesen Herb
Justicia sp. aff. fittonioides S. Moore Herb
Justicia sp. F Herb
Megalochlamys tanaensis Vollesen Herb
Amaranthaceae Hermbstaedtia gregoryi C.B. Clarke Herb
Ancistrocladaceae Ancistrocladus robertsoniorum J.Léonard Liana
Annonaceae Polyceratocarpus sp. ?nov. Tree
Uvariodendron schmidtii Q. Luke ined. Tree
Xylopia keniensis D. M. Johnson Tree
Apocynaceae Echidnopsis ericiflora Lavranos Herb
Huernia andreaeana (Rauh) L.C. Leach Herb
Huernia archeri L.C.Leach Herb
Raphionacme sp. cf. jurensis N.E. Br. Climber
Ceropegia racemosa var. voiensis Masinde Herb
Asparagaceae Sansevieria ballyi L.E. Newton Herb
Sansevieria francisii Chahinian Herb
Sansevieria nitida Chahinian Herb
Asteraceae Athroisma pusillum T. Erikss. Herb
Burmanniaceae Afrothismia baerae Cheek Herb
Capparaceae Maerua mungaii Beentje Shrub
Thilachium roseomaculatum Y.B. Harv. & Vollesen Herb
Caryophyllaceae Polycarpaea grahamii Turrill Herb
Polycarpaea tenuistyla Turrill Herb
Commelinaceae Aneilema succulentum Faden Herb
Aneilema tanaense Faden Herb
Convolvulaceae Merremia sp. C of FTEA Herb
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe ballyi Raym.-Hamet ex Cufod. Herb
Kalanchoe fadeniorum Raadts Herb
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sp. (Oreosyce sp. A of FTEA) Climber
Zehneria monocarpa G.W. Hu, V.M. Ngumbau & Q.F. Wang, sp. nov. Climber
Cyperaceae Bulbostylis densecaespitosa (Lye) R. W. Haines Herb
Bulbostylis hispidula subsp. intermedia (Lye) R.W. Haines Herb
Cyperus boreobellus Lye Herb
Cyperus kwaleensis Lye Herb
Cyperus microumbellatus Lye Herb
Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum fadenii Breteler Liana
Dichapetalum sp. ?nov. Shrub
Euphorbiaceae Croton kinondoensis G.W. Hu, V.M. Ngumbau & Q.F. Wang, sp. nov. Shrub
Euphorbia fluminis S. Carter Shrub
Euphorbia tanaensis P.R.O. Bally Tree
Euphorbia taruensis S. Carter Herb
Erythrococca pentagyna Radcl.-Sm. Shrub
Fabaceae Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. keniensis Brenan & Brummitt Shrub
Aeschynomene sp. B Shrub
Bauhinia mombassae Vatke Shrub
Cynometra greenwayi Brenan Tree
Dalbergia gloveri Q. Luke, ined. Liana
Vigna membranacea subsp. hapalantha (Harms) Verdc. Herb
Crotalaria grata Polhill Shrub
Abrus sp. A of FTEA Herb
Lamiaceae Endostemon wakefieldii (Baker) M. Ashby Herb
Lamiaceae Plectranthus auriglandulosus A.J.Paton Herb
Lamiaceae Leucas tsavoensis var. kilifiensis Sebald Herb
Loranthaceae Taxillus wiensii Polhill Shrub
Lythraceae Ammannia parkeri var. longifolia (Verdc.) S.A. Graham & Gandhi Herb
Malvaceae Cola octoloboides Brenan Tree
Montiniaceae Grevea eggelingii var. keniensis (Verdc.) Verdc. Shrub
Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia sp A of FTEA Herb
Ochnaceae Ochna sp. 17 of KTSL Shrub
Olacaceae Strombosiopsis pentamera Q. Luke, ined. Tree
Orchidaceae Eulophia serrata P.J. Cribb Herb
Passifloraceae Turnera thomasii (Urb.) Story Shrub
Plumbaginaceae Plumbago stenophylla Wilmot-Dear Herb
Poaceae Eleusine semisterilis S.M.Phillips Herb
Eragrostis sp. A Herb
Portulacaceae Portulaca coralloides S.M.Phillips Herb
Rubiaceae Tricalysia bridsoniana Robbr. var. bridsoniana Shrub
Keetia lukei Bridson Shrub
Mitriostigma greenwayi Bridson Shrub
Pavetta tarennoides S.Moore Shrub
Psydrax robertsoniae Bridson Shrub
Psydrax sp. A of FTEA Shrub
Canthium mrimaense (Verdc.) Lantz Shrub
Rytigynia sp. I of FTEA Shrub
Rytigynia sp. L of FTEA Tree
Spermacoce sp. B of FTEA Herb
Vangueriopsis shimbaensis A.P. Davis & Q. Luke Tree
Rutaceae Vepris sp. (Diphasia sp. A of FTEA) Tree
Vepris robertsoniae Q. Luke, ined. Tree
Vepris sp. nr. stolzii I. Verd. Tree
Salicaceae Dovyalis keniensis E. V. Williams Shrub
Sapotaceae Synsepalum subverticillatum (E.A. Bruce) T.D.Penn. Shrub
Synsepalum sp. cf. subcordatum De Wild. Tree
Solanaceae Solanum malindiense Voronts. Shrub
Urticaceae Pouzolzia fadenii Friis & Jellis Herb
Vitaceae Cyphostemma sp. I of FTEA Climber
Cyphostemma sp. G Climber
Cyphostemma sp. L of FTEA Climber

Life form representative for endemic species.

Life form No. of species Percentage presentation
Climbers 6 5.62%
Herbs 44 49.44%
Lianas 3 3.37%
Shrubs 24 26.97%
Trees 13 14.6%
Total 90 100

New records

Several new species have been discovered recently from the coastal forests of Kenya, Adenia angulosa (Ngumbau et al. 2017), Dovyalis keniensis (Williams 2017), Zehneria monocarpa (Ngumbau et al. unpublished) and Croton kinondoensis (Ngumbau et al. in press) belonging to family Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Euphorbiaceae respectively. In addition, one species from family Poaceae, Panicum peteri, was collected and recorded for the first time in Kenya.

Exotic species

A total of 72 introduced, cultivated or naturalized species are recorded in this study belonging to 67 genera and 32 families, for Kenya coastal region (Table 9). The top-rich exotic plant families include: Fabaceae (13 species), Asteraceae (7 species) and Solanaceae (6 species). Out of the 72 plant species, herbs had the highest number of exotic species (35) 48.61%, followed by trees (21) 29.17%, shrubs (12) 16.67% and climbers (4) 5.55%.

Exotic plants recorded at the coastal region of Kenya.

Family Species Growth form
Acanthaceae Indoneesiella echioides (L.) Sreem. Herb
Ruellia tuberosa L. Herb
Ruspolia hypocrateriformis (Vahl) Milne-Redh. Herb
Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Herb
Amaranthaceae Gomphrena globosa L. Herb
Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. Herb
Atriplex semibaccata R.Br. Herb
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Tree
Anacardium occidentale L. Tree
Annonaceae Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson Tree
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Herb
Apocynaceae Asclepias curassavica L. Herb
Araucariaceae Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don Tree
Arecaceae Areca catechu L Herb
Cocos nucifera L. Tree
Asteraceae Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. Herb
Tridax procumbens L. Herb
Ageratum conyzoides L. Herb
Acanthospermum hispidum DC. Herb
Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr Herb
Bidens pilosa L. Herb
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Herb
Bixaceae Bixa orellana L. Shrub
Cactaceae Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Shrub
Cassuarinaceae Casuarina equisetifolia L. Tree
Chrysobalanaceae Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.) Prance & F. White Tree
Combretaceae Terminalia catappa L. Tree
Conocarpus lancifolius Engl. ex Engl. & Diels Tree
Cucurbitaceae Luffa cylindrica M. Roem. Climber
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai Climber
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia heterophylla L. Herb
Croton blanchetianus Baill. Shrub
Fabaceae Centrosema pubescens Benth. Climber
Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. var. adscendens Herb
Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby Shrub
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. Shrub
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Shrub
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. Shrub
Lysiloma latisiliquum (L.) Benth. Tree
Tamarindus indica L. Tree
Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. Tree
Senna siamea (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby Tree
Parkinsonia aculeata L. Tree
Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Tree
Mimosa pudica var. unijuga (Duchass. & Walp.) Griseb. Herb
Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum L. Herb
Lamiaceae Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze Herb
Malvaceae Corchorus parviflorus (Benth.) Domin Herb
Gossypium barbadense L. Shrub
Gossypium hirsutum L. Shrub
Melastomataceae Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don Shrub
Meliaceae Melia azedarach L. Tree
Toona ciliata M. Roem. Tree
Meliaceae Azadirachta indica A.Juss. Tree
Moringaceae Moringa oleifera Lam. Tree
Myrtaceae Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Tree
Oxalidaceae Oxalis latifolia Kunth Herb
Oxalis barrelieri L. Herb
Oxalis corniculata L. Herb
Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L. Herb
Passifloraceae Passiflora foetida L. Climber
Piperaceae Piper betle L. Herb
Sapindaceae Sapindus trifoliatus L. Tree
Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Herb
Datura metel L. Herb
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Herb
Physalis angulata L. Herb
Physalis minima L. Herb
Solanum americanum Mill. Herb
Talinaceae Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. Herb
Verbenaceae Lantana camara L. Shrub
Stachytarpheta urticifolia Sims Shrub

Conclusion

Kenya coastal forests host a large number of species and provide a unique habitat for many species of special concern and endemic plant species. It harbors hundreds of plant species that are only found in coastal forests of East Africa. In addition, they are home to almost half of plant species found in Kenya flora (39.55%), and more than half of species found in the coastal forests of East Africa (65%). Despite this high plant diversity relevance, they have undergone a history of anthropogenic disturbance since the colonial era (Moomaw 1960). Today the rapidly increasing human population along the coast of Kenya demands more agricultural land, more wood products for fuel, house construction, and industry, consequentially threatening the small areas of intact forest and woodland. This therefore, has resulted in large number of threatened and near threatened plants in this region. High conservation measures should be highly taken into action to ensure the protection of large numbers of endemic and threatened species that are at the brink of extinction. Besides, conservation of these relicts will not only provide the protection of species rich diversity of the flora but also of the fauna, including humans which depend on it. Importantly, it will prevent soil erosion and the drying up of moist microhabitats as a result protecting catchment areas and wetlands. This study hence provides not only a comprehensive list of the plant species that have been recorded in this region but also endemic species and species of special concern to guide conservationists and policymakers towards conserving the remaining patches. It also provides a prerequisite to ecology and other thorough work towards understanding plant diversity and conservation of the region.

Checklist

This checklist is designed for use by anybody interested in the plants of the Kenya coastal region. However, it will be most useful to professionals and students who have some botanical knowledge. Information such as voucher number, habit, habitat, altitude is recorded for each species. Species without voucher numbers were not included in the checklist. Species preceded by “?” means that there is doubt over the correct identification, those preceded with “letter” means that they have not been described and finally vouchers documented as “sr” means that they were sight recorded. EA means the East African Herbarium, Nairobi, Kenya; HIB means the Herbarium of Wuhan Botanical Garden, Wuhan, China, and SAJIT means Sino Africa Joint Investigation Team. The families are divided into four groups, namely lycophytes, monilophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Families of lycophytes and monilophytes are organized based on the PPG I system (PPG I 2016), while those of gymnosperms are organized based on Christenhusz et al. (2011) and families of angiosperms are organized based on the APG IV system (APG IV 2016).

Part 1 Lycophytes

F1. Selaginellaceae

1 Genus, 3 Species

Selaginella eublepharis A. Braun Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal forest and bushland, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Robertson & Luke 5840, Hildebrandt 1961, Drummond & Hemsley 4258, Wamukoya G K7–x936 (EA).

Selaginella mittenii Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet rocks of forest streams, waterfalls in evergreen forest, ca. 20 m. Voucher: Luke et al. 4521 (EA).

Selaginella perpusilla Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: In Hyphaene grassland in shade of grasses, 7–400 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4034, Faden & Evans 70/441, Rawlins 38, Faden RB 70/441 (EA).

Part 2 Monilophytes

F2. Aspleniaceae

1 Genus, 5 Species

Asplenium affine var. mettenii (Kuhn) Tardieu Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Kresten 29 (EA).

Asplenium buettneri Hieron. Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 280 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V016 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2743B (EA).

Asplenium erectum Bory ex Willd. Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 400 m. Voucher: HD van Someren 116 (EA).

Asplenium nidus L. Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 0–275 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V067 (EA, HIB), Luke et al. 4529 & 4512, Luke & Robertson 2693 (EA).

Asplenium emarginatum P. Beauv. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 40 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 1645, Faden & Faden 72/224 (EA).

F3. Azollaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Azolla nilotica Decne. ex Mett. Habit: Herb. Habitat: River, lake edges, and temporary pools, ca. 10 m. Voucher: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2751 (EA).

F4. Blechnaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Stenochlaena tenuifolia (Desv.) Moore Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Swamp forest, ca. 0–140 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0229 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Mbinda J 6278 (EA).

F5. Dryopteridaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Bolbitis auriculata (Lam.) Alston Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2750, Luke 1648 (EA).

F6. Davalliaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Davallia denticulata (Burm. f.) Mett. ex Kuhn Habit: Epiphyte. Habitat: Bushland on rocks, ca. 2–410 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0305 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6046 (EA).

F7. Dennstaedtiaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Microlepia speluncae (L.) T. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forests edge, 350–700 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA 8199 (EA).

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonally wet grassland, 0–150 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 25, Bally & Smith 14340 (EA).

F8. Hymenophyllaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Crepidomanes chevalieri (Christ) Ebihara & Dubuisson Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 150–500 m. Voucher: Faden et al. 70/812 (EA).

Didymoglossum erosum (Willd.) J.P. Roux Habit: Low epiphytic or lithophytic herb. Habitat: Shaded rocks or trunk of trees, ca. 230 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2760 (EA).

F9. Nephrolepidaceae

1 Genus, 2 Species

Nephrolepis acutifolia (Desv.) Christ Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky cliff or Acacia-Commiphora bushland, ca. 230 m. Voucher: Luke & Robertson 2530 (EA).

Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest or streamside forest, ca. 417 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0322 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2750, Magogo & Glover 518, Drummond & Hemsley 1221 (EA).

F10. Ophioglossaceae

1 Genus, 5 Species

Ophioglossum costatum R. Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry deciduous woodland, ca. 10 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 74/1119, Festo 2731 (EA).

Ophioglossum latifolium (Prantl) J. E. Burrows Habit: Herb. Habitat: In seasonally wet shallow sandy soils and deciduous woodland, ca. 10 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 74/1121, Faden RB 70/439B (EA).

Ophioglossum lusoafricanum Welw. ex Prantl Habit: Herb. Habitat: In marshy areas among tall grasses, grassland, and woodland, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Faden 70/440 (EA).

Ophioglossum nudicaule var. robustum J. S. Licht. Habit: Herb. Habitat: In shallow sandy soils, dry tropical woodland, and savannah, ca. 10 m. Voucher: Faden & Faden 74/1120 (EA).

Ophioglossum reticulatum L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, moist woodland, montane grassland among rocks, and forest margins, ca. 0–167 m. Vouchers: Magogo & Glover 896, Schippers RR 196 (EA).

F11. Pteridaceae

8 Genera, 13 Species

Acrostichum aureum L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 253 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005915 (EA, HIB).

Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Road banks and riverbanks, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 3969 (EA).

Adiantum comorense (Tardieu) Verdc. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest, rivulet, road banks, and deep shade, 100–700 m. Vouchers: Gilbert et al. 4964, Magogo & Clover 726, Luke 3600 (EA).

Adiantum incisum Forssk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverside, path sides, and riverine forest, ca. 86 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0477 (EA, HIB), Kassner 137 (EA).

Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f. Habit: Terrestrial or lithophytic herb. Habitat: Lowland forest or woodland, 160 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 3147 (EA).

Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy areas, swamp forests, marshes, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006213 & 005485 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & PA 4577 (EA).

Cheilanthes involuta (Sw.) Schelpe & N. C. Anthony Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, 90–450 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006131 (EA, HIB), Napper 2180, Magogo FC & Glover PE 754 (EA).

Pellaea dura (Willd.) Hook. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest or woodland, ca. 90 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 5290, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2786A (EA).

Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverbanks, forest, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Luke 5273 (EA).

Pteris atrovirens Willd. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady places, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Faden RB 226, Luke WRQ 2936 (EA).

Pteris hamulosa (Christ) Christ Habit: Terrestrial herb. Habitat: In shade on wet forest floors, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 2937, Luke & Robertson 2729 (EA).

Pteris tripartita Sw. Habit: Terrestrial or epiphytic herb. Habitat: Moist area, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Faden RB 218 (EA).

Vittaria elongata Sw. Habit: Epiphytic or lithophytic herb. Habitat: Low altitude forest, ca. 10–200 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5168, Magogo & Glover 222, Faden & Evans 70/414, Faden et al. 69/486 (EA).

F12. Psilotaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry riverbeds, under cliff overhangs, on rocks, and in rock crevices, 0–100 m. Voucher: Dale in FD 3584 (EA).

F13. Polypodiaceae

4 Genera, 5 Species

Microgramma mauritiana (Willd.) Tardieu Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Rainforest, evergreen thicket, and riverine forest, ca. 30–300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004664 & 005433, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0178 (EA, HIB), Gillett 18700, Polhill & Paulo 832, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2799 (EA).

Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel. Habit: Epiphytic, lithophytic or terrestrial herb. Habitat: Forest, evergreen thicket or beneath hedges in wet areas, 20–350 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 3919, Luca, Jeffery & Kirika 230, Faden RB 69/484 (EA).

Microsorum scolopendria (Burm. f.) Copel. Habit: Epiphytic, lithophytic or terrestrial herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest and thicket, 0–297 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0152 (EA, HIB), Verdcourt 3914, Polhill & Paulo 858, Faden RB 69/488 (EA).

Platycerium alcicorne Desv. Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Evergreen thickets, 30–200 m. Vouchers: Robertson & Luke 6362, Verdcourt 2408, RB & AJ Faden 72/66 (EA).

Platycerium angolense Welw. ex Hook. Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Mixed evergreen forest, woodland, ca. 5–150 m. Vouchers: RB & AJ Faden 74/1144, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2811 (EA).

F14. Tectariaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Tectaria puberula (Desv.) C. Chr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, 1–150 m. Vouchers: Faden RB 70/808, Faden RB, Evans A & Msafiri F 952 (EA).

F15. Thelypteridaceae

4 Genera, 5 Species

Chrismatopteris holttumii N. Quansah & D.S. Edwards Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 150 m. Voucher: Faden RB 70/422B (EA).

Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy Habit: Herb. Habitat: Along stream banks in forest or forest floor, 0–100 m. Voucher: Faden RB 70/419 (EA).

Christella hispidula (Decne.) Holttum Habit: Herb. Habitat: Terrestrial on forest floor away from water or along stream banks in forests, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2710 (EA).

Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H. Itô Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland swamps, 0–50 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA 4580 (EA).

Sphaerostephanos arbuscula subsp. africanus Holttum Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shady valley, near streams or forest fringing, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Faden RB 70/413, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 1203 (EA).

F16. Lygodiaceae

1 Genus, 2 Species

Lygodium kerstenii Kuhn Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forests, near sea level. Voucher: Kersten 76 (EA).

Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Swampy forest and thicket, ca. 10–200 m. Vouchers: Gardner in FD 1456, Drummond & Hemsley 1208, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5146 (EA).

Part 3 Gymnosperm

F17. Zamiaceae

1 Genus, 1 species

Encephalartos hildebrandtii A. Braun & Bouché Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal evergreen bushland and lowland forest, ca. 31 m. Vouchers: Mwangangi OM, Waiganjo T & Kamau P 3800 (EA).

Part 4 Angiosperms

F18. Acanthaceae

30 Genera, 108 Species

Anisotes galanae (Baden) Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia and Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 25–550 m. Voucher: Robertson 5284 (EA): Vulnerable.

Anisotes parvifolius Oliv. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Terminalia and Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 25–650 m. Vouchers: Bally, PRO 16793, Drummond & Hemsley 4265 (EA).

Anisotes tanensis Baden Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland & limestone escarpments, 250–600 m. Voucher: Taylor WE 181 (EA).

Asystasia ansellioides C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassland or Hyphaene grassland, 15–200 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & PA 4509, Jeffrey GM 5, Bally 6105, Rawlins 699 (EA).

Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margin, woodland, wooded grassland, bushland, and sandy seashores, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0259 (EA, HIB), Jeffrey GW 500, Harvey et al. 54, Robertson & Faulkner 2303 (EA).

Asystasia guttata (Forssk.) Brummitt Habit: Herb. Habitat: Isolated inselberg in ACB, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 1396 (EA).

Asystasia leptostachya Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy areas of rainforest, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 1650 (EA).

Asystasia linearis S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Tall grassland on cotton soil, 25–200 m. Voucher: Gregory s.n. (EA): Endangered.

Asystasia minutiflora Ensermu & Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland wet evergreen forest, lowland semi-deciduous forest, and thicket, ca. 400 m. Vouchers: Bidgood, Abdallah & Vollesen s.n., Luke 1650, Magogo & Glover 1101 (EA).

Asystasia moorei Ensermu Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland evergreen forest, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2703 (EA).

Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anderson Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: J Makin 14616, M Hucks 649 (EA).

Asystasia sp. B Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, 450 m. Voucher: Battiscombe 250 (EA).

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Inland fringes of mangrove associations, sandy dunes, mud of tidal rivers, and salty creeks, sea level. Vouchers: Graham RM 251, Greenway 8933 (EA).

Barleria acanthoides Vahl Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 690 m. Voucher: Ossent J 18 (EA).

Barleria argentea Balf. f. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, semi-desert bushland, grassland, disturbed, and eroded areas, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Gillett 19514 (EA).

Barleria gracilispina (Fiori) I. Darbysh. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and degraded areas, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Gillett & Gachathi 20522 (EA).

Barleria inclusa I. Darbysh. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open woodland, grassland or dry rocky, ca. 400 m. Voucher: Drummond RB & Hemsley 4138 (EA).

Barleria linearifolia Rendle Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and wooded grassland, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Robertson 1816 (EA).

Barleria lukei I. Darbysh. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, ca. 264 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V099 (EA, HIB), Drummond & Hemsley 3976, Magogo & Glover, Robertson & Luke 1955 (EA): Endangered.

Barleria maculata S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry rocky, wooded grassland, ca. 80 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 1953, Luke 3492 (EA): Endangered.

Barleria marginata Oliv. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open bushland and lightly wooded grassland, 100–650 m. Vouchers: Luke, Mbinda & Madudu 6346, Tweedie 2197 (EA).

Barleria maritima I. Darbysh. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland bushland, scrub on coral rag, and along the shoreline, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: Symes 189, Mainwaring 3045, Napier 2301, Tweedie 3165, Rayner 259 (EA).

Barleria paolioides I. Darbysh. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Open woodland and grassland, 30–850 m. Voucher: Williams Sangai 832 (EA).

Barleria polhillii I. Darbysh. subsp. polhillii Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry woodland, bushland, grassland, and grazed areas, 0–200 m. Voucher: Luke Q 5472 (EA).

Barleria ramulosa C.B. Clarke Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry open bushland and wooded grassland, 6–152 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005909 (EA, HIB), Curtis 6, Drummond & Hemsley 4082, Luke & Robertson 2567 (EA).

Barleria repens Nees Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal dry forest and lowland woodland, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Graham 2102, Luke & Robertson 2598 (EA).

Barleria sp. E Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Rawlins 771, Bally 16859 & 16864 (EA).

Barleria submollis Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland or wooded grassland, ca. 182 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0349 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6022, Kassner T 283 (EA).

Barleria taitensis S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, and margin of riverine grassland, ca. 620 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 16890, Mwadime N 6 (EA).

Barleria usambarica Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest margins, bushland, and grassland, 0–600 m. Vouchers: Robertson 6558, RB & AJ Faden 74/1157 (EA): Vulnerable.

Barleria ventricosa Hochst. ex Nees Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland and along forest margins, 700 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA 6023 (EA).

Barleria whytei S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal forest on coral rag, 0–10 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 3923, Luke 2907, Luke & Saidi 5829 (EA): Endangered.

Blepharis kenyensis Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal bushland, 0–150 m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM 532, Graham RM 1630 (EA): Endangered, Endemic.

Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) B. Heyne ex Roth Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, woodland, and forest habitats, ca. 95 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006127 & 004654 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6028, Jeffrey GM 15 (EA).

Blepharis pratensis S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 0–50 m. Vouchers: Taylor WE s.n., Polhill & Paulo 690, Makin 416, Luke 3064, 3398 & 3562 (EA): Vulnerable.

Cephalophis lukei Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet evergreen lowland forest, 25–400 m. Vouchers: Harvey & Vollens 41, Luke 3377 (EA).

Chlamydacanthus lindavianus H. Winkl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal forest, 10–250 (–600) m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0421 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2787, Luke 2941, Luke et al. 6273 (EA): Near Threatened.

Crabbea velutina S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, riverine forests, and thicket, ca. 35 m. Voucher: Luke Q 1485 (EA).

Crossandra mucronata Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, upland forests, and dry riverine forest, 50–300 m. Voucher: Whyte A s.n. (EA).

Crossandra pungens Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen or semi-evergreen coastal forest and thicket, 0–500 m. Vouchers: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2693, Drummond & Hemsley 3755A, Gillespie 312, Rawlins 71 (EA).

Crossandra stenostachya (Lindau) C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and riverine forest, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Faden 74/986, Festo 2283 (EA).

Dicliptera albicaulis (S. Moore) S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open Acacia woodland, short grassland, roadsides, ca. 800 m. Voucher: Mumiukha 29 (EA).

Dicliptera heterostegia Nees Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal riverine forest, forest margins, secondary woodland, and thicket, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 137 (EA).

Dicliptera inconspicua I. Darbysh. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland moist semi-deciduous forest and riverine forest, 0–450 m. Voucher: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2692 (EA): Vulnerable.

Dicliptera maculata subsp. A Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland moist forest or roadsides, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Luke 2922, Luke stone & Baer 8243 (EA): Endemic.

Duosperma crenatum (Lindau) P.G. Mey. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and scrub, ca. 800 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 16824 (EA).

Duosperma grandiflorum Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and wooded grassland, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Mungai et al. 239/83 (EA).

Dyschoriste hildebrandtii (S. Moore) S. Moore Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, wooded grassland, and bushland, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4124, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5981 (EA).

Ecbolium amplexicaule S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, thicket, riverine forest, and sisal plantations, 0–400 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1465, Bally 13065, Robertson 5902, Drummond & Hemsley 3921 (EA).

Ecbolium subcordatum C.B. Clarke var. subcordatum Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland Acacia and Acacia-Commiphora bushland, riverbanks, and river-beds, ca. 182 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 16757, Luke et al. 644, Greenway 9818 (EA).

Ecbolium subcordatum var. glabratum Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Low bushland and riverbanks, 60–152 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 16819, Luke et al. TPR 387 (EA).

Ecbolium viride (Forssk.) Alston Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, riverbeds, and coastal bushland on sand dunes, 0–50 m. Voucher: Faden 74/1114 (EA).

Elytraria acaulis (L.f.) Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Alluvial grassland with Acacia-Combretum-Dobera thicket, 25–800 m. Vouchers: Greenway & Rawlins 9460, Faden 74/1059 (EA).

Elytraria minor Dokosi Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen and semi-deciduous forest, secondary thickets, and cultivated areas, 15–450 (–650) m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006026 (EA, HIB), Greenway PJ & Rawlins SP 9366, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5986, Rawlins 34, Faden 71/798 (EA).

Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine Habit: Herb. Habitat: Seasonal pools or other stagnant water bodies, ca. 156 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005982, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0435 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 528, Drummond & Hemsley 3927 (EA).

Hypoestes forskaolii subsp. hildebrandtii (Lindau) I. Darbysh. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry grassland and open bushland, ca. 382 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006066, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0365 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 138 (EA).

Indoneesiella echioides (L.) Sreem. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, ca. 2 m. Voucher: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0518 (EA, HIB): Exotic.

Justicia anisophylla (Mildbr.) Brummitt Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Lowland and semi-deciduous forest, ca. 200 m. Vouchers: Faden 77/421, Luke 29142 (EA): Near Threatened.

Justicia baravensis C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sandy foreshores, coastal bushland, 0–15 m. Vouchers: Robertson & Brummit 6763, Kokwaro 3900 (EA).

Justicia betonica L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and woodland, ca. 253 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0121 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5979 (EA).

Justicia brevipila Hedrén Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 25–350 m. Vouchers: Luke et al. TRP785, Robertson & Luke 5728 (EA): Vulnerable.

Justicia breviracemosa Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland forest and riverine forest, 10–250 m. Voucher: Luke 4271 (EA): Endangered.

Justicia caerulea Forssk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, riverine, and scrub, ca. 140 m. Vouchers: Thomas 38, RB & AJ Faden 74/985 (EA).

Justicia calyculata Deflers Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and grassland, ca. 25 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6039, Luke 3355 (EA).

Justicia capensis Thunb. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest or forest grassland, 5–715 m. Vouchers: Luke & Robertson 1810 & 2029 (EA).

Justicia debilis (Forssk.) Vahl Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 186 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0336 (EA, HIB), Festo L & Luke Q 2436 (EA).

Justicia drummondii Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, 75–200 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 3792, Robertson & Luke 5985, Luke 4508 (EA): Critically Endangered, Endemic.

Justicia engleriana Lindau Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland to low montane evergreen forest, ca. 372 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006150 (EA, HIB), Mbinda J & Luke WRQ 259, Magogo & Glover 139 (EA).

Justicia faulknerae Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Semi-deciduous lowland forest, 150–450 m. Vouchers: Luke 1590, Luke & Robertson 1819 (EA): Endangered.

Justicia fittonioides S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry or semi-deciduous lowland forest, ca. 240 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V107 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 1651, Robertson 6560 (EA).

Justicia flava (Forssk.) Vahl Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margin and clearings, woodland, grassland, and bushland, (25–) 350 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006110 (EA, HIB), Festo L & Luke WRQ 2443 (EA).

Justicia galeata Hedrén Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and shrubland, ca. 274 m. Voucher: Dale IR 1077 (EA).

Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Abandoned gardens, ca. 0–300 m. Vouchers: Dale 2015, Reitsma 448 (EA): Naturalized.

Justicia heterotricha Mildbr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 240 m. Vouchers: Luke & Robertson 2770, Luke WRQ 2931 (EA): Vulnerable.

Justicia inaequifolia Brummitt Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen or semi deciduous lowland forest or coral rag thicket, ca. 420 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006088 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2699, BR Adams 87, Luke 1828, Magogo & Glover 136, Robertson SA & Polhill 4833 (EA).

Justicia nyassana Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, riverine forest, and woodland, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 3872 (EA).

Justicia odora (Forssk.) Lam. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry wooded grassland, open woodland, and scrub, 0–300 m. Voucher: Field CR 59 (EA).

Justicia pseudorungia Lindau Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland to montane evergreen forest, and riverine forest, 15 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006220 (EA, HIB), Taylor WE s.n., Robertson 5085, Faden & Evans 71/736 (EA).

Justicia scandens Vahl Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bushland, and lake shores, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Luke & Robertson 2690 (EA).

Justicia schimperiana subsp. campestris Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and dry riverine forest, ca. 35 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1521, Robertson & Luke 5328, Drummond & Hemsley 4119 (EA).

Justicia sp. aff. fittonioides S. Moore. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 5985 (EA): Endemic.

Justicia sp. F of FTEA Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, 200–300 m. Voucher: Robertson & Luke 5989 (EA): Endemic.

Justicia stachytarphetoides (Lindau) C.B. Clarke Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland forest, riverine forest, thicket, and swamp forest, 5–400 m. Vouchers: MG Gilbert et al. 5909, Robertson & Luke 5337, BR Adams 78 (EA).

Justicia striata (Klotzsch) Bullock Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland to montane forest, ca. 239 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0114 & 0354 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 878, Drummond & Hemsley 3829 (EA).

Lankesteria alba Lindau Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 25–500 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006186 & 005933 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 870, Greenway & Rawlins 9351, Luke & Robertson 2623, Drummond & Hemsley 1126 (EA).

Megalochlamys revoluta (Lindau) Vollesen subsp. revoluta Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Bushland or grassland thicket, ca. 250 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 16778 (EA).

Megalochlamys tanaensis Vollesen Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, ca. 25 m. Vouchers: Gillett et al. 19922, Luke 10727 (EA): Critically Endangered, Endemic.

Megalochlamys trinervia (C.B. Clarke) Vollesen Habit: Shrubby herb. Habitat: Woodland or bushland, 25–200(–400) m. Vouchers: Brenan et al. 14774, Greenway & Rawlins 9459, Bally PRO16750, Luke 10726, Luke TPR247 (EA).

Monothecium aristatum (Nees) T. Anderson Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland and medium altitude wet evergreen forest or swampy forest, ca. 200 m. Vouchers: Greenway & Rawlins 9358, K & L Holm 8, Robertson & Luke 5970, BR Adams 86 (EA).

Phaulopsis gediensis Mankt. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, thicket, and shrubland, 0–500 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 6575, Luke WRQ 3968, Drummond & Hemsley 1091, Luke et al. 3372 (EA).

Pseuderanthemum hildebrandtii Lindau Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal lowland, medium altitude forest, thicket, and bushland, ca. 199 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime M V0402 (EA, HIB), Meester V de 336, Magogo FC & Glover PE 721 (EA).

Pseuderanthemum subviscosum (C.B. Clarke) Stapf Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, and bushland, ca. 365 m. Vouchers: Luke 3947, Glover et al. 1154, Luke WRQ 886, Magogo & Glover 75 (EA).

Rhinacanthus dichotomus (Lindau) I. Darbysh. var. dichotomus Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, coastal thicket, margins of cultivation, and roadsides, ca. 199 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0481 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2694 (EA).

Rhinacanthus pulcher Milne-Redh. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 225–552 m. Voucher: Gillett 21100 (EA).

Rhinacanthus rotundifolius C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 0–350 m. Vouchers: Gillett 19527, Luke et al. in TPR 640 (EA).

Ruellia amabilis S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland and riverine forest, 25–450 m. Voucher: Gillett & Kibuwa 19949 (EA).

Ruellia patula Jacq. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and riverine forest, 60–400 m. Vouchers: Harvey & Vollens 52, Curtis A 13, Magogo & Glover 274 (EA).

Ruellia prostrata Poir. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and woodland, ca. 10 m. Vouchers: Luke et al. TRP775, M Robertson 6363 (EA).

Ruellia tuberosa L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside or secondary grassland, ca. 150 m. Vouchers: Luke PA & WRQ 3076, Napier 6195, Luke 3076 (EA): Exotic.

Ruspolia hypocrateriformis (Vahl) Milne-Redh. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 0–100 m. Voucher: Bally 13702 (EA).

Sclerochiton boivinii (Baill.) C.B. Clarke Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forest, 0–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006181 & 005546, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V012 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 891, Dale 3664, Drummond & Hemsley 1143, Polhill & Robertson 4795 (EA).

Sclerochiton vogelii (Nees) T. Anderson subsp. holstii (Lindau) Napper Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Sub-tropical and tropical moist lowland, 0–500 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004648, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V022 (EA, HIB).

Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland to disturbed and secondary vegetation, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006206 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 310, Fabus 23 (EA).

Thunbergia kirkii Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen, semi-evergreen lowland, and lower montane forest, ca. 152 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005541 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 1628, Gardner 1407, Magogo & Glove 619, Robertson & Luke 6454 (EA).

Thunbergia schimbensis S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland or wooded grassland, ca. 297 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0157 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1487, Drummond & Hemsley 4085, Verdcourt 1934 (EA).

Thunbergia stelligera Lindau Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland forest, 100–650 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 3115, Luke & Robertson 2645 (EA).

Trichaulax mwasumbii Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland or coastal thicket, 50–200 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V017 (EA, HIB), Verdcourt 3607, Faden 71/800, Luke 1947 (EA).

Whitfieldia elongata (P. Beauv.) De Wild. & T. Durand Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen lowland and lower montane forest, ca. 150 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 16, Luke WRQ 888, Drummond & Hemsley 1146, Bally 13711, Faden RB 70/809 (EA).

Whitfieldia orientalis Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen lowland forest, 220–370 m. Vouchers: Faden 71/767, Luke 893B, Luke 4729 (EA).

F19. Achariaceae

3 Genera, 3 Species

Lindackeria bukobensis Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest or forest edge, often in open mixed forest, ca. 50 m. Voucher: J Adanson 271 (EA).

Rawsonia lucida Harv. & Sond. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland and upland rainforest, dry evergreen forest, semi-swamp, and riverine forest, ca. 237 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006027, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0168 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 217 & 4821(EA).

Xylotheca tettensis (Klotzsch) Gilg var. kirkii (Oliv.) Wild Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland woodland, bushland, and wooded grassland, 0–700 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0218 & 0542 (EA, HIB), Dale in FD 3879, Luke 3083 (EA).

F20. Aizoaceae

3 Genera, 5 Species

Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Maritime shores, coastal dunes, and beaches, 0–200 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 6147, RM Graham 2221, Luke PA & WRQ 5648 (EA).

Trianthema ceratosepala Volkens & Irmsch Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 135 m. Voucher: Bally 16715 (EA).

Trianthema portulacastrum L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated ground, 0–250 m. Vouchers: Linder 2634, Verdcourt B 3617 (EA).

Trianthema triquetra Willd. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, woodland, and saline sands, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: Rawlins SP 828, Drummond & Hemsley 4090, Luke Q 6147 (EA).

Zaleya pentandra (L.) C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland or grassland, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: Reitsma J 413, Drummond & Hemsley 1046, Muchiri J 490 (EA).

F21. Alismataceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Burnatia enneandra Micheli Habit: Herb. Habitat: Edges of slow flowing rivers and streams, shallow lakes, waterholes, and swamps, ca. 5 m. Voucher: Mwadime N 2573 (EA).

Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.) Miq. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps & pools, 15 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 5635, RM Graham 2164, Hildebrandt 1912 (EA).

F22. Amaranthaceae

20 Genera, 38 Species

Achyranthes aspera L. var. aspera Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas, ca. 0–240 m. Vouchers: Brown ES 1412, Robertson SA 3799, Hooper & Townsend 1163 (EA).

Achyranthes aspera var. sicula L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas, ca. 0–300 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 153 (EA).

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated area, disturbed area, bushland, and grassland, ca. 186 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006137, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0347 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 5468, Magogo FC & Glover PE 924, MacNaughton 96 (EA).

Allmaniopsis fruticulosa Suess. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 110–200 m. Voucher: Gillett 16528 (EA).

Alternanthera pungens Kunth Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, grassland, ca. 0–200 m. Vouchers: Jeffery GW 522, Rawlins 839 (EA).

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp forests and abandoned cultivation, ca. 0–300 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 110, Drummond & Hemsley 4174 (EA).

Amaranthus cruentus L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated lands, forest margins, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Wakefield, Jeffery GW 431 (EA).

Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated area, waste places, roadsides, and grassland, ca. 0–50 m. Voucher: Jeffery GW 441 (EA): Naturalized.

Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated ground, grassland, ca. 0–350 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA 5694 (EA).

Amaranthus spinosus L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated ground ca. 2 m. Voucher: Mwadime N & Chesire C 256 (EA).

Amaranthus viridis L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated and disturbed areas, ca. 2 m. Voucher: Sturrock 2008 B (EA).

Atriplex farinosa subsp. keniensis (Brenan) Friis & M.G. Gilbert Habit: Shrub. Habitat: In sand at or near high tide mark. Vouchers: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2794, Graham 2166 (EA).

Atriplex semibaccata R.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated area, ca. 10 m. Voucher: Kennox M 121 (EA): Introduced.

Celosia argentea L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated lands, grassland, rivers, ca. 610 m. Vouchers: Weruer 993, Greenway & Rawlins 9461 (EA).

Celosia hastata Lopr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and woodland, 3–106 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0482 (EA, HIB), Festo L & Luke Q 2675, Magogo FC & Glover PE 914 (EA).

Celosia schweinfurthiana Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest, clearings, especially near water, ca. 0–50 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke 5859, Magogo FC & Glover PE 915 (EA).

Celosia stuhlmanniana Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Shaded places, forest, and scrub, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Nyange M 508 (EA).

Celosia trigyna L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated lands or forest clearings, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Jeffery GW 445, McCrag in CM 9170 (EA).

Centemopsis gracilenta (Hiern) Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland or cultivated lands, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Rawlins 776 (EA).

Centrostachys aquatica (R.Br.) Moq. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Pools, waterholes, rivers, and lake shores, ca. 20 m. Voucher: Hooper & Townsend 1227 (EA).

Cyathula braunii Gilg ex Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest undergrowth, ca. 360 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005931, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0368 (EA, HIB), Gillett 18714, Luke WRQ et al. 3328 (EA).

Cyathula coriacea Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Thicket, woodland, and roadside, 30–300 m. Voucher: Greenway 8864 (EA).

Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume var. prostrata Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous to evergreen vine thickets, ca. 304 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006155, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0294 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 4714 (EA).

Digera muricata (L.) Mart. subsp. muricata Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste ground, grassland, and bushland, ca. 150 m. Vouchers: RM Graham in FD 648 & 1993 (EA).

Gomphrena celosioides Mart. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides, coastal grassland, and cultivated area, ca. 50–300 m. Vouchers: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2703, Hooper & Townsend 1168, Robertson SA 3480 (EA).

Gomphrena globosa L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: On grassland, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: Jeffery GW 468, WE Taylor (EA): Naturalized.

Hermbstaedtia gregoryi C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sand dune, 20 m. Vouchers: Frazier J 1101, Moomaw 1562 (EA): Endemic.

Neocentema alternifolia (Schinz) Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside or cultivation area, 0–50 m. Voucher: Kabuye CHS, Gilbet VC & Robertson 43 (EA).

Nothosaerva brachiata (L.) Wight Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste ground, grassland, and bushland, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Thuiru 78, Luke WRQ 3501 (EA).

Psilotrichum cyathuloides Suess. & Launert Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forests, 0–150 m. Voucher: Rawlins 394 (EA).

Psilotrichum fallax C.C. Towns. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forests on limestone, 0–380 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V and Mwadime N V109 (EA, HIB), Magogo & Glover 4141, Adams 71, Herbarium Techniques Course III 078 (EA).

Psilotrichum gnaphalobryum (Hochst.) Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open Acacia and Acacia-Commiphora bushland, 140–790 m. Voucher: Luke PA, WRQ et al. 3833 (EA).

Psilotrichum majus Peter Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest undergrowth and margins, ca. 285 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0122 (EA, HIB), Luke PA, WRQ 4306, Magogo FC & Glover PE 79 & 261 (EA).

Psilotrichum scleranthum Thwaites Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margin, grassland, and coconut plantation, ca. 417 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0318 (EA, HIB), Luke Q & Robertson SA 5495, Ross KS 142 (EA).

Psilotrichum sericeum (J. Koenig ex Roxb.) Dalzell Habit: Herb. Habitat: Abandoned land, grassland, and bushland, 15–420 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 3801, Pakia M 113, GM Mungai & SM Rucina 307 (EA).

Pupalia lappacea var. argyrophylla C.C. Towns. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal bushland, grassland, and cultivated area, 0–530 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006184, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0319 (EA, HIB), Festo L & Luke Q 2525, Magogo & Glover 125, Moggridge 157, Gillespie 383 (EA).

Pupalia lappacea var. velutina (Moq.) Hook.f. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, thickets or roadsides, ca. 200 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1528, Luke WRQ 3327 (EA).

Salsola africana (Brenan) Botsch. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Semi-desert scrub, ca. 90 m. Voucher: Battiscombe 223 (EA).

Tecticornia indica (Willd.) K. Sheph. & Paul G. Wilson Habit: Herb. Habitat: Salt marshes by the sea and mangrove swamps, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 20439, Luke Q 6149 (EA).

Volkensinia prostrata (Volkens ex Gilg) Schinz Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland or grassland, ca. 180 m. Voucher: Gillett 19505 (EA).

F23. Amaryllidaceae

4 Genera, 5 Species

Crinum politifolium R. Wahlstr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine vegetation or damp places, ca. 86 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0480 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & PA 4581 (EA).

Crinum stuhlmannii Baker subsp. stuhlmannii Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland or wooded grassland, ca. 0–300 m. Vouchers: Magogo & Glover 468, Jeffery & Kirika 251, Graham K. 1844 (EA).

Cryptostephanus haemanthoides Pax Habit: Herb. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Luke TPR 574, Robertson SA 5371D (EA).

Cyrtanthus sanguineus subsp. wakefieldii (Sealy) Nordal Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 0–250 m. Vouchers: Walker in Bally 7406, Wakefield 42 (EA).

Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf. subsp. multiflorus Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, riverine vegetation, coastal rocks or montane vegetation, ca. 0–350 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 367 (EA).

F24. Anacardiaceae

7 Genera, 13 Species

Anacardium occidentale L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Cultivated area, abandoned cultivated areas, ca. 250 m. Vouchers: RE Perdue & SP Kibuwa 10116, Napier 3274, R Karisa 24 (EA): Naturalized.

Lannea alata (Engl.) Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland and coastal forests edges, ca. 88–450 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006442 (EA, HIB), Dale IR 3885, Polhill & Paulo 598, Luke WRQ 950 (EA).

Lannea cotoneaster (Chiov.) Sacleux Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 75–600 m. Voucher: Njoroge Thairu 86 (EA).

Lannea schweinfurthii var. acutifoliolata (Engl.) Kokwaro Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal forests, 1–460 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004658 & 004663, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0361 & 0333 (EA, HIB) Greenway 9799, RM Graham in FD 1784, Gilbert MG & Kuchar P 5866, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2775 (EA): Near Threatened.

Lannea schweinfurthii var. stuhlmannii (Engl.) Kokwaro Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, dry forests, and river valleys, ca. 20–450 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4166, Luke WRQ 920, Robertson SA 3498 (EA).

Lannea triphylla (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Grassland, and bushland, ca. 70 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4102, JB Gillet 16486 (EA).

Lannea welwitschii var. ciliolata Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, riverine forest, and mountain slopes, 110–450 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt in EAH 11322, Magogo & Glover 177, Faden & Faden 74/318 (EA).

Mangifera indica L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Cultivated area, abandoned cultivated areas, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Bally 13945 (EA): Cultivated.

Ozoroa insignis subsp. reticulata (Baker f.) J.B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, ca. 20–400 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 133, RM Graham in CM 14563 (EA).

Ozoroa obovata (Oliv.) R. Fern. & A. Fern. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and forest edges, ca. 88 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006448, 005484 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 4240, Robertson SA 7761, Jeffery 150, Rawlins 654 (EA).

Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, riverine woodland, and bushland, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006111 (EA, HIB), Sangai GW 15779, Gray M & Luke WRQ 271 (EA).

Sclerocarya gillettii Kokwaro Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, 150–300 m. Voucher: Robertson 1846 (EA).

Searsia crenulata (A. Rich.) Moffett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen bushland, woodland, riverine associations, and forests edges, ca. 1–300 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0359, Robertson SA 4217, Jeffrey 154 (EA).

Sorindeia madagascariensis DC. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine, coastal, and upland forests, ca. 0–297 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006085 & 005918, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V073 (EA, HIB), Mwadime N 11, Magogo FC & Estes R 1195, RM Graham in FD 1575, Gillet & Kibuwa 19945, Greenway & Rawlins 9356 (EA).

F25. Ancistrocladaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Ancistrocladus robertsoniorum J. Léonard Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest in disturbed areas, 60–80 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 1641, Drummond & Hemsley 3936, Polhill & Robertson 4786, Robertson 3649 (EA): Endemic.

F26. Annonaceae

17 Genera, 37 Species

Annona senegalensis Pers. subsp. senegalensis Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland, woodland and forest, ca. 20–300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005602 & 005547, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0283 (EA, HIB), Katz SS 21, Rawlins S 645, Magogo FC & Glover PE 50 (EA).

Artabotrys brachypetalus Benth. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine vegetation, sometimes in dry woodland, 0–150 m. Voucher: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2724 (EA).

Artabotrys modestus subsp. macranthus Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, woodland to grassland, 60–490 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0431 & V0320 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2753, Luke WRQ 3104 (EA).

Artabotrys monteiroae Oliv. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist forest edge or moist grassland, ca. 270 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0504, V0536 & V040 (EA, HIB), Luke, Kibet & Amini 6303, Robertson SA, Beentje HJ & Khayota 21 & 94 (EA).

Asteranthe asterias (S. Moore) Engl. & Diels subsp. asterias Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, 0–60 (–500) m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005449 & 006182, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0236 & V0417 (EA, HIB), Verdcourt B 11355, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 524 (EA).

Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson Habit: Tree. Habitat: Plantations, 0–750 m. Vouchers: Jeffery GW 365, RM Graham in FD 2342 (EA): Cultivated.

Huberantha stuhlmannii (Engl.) Chaowasku Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Shrubland, forest, and savannah, under 100 m. Vouchers: Festo L & Luke Q 2521, Rawlins 262 & 303B (EA): Near Threatened.

Isolona cauliflora Verdc. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forests to evergreen bushland, 20–500 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005564 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1803, Luke WRQ 2930 (EA): Vulnerable.

Lettowianthus stellatus Diels Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and riverine forest, 10–280 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005578 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2768, Luke WRQ 3304 (EA).

Mkilua fragrans Verdc. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forests, 0–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006082, 005532, 005535 & 005919, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V059 (EA, HIB), Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/572, Robertson SA, Luke WRQ 235 (EA): Vulnerable.

Monanthotaxis buchananii (Engl.) Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, bushland, and grassland, 100–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004645 & 006002, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0301 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 4779, 2743A, Drummond & Hemsley 4485, Verdcourt 1953 (EA).

Monanthotaxis faulknerae Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and savannah, 30–370 m. Vouchers: Festo L, Laizer G & P 2635, Luke WRQ 3351, Luke WRQ, PA 3822 (EA): Endangered.

Monanthotaxis fornicata (Baill.) Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and bushland, 0–450 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005447, 005448 & 005599 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2635, Battiscombe E 1044, Robertson SA 4252 (EA).

Monanthotaxis trichocarpa (Engl. & Diels) Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: In evergreen forest, 100–300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005920, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0302 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 3697, Verdcourt 1895, Magogo & Glover 288 (EA).

Monodora grandidieri Baill. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, bushland, and grassland, 10–290 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0434 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2804, Dale 2030, Kokwaro JO 3974, Robertson SA 4263 (EA).

Monodora junodii Engl. & Diels Habit: Shrub. Habitat: On rocky outcrops, woodland, and dry areas, 10–15 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 5708 & 5889, Faden RB 71/273, Luke WRQ 3560 (EA).

Ophrypetalum odoratum Diels Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, forest, 0–600 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt B 1075 & 3952, Drummond & Hemsley 3981, Greenway PJ 9634 (EA): Near Threatened.

Polyceratocarpus sp. ?nov. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 300–370 m. Vouchers: Luke 1621 & 881, Luke & Stone 8245 (EA): Endemic.

Sphaerocoryne gracilis (Engl. & Diels) Verdc. subsp. gracilis Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist to dry forest, and shrubland, 30–350 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005922, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0315 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2597, Robert SA & Luke WRQ 5190 (EA).

Toussaintia orientalis Verdc. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Shrubland and forest, 140–610 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1038 (EA): Endangered.

Uvaria acuminata Oliv. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland, forest, and woodland, 0–810 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005496, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0161 (EA, HIB), Kuchar P 13454, Robertson SA 6456, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 516 (EA).

Uvaria denhardtiana Engl. & Diels Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Open scrub or coastal bushland, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Mbale M & Mbatha M 780, J Adamson 260 (EA): Near Threatened.

Uvaria faulknerae Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland or woodland, 45–180 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5688, Verdcourt 3605, Luke WRQ 118 & 3468 (EA): Endangered.

Uvaria kirkii Oliv. ex Hook. f. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, and woodland, 0–450 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0467 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q 2557, Rawlins 361(EA): Near Threatened.

Uvaria leptoclados Oliv. subsp. leptoclados Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 30–457 m. Vouchers: Hawthorne W 510, Hildebrandt 1971, RM Graham in FD 1763 (EA).

Uvaria lucida Benth. subsp. lucida Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, grassland, and bushland, ca. 0–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005460, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0296 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 4775, Muchiri J 514, Robertson SA 4232 (EA).

Uvaria puguensis D.M. Johnson Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen coastal forest, 200–390 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V060 & 0364 (EA, HIB), Nyange M 525 (EA): Critically Endangered.

Uvaria welwitschii (Hiern) Engl. & Diels Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen coastal forests, 2–300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005582, Ngumbau V & Mwadime M V0472 (EA, HIB), Festo L & Luke Q 2526, Verdcourt 2124, Robertson SA 2786, Luke WRQ 536 (EA).

Uvariodendron gorgonis Verdc. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, 180–800 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime M V0528 (EA, HIB), Brenan JPM, Brenan JH, Gillett JB, Kanuri K & Chomba W 14601, Verdcourt B 1890 & 1911 (EA): Endangered.

Uvariodendron kirkii Verdc. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen coastal forest, often on coral, 5–450 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005580 & 005445, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0516 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 1044 & 3408 (EA): Vulnerable.

Uvariodendron schmidtii Q. Luke, ined. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, ca. 390 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 2919 (EA): Endemic.

Uvariodendron sp. nov. 1 of CFS Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: Luke 1654 (EA).

Uvariodendron sp. nov. 2 of CFS Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: Luke 2929 (EA).

Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 40–280 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 3378, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2709 (EA).

Xylopia arenaria Engl. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland and open coastal bushland, 30–600 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2134, 6000 & 1686, Moggridge 389, Gisau 10, Trump 96 (EA): Vulnerable.

Xylopia holtzii Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 50–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005445, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0257 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Abio Gafo L 6812 (EA).

Xylopia keniensis D. M. Johnson Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal forest, ca. 450 m. Vouchers: Luke 13949, Tim P et al. NMK 722, Luke & Robertson 2723 (EA): Endemic.

F27. Apiaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Damp grassland along river and forest clearings, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2753 (EA).

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Naturalized in disturbed places, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Rexton K 32.F (EA): Exotic.

F28. Apocynaceae

53 Genera, 101 Species

Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland and dry forest, 20–700 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004679 & 005913 (EA, HIB), Greenway PJ & Rawlins SP 8924 (EA).

Alafia caudata Stapf Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and bushland, 0–800 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0378 (EA, HIB), Magogo & Glover 791, Luke & Robertson 1680 & 985 (EA).

Alafia microstylis K. Schum. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, and bushland, 30–250 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 22, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2818, Robertson & Luke 5505 (EA).

Ancylobothrys petersiana (Klotzsch) Pierre Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, bushland, and thicket, ca. 50 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004643, 005430 & 005590 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 4227, Beentje 2286, Kuchar 13531 (EA).

Ancylobothrys tayloris (Stapf) Pichon Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, and bushland, ca. 110 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0488 & 0358 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ et al. 6196, Drummond & Hemsley 3935 (EA).

Asclepias aurea (Schltr.) Schltr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland or waterlogged grassland, ca. 0–200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005518 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 120 (EA).

Asclepias curassavica L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and grassland, 0–50 m. Voucher: Jeffery K332 (EA): Naturalized.

Aspidoglossum masaicum (N.E.Br.) Kupicha Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, grassland, ca. 206 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0206 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 3110 (EA).

Baissea myrtifolia (Benth.) Pichon Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and bushland, 0–450 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0325 & 0104 (EA, HIB), Dale 3580, Luke 1602, Musyoki & Hansen 1004 (EA).

Baseonema gregoryi Schltr. & Rendle Habit: Liana. Habitat: Dry bushland or evergreen forest, ca. 620 m. Voucher: Mwadime N 4 (EA).

Calotropis gigantea (L.) W. T. Aiton Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bare and degraded lands, 1–100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005440 (EA, HIB), Gloves 15300, Tweedie 4032 (EA).

Calotropis procera (Aiton.) W. T. Aiton Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Degraded roadsides, ca. 65 m. Voucher: SAJIT–006439 (EA, HIB).

Caralluma arachnoidea (P.R.O. Bally) M.G. Gilbert var. arachnoidea Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and riverine scrub, 200–300 m. Voucher: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6029 (EA).

Caralluma arachnoidea var. breviloba (P.R.O. Bally) M. G. Gilbert Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and riverine scrub, ca. 400 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA2109 (EA).

Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 0–400 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1469, Robertson & Luke 5367, Luke & Robertson 2144 (EA).

Carissa spinarum L. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, riverine forest, and thicket. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA sr.

Carissa tetramera (Sacleux) Stapf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, thicket, and bushland, 0–450 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1519, Drummond & Hemsley 4179 (EA).

Carvalhoa campanulata K. Schum. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0311 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2727, Robertson 4673 (EA).

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadsides in dry savannah, urban open spaces, and in cultivated areas, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Spjut RW & Ensor PD 2631 (EA).

Ceropegia abyssinica Decne. var. abyssinica Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, 80 m. Voucher: Nyange M 371 (EA).

Ceropegia ampliata E. Mey. var. oxyloba H. Huber Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal forest edges, bushland, and rocky ground, ca. 115 m. Voucher: Archer PG 401 (EA).

Ceropegia aristolochioides Decne. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, thicket, and dry forest, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: Luke 4052, Kabuye CHS, Gilbert VC & Robertson SA 84/66 (EA).

Ceropegia distincta N.E.Br. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, coral reef, woodland, and riverine, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Hawthorne 217, Masinde 860, Bally 12191 (EA).

Ceropegia galeata H. Huber Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, 50–250 m. Vouchers: Bally 12184 & S220, Bayliss 3 (EA).

Ceropegia inornata P.R.O. Bally ex Masinde Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal forest and bushland, ca. 50 m. Vouchers: Robertson et al. 6742, Masinde 814 (EA).

Ceropegia konasita Masinde Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and thickets, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Mbinda & Pakia 218 (EA).

Ceropegia nilotica Kotschy Habit: Climber. Habitat: Mixed deciduous woodland, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6060, Moomaw JC 1616, Masinde 816 (EA).

Ceropegia racemosa var. voiensis Masinde Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and thicket, ca. 50–650 m. Voucher: Archer 402 (EA).

Ceropegia seticorona var. dilatiloba P.R.O. Bally Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, 50 m. Vouchers: Kabuye CHS, Gilbert VC & Robertson SA 84/66, Drummond & Hemsley 3889 (EA).

Ceropegia somalensis Chiov. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Adams 145 (EA).

Chlorocyathus monteiroae Oliv. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, 300–800 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4227, Robertson & Luke 6167, Bock H 16047 (EA).

Cryptolepis africana (Bullock) Venter & R.L. Verh. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal lowland forest, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 3836, Luke & Mbinda 5978, Festo L, Luke Q & P 2784 (EA).

Cryptolepis apiculata K. Schum. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland forest and shrubby thickets in grassland, 30–350 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0373 & V0211 (EA, HIB), Saufferer 788, Kimeu JM 688, Graham 1526 (EA).

Cryptolepis hypoglauca K. Schum. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Moist evergreen lowland and coastal forest, ca. 220 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0326 (EA, HIB), Drummond & Hemsley 3917, Rawlins 892 (EA).

Cryptolepis nigrescens (Wennberg) L. Joubert & Bruy Habit: Liana. Habitat: Secondary forest and savannah, ca. 106 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 1995 (EA).

Cynanchum crassiantherae Liede Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and coastal dunes, near sea level. Voucher: Festo et al 2777 (EA).

Cynanchum gerrardii (Harv.) Liede subsp. gerrardii Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland, 2 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006246 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1471 (EA).

Cynanchum hastifolium subsp. longirostrum Goyder Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Tweedie 3199 (EA).

Cynanchum insipidum (E. Mey.) Liede & Khanum Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open grassland, bushland, woodland, and forest, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: SA Robertson 6721, Magogo FC & Glover PE 967 (EA).

Cynanchum resiliens (B.R. Adams & R.W.K. Holland) Goyder Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, 40–500 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4060, Gillett 16473 (EA).

Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. viminale Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry scrub, rocky area, woodland, and riverine, ca. 590 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1471, Adams 146, Makin s.n in EA 13047 (EA).

Cynanchum viminale subsp. odontolepis (Balf.f.) Goyder (Balf.f.) Goyder Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry coastal forest or woodland, 0–200 (–800) m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006446, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0494 (EA, HIB), Adams 144, Robertson & Luke 5611 (EA).

Desmidorchis retrospiciens Ehrenb. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Semi-desert, ca. 0–100 m. Voucher: Gillett 19504 (EA).

Dictyophleba lucida (K. Schum.) Pierre Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, riverine, ca. 410 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0308 & 058, SAJIT–005510 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 234 (EA).

Echidnopsis ericiflora Lavranos Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland, 250–450 m. Voucher: Powys & Heath 793 (EA): Endemic.

Echidnopsis sharpei A.C. White & B. Sloane Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky slopes and woodland, ca. 450 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 74/1045, Luke WRQ 919 (EA).

Edithcolea grandis N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry woodland, mostly on rocky ground, 200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005910 (EA, HIB), Karisa R 40 (EA).

Fockea angustifolia K. Schum. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and coastal thicket, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 6188, Drummond & Hemsley 4045 (EA).

Funtumia africana (Benth.) Stapf Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and riverine, 30–150 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 890 (EA).

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest margins and dry bushland, ca. 410 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0307 & V039 (EA, HIB), Cunningham-van Someren GR Sh 14, MD Graham 1970 (EA).

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine, woodland, and bushland, ca. 407 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006064 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1409, Gachathi 50/88 (EA).

Huernia andreaeana (Rauh) L.C. Leach Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry deciduous bushland, ca. 400 m. Voucher: Rauh Ke867 (EA).

Huernia archeri L.C. Leach Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky bushland, 200–300 m. Vouchers: Luke & Robertson 2546 & 6041, Robertson 7061 (EA): Endemic.

Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.) Gardner ex Thwaites Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coral rag forest, riverine forest, and coastal bushland, 0–350 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 33, Omino EA 89 (EA).

Kanahia laniflora (Forssk.) R.Br. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Seasonal watercourses. Voucher: Kibuwa 2465 (EA).

Landolphia eminiana K. Schum. ex Hallier f. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine, woodland, and thicket, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Lap LJ 307 (EA).

Landolphia kirkii Dyer Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, Woodland, bushland, thicket, and wooded grassland, ca. 60–270 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1508, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2821, Kokwaro 3960 (EA).

Landolphia watsoniana Romburgh Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist forest, 0–250 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V006 & V0226 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2820, Luke 3124 (EA).

Marsdenia crinita Oliv. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, ca. 142 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006007 (EA, HIB), Nyange M 574 (EA).

Marsdenia faulknerae (Bullock) Omlor Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest margins, 0–400 m. Voucher: Luke & Luke 4749 (EA).

Marsdenia macrantha (Klotzsch) Schltr. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Woodland and forest margins, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2791, Robertson & Luke 5536 (EA).

Marsdenia rubicunda N.E.Br. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland and riverine, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 877, RM Graham 2335, Kimeu JM 698, Robertson SA 3436 (EA).

Marsdenia stelostigma K. Schum. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland, 0–300 m. Voucher: Mungai et al. 93 (EA).

Marsdenia taylorii Schltr. & Rendle Habit: Liana. Habitat: Dry forest, ca. 200 m. Vouchers: Luke 4695, Taylor s.n. (EA).

Mascarenhasia arborescens A. DC. Habit: Tree. Habitat: River banks, forest, 0–750 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0374 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Estes R 1206 (EA).

Mondia ecornuta (N.E.Br.) Bullock Habit: Liana. Habitat: Coastal bushland, woodland, and mangrove forest edge, 0–700 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0381 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 1637, Hawthorne W 434 (EA).

Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland, 5–250 m. Vouchers: Hawthorne W 529, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 2352, Robertson SA, Beentje HJ, Luke WRQ & Khayota B 41 (EA).

Oncinotis tenuiloba Stapf Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, riverine, swamp forest, and secondary forest, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Luke & Robertson 2325, Luke 10720 (EA).

Orbea denboefii (Lavranos) Bruyns Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 700 m. Voucher: Heath & Powys 790 (EA).

Orbea distincta (E.A. Bruce) Bruyns Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 230 m. Vouchers: Luke & Robertson 2337A, Ritchie s.n. in Bally S52, Robertson SA 6902 (EA).

Oxystelma bornouense R.Br. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Riverine, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: GRC van Someren 1072, Greenway 9245 (EA).

Pachycarpus bisacculatus (Oliv.) Goyder Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waterlogged grassland or woodland, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005521 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 3162, Drummond & Hemsley 1102 (EA).

Pentatropis nivalis (J.F. Gmel.) D.V. Field & J.R.I. Wood Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and riverine forests, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005903, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0454 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 6153 (EA).

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Dry bushland, savannah or forest margins, 0–150 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006210 & 005936 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 868 (EA).

Pleiocarpa pycnantha (K. Schum.) Stapf Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, riverine, and swamp forest, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 893A & 1405, RB Faden & AJ Faden 77/751 (EA).

Pleioceras orientale Vollesen Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal thicket, 300–750 m. Voucher: Luke et al. 9445 (EA): Vulnerable.

Raphionacme sp. cf. jurensis N.E. Br. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Woodland. Voucher: Archer 520 (EA): Endemic.

Raphionacme splendens Schltr. subsp. splendens Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and grassland, ca. 80 m. Vouchers: Luke et al. 4494, Luke & Robertson 2331, Adamson 220, Bally 5916, Robertson 6647 (EA).

Rauvolfia mombasiana Stapf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Riverine forest and coastal forest, 0–550m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005462, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V116 & 0225 (EA, HIB), Mussa Mandia 64 (EA).

Saba comorensis (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon Habit: Liana. Habitat: Closed-forest, fringing forest, and savannah woodland, ca. 5–80 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006093 (EA, HIB), Elliot CW 1348, Magogo FC & Glover PE 145 (EA).

Schizostephanus alatus Hochst. ex K. Schum. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland or degraded forest patches, ca. 10–300 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 5, Luke 2454, Robertson 4939, RB Faden, AJ & Faden JB, Gillett & N Gachathi 77/427 (EA).

Schizozygia coffaeoides Baill. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 204 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005943 & 005579, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V063 & 0212 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5184 (EA).

Secamone gracilis N.E. Br. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal forest, 0–500 m. Voucher: Hawthorne 191 (EA).

Secamone parvifolia (Oliv.) Bullock Habit: Liana. Habitat: Thickets and coastal forest, ca. 245 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0269 (EA, HIB), Kokwaro JO 3562, Polhill & Paulo 613 (EA).

Secamone punctulata Decne. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Thickets, riverine, and coastal forest, ca. 5–200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006084, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0410 & 0513 (EA, HIB), Graham RM FD 2004, Gerhardt K & Steiner M 50 (EA).

Secamone retusa N.E.Br. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Lowland and coastal forest, 0–350 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004659, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0364, 0458 & 0513 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 840, Luke 3344, Greenway 1082, Harvey et al. 53 (EA).

Secamone stuhlmannii K. Schum. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Thickets, ca. 0–800 m. Voucher: Reitsma J 407 (EA).

Stathmostelma pauciflorum K. Schum Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waterlogged grassland, ca. 0–400 m. Vouchers: Dale IR K3544, Kassner J 159 (EA).

Strophanthus courmontii Sacleux ex Franch. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine forest and thickets, ca. 40–280 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V100 & 0386 (EA, HIB), Perdue & Kibuwa 10221, Luke et al. 136, Faden 74/301 (EA).

Strophanthus kombe Oliv. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen forest and dense bushland, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM 664, Luke WRQ et al. 4604G, JB Gillet 21065 (EA).

Strophanthus petersianus Klotzsch Habit: Liana. Habitat: Coastal forest and woodland, 0–650 m. Vouchers: Graham 1712, Robertson 4122 (EA).

Strophanthus zimmermannianus Monach. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Moist forest, 0–800 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0123 (EA, HIB), Luke PA, WRQ 4528, Luke WRQ 877 & 5276, Magogo & Glover 4911, Luke et al. 4528 (EA).

Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, coastal bushland, and thicket, 0–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005492 (EA, HIB), Kimeu JM 526, Magogo FC & Glover PE 746 (EA).

Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist forest and riverine forest, 0–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005514 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 201 (EA).

Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Swamp and lake bank forests, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Luke et al. 778 (EA).

Vincetoxicum apiculatum (K. Schum.) Meve & Liede Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal, riverine forest, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 6894, Roberson & Luke 6313, Drummond & Hemsley 3941 (EA).

Vincetoxicum conspicuum (N.E. Br.) Meve & Liede Habit: Climber. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 65 m. Vouchers: Luke & Pakia 7458, Luke & Robertson 2309, Nyange M 519 (EA).

Vincetoxicum cernuum (Decne.) Meve & Liede Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bare ground, coral thickets, and sand dunes, 0–100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005586 (EA, HIB), Vorontsova MS 110, Napper 1273 (EA).

Vincetoxicum stenolobum (K. Schum.) Meve & Liede. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal, riverine forest, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Luke et al. TPR 782, Luke & Luke 5975, Kasnner 395 (EA).

Vincetoxicum tenuipedunculatum (K. Schum.) Meve & Liede Habit: Climber. Habitat: Upland and coastal forest, ca. 80–240 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005988 (EA, HIB), Archer PG 511 (EA).

Voacanga africana Stapf Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest or riverine forest, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & PA 5403, Drummond & Hemsley 3902, Luke 3829, Nyange M 504 (EA).

Wrightia demartiniana Chiov. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry bushland, ca. 620 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 2429, Robertson 1771 (EA).

Xysmalobium stocksii N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and woodland, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 3098B, Magogo & Clover 481 (EA).

F29. Aponogetonaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Aponogeton abyssinicus var. albiflorus Lye Habit: Herb. Habitat: Temporary pools, ca. 35 m. Voucher: Luke Q 1489 (EA).

F30. Araceae

11 Genera, 16 Species

Amorphophallus maximus (Engl.) N.E.Br. subsp. maximus Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland and bushland, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Hildebrandt 2018 (EA).

Anchomanes abbreviatus Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 0–800 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006158, 005511 & 005979 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 4711, Magogo FC & Glover PE 566 (EA).

Callopsis volkensii Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 45–800 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005543, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V030 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 1041 (EA): Near Threatened.

Culcasia orientalis Mayo Habit: Climber. Habitat: Riverine and secondary forest, 0–750 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0372 (EA, HIB), Greenway PJ, Rawlins SP 9360, Magogo FC & Glover PE 622 (EA).

Gonatopus boivinii (Decne.) Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and wooded grassland, ca. 70 m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM, Meso M Ot 601, Magogo FC & Glover PE 580, Robertson 5679 (EA).

Gonatopus marattioides (Peter) Bogner Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry lowland forest and woodland, 3–350 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ et al. 3331 (EA): Vulnerable.

Gonatopus petiolulatus (Peter) Bogner Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 0–400 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA 4499 (EA).

Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock pools, small pools, and rice fields, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4141, Polhill & Paulo 845(EA).

Pistia stratiotes L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open still freshwater, 15–182 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006224 & 006022 (EA, HIB), Luke PA, WRQ 5623, Magogo FC & Glover PE 908 (EA).

Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Still water, ca. 450 m. Voucher: Gillett & Kibuwa 19956 (EA).

Stylochaeton bogneri Mayo Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal evergreen forest, ca. 207 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006022 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & PA 4502 (EA): Endangered.

Stylochaeton borumensis N.E. Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and grassland, 0–200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005986 & 005987 (EA, HIB).

Stylochaeton salaamicus N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest or grassland, 30–250 m. Vouchers: Rawlins SP 149, Beentje HJ 2364, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2694 & 6186 (EA).

Stylochaeton sp. cf. milneanus Mayo Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: R & L 6104 (EA).

Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Horkel ex Wimm. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ditches and pools, ca. 0–350 m. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 4164 (EA).

Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Lodd.) Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, bushland, and grassland, 0–610 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1547, Magogo FC & Glover PE 1129 (EA).

F31. Araliaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Cussonia zimmermannii Harms Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 20–400 m. Vouchers: Hawthorne W 553, Magogo FC & Glover PE 680, Drummond & Hemsley 1198, RM Graham in FD 1806, Robertson SA 3631 (EA).

F32. Araucariaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry forest and thicket, ca. 15 m. Voucher: Perdue RE 10034 (EA): Cultivated.

F33. Arecaceae

7 Genera, 8 Species

Areca catechu L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open secondary forest, ca. 0–100 m. Voucher: DP Kariuki EA 16085 (EA): Cultivated.

Borassus aethiopum Mart. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine flats, coastal plains, and open secondary forest, ca. 0–200 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA sr.

Cocos nucifera L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Tropical seashores, ca. 0–100 m. Voucher: Verdcourt B 2120 (EA): Cultivated.

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open forest, ca. 0–200 m. Vouchers: Luke PA, WRQ 4517, Shimba Hills Survey Unit 56 (EA).

Hyphaene compressa H. Wendl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open grassland, 150 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA sr.

Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Savannah and grassland, 0–300m. Vouchers: Kirika P 576, Shimba Hills Survey Unit 42 (EA).

Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Open forests, savannah woodland, or low scrub thickets, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Moomaw JC 1289 (EA).

Raphia farinifera (Gaertn.) Hyl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Moist swampy ground, ca. 0–250 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE sr.

F34. Aristolochiaceae

2 Genera, 3 Species

Aristolochia albida Duch. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest grassland, clearings, and edges, ca. 260 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005595, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V004 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2673 (EA).

Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Riverine forest, 30–100 m. Vouchers: AB Katende 1796, Q Luke et al. TPR 479 (EA).

Hydnora sinandevu Beentje & Q. Luke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Scattered tree grassland, ca. 2 m. Vouchers: Luke 3033, Bally 2051 & 10434 (EA).

F35. Asparagaceae

7 Genera, 40 Species

Albuca abyssinica Jacq. Habit: Herb. Habitat: In grassland, ca. 382 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0357 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 3153 (EA).

Asparagus africanus Lam. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edges and bushy wooded areas, ca. 2 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006236 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 84 (EA).

Asparagus buchananii Baker Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland and wooded grassland, 0–150 m. Vouchers: Williams 299, Graham RM 1931 (EA).

Asparagus falcatus L. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and dry forest, 0–850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006428 (EA, HIB), Greenway 9623, Luke WRQ et al. 6193, Bally 5837, Greenway 9623 (EA).

Asparagus faulknerae Sebsebe Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, dry forest, and woodland, 0–250 (–450) m. Vouchers: Bally & Smith B14364, Bjornstad 211 (EA).

Asparagus flagellaris (Kunth) Baker Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland and wooded bushland, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 612, Waterman 1093 (EA).

Asparagus humilis Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coral outcrops, salt flats near mangrove, 0–15 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 3029, De Meester 19/79 (EA).

Asparagus leptocladodius Chiov. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland or bushed grassland, 0–750 m. Voucher: Ngweno 7C (EA).

Asparagus scaberulus A. Rich. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and bushed grassland, (60)–350 m. Voucher: Makin in EA 13055 (EA).

Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop Habit: Climber. Habitat: Woodland and grassland, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 989 (EA).

Chlorophytum angustissimum (Poelln.) Nordal Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Luke 3025 (EA).

Chlorophytum cameronii var. pterocaulon (Welw. ex Baker) Nordal Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland and grassland, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4156, Polhill & Paulo 834 (EA).

Chlorophytum filipendulum subsp. amaniense (Engl.) Nordal & A.D. Poulsen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 30–650 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V021 & V0407 (EA, HIB), Magogo & Glover 784, Polhill & 795 (EA).

Chlorophytum holstii Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest or woodland, ca. 80 m. Vouchers: Robertson & Luke 6240, Gray M 435 (EA).

Chlorophytum suffruticosum Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocks and termite mounds, ca. 10 m Vouchers: Luke Q 1553, Drummond & Hemsley 1012 (EA).

Chlorophytum tenerrimum Peter ex Poelln. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Lowland forest and thickets, 70–150 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006130 (EA, HIB), Drummond & Hemsley 3794, Polhill & Paulo 851, Musyoki & Hansen 994 (EA).

Dipcadi longifolium (Lindl.) Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: On sand along the coast, 0–30 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006242 & 004675 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 3118, Bally 8877, Gillett 20836, Greenway 10458 (EA).

Dipcadi viride (L.) Moench Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and woodland, ca. 500 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 600, Meester-Manger Cats V de 42 (EA).

Dracaena aletriformis (Haw.) Bos Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen or semi-deciduous forest, 50–300 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 3606, Robertson & Luke 4781, Schmidt 1712 (EA).

Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 210 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0391 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 4207 (EA).

Dracaena laxissima Engl. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Moist forest or riverine forest, ca. 1–400 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 242A (EA).

Dracaena mannii Baker Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Moist forest, riverine forest, forest margins, and secondary bushland, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005505 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5185 (EA).

Drimia altissima (L.f.) Ker Gawl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushed grassland, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 213, Irwin 453, Jeffrey 293 (EA).

Drimia macrocarpa Stedje Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 35 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 30, Archer 531, Drummond & Hemsley 1030 (EA).

Ledebouria kirkii (Baker) Stedje & Thulin Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland or bushland, ca. 0–300 m. Voucher: Gilbert 6048 (EA).

Sansevieria itumea (Mbugua) Jankalski Habit: Herb. Habitat: Thickets lowlands of the coastal region. Voucher: Bally & Smith B14404A (EA).

Sansevieria arborescens Cornu ex Gérôme & Labroy Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen coastal forest or evergreen bushland, 0–600 m. Vouchers: Reitsma J 543, Luke WRQ et al. 5703 (EA).

Sansevieria bagamoyensis N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open forest, coastal bushland, and thicket, 0–400 m. Vouchers: Graham 1808, Faden et al. 77/460 (EA).

Sansevieria ballyi L.E. Newton Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rock faces, ca. 180 m. Vouchers: Mrs Robertson SA 7602, Newton 5856, Newton 5594 (EA): Endemic.

Sansevieria conspicua N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Littoral forest and evergreen bushland, 2–150 m. Vouchers: Luke 3092, Drummond & Hemsley 3845, Rawlins SP 382, Robertson & Luke 2284 (EA).

Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry wooded grassland, dry bushland, and thickets, ca. 20 m. Voucher: Mrs Robertson SA 7723 (EA).

Sansevieria fischeri (Baker) Marais Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland, 250–550 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 16893 (EA).

Sansevieria forskaoliana (Schult. f.) Hepper & J.R.I. Wood Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry or evergreen bushland and grassland, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Robertson 1778 (EA).

Sansevieria francisii Chahinian Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal forest, low altitude. Voucher: Horwood 432 (EA): Endemic.

Sansevieria gracilis N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland and thicket, 0–100 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1478 (EA).

Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland or riverine forest, 50–600 m. Voucher: Verdcourt 3220 (EA).

Sansevieria kirkii Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, thicket, and riverine fringe, 5–180 m. Vouchers: Luke 4012 & 4013 (EA).

Sansevieria nitida Chahinian Habit: Herb. Habitat: No data. Voucher: Chahinian 301 (EA): Endemic.

Sansevieria perrotii Warb. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and bushed grassland, 550 m. Voucher: Sangai GW 15602 (EA).

Sansevieria powelii N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland and scattered tree grassland, ca. 650 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & AJ 71/810, Perdue RE & Kibuwa SP 10126, Gillett JB 19970 (EA).

Sansevieria raffillii N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry bushland, woodland or dry forest, 0–500 m. Voucher: Polhill R & Paulo S 682 (EA).

F36. Asphodelaceae

1 Genus, 12 Species

Aloe deserti A. Berger Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous thickets, ca. 259 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 8866 (EA): Near Threatened.

Aloe kilifiensis Christian Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 3–380 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 430, Jeffery GW 710, Frazier 881 (EA): Endangered.

Aloe massawana Reynolds Habit: Herb. Habitat: Open thickets, 0–20 m. Voucher: SA Robertson 6365 (EA): Vulnerable.

Aloe microdonta Chiov. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Gillett 16544 (EA).

Aloe parvidens M.G. Gilbert & Sebsebe Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia woodland, ca. 560 m. Voucher: Tweedie 1199 (EA).

Aloe penduliflora Baker Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 645 m. Voucher: Robertson & Luke 6159 (EA).

Aloe rabaiensis Rendle Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 18–500 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 2211, Verdcourt 3193, Bally 8537, Hooper & Transcend 1156 (EA).

Aloe ruspoliana Baker Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, open rocky hillsides, ca. 400 m. Voucher: Bally & Smith 14990 (EA).

Aloe secundiflora Engl. var. secundiflora Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Mwendia CW 16247 (EA).

Aloe ukambensis Reynolds Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Gilbert MG 1739 (EA): Vulnerable.

Aloe vituensis Baker Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 290 m. Voucher: Newton & Powys 3569 (EA).

Aloe volkensii Engl. subsp. volkensii Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Riverine woodland, ca. 10–410 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1026, Robertson SA 6379 (EA).

F37. Asteraceae

49 Genera, 82 Species

Acanthospermum hispidum DC. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed places, ca. 260 m. Voucher: Waaijenberg H 8 (EA): Naturalized.

Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, swampy area, and grassland, ca. 40 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & PA 6032, Nyange M 457 (EA).

Adenostemma viscosum J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wet ground and riverine, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2755, Magogo FC & Glover PE 102 & 373 (EA).

Ageratum conyzoides L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and cultivated land, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 371 (EA): Naturalized.

Aspilia kotschyi (Sch. Bip. ex Hochst.) Oliv. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, waste land, bushland, and woodland, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0241 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 817 (EA).

Aspilia macrorrhiza Chiov. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sand dunes or coral, 0–10 m. Voucher: Luke, PA & WRQ 6148 (EA): Endangered.

Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Swamps, forest, woodland, bushland, and grassland, ca. 45–200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006147, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0196 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke WRQ & PA 2802, Magogo FC & Glover PE 325 (EA).

Athroisma pusillum T. Erikss. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, 350–500 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4073, Faden & Faden 72/120 (EA): Endemic.

Bidens holstii (O. Hoffm.) Sherff Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bushland, and grassland, ca. 700 m. Voucher: Luke & Robertson 2050 (EA).

Bidens pilosa L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Neglected places, ca. 90 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 825, Craig M 9179 (EA): Naturalized.

Bidens schimperi Sch.Bip. ex Walp. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas, woodland, bushland, and grassland, 250–372 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006146, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0149 (EA, HIB), Gillett 18677, Someren, HD van 43 (EA).

Bidens taylorii (S. Moore) Sherff Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and forest, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6051, Magogo & Glover 651 (EA).

Blepharispermum ellenbeckii Cufod. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Mungai & Rucina 404/84 (EA).

Blepharispermum minus S. Moore Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 30–450 m. Vouchers: Luke et al. TPR 650, Bally 16886 (EA).

Blepharispermum zanguebaricum Oliv. & Hiern Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry forest and bushland, ca. 150 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Beentje HJ 4061, Robertson SA, Beentje HJ, Luke WRQ & Khayota B 152 (EA).

Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy, riverine, and grassland, ca. 1–300 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 526 (EA).

Bothriocline longipes (Oliv. & Hiern) N.E.Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland or riverine vegetation, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Gilbert VC 3505 (EA).

Brachylaena huillensis O. Hoffm. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and bushland, ca. 500 m. Vouchers: Katz SS 75/33, Luke WRQ 915 (EA): Near Threatened.

Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine, forest, and cultivation area, ca. 45 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 4728, Makokha D, Malombe I & Saidi C 1567 (EA).

Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H. Rob. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated area and grassland, ca. 243 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V024 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & PA 5691, Kirika P & Muthoka P 738, Rawlins 430, Perdue & Kibuwa 10037, Robertson 3307 (EA).

Dicoma tomentosa Cass. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, woodland, and rocky area, ca. 400 m. Voucher: van Someren 946 (EA).

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy and riverine area, ca. 23 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Muthoka P & Mbale M 755, Bally PRO & Smith AR 14373 (EA).

Emilia bellioides (Chiov.) C.Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sand dunes and coral, 0–10 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 5464, Rawlins 105, Greenway & Rawlins 9421 (EA): Vulnerable.

Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 186 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0348 (EA, HIB), Fukuoka N 284, Cunningham-van Someren GR Sh41 (EA).

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex Wight Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy, grassland, and cultivation area, 1–600 m. Vouchers: Jeffery 780, Greenway & Rawlins 9375 (EA).

Emilia tricholepis C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 5–200 m. Voucher: Brathany C 58 (EA).

Erigeron aegyptiacus L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, cultivation, riverbeds, floodplains, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Njoroge Thairu 38 (EA).

Erigeron bonariensis L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 0–500 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 344 (EA).

Erythrocephalum marginatum (O. Hoffm.) S. Ortiz & A.P. Cout. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 53 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004651, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0130 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 937, Simpson BL 388 (EA).

Erythrocephalum minus Oliv. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest, woodland, and roadsides, ca. 45 m. Vouchers: Graham RM 1928, Drummond & Hemsley 4146, Luke & Luke 3980 (EA).

Ethulia angustifolia Bojer ex DC. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivation, riverine, roadside, and grassland, ca. 210 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0376 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2803 (EA).

Ethulia faulknerae C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, coral, 0–15 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 15341, Gregory, Festo 2803 (EA).

Ethulia gracilis Delile Habit: Herb. Habitat: A common weed, ca. 256 m. Vouchers: Fukuoka N 517, Kirika P 934, Kuchar P 7267 (EA).

Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste ground, swampy, and cultivation. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 1047 (EA): Naturalized.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Disturbed areas and roadside, ca. 0–100 m. Voucher: Jeffery GW 776 (EA): Naturalized.

Geigeria acaulis Benth. & Hook.f. ex Oliv. & Hiern Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 250 m. Voucher: Gillett & Gachathi 20527 (EA).

Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine, ca. 5–100 m. Voucher: Luke et al. TPR 144 (EA).

Grauanthus linearifolius (O. Hoffm.) Fayed Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and forest, 1–150 m. Vouchers: Greenway & Rawlins 9455, Hooper & Townsend 1181 (EA).

Gutenbergia cordifolia Benth. ex Oliv. var. cordifolia Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, riverine, forest, roadside, and cultivated area, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Boyle B 132 (EA).

Gutenbergia pembensis S. Moore Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and forest, 1–400 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0461 (EA, HIB), Simpson, BL 76, Magogo FC & Glover PE 1084, Boyle B 132, Luke & Robertson 1780, Kassner 366 (EA).

Gymnanthemum coloratum (Willd.) H. Rob. & B. Kahn Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland or riverine, 160–250 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 1142, Faden 77/705 (EA).

Gynura colorata Peter ex F. G. Davies Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and rocky area, 0–850 m. Voucher: Musyoki BM & Hansen OJ 974 (EA).

Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and woodland, ca. 0–100m. Vouchers: Festo L & Luke WRQ 2691, Kassner 475 (EA).

Gynura scandens O. Hoffm. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, riverine and woodland, ca. 1–200 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 975, Luke & Robertson 1789 (EA).

Helichrysum glumaceum DC. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland or dry bushland, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2541, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4047 (EA).

Jeffreycia hildebrandtii (Vatke) H. Rob., S. C. Keeley & Skvarla Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins, swampy area, riverine, bushland, and roadsides, 1–700 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Muthoka P & Mbale M 749, Magogo FC & Glover PE 171 (EA).

Jeffreycia zanzibarensis (Less.) H. Rob., S. C. Keeley & Skvarla Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margins, bushland, and roadsides, ca. 96 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006126 (EA, HIB), Adamson 11, Drummond & Hemsley 1155 (EA).

Kleinia abyssinica (A. Rich.) A. Berger var. abyssinica Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004666 (EA, HIB), Simpson BL 390 (EA).

Kleinia abyssinica var. hildebrandtii (Vatke) C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rocky, grassland, bushland, woodland, and forest, 20–250 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 964, Musyoki & Hansen 971 (EA).

Kleinia implexa (P.R.O. Bally) C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and rocky area, ca. 340 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2566, Drummond & Hemsley 4092 (EA).

Kleinia odora (Forssk.) DC. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 75 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 16891 (EA).

Kleinia schweinfurthii (Oliv. & Hiern) A. Berger Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Luke & Luke 4427 (EA).

Laggera brevipes Oliv. & Hiern Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, and waste ground, 1–200 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 1137 (EA).

Launaea cornuta (Hochst. ex Oliv. & Hiern) C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and cultivated area, ca. 227 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0275 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 813 (EA).

Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverbed, coral, and cultivated area, ca. 6 m. Vouchers: Greenway 9267, Mwadime N & Chesire C 195 (EA).

Launaea nana (Baker) Chiov. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, ca. 450 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ et al. 4604E (EA).

Launaea sarmentosa (Willd.) Sch.Bip. ex Kuntze Habit: Herb. Habitat: High water mark, beach, and sandy shores, 0–15 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006260 (EA, HIB), Rawlins 184, Robertson 6136, Drummond & Hemsley 4001 (EA).

Microglossa hildebrandtii O. Hoffm. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and bushland, 1–600 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5591, Magogo FC & Glover PE 737, Luke WRQ 1811 (EA).

Mikania chenopodiifolia Willd. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, swampy, and riverine, 0–300 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 1126 (EA).

Nicolasia nitens (O. Hoffm.) Eyles Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, riverine, and temporary pools, 300–600 m. Voucher: Mungai et al. 284/83 (EA).

Orbivestus homilanthus (S. Moore) H. Rob. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margin, bushland, and beach, 0–15 m. Voucher: Gillespie JB 204 (EA).

Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) DC. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Riverine, woodland, and swampy, ca. 61 m. Vouchers: Sangai GW EA 15795, Kibuwa 2466, Robertson & Luke 5816, Polhill & Paulo 830 (EA).

Pluchea sordida (Vatke) Oliv. & Hiern Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Riverine, ca. 256 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 5651, Kuchar P 11974, Kirika P 932 (EA).

Porphyrostemma monocephala (E.A. Bruce) Leins Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, ca. 45 m. Voucher: Makin 422 (EA).

Pseudoconyza viscosa (Mill.) D’Arcy Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, ca. 1–300 m. Vouchers: Luke 3354, Jeffery GW 703, Magogo FC & Glover PE 388 (EA).

Sigesbeckia orientalis L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated and ruderal area, ca. 240 m. Vouchers: Greenway PJ 9178, Pierce T, David & James (EA).

Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C. Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: In rivers and streams or woodland, 250–600 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA sr.

Solanecio cydoniifolius (O. Hoffm.) C.Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest margin, cultivated area, and coral, ca. 3 m. Vouchers: van Someren VGL Sh 3, Wakefield s.n., Mwadime & Chesire 278 (EA).

Sphaeranthus africanus L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine, 1–450 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 2938, Nyange M 489 (EA).

Sphaeranthus bullatus Mattf. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine and rocky area, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Luke & Luke 3827a (EA).

Sphaeranthus kirkii Oliv. & Hiern var. kirkii Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine, ca. 137 m. Vouchers: Fukuoka N 270, Magogo & Glover 760 (EA).

Sphaeranthus kirkii var. cyathuloides (O. Hoffm.) Beentje Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 1–1750 m. Voucher: Thomas 125 (EA).

Sphaeranthus spathulatus A. Peter Habit: Herb. Habitat: Ponds and streams, 1–250 m. Voucher: Festo L & Luke Q 2577 (EA).

Sphaeranthus ukambensis Vatke & O. Hoffm. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine, bushland, grassland, and woodland, 1–450 m. Voucher: Tana R. Primate Res. Expedition 298 (EA).

Sphaeranthus zavattarii Cufod. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and swampy area, 100–450 m. Voucher: Makin EA 14692 (EA).

Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste land or cultivated land, ca. 213 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006071, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0335 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 722 (EA): Naturalized.

Tridax procumbens L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas, 213–381 m. Vouchers: Waaijenberg H 10, Magogo FC & Glover PE 723 & 351 (EA): Naturalized.

Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake subsp. colorata Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland or riverine, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 77/705, Nyange M 506 (EA).

Vernonia popeana C. Jeffrey Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, and woodland, 0–150 m. Voucher: Luke & Robertson 2514 (EA).

Vernonia wakefieldii Oliv. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 350 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005429 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Beentje HJ 4062, Drummond & Hemsley 4058 (EA).

Vernoniastrum aemulans (Vatke) H. Rob. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, cultivations, grassland, woodland, and bushland, ca. 80–375 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0147 (EA, HIB), Waaijenbrg H 3, Magogo FC & Glover PE 716, 1087, 398 & 500 (EA).

Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, coral, and sandy shores, 0–15 m. Voucher: Festo L & Luke WRQ 2454 (EA).

F38. Balsaminaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Upland and coastal rainforest, ca. 200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005953, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0397 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 129, Luke 1336 (EA).

F39. Basellaceae

1 Genus, 2 Species

Basella alba L. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Moist places, ca. 136 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005968 (EA, HIB).

Basella paniculata Volkens Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and forest, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 5720, Adams BR 59 (EA).

F40. Begoniaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Begonia wakefieldii Gilg ex Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and bushland, ca. 136–280 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005952 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 478, Luke WRQ 1634 (EA).

F41. Bignoniaceae

5 Genera, 5 Species

Fernandoa magnifica Seem. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal thicket and woodland, 5–450 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006157, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0385 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 168 (EA).

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Grassland and woodland, ca. 300 m. Voucher: Jeffery 111 (EA).

Markhamia zanzibarica (Bojer ex DC.) K. Schum. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal thicket and woodland, ca. 230 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0466 (EA, HIB), Shimba Hills Survey Unit 90, Kimeu JM 536 (EA).

Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. subsp. nilotica (Seem.) Bidgood Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Scrubland and secondary forests, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 3089 (EA).

Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry areas of deciduous forest and woodland, ca. 20 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 642 (EA).

F42. Bixaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Bixa orellana L. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Cultivated, naturalized, ca. 30–150 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005493 (EA, HIB), Spjut RW 2637 (EA): Naturalized.

Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry forests. Voucher: Graham RM 2334 (EA).

F43. Boraginaceae

7 Genera, 28 Species

Argusia argentea (L.f.) Heine Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Sea shore, ± sea level. Voucher: Greenway 10442 (EA).

Cordia crenata subsp. meridionalis Warfa Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Thairu 110 (EA).

Cordia faulknerae Verdc. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine bushland, 0–250 m. Vouchers: SA Robertson & WRQ Luke 5732, Luke 1573 (EA).

Cordia goetzei Gürke Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal forest, rainforest, riverine forest, and ground water forest, 5–60 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N & Ndungu K 27, RB Faden & AJ Faden 77/657 (EA).

Cordia guineensis Thonn. subsp. mutica Verdc. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Limestone outcrops, 0–10 (–50) m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006185 (EA, HIB), Mwadime N 46, Luke Q 1413 (EA).

Cordia monoica Roxb. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Dry woodland, ca. 15 m. Voucher: Mariette Steiner 290 (EA).

Cordia sinensis Lam. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 4185 (EA).

Cordia somaliensis Baker Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal bushland, high-tidemark, and coral rag, 0–15 (–150) m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Muthoka P & Mbale M 758, Greenway & Rawlins 8904 (EA).

Cordia sp. B of FTEA Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Acacia-Combretum woodland. Vouchers: Muchiri 567, Kuchar 13691 (EA).

Cordia subcordata Lam. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Shore, high-tidemark, and mangrove swamps, 0–15 (–75) m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM 667, Gillett 20837, Verdcourt 1070 (EA).

Cordia torrei E.S. Martins Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and rock outcrop, 200–420 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 2414, Luke & Robertson 1876 (EA).

Ehretia amoena Klotzsch Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, 0–600 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0507 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ et al. 6192 (EA).

Ehretia bakeri Baker Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, bushland, 199–700 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006456, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0424 (EA, HIB), Shimba Hills Survey Unit 84, R & L 2047, Drummond & Hemsley 4201 (EA).

Ehretia cymosa var. silvatica (Gürke) Brenan Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, grassland, and bushland, ca. 10 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 3073 (EA).

Euploca ovalifolia (Forsk.) Diane & Hilger Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and grassland, ca. 15 m. Voucher: Luke Q 5657 (EA).

Euploca strigosa (Willd.) Diane & Hilger Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and along road sides, ca. 186 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006134, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0343 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1550, Graham RM 1901 (EA).

Heliotropium benadirense Chiov. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sand dunes and sandy places, 0–120 m. Voucher: Luke Q 5488 (EA).

Heliotropium gorinii Chiov. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Above high tide and roadsides, 0–15 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 3909, Rayner 296a, Greenway 13138 (EA).

Heliotropium pectinatum Vaupel subsp. pectinatum Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, and Commiphora-Acacia bushland, 15–620 m. Voucher: Polhill & Paulo 593 (EA).

Heliotropium simile Vatke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and scrub, ca. 150 m. Voucher: Mungai et al. 112 (EA).

Heliotropium sp. A of FTEA Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland with scattered Acacia, ca. 96 m. Voucher: Gillett 16522 (EA).

Heliotropium steudneri Vatke subsp. steudneri Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 0–200 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0455 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 5658 (EA).

Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.f.) Lam. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland or grassland, ca. 20 m. Voucher: Luke Q 5659 (EA).

Hilsenbergia nemoralis (Gürke) J.S. Mill. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and coral, 0–600 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 1106, Magogo & Glover 727, J Adamson 289 (EA).

Hilsenbergia petiolaris (Lam.) J. S. Mill. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and coral, 0–30 (–660) m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005604, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0298 (EA, HIB), Bridson 129, Jeffery K75, Verdcourt 1081, Festo L & Luke Q 2561 (EA).

Hilsenbergia teitensis (Gürke) J. S. Mill. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and forest, 60–850 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005422 (EA, HIB), Drummond & Hemsley 4267 (EA).

Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and coconut plantations, 0–45 m. Voucher: Linder 2650 (EA).

Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm. f.) R. Br. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, 15 m. Voucher: GW Sangai 15597 (EA).

F44. Burmanniaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Afrothismia baerae Cheek Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen coastal, 360–400 m. Voucher: Baer S s.n. (EA): Critically Endangered, Endemic.

F45. Burseraceae

2 Genera, 13 Species

Boswellia neglecta S. Moore Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 400–620 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N2, Luke WRQ 196, Robertson SA & Khayota B 6416 (EA).

Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. var. africana Habit: Tree. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 110 m. Vouchers: Kuchar P 12902, Kibuwa SP 1224 (EA).

Commiphora africana var. glaucidula (Engl.) J. B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushed grassland, ca. 450 m. Vouchers: Rawlins SP 130, Luke WRQ 915 (EA).

Commiphora africana var. oblongifoliolata (Engl.) J. B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushed grassland, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 20354, Cunningham van Someren GR Sh 82, Kibuwa SP 19845 (EA).

Commiphora campestris subsp. glabrata (Engl.) J. B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, 10–200 m. Voucher: Faden 77/476 (EA).

Commiphora edulis subsp. boiviniana (Engl.) J. B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland and thickets dominated by Sapotaceae, ca. 70 m. Vouchers: van Someren VGL Sh 61, Robertson SA 4083 (EA).

Commiphora eminii subsp. zimmermannii (Engl.) J. B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 5–110 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 212, RB & AJ Faden77/650 (EA).

Commiphora erosa Vollesen Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, 90–400 m. Voucher: Robertson SA 1849 (EA).

Commiphora kua (R. Br. ex Royle) Vollesen Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal thicket, 2–360 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006237 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 4082, Polhill R & Paulo S 495 (EA).

Commiphora obovata Chiov. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal bushland, 50–100 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 20353, Mahasi AS in EAH 14890 (EA): Near Threatened.

Commiphora pseudopaolii J. B. Gillett Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, 60–600 m. Vouchers: Gillett 16374, Verdcourt & Polhill 2709 (EA): Near Threatened.

Commiphora pteleifolia Engl. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal thicket, ca. 10 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1477, RB Faden, AJ Faden, JB Gillett & N Gachathi 77/475 (EA).

Commiphora sennii Chiov. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Gillet & Gachathi 20535 (EA).

Commiphora unilobata J. B. Gillett & Vollesen Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 70 m. Vouchers: Gillett 21108 & 21109 (EA).

Commiphora zanzibarica (Baill.) Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal thickets and coral, 2–510 m. Vouchers: Willan 341, RB & SA Faden 77/650, SA Robertson 3663 (EA).

F46. Buxaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Buxus obtusifolia (Mildbr.) Hutch. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, 280–450 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005537, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0496 (EA, HIB), Mutanga JG & Kamau 6, Hawthorne W 139 (EA): Vulnerable.

F47. Cactaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Dry arid areas, 0–300 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & PA sr: Cultivated.

Rhipsalis baccifera (Sol.) Stearn Habit: Epiphytic herb. Habitat: Wet forests and riverine forest, ca. 145 m. Vouchers: Faden RB & Beentje HJ 85/47, Magogo FC & Glover PE 633 (EA).

F48. Calophyllaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Calophyllum inophyllum L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Rocky and sandy seashores, 0–20 m. Voucher: Robertson SA 4926 (EA).

F49. Campanulaceae

2 Genera, 4 Species

Lobelia fervens Thunb. subsp. fervens Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, forest margins, roadsides, streamside or on coastal sand, ca. 136 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005960 & 005945 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 734, Polhill & Paulo 488 (EA).

Lobelia fervens subsp. recurvata (E. Wimm.) Thulin Habit: Herb. Habitat: On moist ground in grassland or woodland, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N & Luke WRQ 784 & 419 (EA).

Wahlenbergia abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Thulin subsp. abyssinica Habit: Herb. Habitat: Cultivated or waste ground, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 121, Thulin M 300 (EA).

Wahlenbergia napiformis (A. DC.) Thulin Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and roadsides, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2823, Thulin M 298 (EA).

F50. Canellaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Warburgia stuhlmannii Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 20–225 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 15340, Graham 2208 (EA): Vulnerable.

F51. Cannabaceae

2 Genera, 3 Species

Celtis mildbraedii Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, ca. 160–300 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 2, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2810, RB Faden & AJ Faden 77/678, RB Faden, AJ Faden & N Gachathi 77/526 (EA).

Celtis philippensis Blanco Habit: Tree. Habitat: Lowland, groundwater, and riverine forest, ca. 30–207 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006021 (EA, HIB), Mwadime N 30, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 504, Thomas Mwadime in Mrs Robertson SA 7807, Drummond & Hemsley 4014, Verdcourt 2405 (EA).

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume Habit: Tree. Habitat: Margins of lowland and upland rainforest, ca. 280 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005457 (EA, HIB), Jeffery 193 (EA).

F52. Capparaceae

7 Genera, 37 Species

Boscia angustifolia A. Rich. var. angustifolia Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland and bushland, ca. 200 m. Voucher: Robertson SA & Luke Q 4721 (EA).

Boscia coriacea Pax Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, ca. 150 m. Vouchers: Kuchar P 13709, Drummond RB 4093, Graham RM 1586 (EA).

Boscia keniensis Beentje Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 100–350 m. Vouchers: Bally 2024, Robertson SA 319 (EA).

Boscia mossambicensis Klotzsch Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and thicket, ca. 630 m. Voucher: Luke PA WRQ 4400 (EA).

Boscia salicifolia Oliv. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, bamboo thicket, and grassland, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Burstyne P 70, Bally J 13944 (EA).

Cadaba carneoviridis Gilg & Gilg-Ben. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 30–600 m. Vouchers: Gilbert MG 5862, Robertson SA 2086 (EA).

Cadaba farinosa Forssk. subsp. farinosa Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Greenway PJ 9440, Moomaw JC 1578 (EA).

Cadaba farinosa subsp. adenotricha (Gilg & Gilg-Ben.) R. A. Graham Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 0–400 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 5411, Rayner RW 163 (EA).

Cadaba gillettii R.A. Graham Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 100–750 m. Voucher: Mrs J Adamson 103 (EA).

Cadaba glandulosa Forssk. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, ca. 600 m. Voucher: Greenway 8866 (EA).

Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 0–400 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005425 (EA, HIB).

Cadaba ruspolii Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and woodland, ca. 180 m. Voucher: Bally 2010 (EA).

Capparis erythrocarpos var. rosea (Klotzsch) De Wolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland and bushland, 0–400 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006432, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0497 (EA, HIB), Greenway PJ & Rawlins SP 9353 (EA).

Capparis fascicularis DC. var. fascicularis Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 600 m. Voucher: Battiscombe 800 (EA).

Capparis fascicularis var. scheffleri (Gilg & Benedict) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest and bushland, ca. 0–400 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0445 (EA, HIB), Sangai GW 15690, Luke WRQ 3475 (EA).

Capparis sepiaria var. fischeri (Pax) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 180 m. Voucher: Battiscombe 269 (EA).

Capparis sepiaria var. stuhlmannii (Gilg) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and riverine forest, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Rawlins SP 168, Magogo FC & Glover PE 684 (EA).

Capparis sepiaria var. subglabra (Oliv.) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 0–200 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1441, Mrs. J Adamson 299 RM in FD 1612, Bally 1991 (EA).

Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.) Boiss. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland and coral outcrops, 0–200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005575 (EA, HIB), Taiti S 19 (EA).

Capparis tomentosa Lam. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, and riverine, 0–200 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0190 (EA, HIB), Kuchar P 12903, Sangai GW EA 15762 (EA).

Capparis viminea Hook. f. & Thomson ex Oliv. var. viminea Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Luke & Robertson 1562 (EA).

Cladostemon kirkii (Oliv.) Pax & Gilg Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest or thicket, 0–800 m. Vouchers: Festo L & Luke Q 2562, Dale IR 3795 (EA).

Maerua angolensis DC. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and grassland, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 7763 & 5075, Drummond & Hemsley 4218 (EA).

Maerua calantha Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, riverine, and, woodland, 45–460 m. Vouchers: Gillett JB 20401, F Thomas 65 (EA).

Maerua crassifolia Forssk. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland or semi-desert scrub, ca. 180 m. Voucher: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5585 (EA).

Maerua decumbens (Brongn.) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 50 m. Voucher: Robertson SA 7635 (EA).

Maerua denhardtiorum Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 90–780 m. Voucher: Sampson 1(EA).

Maerua endlichii Gilg & Gilg-Ben. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 23 m. Voucher: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0456 (EA, HIB).

Maerua glauca Chiov. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and thicket, below 100 m. Vouchers: Luke Q & Robertson 2148, Greenway 8964 (EA).

Maerua grantii Oliv. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and grassland, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Rawlins SP 452 (EA).

Maerua holstii Pax Habit: Liana. Habitat: Lowland rainforest and woodland, 30–450 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0486 (EA, HIB), Gillett JB 20387 (EA).

Maerua kaessneri Gilg & Gilg-Ben. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 150–350 m. Voucher: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5685 (EA).

Maerua kirkii (Oliv.) F. White Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and riverine forest, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 183, Luke WRQ 3330 (EA).

Maerua macrantha Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland and bushland, 30–50 m. Vouchers: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2709, Rawlins 395, Bally 2155, Drummond & Hemsley 4038 (EA).

Maerua mungaii Beentje Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, 100–150 m. Voucher: Parker I 513/H (EA): Endemic.

Maerua sessiliflora Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Deciduous bushland, semi-desert scrub, 300–750 m. Voucher: Bally 2187 (EA).

Maerua triphylla A. Rich. var. triphylla Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, ca. 181 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0223 (EA, HIB).

Maerua triphylla var. calophylla (Gilg) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, and riverine, ca. 60–200 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0412 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5575 (EA).

Maerua triphylla var. johannis (Volkens & Gilg) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, ca. 200 m. Vouchers: Bally 14389, Drummond 3868 (EA).

Maerua triphylla var. pubescens (Klotzsch) DeWolf Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Rainforest, bushland, and grassland, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Adamson J 6138, Roberson SA 4256 (EA).

Ritchiea capparoides (Andrews) Britten Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest and bushland, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0379 (EA, HIB), Hooper SS & Townsend CC 1214 (EA).

Thilachium africanum Lour. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, and grassland, 25–300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & PA 5696, Graham MD 1536 (EA).

Thilachium roseomaculatum Y.B. Harv. & Vollesen Habit: Herb. Habitat: Denser forest parts, 50–150 m. Vouchers: Harvey, Mwachala & Vollesen 49, Robertson & Luke 6251, Luke 3454 & 3472 (EA): Endemic.

Thilachium thomasii Gilg Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland and bushland, ca. 50 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004646 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 133 & 9426, Drummond & Hemsley 4052 (EA).

F53. Cardiopteridaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Leptaulus holstii (Engl.) Engl. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Lowland rainforests, ca. 289 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V032 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 1852 (EA).

F54. Caryophyllaceae

1 Genus, 5 Species

Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside and grassland, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2653 (EA).

Polycarpaea eriantha Hochst. ex A. Rich. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, ca. 480 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Estes R 1246 (EA).

Polycarpaea grahamii Turrill Habit: Herb. Habitat: Near the shore. Voucher: Graham MD 1617 (EA): Endemic.

Polycarpaea spicata Wight ex Arn. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, 0–500 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 5460 (EA).

Polycarpaea tenuistyla Turrill Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 25 m. Voucher: Musyoki BM & Hansen OJ 982 (EA): Endemic.

F55. Casuarinaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Casuarina equisetifolia L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal bushland and seashore, ca. 2 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006252 (EA, HIB), Greenway 9619, MacNaughton159, Whellan 1851 (EA): Naturalized.

F56. Celastraceae

12 Genera, 29 Species

Apodostigma pallens (Planch. ex Oliv.) R. Wilczek var. pallens Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and riverine, ca. 0–239 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V078 & V0306 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 969, Luke WRQ 3601 (EA).

Apodostigma pallens var. dummeri N. Hallé Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 18, Luke WRQ 16135 (EA).

Elachyptera holtzii (Loes. ex Harms) R. Wilczek Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen forest to semi-evergreen forest, 120–460 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 3601 (EA).

Elachyptera parvifolia (Oliv.) N. Hallé Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, woodland, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005527 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2696 (EA).

Elaeodendron schlechterianum (Loes.) Loes. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland and forest, 0–410 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0303 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1265, van Someren VGL Sh103 (EA).

Elaeodendron schweinfurthianum (Loes.) Loes. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal bushland and forest, 0–30 m. Voucher: Magogo FC & Glover PE 1133 (EA).

Gymnosporia buchananii Loes. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, 60–400 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 500, Magogo FC & Glover PE 267 (EA).

Gymnosporia gracilis Loes. subsp. gracilis Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest margins and thicket, 0–500 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005464 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 289, Adamson J 5834, Spjut 4550, Brenan, Gillett & Kanuri 14675 (EA).

Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest margins and woodland thicket, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1546, Graham RM FD Ox352 (EA).

Gymnosporia masindei (Gereau) Jordaan Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 30–245 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2498 (EA).

Gymnosporia putterlickioides Loes. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland and riverine, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1430, Festo, L & Luke Q 2600, Polhill & Paulo 873 (EA).

Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Woodland, grassland, and riverine, ca. 45 m. Voucher: Nash LT 40 (EA).

Loeseneriella africana var. richardiana (Cambess.) R. Wilczek ex N. Hallé Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine forest and thickets, ca. 372 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006159 (EA, HIB), Mwadime N et al. 615, Luke WRQ 1392 (EA).

Loeseneriella crenata (Klotzsch) R. Wilczek ex N. Hallé var. crenata Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, bushland, 0–80 m. Voucher: Luke Q 1419 (EA).

Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine, and woodland, 0–407 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006054 & 005549, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0525 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & PA 6255 (EA).

Mystroxylon aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes. subsp. aethiopicum Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal woodland, 0–250 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005901, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0128 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 507 (EA).

Pleurostylia africana Loes. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland and forest, 0–500 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1429, RB Faden & AJ Faden 77/707 (EA).

Pristimera andongensis var. volkensii (Loes.) N. Hallé & B. Mathew Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland and woodland, ± 100 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 19, Gray M & Luke WRQ 302 (EA).

Pristimera longipetiolata (Oliv.) N. Hallé Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest margins, 0–15 m. Voucher: RB & AJ Faden 74/1148 (EA).

Salacia elegans Welw. ex Oliv. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 0–250 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005990 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1448, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2739 (EA).

Salacia erecta (G. Don) Walp. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Evergreen forest, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 521 (EA).

Salacia lehmbachii Loes. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, ca. 45 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005554 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ et al. 4725 (EA).

Salacia leptoclada Tul. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, ca. 70 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1502, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6024 (EA).

Salacia madagascariensis (Lam.) DC. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and woodland, 0–600 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0140, SAJIT–006176 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 43 (EA).

Salacia sp. cf. erecta (G. Don) Walp. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: Birch 62/222 (EA).

Salacia stuhlmanniana Loes. Habit: Habitat: Forest, riverine, bushland, and woodland, 0–36 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006175 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 5470 (EA).

Simicratea welwitschii (Oliv.) N. Hallé Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, ca. 210 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0377 (EA, HIB), Mwadime N 20, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2819 (EA).

Simirestis goetzei (Loes.) N. Hallé ex R. Wilczek Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, ca. 90 m. Voucher: Kimeu JM 689 (EA).

Simirestis scheffleri (Loes.) N. Hallé Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Moggridge 519 (EA).

F57. Ceratophyllaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Ceratophyllum demersum L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Water bodies, lakes, rivers, and swamps, ca. 0–15 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006227 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 428 (EA).

F58. Chrysobalanaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.) Prance & F. White Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, ca. 410 m. Voucher: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0304 (EA, HIB): Cultivated.

Hirtella zanzibarica Oliv. subsp. zanzibarica Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, ca. 407 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006030, 005517 & 006063, Ngumbau V & Mwadime M V0250 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 239 (EA).

F59. Cleomaceae

4 Genera, 9 Species

Cleome gynandra L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Waste, disturbed or cultivated ground, ca. 20 m. Voucher: Jeffery K206 (EA).

Coalisina tenella (L. f.) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Hyphaene grassland, ca. 5–360 m. Voucher: Jeffery K206 (EA).

Sieruela allamani (Chiov.) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, semi-desert scrub, 150–175 m. Vouchers: Mrs J Adamson 616, Gillett 19508 (EA).

Sieruela briquetii (Polhill) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and roadside, ca. 0–210 m. Vouchers: Simpson BL 361, Magogo FC & Glover PE 512 & 1205 (EA).

Sieruela hirta (Klotzsch) Roalson & J. C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, ca. 175 m. Voucher: Festo L & Luke Q 2705 (EA).

Sieruela parvipetala (R.A. Graham) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora-Lannea-Boswellia bushland 120–420 m. Vouchers: Mungai GM & Rucina SM 416/84, JB Gillett 16400, J Makin 14472 (EA).

Sieruela strigosa (Bojer) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sandy seashores, ± 0 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006262 (EA, HIB), Greenway PJ & Rawlins SP 9422 (EA).

Sieruela usambarica (Pax ex Engl.) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Rainforest and bushland, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: Simpson BL 156, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6020 (EA).

Stylidocleome brachycarpa (Vahl ex DC.) Roalson & J.C. Hall Habit: Herb. Habitat: Acacia-Commiphora bushland. Vouchers: Lucas 34, JB Gillett 21126/B (EA).

F60. Clusiaceae

1 Genus, 3 Species

Garcinia buchananii Baker Habit: Tree. Habitat: Evergreen forest, often riverine, and thickets, ca. 85 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0485 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 1642 & 1899 (EA).

Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, thicket, and grassland, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006092 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA 4314 (EA).

Garcinia volkensii Engl. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Evergreen forest, ca. 210 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0390 (EA, HIB), Luke Q & Robertson 2655, Luke WRQ 3973 (EA).

F61. Colchicaceae

2 Genera, 2 Species

Gloriosa superba L. var. superba Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest margin and coastal bushland, ca. 290 m Vouchers: SAJIT–006261 & 005544, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0287 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 973 (EA).

Iphigenia oliveri Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 0–30 m. Vouchers: Adams 12, Luke et al. 5925, Luke & Luke 4379 (EA).

F62. Combretaceae

5 Genera, 31 Species

Combretum aculeatum Vent. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and riverine, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 460, 489 & 656, Luke WRQ 121 (EA).

Combretum apiculatum Sond. subsp. apiculatum Habit: Tree. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 150 m. Vouchers: Msafiri F & Mwendwa H 441, Luke WRQ 3471 (EA).

Combretum butyrosum (G. Bertol.) Tul. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine forest, 50–450 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0453 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2755 (EA).

Combretum chionanthoides Engl. & Diels Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest margin, 50–170 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0413 (EA, HIB), Brenan JPM & JH Gillet JB 14657 (EA).

Combretum constrictum (Benth.) M. A. Lawson Habit: Climber. Habitat: Swamps and riverine forest, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: RM Graham in FD 2243, Festo 2419 (EA).

Combretum contractum Engl. & Diels Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, 150–396 m. Vouchers: Graham RM 2047, Bally 8162, Dale 2049 (EA).

Combretum exalatum Engl. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Festo L, Luke Q & P 2789, Robertson SA 6396 (EA).

Combretum falcatum (Welw. ex Hiern) Jongkind Habit: Liana. Habitat: Bushland and forest margins, 0–70 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0530 & V0436 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ 894 (EA).

Combretum hereroense Schinz subsp. hereroense Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland and bushland, ca. 70 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0448 (EA, HIB), Dale in FD 3666, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5715 (EA).

Combretum hereroense subsp. volkensii (Engl.) Wickens Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Grassland or bushland, 50–500 m. Vouchers: Power 10994, Hildebrandt 2337, Luke 916 (EA).

Combretum holstii Engl. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Woodland and riverine forest, ca. 0–300 m. Voucher: Robertson SA 5084 (EA).

Combretum illairii Engl. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and bushland, 30–800 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–004665 & 005569, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0228 (EA, HIB), Kuchar P 13482 (EA).

Combretum molle R.Br. ex G. Don Habit: Tree. Habitat: Wooded grassland, 30–340 m. Vouchers: Spjut RW 3809, Shimba Hills Survey Unit 30, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 4101 (EA).

Combretum padoides Engl. & Diels Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine forest, swamp forest, 0–280 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006070, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0324 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5647, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2718 (EA).

Combretum paniculatum Vent. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and riverine forest, 10–156 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0429 (EA, HIB), Graham RM 1694, Rawlins SP 253 (EA).

Combretum pentagonum M.A. Lawson Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest and thicket, 20–153 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0505 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 4516 (EA).

Combretum schumannii Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, and woodland, 0–140 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0538 (EA, HIB), Kuchar P 13548 (EA).

Combretum tenuipetiolatum Wickens Habit: Tree. Habitat: Coastal forest, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 2289 (EA): Critically Endangered.

Combretum umbricola Engl. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine forest and coastal woodland, ca. 280 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2717 (EA).

Conocarpus lancifolius Engl. & Diels Habit: Tree. Habitat: Semi-desert coastal zone, 10–570 m. Voucher: Gillett JB 20314 (EA): Near Threatened, Cultivated.

Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Mangrove swamps, 0–30 m. Vouchers: Mrs Robertson SA 7747, Luke Q 5649, Brathay 1982 Expedition 55 (EA).

Pteleopsis myrtifolia (M.A. Lawson) Engl. & Diels Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine, forest, woodland, bushland, and grassland, 0–150 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0530 (EA, HIB), Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2822, Faden 70/256 (EA).

Pteleopsis tetraptera Wickens Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, and forest, 0–300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 5531, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2796 (EA).

Terminalia boivinii Tul. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Bushland and forest, 0–30 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005585 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2699, Moomaw 1602, Donald 96 in FD 2496 (EA).

Terminalia brevipes Pamp. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Riverine forest and bushland, 20–280 m. Vouchers: Brathay Expedition 46, Tweedie 1866 (EA).

Terminalia catappa L. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Sandy or rocky beaches, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: Ndakala J 407, Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/390 (EA): Naturalized.

Terminalia parvula Pamp. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 60 m. Voucher: Bally 16708 (EA).

Terminalia prunioides M.A. Lawson Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland and riverine thicket, 30–360 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0453 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 335, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2113 (EA).

Terminalia sambesiaca Engl. & Diels Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, riverine forest, and woodland, 70–830 m. Vouchers: Mohamed Abdulla 1159, Verdcourt 3934, Dale in FD 3660 (EA).

Terminalia sp. aff. spinosa Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: Luke et al. TPR766 (EA).

Terminalia spinosa Engl. Habit: Tree. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and grassland, 0–330 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006440 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 246, Beentje HJ 2275 (EA).

F63. Commelinaceae

5 Genera, 31 Species

Aneilema aequinoctiale (P. Beauv.) Loudon Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist or dry evergreen forests, 0–150 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5156, RB Faden & AJ Faden 290 & 1270, Polhill & Paulo 825 (EA).

Aneilema calceolus Brenan Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, 10–450 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 77/378, 74/1069 & 77/565 (EA).

Aneilema clarkei Rendle Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen forest, woodland, and thicket, 0–250 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 1457, Faden & Evans 71/714, Faden & Faden 77/714 (EA).

Aneilema hockii De Wild. subsp. hockii Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, woodland, and grassland, 15–160 m. Vouchers: Luke & Robertson 2565, Faden & Faden 74/1065 (EA).

Aneilema indehiscens Faden subsp. indehiscens Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland and thicket, ca. 15 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 74/380 & 74/1184 (EA).

Aneilema lamuense Faden Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sand dunes, 0–50 m. Voucher: Faden & Faden 74/1083 (EA).

Aneilema nyasense C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, swamp, riverine, and bushland, 50–300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ et al. 3379 & 4735 (EA).

Aneilema petersii (Hassk.) C.B. Clarke subsp. petersii Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, wooded grassland, and woodland, 0–500 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ 3470, Q Luke & SA Robertson 2495, SA Robertson & Q Luke 6320 (EA).

Aneilema succulentum Faden Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, forest, and woodland, 10–600 m. Vouchers: Faden et al. 72/39, Faden & Faden 74/1152 (EA): Endemic.

Aneilema tanaense Faden Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 10–250 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 77/582, 77/ 738 & 74/1185 (EA): Endemic.

Aneilema taylorii C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Riverine forest, 30–400 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 2410 & 1921, Faden & Faden 77/611 (EA).

Coleotrype bruechneriana Mildbr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and riverine, ca. 150–320 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & PA 8193, Brenan et al. 14587, Luke & Luke 8193 (EA).

Commelina africana subsp. zanzibarica Faden Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, riverine, and grassland, 0–250 m. Vouchers: Faden & Faden 74/1123, Greenway & Rawlins 9343 (EA).

Commelina benghalensis L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Palm forest, 0–400 m. Vouchers: Graham RM 2005, Meester-Manger Cats V de 38, Robertson SA 5221 (EA).

Commelina bracteosa Hassk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, woodland, grassland, bushland, and cultivated lands, 45–305 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0290 & 084 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1456, Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5984 (EA).

Commelina erecta L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest and riverine forest, 0–550 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V055 &0338 (EA, HIB), Robertson 7386, Faden & Faden 74/1068 (EA).

Commelina forskaolii Vahl Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, woodland, forest, cultivated lands, and riverine, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Faden & Faden 74/1249 (EA).

Commelina livingstonii C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, and bushland, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Faden & Faden 74/1189 (EA).

Commelina lukei Faden Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, bushland, grassland, and roadside, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: Verdcourt 1056 & 1851, SA Robertson 7377, Q Luke & et al. 7080 (EA).

Commelina mascarenica C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Roadside, grassland, and open bushland, ca. 230 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0230 (EA, HIB), Rayner 294 (EA).

Commelina petersii Hassk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forest, ca. 297 m. Voucher: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V075 (EA, HIB).

Commelina sp. aff. bracteosa Hassk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: R & L 6018 (EA).

Commelina sp. aff. erecta L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: K et al. TPR638 (EA).

Commelina zambesica C.B. Clarke Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, and forest, ca. 186 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0339 (EA, HIB), Magogo & Glover 70/562 (EA).

Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D. Don ex Sweet Habit: Herb. Habitat: Wooded grassland and water bodies, 5–300 m. Voucher: Faden & Faden 74/1211 (EA).

Cyanotis foecunda DC. ex Hassk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, bushland, thickets, and grassland, ca. 230 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6151, Luke Q & SA Robertson 2523 (EA).

Cyanotis lanata Benth. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and woodland, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Polhill R & Paulo S 787 (EA).

Cyanotis repens Faden & D. M. Cameron subsp. repens Habit: Herb. Habitat: Dry or moist forest, ca. 250 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6017, Luke Q 1455, Faden & Faden 74/1174, Adams 98 (EA).

Cyanotis sp. 1 Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest. Voucher: Rawlins 455 (EA).

Murdannia blumei (Hassk.) Brenan Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swamps, ± 10 m. Vouchers: Greenway PJ & Rawlins 9374, Luke Q 5684 (EA).

Murdannia simplex (Vahl) Brenan Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, and woodland, forest, ca. 239 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005993 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 366 (EA).

F64. Connaraceae

4 Genera, 6 Species

Agelaea pentagyna (Lam.) Baill. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Riverine forest, coastal forest, and woodland, 0–150 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 902 (EA).

Connarus longistipitatus Gilg Habit: Liana. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 300 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2728, Graham Q 290 in FD 1695 (EA).

Ellipanthus madagascariensis (G. Schellenb.) Capuron ex Keraudren Habit: Tree. Habitat: Forest, 0–100 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005929 & 005513 (EA, HIB), Faden RB & Faden AJ 77/570, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 216 (EA): Near Threatened.

Rourea coccinea subsp. boiviniana (Baill.) Jongkind Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Coastal forest, bushland, riverine, and woodland, 0–750 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0492 (EA, HIB), Kuchar P 13484, Luke WRQ 3128 (EA).

Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston Habit: Liana. Habitat: Woodland, riverine, and forest, ca. 250 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2722, Drummond & Hemsley 4034A (EA).

Rourea orientalis Baill. Habit: Shrub. Habitat: Forest, woodland, and bushland, ca. 156 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–005478, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0432 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 1506, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 514 (EA).

F65. Convolvulaceae

14 Genera, 44 Species

Astripomoea hyoscyamoides (Vatke) Verdc. var. hyoscyamoides Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, roadside, and cultivated area, ca. 50–100 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6197, Jeffrey 8, Fukuoka N 276 (EA).

Astripomoea malvacea (Klotzsch) A. Meeuse var. malvacea Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland and grassland, 60 m. Voucher: Kassner 437 (EA).

Convolvulus jefferyi Verdc. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, forest, and sand dunes, 0–150 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 5447, Jeffery 321, Irwin 271 (EA).

Cressa cretica L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal dunes or sandy places, ± 0 m. Vouchers: Luke Q 5474, Rawlins 182 & 391 (EA).

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, roadside, and cultivated area, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 817, Battiscombe 774 (EA).

Hewittia malabarica (L.) Suresh Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, bushland, forest edges, and waste places, ca. 0–200 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006205, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0286 & 0396 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 73 (EA).

Ipomoea albivenia (Lindl.) Sweet Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal bushland, 50–200 m. Voucher: Wakefield (EA).

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Greenway & Rawlins 9450 (EA).

Ipomoea barteri A. Chev. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland and woodland, 0–200 m. Voucher: Whyte (EA).

Ipomoea bullata Oliv. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 280 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2212 (EA).

Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet Habit: Climber. Habitat: Seashores, forest clearings, and grassland, ca. 15 m. Voucher: Simpson BL 118 (EA).

Ipomoea coptica (L.) Roth ex Roem. & Schult. var. coptica Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, woodland, roadside, and cultivated area, ca. 190 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4239, Rawlins 826 (EA).

Ipomoea coptica var. acuta Choisy. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Cultivated area, 0–10 m. Voucher: Festo L & Luke Q 2583 (EA).

Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland and cultivated ground, ca. 0–150 m. Vouchers: Festo L & Luke Q 2468, Magogo FC & Glover PE 1059 (EA).

Ipomoea ficifolia Lindl. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and cultivated ground, 20–390 m. Vouchers: Herbarium Techn. Course II 054, Irwin 277, Festo L & Luke Q 2527 (EA).

Ipomoea garckeana Vatke Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and cultivated ground, 30–350 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4083, Jeffery 544 (EA, HIB).

Ipomoea hildebrandtii Vatke subsp. orientalis Verdc. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland or bushland, ca. 304 m. Vouchers: Bally PRO 16798, Irwin 156 (EA).

Ipomoea irwiniae Verdc. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and grassland, 0–500 m. Vouchers: Irwin PH 276, Luke WRQ & PA 5688, Jeffery 49 (EA).

Ipomoea kotschyana Hochst. ex Choisy Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, ± 0 m. Vouchers: Tweedie 1057 & 1874, Irwin 273 (EA).

Ipomoea marginata (Desr.) Verdc. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Swampy, wooded grassland, and woodland, ca. 100 m. Vouchers: Magogo FC & Glover PE 999, Festo L & Luke Q 2360 (EA).

Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Rainforest, riverine, and bushland, ca. 65 m. Vouchers: Irwin 440, Mwadime N & Chesire 236 (EA).

Ipomoea mombassana Vatke subsp. mombassana Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and woodland, ca. 0–304 m. Vouchers: Kuchar P 11819, Irwin PH 164 & 280 (EA).

Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker-Gawl. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, and woodland, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Gray M & Luke WRQ 292, Festo 2647 9 (EA).

Ipomoea ochracea (Lindl.) G. Don Habit: Herb. Habitat: Forest, ca. 60–365 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 4079, Polhill R & Paulo S 917 (EA).

Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Sandy shores, and roadside, 0–750 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006251 (EA, HIB), Verdcourt 1175, Kirika P, Muthoka P & Mbale M 761 (EA).

Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland and thickets, 0–183 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0193 (EA, HIB), Luke Q 5632 (EA).

Ipomoea pileata Roxb. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rainforest, bushland, and grassland, ca. 75 m. Vouchers: Graham 1963, Jeffery 270 (EA).

Ipomoea shupangensis Baker Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, bushland, and coral, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: Mwadime N 43, Pakia M et al. 986, Luke WRQ 10704 (EA).

Ipomoea ticcopa Verdc. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 0–25 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006245 (EA, HIB), Tweedie 982 (EA).

Ipomoea urbaniana (Dammer) Hallier f. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest, grassland, ca. 10 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA 4208, Irwin 394, Luke 3078 (EA).

Ipomoea wightii var. kilimandschari (Dammer) Verdc. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Open forest and scrub, ca. 50 m. Voucher: Graham RM 509 (EA).

Ipomoea violacea L. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland or coral, ± 0 m. Vouchers: Jeffery 381, Bally 1894, Irwin 260 (EA).

Jacquemontia ovalifolia (Choisy) Hallier f. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Sandy beaches, 10–750 m. Vouchers: Kirika P, Muthoka P & Mbale M 756, Festo 2447, Hooper & Townsend 1194 (EA).

Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm. f.) Hallier f. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, 0–360 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0231 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 1048 (EA).

Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland and cultivated place, ca. 272 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0272 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 861 (EA).

Merremia ampelophylla Hallier f. var. ampelophylla Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland or roadside, ca. 20 m. Vouchers: C van Someren in EAH 10560, Festo 2645 (EA).

Merremia semisagitta (Peter) Dandy Habit: Herb. Habitat: Not known, ca. 20m. Voucher: Gregory (EA).

Merremia sp. C of FTEA Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland, ca. 90 m. Voucher: Rawlins 864 (EA): Endemic.

Metaporana densiflora (Hallier f.) N. E. Br. Habit: Liana. Habitat: Forest edge, 50–250 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0562 (EA, HIB), Mwadime N 24, Drummond & Hemsley 4245 (EA).

Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso Habit: Herb. Habitat: Swampy, ca. 100 m. Voucher: Rawlins 188 (EA).

Seddera hirsuta Hallier f. var. hirsuta Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 90–460 m. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 4069 (EA).

Seddera suffruticosa (Schinz) Hallier f. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Grassland, 0–250 m. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 3768 (EA).

Stictocardia incompta (Hallier f.) Hallier f. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Mangrove forest, bushland, 0–800 m. Voucher: Luke WRQ 1322 (EA).

Stictocardia macalusoi (Mattei) Verdc. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Sand dunes and sea shore, ± 0 m. Voucher: Luke Q 5482 (EA).

Xenostegia tridentata (L.) D. F. Austin & Staples Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, wooded and grassland, 30–213 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0330 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 151, Robertson SA 4225 (EA).

F66. Costaceae

1 Genus, 1 Species

Costus afer Ker Gawl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Moist forests at forest edges, 160–210 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0375 (EA, HIB), Magogo FC & Glover PE 563, Drummond RB & Hemsley JH 1200 (EA).

F67. Crassulaceae

1 Genus, 7 Species

Kalanchoe ballyi Raym.-Hamet ex Cufod. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Coastal woodland, ca. 85 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0414 (EA, HIB), Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 5139 (EA): Endemic.

Kalanchoe fadeniorum Raadts Habit: Herb. Habitat: Semi-evergreen thicket on sandy soils, ca. 360 m. Voucher: RB & AJ Faden 77/777 (EA): Extinct in the wild, Endemic.

Kalanchoe glaucescens Britten Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, grassland, and forest, ca. 550 m. Voucher: Reitsma J 508 (EA).

Kalanchoe nyikae Engl. subsp. nyikae Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, ca. 304 m. Vouchers: Jeffery GW 248, Luke WRQ & Robertson SA 2223 (EA).

Kalanchoe lateritia Engl. var. lateritia Habit: Herb. Habitat: Woodland and lowland forest, 1–200 m. Vouchers: Robertson SA & Luke WRQ 6488, 6002 & 4925, Drummond & Hemsley 3790 (EA).

Kalanchoe obtusa Engl. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Evergreen to semi-deciduous forest, 1–450 m. Voucher: Robertson SA 5442 (EA).

Kalanchoe rotundifolia (Haw.) Haw. Habit: Herb. Habitat: Bushland, 500–700 m. Voucher: Rauh W 860 (EA).

F68. Cucurbitaceae

18 Genera, 48 Species

Cephalopentandra ecirrhosa (Cogn.) C. Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous woodland and bushland, ca. 45 m. Voucher: Bally PRO 2057 (EA).

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland and bushland ca. 50 m. Vouchers: Jeffery GW 135, Drummond & Hemsley 44 (EA): Cultivated.

Coccinia grandiflora Cogn. ex Engl. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland and upland rainforest, 100–269 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V003 (EA, HIB), Kimeu JM 522, Drummond & Hemsley 3874 (EA).

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and woodland, 0–199 m. Vouchers: SAJIT–006116 & 006222, Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0427 (EA, HIB), Festo L, Luke Q & P 2800, Drummond & Hemsley 3901 (EA).

Coccinia microphylla Gilg Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, ca. 180 m. Vouchers: Milne-Redhead E & Taylor P 7104, Drummond & Hemsley 4087 & 4040 (EA).

Coccinia pwaniensis Holstein Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, 80–300 m. Vouchers: Drummond & Hemsley 1078 & 3953, Saunders, FC Magogo & P Glover 493 (EA).

Coccinia trilobata (Cogn.) C. Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: Wooded grassland and deciduous bushland, ca. 30 m. Voucher: Simpson BL 383 (EA).

Corallocarpus ellipticus Chiov. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland on coral sand near sea level. Vouchers: Robertson SA 3809, Bogdan 4723, Lucas, Jeffrey & Kirrika 266 (EA).

Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottler) C. B. Clarke Habit: Climber. Habitat: Wooded grassland and deciduous bushland, ca. 550 m. Voucher: Williams JG 12588 (EA).

Ctenolepis cerasiformis (Stocks) Hook. f. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and thicket, ca. 5 m. Vouchers: Kimeu JM 657, Rawlins 843, Mwadime N 438 (EA).

Cucumis aculeatus Cogn. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Forest edge, ca. 142 m. Voucher: SAJIT–005999 (EA, HIB).

Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland and woodland, ca. 425 m. Voucher: Fukuoka N 250 (EA).

Cucumis engleri (Gilg) Ghebret. & Thulin Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland, wooded grassland, and grassland, ca. 330 m. Voucher: Drummond & Hemsley 4220 (EA).

Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Deciduous bushland and grassland, 0–300 m. Voucher: Jeffery GW 696 (EA).

Cucumis maderaspatanus L. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Seasonal swamps, flood plain, and valley grassland, ca. 30 m. Vouchers: Cunningham-van Someren GR 280, Nyange M 406 (EA).

Cucumis prophetarum subsp. dissectus (Naudin) C. Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: Grassland, ca. 60 m. Vouchers: Luke WRQ & PA 4574B, Drummond & Hemsley 3994 & 4206 (EA).

Cucumis sacleuxii Paill. & Bois Habit: Climber. Habitat: Rain and swamp or other ground water forest, ca. 210 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0371 (EA, HIB), Rawlins SP 56, Luke WRQ & PA 5687 (EA).

Cucumis sp. (Oreosyce sp. A of FTEA) Habit: Climber. Habitat: Bushland. Vouchers: Rawlins, Gillespie 242 (EA): Endemic.

Cyclantheropsis parviflora (Cogn.) Harms Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland evergreen forest, deciduous woodland, and bushland, ca. 70 m. Voucher: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0443 (EA, HIB).

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: Swamps, ground water forest, and seasonal swamp grasslands, ca. 0– 50 m. Vouchers: Sangai GW 15723, Polhill & Paulo 720 (EA).

Diplocyclos tenuis (Klotzsch) C. Jeffrey Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal bushland, 0–90 m. Voucher: Robertson SA 3423 (EA).

Eureiandra orientalis Q. Luke, ined. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Coastal forest and bushland, 0–100 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V0409 & V0332 (EA, HIB), Gray M & Luke WRQ 282 (EA).

Gerrardanthus grandiflorus Gilg ex Cogn. Habit: Climber. Habitat: Lowland rainforest, ca. 80 m. Vouchers: Ngumbau V & Mwadime N V072 (