Mountains of the Mist: A first plant checklist for the Bvumba Mountains, Manica Highlands (Zimbabwe-Mozambique)
expand article infoJonathan Timberlake, Petra Ballings§|, João de Deus Vidal Jr., Bart Wursten|, Mark Hyde|, Anthony Mapaura#, Susan Childes¤, Meg Coates Palgrave|, Vincent Ralph Clark
‡ Biodiversity Foundation for Africa, East Dean, United Kingdom
§ Meise Botanic Garden, Meise, Belgium
| Flora of Zimbabwe & Flora of Mozambique, Harare, Zimbabwe
¶ University of the Free State, Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa
# National Herbarium of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
¤ Unaffiliated, Harare, Zimbabwe
Open Access


The first comprehensive plant checklist for the Bvumba massif, situated in the Manica Highlands along the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border, is presented. Although covering only 276 km2, the flora is rich with 1250 taxa (1127 native taxa and 123 naturalised introductions). There is a high proportion of Orchidaceae and Pteridophyta, with both groups showing a higher richness than for adjacent montane areas, which may be due to the massif’s relatively high moisture levels as a result of frequent cloud cover. However, in contrast to other mesic montane regions in southern Africa, there are relatively few near-endemic or range-restricted taxa: there is only one local endemic, Aeranthes africana, an epiphytic forest orchid. This is likely to be an effect of the massif having limited natural grassland compared to forest, the former being the most endemic-rich habitat in southern African mountains outside of the Fynbos Biome. Six other near-endemic taxa with limited distribution in this portion of the Manica Highlands are highlighted. The high number of invasive species is probably a result of diverse human activities in the area. The main species of concern are Acacia melanoxylon, a tree that is invading grassland and previously cultivated land, the forest herb Hedychium gardnerianum which in places is transforming forest understorey with an adverse effect on some forest birds, and the woody herb Vernonanthura polyanthes which invades cleared forest areas after fire. Future botanical work in the massif should focus on a more detailed exploration of the poorly known Serra Vumba on the Mozambican side and on the drier western slopes. This will allow for a more detailed analysis of patterns of endemism across the Manica Highlands.


endemics, floristics, invasive species, Manica Highlands, montane, plant diversity


Southern African mountains continue to fascinate biologists, ecologists and conservationists with their high endemism, high species diversity, and as a haven for taxonomically complex and cryptic evolutionary lineages (White 1978; Taylor et al. 2013; Uys and Cron 2013; Conradie 2014; Mynhardt et al. 2015; Padayachee and Procheş 2016; Phiri and Daniels 2016; Conradie et al. 2018; Branch et al. 2019). From a floristic perspective, there has been a steady output of comprehensive data from the region over the past 25 years, for example the Nyika Plateau (Burrows and Willis 2005) and Mount Mulanje (Strugnell 2006) in Malawi; Mounts Gorongosa, Mabu and Namuli (Müller et al. 2008; Timberlake et al. 2009; Bayliss et al. 2014; Timberlake, in prep.) in Mozambique; Chirinda Forest (Drummond and Mapaure 1994) in Zimbabwe; the Angolan Highlands (Goyder and Gonçalves 2019); the heterogeneous southern African Great Escarpment (Clark et al. 2011, 2014; Roth et al. 2014; Darbyshire et al. 2018; Carbutt 2019). This has greatly improved our regional understanding of montane floristics, patterns of endemism, biogeography and conservation needs. In addition, an account of all the endemic and near-endemic plants from Mozambique has recently been published (Darbyshire et al. 2019b), some of which occur in these border areas. Despite these advances, ongoing biodiversity research in southern African mountains remains a key regional need (Clark et al. 2011, 2019; CEPF 2012), and there remains a substantial lag in the production of fundamental biodiversity and taxonomic data compared to other mountains in Africa.

The Manica Highlands (Clark et al. 2017), which lie on the border between Zimbabwe and Mozambique and are mostly synonymous with Van Wyk and Smith’s (2001) Chimanimani-Nyanga Centre of Floristic Endemism, comprise an area that has been well-botanised over the last 100 years, yet with few publications. Over the past decade, attention has been focused on improving our knowledge of plant diversity and endemism for this ecologically complex 8,000 km2 mountain system. For instance, the first comprehensive floristic treatment of the Nyanga massif was published only recently (Clark et al. 2017), as was the first substantial revision in 50 years of the Chimanimani flora (Wursten et al. 2017).

The central parts of the Manica Highlands (from north to south: Stapleford, Penhalonga, Bvumba, Banti, Himalaya, Tsetserra) are now the outstanding areas that require synthesis of available data and further fieldwork, with the Bvumba being probably the most thoroughly botanised component of the Manica Highlands. Here we present the first comprehensive plant checklist for the Bvumba massif, with some notes on the massif and its flora.

The Bvumba area

Defining the study area

Clark et al. (2017) defined the Bvumba as the entire central component of the Manica Highlands, which includes the Bvumba as well as the Penhalonga and Stapleford uplands that occur immediately to the north, i.e. between the Bvumba and Nyanga. However, due to lack of adequate floristic data for Penhalonga and Stapleford, we here restrict ourselves to the Bvumba massif sensu stricto and not to the broader Bvumba area as shown in Clark et al. (2017). The checklist area is defined as that part lying primarily above 1200 m altitude with significant vegetation cover, an extent of around 276 km2, and differs slightly from the more rigid use of the 1200 m contour used by Childes and Mundy (2001).

Location and topography

Centred on 19°06'S, 32°47'E, the Bvumba lies 20 km south-east of the border city of Mutare and straddles the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border (Figure 1). The largest extension lies within Mutare District in eastern Zimbabwe, but a significant area of around 30 km2 lies over the border in Manica District in Mozambique’s Manica Province. This north-eastern extension terminates at the peak of Serra Vumba (1646 m) at 18°58'35"S, 32°53'25"E, just 5 km south of Manica town (previously Vila da Manica) on the main Mutare‒Beira highway. The area as a whole is bounded in the north by the Muneni valley (in which the Forbes/Machipanda border post is situated) and in the south by the Burma valley (Nyamataka River), which separates it from the Banti-Himalaya-Tsetserra massif. The Mozambique midlands/lowlands and Chicamba Real dam form the eastern limits, while the Odzi River valley forms the western boundary. Outlying ridges and inselbergs to the west − including Cecil Kop – have been excluded. The lower elevational cut-off of approximately 1000–1200 m used here roughly follows the base of the Bvumba massif where it emerges from the surrounding plains.

Consisting of an upland massif, the highest points in the study area are Castle Beacon (1911 m) and Chinyakwaremba (1714 m), while the main rivers are the Nyamataka in the south, which drains into the Rio Vanduzi via the Chicamba Real dam and then on into the Rio Búzi, the Zonwe River in the centre and the Ndonwe River in the north, both also draining into the Vanduzi. To the west the main river is the Nyachowa, which drains into the Odzi and eventually into the Save River.

Figure 1. 

Map of the geographic location and selected elevations of the Bvumba massif and vicinities, with main points of interest.


The principal rocks underlying the Bvumba area are gneissic granites of Proterozoic age, perhaps 2560 million years old, interlaced with intrusions of finer-grained darker dolerite rock perhaps 1800 million years old (Bartholomew 1990; Martin 2000). Millions of years of erosion have left the granite domes exposed, standing above the surrounding younger landscape. Some peri-glacial features date from the Pleistocene period (25,000 years BP). No minerals of economic significance are noted, although gold has been mined for hundreds of years from areas just north of Mutare. The soils are often deep and well-weathered, but are not considered particularly fertile owing to their age and weathering.


Surprisingly, there does not appear to be a long-term rainfall recording station in the Bvumba area (Agritex 1989), the nearest being at Mutare, which is significantly lower in elevation and with a lower annual rainfall. On isohyet maps, rainfall is indicated as being around 1800 mm/year (Agritex 1989). The warm rainy or growing season extends from November to mid-March, with a colder dry season from June through to August. Frosts are scarce. A major feature, and one which gives the mountains their name of Mountains of the Mist, are the frequent mists and low moist cloud during the dry season, sometimes called guti (Martin 2000). It is these mists that reduce the physiological stress of the dry season for many plant species and allow forest to thrive.

History and land use

The area has been settled, on the Mozambique side in particular, for perhaps 1000 years, with the first written record of people living there dating from Portuguese explorers in the first half of the 17th century (Bannerman 2010; Martin 2000). It was possibly more heavily settled in the past than it is now, as seen from the many grinding stones found inside the forests. When European occupation first started, much of the area was settled by people of the Chirara dynasty (Martin 2000), particularly on the Mozambique side and along the Nzombe valley. The first European settlement on the Zimbabwe side started around 1890, and the first formal concession was granted by the British South African Company for the farm Cloudlands in 1898, now a private nature reserve. A road was cut in 1917 to the Bunga Forest from Mutare (then Umtali), and by 1921 the road continued over and into the Burma Valley (Martin 2000).

Within Zimbabwe, the Bvumba area is now nearly all on privately held land, much of it in small agricultural holdings, plantations or managed for conservation or ecotourism, including the famous Leopard Rock Hotel and golf course. There is a good road network and the area is well-settled with many properties, a number of which are used as holiday homes with many owners making strong efforts to conserve both the flora and bird life. Commercial farming in the Bvumba area includes dairy, Protea flowers, coffee, and with some wattle and Eucalyptus plantations. The only formal conservation areas are the Bvumba National Park and Botanic Gardens (201 ha) and the now much-expanded Bunga Forest Botanical Reserve (1,560 ha) managed by the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority. There are no formally conserved areas on the Mozambique side, although from recent Google Earth imagery much of Serra Vumba’s vegetation cover appears to be relatively intact and it may be protected by local traditions.


There are four broad vegetation types occurring in the Bvumba area ‒ montane grassland, Afromontane evergreen forest, high-rainfall miombo woodland, and secondary scrub savanna (Martin 2000). The edges of the forests are surrounded by a dense scrub of Pteridium, Smilax, Buddleja, Vangueria and Vernonia (Childes and Mundy 2001). In addition, there are plantations of exotic timber trees and cultivated or fallow agricultural land. It is possible that montane forest originally covered much of the Bvumba, principally owing to dry season precipitation in the form of low wet clouds (guti). But there is little montane grassland, a vegetation type of great botanical significance in the Nyanga and Chimanimani areas (Timberlake et al. 2016a). It is not clear why this is so, but it might be due to the somewhat lower elevations of the Bvumba compared to Nyanga and/or the greater amount of winter precipitation that allows forest to sustain itself. The high-rainfall woodlands contain many epiphytic ferns and orchids, which also have a high frequency in montane forest. Burrows (1990) suggests that the Bvumba has perhaps the richest fern flora in southern Africa owing to the pervasive mists. Secondary scrub savanna is generally found on infertile or gravelly soils or in degraded forests or reverted agricultural land, and it is here that a number of invasive tree and shrub species are found (S. Childes, pers. obs.).

Previous studies

The Bvumba has seen much botanical activity and many collections over the last 50 years, but almost entirely from the Zimbabwe side. Two notable collectors were Norman Chase, who assembled over 8,000 specimens with meticulous notes, mostly from the Manica Highlands but with a large number from the Bvumba, and John Ball, for whom the Bvumba and Chimanimani provided the inspiration for his book on epiphytic orchids (Ball 1978). Other significant collectors include Hiram Wild, Darrel Plowes, Tom Müller and Hamish Gilliland. Three of the current authors (Mark Hyde, Petra Ballings and Bart Wursten) have collected extensively there over the last 20 years, and another (Susan Childes) runs a small forest and bird conservation area. Although no comprehensive overall checklist was available, detailed lists of the orchids and ferns of the broader area are found on the Vumba Nature website (Ballings and Wursten 2019) and a preliminary Bvumba plant list was compiled by Mark Hyde from a manuscript list by Norman Chase (Chase, no date) and Tree Society and Orchid Society records (Hyde 1999).

The Bvumba Highlands are considered to be an Important Bird Area (IBA ZW004, Childes and Mundy 2001), known for the richness of its montane avifauna. The IBA is taken to be the area above 1200 m elevation, considered to be the lower limit for montane bird species (Harwin et al. 1994). A total of 242 bird species have been recorded, including three of global conservation concern.

The only detailed plant ecological work done so far specifically in the Bvumba area is that by Plowes (2002), who looked at the impacts of the devastating Cyclone Eline on the 40-ha Bunga Forest in February 2000. He noted nearly 200 fallen trees that had created 46 patches totalling 1.57 ha, equivalent to a loss of 13% of forest cover. Gilliland (1938), in his study of the vegetation of Zimbabwe’s Manicaland, surprisingly does not mention areas this far south.

During his major study on Eastern Zimbabwe’s moist forests (Müller 1999, 2006), Tom Müller recorded 37 georeferenced 50 × 50 m forest plots in the Bvumba area. These fell into seven of his 12 described forest types, with most being Type 5 (Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum montane forest, 10 plots), Type 7 (Mixed sub-montane forest, 8 plots) and Type 11 (Medium elevation forest, 8 plots). In addition, there were a few plots each of Type 6 (Regenerating montane forest), Type 8 (Craibia brevicaudata forest), Type 9 (Albizia-dominated regenerating forest) and Type 10 (Albizia schimperiana forest). Hence most of the Bvumba forest plots recorded fell into what Muller calls sub-montane forest, with only a few from the montane or medium elevation forest zones. An interesting finding is that of the 37 plots marked on aerial photographs from the early 1970s, only three have been obviously lost or damaged from what can be seen of their canopy cover using recent Google Earth imagery (most dating from June 2019).

Although not formally documented, it does appear that disturbance over the last 100 years has led to a drying out of some of the forests and an invasion of alien plants (T. Müller, pers. comm. 2017). The impression (S. Childes, pers. obs.) is that the fern flora is moving towards the more generalist species and that some drought-sensitive species of angiosperms such as Streptocarpus umtaliensis and Cryptostephanus vansonii are reducing.

Materials and methods

As the Bvumba is well-documented botanically, with approximately a century of botanical collecting, a checklist approach to documenting plant diversity and endemism was decided upon in order to be comparable to floristic lists recently compiled for Nyanga massif (Clark et al. 2017) and the Chimanimani mountains (Wursten et al. 2017). The two main sources were (i) an extract of the Harare Herbarium (SRGH) database of all records containing the word ‘Vumba’ in the locality field, with any records obviously from below 1200 m elevation removed, and (ii) records from the Bvumba area above 1200 m elevation cited on the Flora of Zimbabwe website (, Hyde et al. 2020). In addition to these there were (iii) records from published volumes of Flora Zambesiaca, (iv) orchid and pteridophyte records listed on the Nature Vumba website (Ballings and Wursten 2019), (v) confirmed records from an unpublished Bvumba checklist (Hyde 1999) including those cited as being from Chase’s list (Chase, no date), (vi) any additional records from forest plot studies undertaken by Müller in the 1970s (Müller 2006), and finally (vii) personal records from the authors. A herbarium specimen or record citation (i.e. from the Flora of Zimbabwe website) is given for each taxon, or a confirmed sighting (s.r.) indicated. If there was any uncertainty over an occurrence, the record was omitted.

Families and species are listed alphabetically under pteridophytes, gymnosperms, monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Nomenclature and family arrangement follow those used on the Flora of Zimbabwe website (Hyde et al. 2020, accessed 1 February 2020). Pteridophyte families follow that used in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (2016). Species authorities are abbreviated following Brummitt and Powell (1992). Synonyms are given only for significant recent changes or for taxa that have been known or recorded locally under a different name (e.g. in Mapaura and Timberlake 2004) or where confusion may occur. Where a taxon is believed to be endemic or near-endemic, this is indicated with an E or NE, respectively. Species that are said to be naturalised or introduced on the Flora of Zimbabwe website are indicated with an asterisk (*).

Results and discussion

The checklist contains 1250 taxa, comprising 137 pteridophytes, 2 gymnosperms and 1111 flowering plants (Table 1). Of these, 1127 are native species and 123 (9.8%) are naturalised or semi-naturalised introductions, most, unsurprisingly, being cosmopolitan weeds in the Asteraceae (25 species), Poaceae (8 species) and Amaranthaceae (7 species). The largest families represented in the checklist are shown in Table 2.

In terms of species, there are three findings of particular note. First, there is a particularly high number of orchids (125 taxa across 276 km2), higher than might have been expected and significantly more than the number found in the more extensive Nyanga area above 1200 m elevation (92 taxa across 2181 km2; Clark et al. 2017) and in the Chimanimani mountains (97 taxa across 530 km2; Wursten et al. 2017). There are also a large number − 137 taxa − of pteridophytes (particularly ferns), compared to 136 taxa in the Nyanga area and just 105 in the Chimanimani. This is probably due to the greater moisture levels and frequent clouds in the Bvumba; the area is said to be possibly the richest locality for pteridophytes in southern Africa (Burrows 1990).

The third point of interest, again possibly linked to the high precipitation levels, is the lack of the montane conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora on the Bvumba, a species that is locally common both in the Nyanga and Chimanimani areas as well as on Mt Mulanje in southern Malawi (where it also occurs with W. whytei) and Mt Gorongosa in Mozambique (Müller et al. 2008). Widdringtonia is generally found on the drier rain-shadow side of these large mountains.

Total number of taxa and introduced taxa in the Bvumba checklist, by group.

No. taxa No. introduced
Pteridophytes 137 1
Gymnosperms 2 1
Monocotyledons 336 15
Dicotyledons 775 106
TOTAL 1250 123

The 10 largest families represented on the Bvumba checklist.

Family No. taxa
Orchidaceae 125
Asteraceae 119
Fabaceae sensu lato 93
Poaceae 93
Rubiaceae 59
Acanthaceae 33
Lamiaceae 29
Cyperaceae 28
Aspleniacaeae (Pteridophyta) 27
Apocynaceae 22

Endemics and taxa of restricted distribution

There is only one taxon known to be endemic to the Bvumba, the epiphytic orchid Aeranthes africana. Noted just twice, it is apparently now not found in its first-recorded location in the forests near Castle Beacon (S. Childes, pers. comm.). This species was recently assessed using IUCN Red List criteria (IUCN 2001) as Critically Endangered (Timberlake 2020, in press) and could be almost extinct, but it is cryptic among the leaves of Podocarpus milanjianus and difficult to see except on fallen branches so may have been overlooked.

Six other near-endemic taxa – here defined as taxa found only on nearby montane massifs such as Nyanga, Serra Choa, Stapleford, Banti/Himalaya and Tsetserra, but not including those also found on the Chimanimani or further afield (including Chirinda and Mt Gorongosa) – are found in the Bvumba area (Table 3). Two of them – Aloe cameronii var. bondana and Aloe inyangensis var. kimberleyana − are varieties of more widespread species and thus of lesser taxonomic significance; both have recently been assessed as Least Concern using IUCN criteria (Timberlake, in press). Of the remaining four taxa, Barleria fissimuroides is restricted to just the Bvumba area and a farm just over the border in Mozambique north of Mutare, but three are more widespread, being found from Serra Choa in Mozambique or over the border in Nyanga south to the Himalaya/Tsetserra area or, in the case of Anthospermum zimbabwense, to Mt Pene in Chimanimani District. Only one of the near-endemic taxa is threatened, B. fissimuroides (Endangered, Darbyshire et al. 2019a). Also of note is the orchid Angraecum stella-africae, believed to be extinct in Zimbabwe (Mapaura and Timberlake 2002), but a small colony has been found on the Bvumba in recent years (Wursten 2007). This species has also been found in Malawi (Viphya, Mt Mulanje) and northern South Africa (Wolkberg Mountains) but is nowhere common.

It is surprising that the Bvumba massif has so few endemic or near-endemic taxa, especially when compared to the Chimanimani Mountains (71 endemic taxa, Wursten et al. 2017) or the Nyanga area (19 endemic taxa, revised from Clark et al. 2017). This is obviously not due to under-collection, but possibly the result of the relatively small size of the Bvumba and the preponderance of forest vegetation compared to montane grassland and scrub habitats. Most Nyanga and Chimanimani endemics, for example, are found in montane grassland or montane scrub (Clark et al. 2017; Wursten et al. 2017), habitats poorly represented in the Bvumba and which are also substantially disturbed there.

Taxa of restricted distribution found in the Bvumba area.

Family/species Distribution IUCN Red List assessment
Aloe cameronii Hemsl. var. bondana Reynolds Troutbeck, Juliasdale, Bvumba LC
Aloe inyangensis Christian var. kimberleyana S.Carter Nyanga NP, Juliasdale, Stapleford, Bvumba LC
Aeranthes africana J.L.Stewart Bvumba [endemic] CR D
Barleria fissimuroides I.Darbysh. Bvumba, Quinta da Frontiera EN B2ab
Streptocarpus umtaliensis B.L.Burtt Serra Choa, Nyanga, Stapleford, Bvumba, Tsetserra LC
Englerina oedostemon (Danser) Polhill & Wiens Serra Choa, Nyanga, Stapleford, Mutare, Bvumba, Tsetserra
Anthospermum zimbabwense Puff Nyanga, Stapleford, Bvumba, Himalaya, Mt Pene NT B1ab+2ab

Introduced and invasive species

There are 123 introduced species present in the Bvumba, a result of the diverse human activities there. Although most of these non-native species are benign, a handful are causing major problems. In contrast to other parts of the Manica Highlands, the Bvumba has a high proportion of introduced species that are garden escapes while the rest of the Manica Highlands is affected more by those from commercial forestry.

Invasive woody invasive species on the Bvumba are typically those also found in other parts of the Manica Highlands, and include the Australian Acacia mearnsii (wattle) and A. melanoxylon (Australian Blackwood) and Pinus patula. Australian Blackwood is a particular problem, taking over tracts of open grassland and areas previously under Protea cultivation (S. Childes, pers. obs.). Other woody but non-commercial species that have naturalised and have invasive potential (based on evidence elsewhere in the region) are Bauhinia variegata var. variegata, Cinnamomum camphora, C. verum, Homalanthus populifolius, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Psidium cattleianum, P. guajava, Sambucus canadensis and Syzygium jambos. Classic invasive shrubs are Lantana camara and Solanum mauritianum, for which there are no easy management solutions, while Cestrum aurantiacum is clearly a local problem. A more recent challenge is Vernonanthura polyanthes – locally called ‘Beebush’ – which has become rampant since it spread into the Bvumba and Chimanimani areas after its introduction from Brazil to Mozambique (Timberlake et al. 2016b). It spreads rapidly into disturbed and burnt areas that were under wattle, blackwood or eucalyptus (S. Childes. pers. obs.). Clark et al. (2019) postulate that Cyclone Idai (March 2019) might have encouraged the spread of this wind-dispersed species even further afield, although it had earlier also been encountered on the Ribáuè mountains in northern Mozambique (I. Darbyshire, pers. comm. 2017). Indigenous montane forests are being invaded by the garden escapees Tradescantia fluminensis and T. zebrina, while perhaps the worst forest invader is Hedychium gardnerianum – a species that can transform the forest understory and has adverse effects on ground-foraging birds such as Orange Thrush (Geokichla gurneyi), Buff-spotted Flufftail (Sarothrura elegans) and Cinnamon Dove (Columba larvata) that need an open understory with leaf litter (S. Childes, pers. obs.).

Limitations and future work

Despite the detailed collections, this list is a compilation. As a result, some taxa may have been accidentally omitted whereas others that are found only below 1200 m elevation may have inadvertently been included. In particular, it should be recognised that there are virtually no records from Serra Vumba on the Mozambique side, an area that needs a more detailed collection. Similarly, the drier western slopes of the Bvumba in Zimbabwe have also been undercollected (J. Burrows, pers. comm.). However, with these provisos we estimate that the list is over 90% complete, suggesting a total indigenous flora of around 1250 taxa, of which approximately 1100 would be native flowering plants.

The remaining data gaps for the botanical inventory of the Manica Highlands are centred on the areas immediately to the north and south of the Bvumba, namely Penhalonga-Stapleford and Banti-Himalaya-Tsetserra, respectively. However, some recent survey work has been conducted on Tsetserra and a list of the endemic and range-restricted species has been compiled for that area (J. Osborne, pers. comm.). In contrast to Nyanga, Chimanimani and Bvumba, which had comprehensive available data with which to work, both areas require detailed botanical collecting before reliable lists can be compiled.


Peter Linder and Nigel Barker are especially thanked for encouragement and support in the establishment of this initiative. Rhodes University, the University of Pretoria, the University of Zürich and the Afromontane Research Unit at the University of the Free State are thanked for logistical support. We are grateful to two reviewers, Iain Darbyshire and John Burrows, for useful comments on a draft.


  • Agritex (1989) Agro-Climatological Summaries and Analysis (rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) Volume II, Rainfall. Department of Agricultural Technical and Extension Services/Department of Meteorological Services, Harare.
  • Ball JS (1978) Southern African Epiphytic Orchids. Conservation Press, Johannesburg, 248 pp.
  • Bannerman JH (2010) The human population: history, culture, land use and traditional structures. In: Ghiurghi A, Dondeyne S, Bannerman JH (Eds) Chimanimani National Reserve: Management Plan. Appendix 1, volume 3. Report prepared by AgriConsulting for Ministry of Tourism, Maputo, Mozambique.
  • Bartholomew DS (1990) Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Mineral Resources Series No. 22. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Harare.
  • Bayliss J, Timberlake JR, Branch W, Bruessow C, Collins S, Congdon C, Curran M, de Sousa C, Dowsett R, Dowsett-Lemaire F, Fishpool L, Harris T, Herrmann E, Georgiadis S, Kopp M, Liggitt B, Monadjem A, Patel H, Ribeiro D, Spottiswoode C, Taylor P, Willcock S, Smith P (2014) The discovery, biodiversity and conservation of Mabu forest–The largest medium-altitude rainforest in southern Africa. Oryx 48(2): 177–185.
  • Branch WR, Vaz Pinto P, Baptista N, Conradie W (2019) The Reptiles of Angola: History, Diversity, Endemism and Hotspots. In: Huntley B, Russo V, Lages F, Ferrand N (Eds) Biodiversity of Angola. Springer, Switzerland, 283–334.
  • Brummitt RK, Powell CE (1992) Authors of Plant Names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 732 pp.
  • Burrows JE (1990) Southern African Ferns and Fern Allies. Fransden Press, Sandton, 359 pp.
  • Burrows JE, Willis CK [Eds.] (2005) Plants of the Nyika Plateau. Southern Africa Biodiversity Network Report No. 31. SABONET, Pretoria, 405 pp.
  • Carbutt C (2019) The Drakensberg Mountain Centre: A necessary revision of southern Africa’s high-elevation centre of plant endemism. South African Journal of Botany 124: 508–529.
  • Chase ND (no date) Indigenous trees and shrubs found generally in the high altitudes of the Vumba Mountains, forests and savannah. Unpublished manuscript, Mutare.
  • Childes SL, Mundy PJ (2001) Zimbabwe. In: Fishpool LDC, Evans MI (Eds) Important bird areas in Africa and associated islands. Priority sites for conservation. Pisces/BirdLife International, Newbury/Cambridge, 1025–1042.
  • Clark VR, Barker NP, Mucina L (2011) Taking the scenic route – the southern Great Escarpment as part of the Cape to Cairo floristic highway. Plant Ecology & Diversity 4(4): 313–328.
  • Clark VR, Dold AP, McMaster C, McGregor G, Bredenkamp C, Barker NP (2014) Rich Sister, Poor Cousin: Plant Diversity and Endemism in the Great Winterberg-Amatholes (Great Escarpment, Eastern Cape, South Africa). South African Journal of Botany 92: 159–174.
  • Clark VR, Timberlake JR, Hyde MA, Mapaura A, Coates Palgrave M, Wursten BT, Ballings P, Burrows JE, Linder HP, McGregor GK, Chapano C, Plowes DCH, Childes SL, Dondeyne S, Müller T, Barker NP (2017) A first comprehensive account of floristic diversity and endemism on the Nyanga Massif, Manica Highlands (Zimbabwe-Mozambique). Kirkia 19: 1–53.
  • Clark VR, Vidal Jr JD, Grundy I, Fakarayi I, Childes S, Barker NP, Linder HP (2019) Bridging the divide between intuitive social-ecological value and sustainability in the Manica Highlands of southern Africa (Zimbabwe-Mozambique). Ecosystem Services 39: 100999.
  • Conradie W (2014) The King of the Dwarves: A new cryptic species of Dainty Frog (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Zootaxa 3785(3): 438–452.
  • Conradie W, Busschau T, Edwards S (2018) Two new species of Acontias (Acontinae, Scincidae) from the Mpumalanga Highveld escarpment of South Africa. Zootaxa 4429(1): 89–106.
  • Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) (2012) Ecosystem Profile: Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund/BirdLife International, Nairobi, 267 pp.
  • Darbyshire I, Rokni S, Alves MT, Burrows JE, Chelene I, Datizua C, de Sousa C, Fijamo V, Langa C, Massingue AO, Massunde J, Matimele HA, Mucaleque PA, Osborne J, Sitoe P (2019a) Barleria fissimuroides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T120940520A120980033. [accessed 09 February 2020]
  • Darbyshire I, Timberlake J, Osborne J, Rokni S, Matimele H, Langa C, Datizua C, de Sousa C, Alves T, Massingue A, Hadj-Hammou J, Dhanda S, Shah T, Wursten W (2019b) The endemic plants of Mozambique: Diversity and conservation status. PhytoKeys 136: 45–96.
  • Drummond RB, Mapaure I (1994) List of flowering plants and ferns. In: Timberlake JR, Shaw P (Eds) Chirinda Forest–a Visitors’ Guide. Research and Development Division, Zimbabwe Forestry Commission, Harare, 135–154.
  • Gilliland HB (1938) The vegetation of Rhodesian Manicaland. Journal of South African Botany 4: 73–100.
  • Goyder D, Gonçalves FM (2019) The Flora of Angola: Collectors, Richness and Endemism: Science & Conservation: A Modern Synthesis. In: Huntley B, Russo V, Lages F, Ferrand N (Eds) Biodiversity of Angola. Springer, Switzerland, 79–96.
  • Harwin RM, Manson AJ, Manson C, Mwadziwana P (1994) The birds of the Bvumba highlands. Honeyguide 40(1): 1–51.
  • Hyde MA (1999) A draft checklist of the plants of the Bvumba (draft no. 3). Compiled for the visit of the Tree Society to the Bvumba, Aug 11th to 15th 1999. Unpublished manuscript.
  • IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature (2001) IUCN Red List categories and criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 30 pp.
  • Mapaura A, Timberlake JR (2004) A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33. SABONET, Pretoria, 149 pp.
  • Mapaura A, Timberlake JR (2002) Zimbabwe. In: Golding JS (Ed.) Southern Africa Plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 14. SABONET, Pretoria, 157−182.
  • Martin D (2000) Bvumba: Magic in the Mist. African Publishing Group, Harare, 57 pp.
  • Müller T (1999) The distribution, classification and conservation of rainforests in Zimbabwe. In: Timberlake J, Kativu S (Eds) African Plants: Biodiversity, Taxonomy and Uses. Proceedings of the 1997 AETFAT Congress, Harare, Zimbabwe, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 221–235.
  • Mynhardt S, Maree S, Pelser I, Bennett NC, Bronner GN, Wilson JW, Bloomer P (2015) Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0144995.
  • Padayachee AL, Procheş S (2016) Patterns in the diversity and endemism of extant Eocene age lineages across southern Africa. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 117(3): 482–491.
  • Phiri EE, Daniels SR (2016) Multilocus coalescent species delimitation reveals widespread cryptic differentiation among Drakensberg mountain-living freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Potamonautes). Invertebrate Systematics 30(1): 60–74.
  • Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (2016) A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54(6): 563–603.
  • Roth S, Molina J, Predel R (2014) Biodiversity, ecology, and behavior of the recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea. Frontiers in Zoology 11(1): 1–70.
  • Strugnell AM (2006) A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi. Scripta Botanica Belgica 34. National Botanic Garden, Meise, 199 pp.
  • Taylor PJ, Kearney TC, Kerbis Peterhans JC, Baxter RM, Willows-Munro S (2013) Cryptic diversity in forest shrews of the genus Myosorex from southern Africa, with the description of a new species and comments on Myosorex tenuis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 169(4): 881–902.
  • Timberlake JR (in press) Aeranthes africana, Aloe cameronii var. bondana, Aloe inyangensis var. kimberleyana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Timberlake J, Dowsett-Lemaire F, Bayliss J, Alves T, Baena S, Bento C, Cook K, Francisco J, Harris T, Smith P, de Sousa C (2009) Mt. Namuli, Mozambique: biodiversity and conservation. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 115 pp.
  • Timberlake JR, Darbyshire I, Wursten B, Hadj-Hammou J, Ballings P, Mapaura A, Matimele H, Banze A, Chipanga H, Muassinar D, Massunde M, Chelene I, Osborne J, Shah T (2016a) Chimanimani Mountains: botany and conservation. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 95 pp.
  • Timberlake JR, Darbyshire I, Cheek M, Banze A, Fijamo V, Massunde J, Chipanga H, Muassinar D (2016b) Plant conservation in communities on the Chimanimani footslopes. Report under Darwin Initiative Award 2380: Balancing Conservation and Livelihoods in the Chimanimani Forest Belt, Mozambique. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 69 pp.
  • Van Wyk AE, Smith GF (2001) Chimanimani−Nyanga Centre. Regions of floristic endemism in Southern Africa. Umdaus Press, Hatfield, 140‒145.
  • Wursten B (2007) Angraecum stella-africae P.J. Cribb: The rediscovery of this rare orchid in Zimbabwe. Excelsa 21: 37–38.
  • Wursten B, Timberlake JR, Darbyshire I (2017) The Chimanimani mountains: An updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1): 70–100.

Appendix 1

Vascular plant checklist for the Bvumba area, E Zimbabwe above 1200 m altitude. Nomenclature follows the Flora of Zimbabwe website (Hyde et al. 2020) with some minor changes. * – introduced species; E – endemic species; NE – near-endemic; FoZ # – Flora of Zimbabwe website record number; s.r. – sight record.

Name / authority Voucher
Pteris quadriaurita Retz subsp. catoptera (Kunze) Schelpe Chase 7485
Mohria lepigera (Baker) Baker Chase 3823
Mohria nudiuscula J.P.Roux Chase 7033
Mohria vestita Baker Ballings & Wursten 875
Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech. agg. Chase 7044
Asplenium anisophyllum Kunze Chase 3471
Asplenium blastophorum Hieron. Müller 3071
Asplenium boltonii Brause & Hieron. Müller 3051
Asplenium ceii Pic.Serm. Ballings & Wursten 39
Asplenium dregeanum Kunze Chase 3457
Asplenium erectum Willd. Ballings & Wursten 40
Asplenium flexuosum Schrad. Chase 3252
Asplenium formosum Willd. Burrows 2151
Asplenium friesiorum C.Chr. Chase 1018
Asplenium gemmiferum Schrad. Ballings s.r.
Asplenium hypomelas Kuhn Chase 7145
Asplenium inaequilaterale Willd. Chase 3516
Asplenium linckii Kuhn Chase 5989
Asplenium lividum Kuhn Chase 6571
Asplenium lobatum Pappe & Raws. Chase 3535
Asplenium mannii Hook. Chase 3526
Asplenium monanthes L. Chase 4663
Asplenium preussii Brause Burrows 1667
Asplenium protensum Schrad. Chase 3514
Asplenium pumilum Sw. Chase 6990
Asplenium rutifolium (P.J.Bergius) Kunze Chase 3137
Asplenium sandersonii Hook. Chase 3490
Asplenium simii A.F.Braithw.& Schelpe Chase 7253
Asplenium stuhlmannii Hieron. Chase 3495
Asplenium sulcatum Lam. Chase 6558
Asplenium theciferum (Kunth) Mett. Ballings & Wursten 19
Athyrium newtonii Baker Ballings & Wursten 860
Athyrium schimperi Feé Chase 4407
Deparia boryana (Willd.) M.Kato Ballings & Wursten 857
Diplazium nemorale (Baker) Schelpe Chase 5701
Diplazium zanzibaricum (Baker) C.Chr. Chase 6092
Blechnum attenuatum (Sw.) Mett. Chase 3421
Blechnum tabulare (Thunb.) Kuhn Chase 3356
Cyathea capensis (L.f.) Sm. Eyles 3639
Cyathea dregei Kunze Chase 6047
Cyathea manniana Hook. Chase 6696
Cyathea thomsonii Baker Chase 6219
Davallia chaerophylloides (Poir.) Steud. Chase 31810
Blotiella glabra (Bory) R.M.Tryon Chase 6275
Blotiella natalensis (Hook.) R.M.Tryon Chase 3364
Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J.Sm. Fisher 1303
Hypolepis sparsisora (Schrad.) Kuhn Chase 4585
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn subsp. capense (Thunb.) C.Chr. Wursten & Ballings 1194
Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw.) J.Sm. Fisher 1330
Arachniodes webbiana (A.Braun) Schelpe subsp. foliosa (C.Chr.) Gibby Ballings & Wursten s.r.
Ctenitis cirrhosa (Schumach.) Ching Ballings & Wursten s.r.
Dryopteris athamantica (Kunze) Kuntze Chase 1048
Dryopteris kilemensis (Kuhn) Kuntze Chase 2034
Dryopteris manniana (Hook.) C.Chr. Chase 6572
Dryopteris pentheri (Krasser) C.Chr. Ballings & Wursten 24
Megalastrum lanuginosum (Kaulf.) Holttum Ballings & Wursten 877
Nothoperanema squamiseta (Hook.) Ching Burrows 1910
Polystichum transvaalense N.C.Anthony Chase 1104
Polystichum zambesiacum Schelpe Chase 7489
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. Ballings 7
Abrodictyum rigidum (Sw.) Ebihara & Dubuisson Burrows 2383
Crepidomanes inopinatum (Pic.Serm.) J.P.Roux Ballings & Wursten 853
Crepidomanes melanotrichum (Schltdl.) J.P.Roux Chase 3302
Didymoglossum erosum (Willd.) J.P.Roux Wild 6443
Hymenophyllum capense Schrad. Burrows 2681
Hymenophyllum kuhnii C.Chr. Ballings & Wursten 1623
Polyphlebium borbonicum (Bosch.) Ebihara & Dubuisson Ballings & Wursten 60
Elaphoglossum acrostichoides (Hook.& Grev.) Schelpe Chase 6287
Elaphoglossum aubertii (Desv.) T.Moore Chase 4509
Elaphoglossum kuhnii Hieron. Chase 3413
Elaphoglossum lancifolium (Desv.) C.V.Morton Chase 3308
Elaphoglossum lastii (Baker) C.Chr. Chase 118
Elaphoglossum macropodium (Fée) T.Moore Chase 2194
Elaphoglossum spathulatum (Bory) T.Moore var. spathulatum Burrows 2376
Huperzia dacrydioides (Baker) Pic.Serm. Chase 1121
Huperzia ophioglossoides (Lam.) Rothm. Chase 1137
Huperzia verticillata (L.f.) Trevis. Chase 3140
Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm. Ballings & Wursten 20
Lycopodium clavatum L. FoZ #4033
Lygodium kerstenii Kuhn Chase 2024
Ptisana fraxinea (Sm.) Murdock var. salicifolia (Schrad.) Murdock Ballings & Wursten 31
Nephrolepis undulata (Sw.) J.Sm. Chase 3307
Oleandra distenta Kunze Chase 3389
Ophioglossum gomezianum A.Braun Burrows & Burrows 5193
Ophioglossum polyphyllum A.Braun var. polyphyllum Ballings & Wursten s.r.
Ophioglossum reticulatum L. Ballings & Wursten 131
Osmunda regalis L. Chase 7139
Belvisia spicata (L.f.) Copel. Burrows 2380
Lepisorus excavatus (Willd.) Ching Ballings & Wursten 10
Lepisorus schraderi (Mett.) Ching Ballings & Wursten 14
Loxogramme abyssinica (Baker) M.G.Price Ballings & Wursten 15
Microgramma mauritiana (Willd.) Tardieu Wild & Chase 78
Microsorum pappei (Kuhn) Tardieu Chase 7113
Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Willd.) Kaulf. Ballings & Wursten 18
Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) E.G.Andrews & Windham subsp. ecklonii (Kunze) J.P.Roux Ballings & Wursten 80
Pyrrosia rhodesiana (C.Chr.) Schelpe Chase 1038
Pyrrosia schimperiana (Kuhn) Alston var. schimperiana Wursten & Ballings 81
Actiniopteris dimorpha Pic.Serm. subsp. dimorpha Chase 7578
Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) Link Chase 5576
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Ballings & Wursten 1431
Adiantum poiretii Wikstr. Chase 4630
*Adiantum raddianum C.Presl Chase 4688
Pityrogramma argentea (Willd.) Domin Chase 3173
Pteris catoptera Kunze Ballings & Wursten 114
Pteris cretica L. Chase 3525
Pteris dentata Forssk. Fisher 1547
Pteris friesii Hieron. Ballings & Wursten 78
Pteris vittata L. Ballings & Wursten 83
Vittaria guineensis Desv. var. orientalis Hieron. Chase 6641
Vittaria isoetifolia Bory Fisher 1549
Vittaria volkensii Hieron. Ballings & Wursten 144
Selaginella dregei (C.Presl) Hieron. Chase 1126
Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A.Braun Chase 4035
Selaginella mittenii Baker Chase 5622
Cheilanthes bergiana Schltdl. Chase 4591
Cheilanthes buchananii (Baker) Domin Burrows 2324
Cheilanthes involuta (Sw.) Schelpe & N.C.Anthony var. obscura (N.C.Anthony) N.C.Anthony Chase 3469
Cheilanthes leachii (Schelpe) Schelpe Ballings & Wursten 67
Cheilanthes multifida N.C.Anthony & Schelpe Chase 3979
Cheilanthes quadripinnata (Forssk.) Kuhn Chase 4010
Cheilanthes viridis (Forssk.) Sw. var. glauca (Sim) Schelpe & N.C.Anthony Ballings & Wursten 68
Cheilanthes viridis (Forssk.) Sw. var. viridis Chase 7141a
Pellaea calomelanos (Sw.) Link var. calomelanos Ballings & Wursten 64
Pellaea calomelanos (Sw.) Link var. swynnertoniana (Sim) Schelpe Chase 4413
Pellaea doniana Hook. Chase 2028
Pellaea dura (Willd.) Hook. var. dura Chase 5591
Pellaea pectiniformis Baker Chase 4412
Arthropteris monocarpa (Cordem.) C.Chr. Chase 3506
Arthropteris orientalis (J.F.Gmel.) Posth. var. orientalis Chase 2007
Tectaria gemmifera (Feé) Alston Chase 3519
Amauropelta bergiana (Schltdl.) Holltum var. bergiana Ballings & Wursten 29
Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy Burrows 1636
Christella gueinziana (Mett.) Holttum Chase 3377
Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H.Itô Ballings & Wursten 82
Pneumatopteris unita (Kunze) Holttum Ballings & Wursten 21
Pseudocyclosorus pulcher (Willd.) Holttum Chase 6698
Thelypteris confluens (Thunb.) Morton Ballings & Wursten 23
*Pinus patula Schltdl.& Cham. FoZ #3770
Podocarpus milanjianus Rendle Chase 5477
*Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw. FoZ #40164
Boophone disticha (L.f.) Herb. FoZ #353
Crinum macowanii Baker FoZ #356
Cryptostephanus vansonii I.Verd. Bamps 711
Cyrtanthus galpinii Baker FoZ #359
*Nothoscordum borbonicum Kunth FoZ #15
Tulbaghia alliacea (L.f.) Thunb. Chase 4187
Chlorophytum andongense Baker Chase 7321
Chlorophytum bowkeri Baker FoZ #4051
Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacq. Jacobsen 3051
Chlorophytum gallabatense Baker Wild 5570
Chlorophytum galpinii (Baker) Kativu FoZ #32168
Chlorophytum macrosporum Baker Chase 1452
Zantedeschia albomaculata (Hook.) Baill. subsp. albomaculata FoZ #34616
Phoenix reclinata Jacq. FoZ #15154
Asparagus africanus Lam. Ferrar 4084
Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Wight FoZ #2885
Asparagus falcatus L. var. falcatus FoZ #2698
Asparagus laricinus Burch. FoZ #249
Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop Chase 1623
Asparagus virgatus Baker Müller 3374
Aloe arborescens Mill. FoZ #6111
Aloe cameronii Hemsl. var. bondana Reynolds NE Christian 450
Aloe excelsa A.Berger var. excelsa FoZ #3451
Aloe inyangensis Christian var. kimberleyana S.Carter NE Plowes 2021
Aloe pretoriensis Pole-Evans Chase 5603
Aloe rhodesiana Rendle FoZ #3817
Aloe swynnertonii Rendle FoZ #3458
Bulbine latifolia (L.f.) Roem.& Schult.f. FoZ #6231
Kniphofia linearifolia Baker FoZ #633
Behnia reticulata (Thunb.) Didr. Grosvenor 267
Androcymbium striatum A.Rich. FoZ #529
Gloriosa superba L. FoZ #1046
Aneilema aequinoctiale (P.Beauv.) Loudon FoZ #37419
Aneilema welwitschii C.B.Clarke Bamps 684
Commelina africana L. FoZ #33055
Commelina welwitschii C.B.Clarke FoZ #33108
Cyanotis speciosa (L.f.) Hassk. subsp. speciosa Chase 609
*Gibasis pellucida (M.Martens & Galeotti) Hunt FoZ #18940
Murdannia simplex (Vahl) Brenan Hopkins 7097
*Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. FoZ #36272
*Tradescantia zebrina Bosse FoZ #40886
Bulbostylis burchellii (Ficalho & Hiern) C.B.Clarke Jacobsen 3126
Bulbostylis hispidula (Vahl) R.W.Haines Browning 566
Bulbostylis schoenoides (Kunth) C.B.Clarke FoZ #14528
Carex spicato-paniculata C.B.Clarke Chase 7425
Coleochloa setifera (Ridl.) Gilly Bamps 606
Costularia natalensis C.B.Clarke Fisher 1643
Cyperus albostriatus Schrad. Chase 8114
Cyperus amabilis Vahl Browning 576
Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth Browning 554
Cyperus cyperoides (L.) Kuntze FoZ #15126
Cyperus denudatus L.f. var. denudatus Browning 281
Cyperus distans L.f. Jacobsen 3028
Cyperus hemisphaericus Boeck. FoZ #5797
Cyperus involucratus Rottb. Loveridge 1094
Cyperus pseudoleptocladus Kük. Jacobsen 3026
Cyperus pseudovestitus (C.B. Clarke) Kük. Chase 5561
Cyperus rigidifolius Steud. Jacobsen 3023
Cyperus tenuispica Steud. Browning 555
Cyperus zambesiensis C.B.Clarke Müller 3487
Fuirena stricta Steud. var. stricta Browning 574
Kyllinga crassipes Boeck. Jacobsen 3024
Kyllinga odorata Vahl Jacobsen 3025
Kyllinga erecta Schumach.& Thonn. Hyde s.r.
Kyllinga squamulata Vahl FoZ #6523
Lipocarpha nana (A.Rich.) Cherm. Browning 550
Mariscus albopilosus C.B.Clarke Jacobsen 3047
Mariscus hemisphaericus (Boeck.) C.B.Clarke Jacobsen 3027
Pycreus pelophilus (Ridl.) C.B.Clarke Browning 556
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax FoZ #19137
Dioscorea schimperiana Kunth Müller 3376
Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl. FoZ #19141
Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker-Gawl. Chase 1440
Dracaena mannii Baker Chase 875
Dracaena steudneri Engl. Müller plot 76
Eriocaulon inyangense Arw. Wild 5540
Eriospermum mackenii (Hook.f.) Baker subsp. mackenii Ferrar s.n.
Albuca kirkii (Baker) Brenan Ferrar 4040
Bowiea volubilis Hook.f. Chase 362
Drimia elata Jacq. FoZ #7512
Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. subsp. autumnalis (=E. zambesiaca Baker) Plowes 2240
Ledebouria unidentified FoZ #41510
Litanthus pusillus Harv. (=Drimia uniflora J.C.Manning & Goldblatt) FoZ #69141
Stellarioides tenuifolia (F.Delaroche) Speta subsp. tenuifolia (=Ornithogalum tenuifolium F.Delaroche) FoZ #863
Lagarosiphon major (Ridl.) Moss Whellan 1561
Hypoxis galpinii Baker FoZ #15385
Hypoxis nyasica Baker FoZ #53770
Hypoxis rigidula Baker Zimudzi 57
Anomatheca grandiflora Baker (=Freesia grandiflora (Baker) Klatt) FoZ #5749
Aristea abyssinica Pax FoZ #791
Aristea angolensis Baker Garley 119
Aristea ecklonii Baker Chase 63
Aristea woodii N.E.Br. Wild 2845
Crocosmia aurea (Hook.) Planch. subsp. aurea Chase 5488
Crocosmia paniculata (Klatt) Goldblatt Chase 6315
Dierama formosum Hilliard Chase 6023
Dietes iridioides (L.) Klatt Biegel 2422
Gladiolus crassifolius Baker Plowes 2020
Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel subsp. dalenii FoZ #796
Gladiolus flavoviridis Goldblatt FoZ #35667
Hesperantha petitiana (A.Rich.) Baker Chase 6036
Moraea spathulata (L.f.) Klatt FoZ #2397
Juncus oxycarpus Kunth FoZ #40749
*Lilium formosanum (Baker) Wallace FoZ #674
Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman FoZ #1060
Aerangis kotschyana (Rchb.f.) Schltr. Chase 7083
Aerangis mystacidii (Rchb.f.) Schltr. Chase 5574
Aeranthes africana J.L.Stewart E Ball 1283
Angraecopsis amaniensis Summerh. FoZ #1000
Angraecopsis parviflora (Thouars) Schltr. FoZ #34512
Angraecum chamaeanthus Schltr. FoZ #991
Angraecum conchiferum Lindl. Chase 44
Angraecum minus Summerh. Chase 5997
Angraecum sacciferum Lindl. Ferrar 3979
Angraecum stella-africae P.J.Cribb FoZ #995
Bolusiella iridifolia (Rolfe) Schltr. subsp. picea P.J.Cribb Wild 2803
Bonatea steudneri (Rchb.f.) T.Durand & Schinz Ball 443
Brachycorythis lastii Rolfe FoZ #4871
Brachycorythis ovata Lindl. subsp. welwitschii (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Chase 4213
Brachycorythis pleistophylla Rchb.f. subsp. pleistophylla Chase 5548
Brownleea maculata P.J.Cribb Chase 217
Brownleea parviflora Lindl. Chase 6013
Bulbophyllum ballii P.J.Cribb Chase 6170
Bulbophyllum elliotii Rolfe Wild 2808
Bulbophyllum fuscum Lindl. var. melinostachyum (Schltr.) J.J.Verm. Wild 2813
Bulbophyllum josephii (Kuntze) Summerh. Wild 2804
Bulbophyllum longiflorum Thouars Ball 1378
Bulbophyllum maximum (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Chase 992
Bulbophyllum sandersonii (Hook.f.) Rchb.f. subsp. sandersonii Wild 5544
Bulbophyllum scaberulum (Rolfe) Bolus FoZ #1017
Bulbophyllum unifoliatum De Wild. var. infracarinatum (G.Will.) J.J.Verm. FoZ #1019
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl. Chase 7333
Cynorkis anacamptoides Kraenzl. var. anacamptoides FoZ #34629
Cynorkis debilis (Hook.f.) Summerh. (=C. hanningtonii Rolfe) Chase 5541
Cynorkis kassneriana Kraenzl. Wild 2798
Cynorkis kirkii Rolfe FoZ #99847
Cyrtorchis arcuata (Lindl.) Schltr. subsp. arcuata Ball 1423
Cyrtorchis praetermissa Summerh. subsp. praetermissa FoZ #33087
Cyrtorchis ringens (Rchb.f.) Summerh. FoZ #2478
Diaphananthe fragrantissima (Rchb.f.) Schltr. FoZ #21698
Diaphananthe rutila (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Wild 6446
Diaphananthe stolzii Schltr. Ball 1303
Diaphananthe subsimplex Summerh. Ball 1406
Diaphananthe xanthopollinia (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Ball 1236
Disa aconitoides Sond. subsp. concinna (N.E.Br.) H.P.Linder Chase 6268
Disa fragrans Schltr. subsp. fragrans Chase 4065
Disperis anthoceros Rchb.f. Wild 2816
Disperis dicerochila Summerh. FoZ #2374
Disperis lindleyana Rchb.f. Chase 7030
Disperis virginalis Schltr. Wild 2810
Eulophia callichroma Rchb.f. Symoens et al. 669
Eulophia cucullata (Sw.) Steud. FoZ #4873
Eulophia eylesii Summerh. Chase 5562
Eulophia fridericii (Rchb.f.) A.V.Hall Ball 440
Eulophia gonychila Schltr. Chase 5572
Eulophia hians Spreng. var. hians FoZ #21961
Eulophia horsfallii (Bateman) Summerh. Ball 5256
Eulophia norlindhii Summerh. Wild s.n.
Eulophia nyasae Rendle Ball 717
Eulophia parviflora (Lindl.) A.V.Hall Chase 3075
Eulophia petersii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. Chase 51
Eulophia rolfeana Kraenzl. (=E. williamsonii P.J.Cribb) Beasley 121
Eulophia speciosa (Lindl.) Bolus Chase 4180
Eulophia streptopetala Lindl. FoZ #3623
Eulophia tenella Rchb.f. Wild 6746
Eulophia venulosa Rchb.f. Ball 586
Habenaria amoena Summerh. Ballings s.r.
Habenaria armatissima Rchb.f. Ball 442
Habenaria cornuta Lindl. Ball 522
Habenaria galpinii Bolus Ball 528
Habenaria macrostele Summerh. Chase 6050
Habenaria malacophylla Rchb.f. Chase 4403
Habenaria nyikana Rchb.f. subsp. nyikana FoZ #7002
Habenaria praestans Rendle var. praestans Chase 206
Habenaria rautaneniana Kraenzl. Chase 6348
Habenaria silvatica Schltr. Chase 6334
Habenaria subaequalis Summerh. Wild 2806
Jumellea walleri (Rolfe) la Croix Wild 3223
Liparis bowkeri Harv. Grosvenor 784
Liparis mulindana Schltr. Ball 1267
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. FoZ #1411
Malaxis weberbaueriana (Kraenzl.) Summerh. (=M. stolzii (Schltr.) Summerh.) Chase 6363
Microcoelia exilis Lindl. Ferrar s.n.
Microcoelia globulosa (Ridl.) L.Jonss. FoZ #5781
Microcoelia stolzii (Schltr.) Summerh. Ball 1392
Mystacidium tanganyikense Summerh. (incl. M. pusillum sensu Wild 6442) FoZ #2455
Nervilia ballii G.Will. Ball 585
Nervilia crociformis (Zoll.& Moritzi) Seidenf. Ball 1407
Nervilia kotschyi (Rchb.f.) Schltr. var. purpurata (Rchb.f.& Sond.) Börge Pett. Ball 511
Nervilia pectinata P.J.Cribb Ball 410
Nervilia shirensis (Rolfe) Schltr. Chase 6235
Orthochilus eustachyus (Rchb.f.) Bytebier FoZ #2854
Orthochilus mechowii Rchb.f. FoZ #102482
Orthochilus milnei (Rchb.f.) Bytebier (=Eulophia milnei Rchb.f.) Jacobsen 3030
Orthochilus odontoglossus (Rchb.f.) Bytebier FoZ #37451
Platycoryne pervillei Rchb.f. FoZ #4075
Polystachya adansoniae Rchb.f. Chase 5609
Polystachya albescens Ridl. subsp. imbricata (Rolfe) Summerh. Drummond 5097
Polystachya caespitifica Engl. subsp. hollandii (Bolus) P.J.Cribb & Podz. FoZ #36207
Polystachya campyloglossa Rolfe [incl. P. ottoniana sensu Ball 1282, Chase 86] Ball 1282
Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H.R.Sweet (=P. tessellata Lindl.) Chase 4400
Polystachya cultriformis (Thouars) Spreng. Grosvenor 659
Polystachya fusiformis (Thouars) Lindl. FoZ #1659
Polystachya golungensis Rchb.f. Ball 1329
Polystachya modesta Rchb.f. FoZ #15642
Polystachya simplex Rendle Ball 1377
Polystachya stuhlmannii Kraenzl. Philcox et al. 8959
Polystachya subumbellata P.J.Cribb & Podz. Wild 6445
Polystachya transvaalensis Schltr. FoZ #1667
Polystachya vaginata Summerh. Wild 2977
Polystachya zambesiaca Rolfe Ball 1364
Rangaeris muscicola (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Plowes 2893
Satyrium anomalum Schltr. FoZ #1415
Satyrium chlorocorys Rolfe Chase 6014
Satyrium longicauda Lindl. Hopkins 7077
Satyrium trinerve Lindl. FoZ #34622
Solenangis conica (Schltr.) L.Jonss. FoZ #3052
Stenoglottis woodii Schltr. Woodburn 30b
Stenoglottis zambesiaca Rolfe (incl. S. fimbriata sensu Summerh.) Chase 6018
Stolzia repens (Rolfe) Summerh. var. obtusa G.Will. Ball 1398
Stolzia repens (Rolfe) Summerh. var. repens Wild 2811
Taeniophyllum coxii (Summerh.) Summerh. FoZ #64342
Tridactyle anthomaniaca (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Grosvenor 862
Tridactyle bicaudata (Lindl.) Schltr. Plowes 2892
Tridactyle inaequilonga (De Wild.) Schltr. Obermeyer 2087
Tridactyle tricuspis (Bolus) Schltr. Chase 6101
Tridactyle tridactylites (Rolfe) Schltr. Ball 160
Tridactyle tridentata (Harv.) Schltr. FoZ #15348
Vanilla polylepis Summerh. Plowes 2667
Ypsilopus erectus (P.J.Cribb) P.J.Cribb & J.L.Stewart Ball 1315
Agrostis lachnantha Nees Corby 244
Andropogon eucomus Nees subsp. eucomus FoZ #15338
Andropogon eucomus Nees subsp. huillensis (Rendle) Sales Hyde s.r.
Andropogon schirensis A.Rich. Pope et al. 6608
Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst. Chase 7096
Bewsia biflora (Hack.) Gooss. Pope et al 6606
Brachypodium flexum Nees Hyde 97
*Briza maxima L. FoZ #93
*Briza minor L. FoZ #95
*Bromus catharticus Vahl Hyde 297
*Cenchrus clandestinus (Chiov.) Morrone (=Pennisteum clandestinum Chiov.) FoZ #4006
Coelachne africana Pilg. Biegel 2427
Craspedorhachis africana Benth. Runhaar 844
Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle Runhaar 77
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Hyde s.r.
Digitaria diagonalis (Nees) Stapf Rattray 1460
Digitaria eriantha Steud. Cleghorn 1360
Digitaria gazensis Rendle Hyde s.r.
Digitaria maitlandii Stapf & C.E.Hubb. Fisher 1127
Digitaria scalarum (Schweinf.) Chiov. Allison s.n.
Diheteropogon amplectens (Nees) Clayton var. catangensis (Chiov.) Clayton FoZ #15215
Ehrharta erecta Lam. Corby 247
Eleusine africana Kenn.-O’Byrne FoZ #16428
Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kuntze Corby 249
Eragrostis acraea De Winter Crook P70
Eragrostis capensis (Thunb.) Trin. Runhaar 840
Eragrostis chapelieri (Kunth) Nees Fisher 220
Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Janch. Crook 1050
Eragrostis congesta Oliv. Corby 262
Eragrostis hispida K.Schum. FoZ #15208
Eragrostis patens Oliv. Runhaar 761
Eragrostis plana Nees Wild 2
Eragrostis racemosa (Thunb.) Steud. Corby 261
Eragrostis sclerantha Nees subsp. villosipes (Jedwabn.) Launert Runhaar 757
Eragrostis tenuifolia (A.Rich.) Steud. FoZ #15225
Heteropogon contortus (L.) Roem.& Schult. Hyde s.r.
Hyparrhenia anamesa Clayton Hyde 345
Hyparrhenia cymbaria (L.) Stapf Hyde 350
Hyparrhenia filipendula (Hochst.) Stapf Hyde s.r.
Hyparrhenia newtonii (Hack.) Stapf var. macra Stapf Corby 246
Hyparrhenia newtonii (Hack.) Stapf var. newtonii Runhaar 762
Hyparrhenia nyassae (Rendle) Stapf Runhaar 764
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. FoZ #37404
Isachne mauritiana Kunth Crook 2016
Ischaemum fasciculatum Brongn. Runhaar 767
Koeleria capensis (Steud.) Nees Corby 268
*Lolium multiflorum Lam. Corby 269
Loudetia flavida (Stapf) C.E.Hubb. Rattray 1457
Loudetia simplex (Nees) C.E.Hubb. FoZ #16425
Melinis ambigua Hack. subsp. ambigua Runhaar 838
Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv. Fisher 1596
Melinis nerviglumis (Franch.) Zizka Hyde 295
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka subsp. grandiflora (Hochst.) Zizka Schweickert 227
Microchloa caffra Nees Corby 264
Monocymbium ceresiiforme (Nees) Stapf Hyde 72
Olyra latifolia L. Müller 3381
Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P.Beauv. Pope 3728
Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv. Müller 3047
Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv. Rattray 1449
Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) Roem.& Schult. Runhaar 752a
Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A.Rich.) Munro Chase 2172
Panicum inaequilatum Stapf & C.E.Hubb. Crook 2020
Panicum laticomum Nees Müller s.n.
Panicum maximum Jacq. Rattray 1458
Panicum monticola Hook.f. Runhaar 755
Panicum wiehei Renvoize Drummond 5094
*Paspalum dilatatum Poir. Hyde s.r.
Paspalum scrobiculatum L. FoZ #15125
*Paspalum urvillei Steud. FoZ #2054
Perotis patens Gand. Wild 5
*Poa annua L. Hyde 103
Poecilostachys oplismenoides (Hack.) Clayton (=Chloachne oplismenoides (Hack.) Robyns) Chase 1144
Pogonarthria squarrosa (Roem.& Schult.) Pilg. Hyde s.r.
Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf Runhaar 842
Rhytachne rottboellioides Desv. Hyde s.r.
Sacciolepis typhura (Stapf) Stapf Chase 7836
Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston Pope 6607
Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov. FoZ #33050
Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz Müller 3078
Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Moss Wild 1
Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. FoZ #2086
Sporobolus acinifolius Stapf Hyde 94
Sporobolus molleri Hack. Hyde s.r.
Sporobolus piliferus (Trin.) Kunth Hyde s.r.
Sporobolus pyramidalis P.Beauv. FoZ #15122
Sporobolus sanguineus Rendle Hyde 135
Stereochlaena cameronii (Stapf) Pilg. Hyde s.r.
Streblochaete longiarista (A.Rich.) Pilg. Müller 3377
Themeda triandra Forssk. FoZ #15216
Tragus berteronianus Schult. Crook 1052
Tricholaena monachne (Trin.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. FoZ #15211
Tristachya nodiglumis K.Schum. Chase 7835
Urochloa oligotricha (Fig.& De Not.) Henrard Sheppard 43
Potamogeton nodosus Poir. FoZ #7454
Potamogeton octandrus Poir. Chase 5981
Potamogeton pusillus L. Denny 1315
Smilax anceps Willd. Wild 496
Strelitzia caudata R.A.Dyer FoZ #1208
Typha capensis (Rohrb.) N.E.Br. FoZ #99860
Xerophyta sp. Hyde s.r.
Xyris obscura N.E.Br. Chase 6027
Aframomum albiflorum Lock FoZ #39633
Aframomum angustifolium (Sonn.) K.Schum. FoZ #34511
*Hedychium gardnerianum Ker Gawl. FoZ #294
Siphonochilus aethiopicus (Schweinf.) B.L.Burtt Eyles 6962
Anisotes pubinervis (T.Anderson) Heine (=Metarungia pubinervia (T.Anderson) C.B.Clarke) Chase 8161
Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu Chase 2154
Barleria aromatica Oberm. Hopkins 8049
Barleria fissimuroides I.Darbysh. NE Chase s.n.
Barleria spinulosa Klotzsch subsp. kirkii (T.Anderson) I.Darbysh. Chase 6495
Barleria ventricosa Nees FoZ #24678
Brillantaisia cicatricosa Lindau (=B. ulugurica Lindau) Chase 854
Dicliptera clinopodia Nees FoZ #1238
Dicliptera extenta S.Moore Müller 3042
Dyschoriste nagchana (Nees) Bennet FoZ #33058
Dyschoriste trichocalyx (Oliv.) Lindau subsp. verticillaris (C.B.Clarke) Vollesen (=D. verticillaris C.B.Clarke) Carter 2123
Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Roem.& Schult. Carter 2119
Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) Roem.& Schult. subsp. forskaolii Chase 6493
*Hypoestes phyllostachya Baker FoZ #36366
Isoglossa gregorii (S.Moore) Lindau Müller 3404
Isoglossa milanjiensis S.Moore (=I. mossambicensis Lindau) Chase 7104
Justicia betonica L. Chase 2159
Justicia bracteata (Hochst.) Zarb (=Monochema debile (Forssk.) Nees) Chase 4557
Justicia matammensis (Schweinf.) Oliv. Wild 2838
Justicia nyassana Lindau Chase 5578
Justicia phyllostachys C.B.Clarke FoZ #15150
Justicia striata (Klotzsch) Bullock FoZ #28977
Mellera lobulata S.Moore Chase 5721
Mimulopsis solmsii Schweinf. FoZ #1616
Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet subsp. imbricata Chase 786
Pseuderanthemum subviscosum (C.B.Clarke) Stapf Chase 1785
Ruellia cordata Thunb. FoZ #33086
Sclerochiton harveyanus Nees Hopkins 7093
Thunbergia alata Sims Obermeyer 2141
Thunbergia natalensis Hook. Biegel 2421
Thunbergia oblongifolia Oliv. (incl. T. lancifolia sensu Mapaura & Timberlake) FoZ #3602, Chase 4689
Thunbergia petersiana Lindau Grosvenor 783
Thunbergia usambarica Lindau FoZ #228
Kiggelaria africana L. Chase 7797
Rawsonia lucida Harv.& Sond. Fisher 1513
*Achyranthes aspera L. var. pubescens (Moq.) C.C.Towns. Müller 3090
*Achyranthes aspera L. var. sicula L. Chase 2151
*Alternanthera caracasana Kunth FoZ #15032
*Amaranthus hybridus L. FoZ #37392
Amaranthus lividus L. subsp. polygonoides (Moq.) Probst FoZ #15033
Centemopsis gracilenta (Hiern) Schinz FoZ #4876
*Chenopodium ambrosioides L. FoZ #41453
*Chenopodium album L. FoZ #25901
Cyathula cylindrica Moq. Schelpe 363
Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz FoZ #301
*Gomphrena celosioides Mart. FoZ #33043
Lannea edulis (Sond.) Engl. var. edulis FoZ #15148
*Mangifera indica L. FoZ #3612
Searsia chirindensis (Baker f.) Moffett (=Rhus chirindensis Baker f.) Müller 3596
Searsia dentata (Thunb.) F.A.Barkley (=Rhus dentata Thunb.) Müller 806
Searsia longipes (Engl.) Moffett var. longipes (=Rhus longipes Engl. var. longipes) Loveridge 1090
Searsia lucida (L.) F.A.Barkley (=Rhus lucida L.) Chase 7358
Searsia natalensis (C.Krauss) F.A.Barkley (=Rhus natalensis C.Krauss) Müller 3619
Searsia tomentosa (L.) F.A.Barkley (=Rhus tomentosa L.) FoZ #26271
Annona senegalensis Pers. subsp. senegalensis FoZ #15212
Artabotrys monteiroae Oliv. Chase 5822
Monanthotaxis chasei (N.Robson) Verdc. Müller 3075
Uvaria lucida Benth. subsp. virens (N.E.Br.) Verdc. Müller 3094
Xylopia parviflora (A.Rich.) Benth. Müller 3618
Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn. Chase 517
Alepidea peduncularis A.Rich. FoZ #7647
*Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) Benth. FoZ #98903
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. FoZ #24588
Centella virgata (L.f.) Drude var. gracilescens Domin Chase 6116
Diplolophium buchananii (Oliv.) C.Norman subsp. swynnertonii (Baker f.) Cannon Symoens et al. 667
Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham.& Schltdl. var. abyssinica (A.Rich.) H.Wolff Chase 4417
Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham.& Schltdl. var. montana P.J.D.Winter FoZ #35269
Hydrocotyle mannii Hook.f. Wild 2840
Pimpinella caffra (Eckl.& Zeyh.) D.Dietr. Chase 6032
Sanicula elata D.Don FoZ #23850
Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst. var. araliacea FoZ #33124
Asclepias cucullata (Schltr.) Schltr. subsp. scabrifolia (S.Moore) Goyder Wursten & Ballings 211
Carissa bispinosa (L.) Brenan subsp. zambesiensis Kupicha Chase 7018
Carissa spinarum L. (=C. edulis (Forssk.) Vahl) FoZ #98852
Ceropegia abyssinica Decne. Chase 5535
Ceropegia lugardae N.E.Br. Chase 1234
Cryptolepis oblongifolia Schltr. FoZ #31948
Cynanchum umtalense Liede (=Cynanchum sp. no.1) Chase 6465
Glossostelma carsonii (N.E.Br.) Bullock Chase 66
Huernia hislopii Turrill subsp. hislopii Wild 2805
Landolphia buchananii (Hallier f.) Stapf Chase 4594
Landolphia kirkii Hook.f. FoZ #33147
Margaretta rosea Oliv. subsp. whytei (K.Schum.) M.Mwanyambo FoZ #15142
Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels FoZ #2472
Pachycarpus chirindensis (S.Moore) Goyder Obermeyer 2113
Rauvolfia caffra Sond. Bamps 587
Secamone alpini Schult. Pole Evans 5114
Sphaerocodon caffrum (Meisn.) Schltr. Chase 5563
Strophanthus speciosus (Ward & Harv.) Reber FoZ #2873
Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten Biegel 2418
Tabernaemontana ventricosa A.DC. Drummond 5082
Tylophora anomala N.E.Br. (=Cynanchum chirindense S.Moore) FoZ #28705
Tylophora 2 cf. tenuipedunculata (Müller 2841) Harder 3817
Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk. var. mitis Chase 3084
Cussonia arborea A.Rich. Bamps 634
Cussonia spicata Thunb. FoZ #1163
Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms Chase 1971
Schefflera goetzenii Harms Wild 2837
Schefflera umbellifera (Sond.) Baill. Chase 5591
Aristolochia albida Duch. Pole Evans 4822
*Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze FoZ #433
Adenostemma mauritianum DC. Müller 1950
*Ageratum conyzoides L. FoZ #3545
*Ageratum houstonianum Mill. FoZ #435
Anisopappus chinensis (L.) Hook.f.& Arn. subsp. chinensis var. dentatus (DC.) S.Ortíz, Paiva & Rodr.Oubiña Chase 5581
Anisopappus kirkii (Oliv.) Brenan Schelpe 378
Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Wild FoZ #4882
Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf. subsp. pluriseta Bamps et al. 640
Athrixia rosmarinifolia (Walp.) Oliv.& Hiern var. rosmarinifolia Loveridge 1089
Berkheya setifera DC. FoZ #39978
Berkheya zeyheri (Sond.& Harv.) Oliv.& Hiern FoZ #3926
*Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr.& Sherff Chase 2153
*Bidens pilosa L. FoZ #443
Bothriocline inyangana N.E.Br. var. inyangana Hopkins 6935
*Centratherum punctatum Cass. subsp. punctatum FoZ #6295
Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norl. subsp. septentrionale Norl. FoZ #3596
Cineraria deltoidea Sond. Chase 7787
Cineraria pulchra Cron FoZ #21501
*Conyza aegyptiaca (L.) Aiton FoZ #37464
*Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist FoZ #19057
Conyza gouanii (L.) Willd. FoZ #2258
Conyza pinnata (L.f.) Kuntze FoZ #7645
*Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker FoZ #2471
*Coreopsis lanceolata L. FoZ #489
*Cotula australis (Sieb.& Spreng.) Hook.f. FoZ #933
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore Chase 8303
Crassocephalum rubens (Jacq.) S.Moore var. rubens FoZ #447
Crassocephalum rubens (Jacq.) S.Moore var. sarcobasis (DC.) C.Jeffrey & Beentje Chase 4576
Crassocephalum × picridifolium (DC.) S.Moore Chase 2148
Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze subsp. integrifolia Chase 7391
Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don FoZ #4114
Emilia discifolia (Oliv.) C.Jeffrey FoZ #7655
*Erigeron karvinskianus DC. FoZ #3551
Erythrocephalum zambesianum Oliv.& Hiern Wild 469
*Euryops chrysanthemoides (DC.) B.Nord. FoZ #41177
*Galinsoga parviflora Cav. FoZ #7662
*Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. FoZ #7665
Gerbera piloselloides (L.) Cass. Chase 8421
Gerbera viridifolia (DC.) Sch.Bip. subsp. viridifolia FoZ #651
*Gnaphalium purpureum L. FoZ #2248
Gutenbergia cordifolia Oliv. var. marginata (O.Hoffm.) C.Jeffrey Chase 8291
Helichrysum adenocarpum DC. subsp. adenocarpum Bacon 6844
Helichrysum asperum (Thunb.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt FoZ #21420
Helichrysum buchananii Engl. Chase 6114
Helichrysum candolleanum H.Buek Carter et al. 2121
Helichrysum cephaloideum DC. Chase 6026
Helichrysum goetzeanum O.Hoffm. FoZ #41358
Helichrysum kilimanjari Oliv. Symoens et al. 687
Helichrysum kraussii Sch.Bip. Bishop 394
Helichrysum lepidissimum S.Moore Chase 6115
Helichrysum nitens Oliv.& Hiern subsp. nitens Bacon 6843
Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less. var. nudifolium FoZ #4883
Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less. var. oxyphyllum (DC.) Beentje FoZ #4884
Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less. var. pilosellum (L.f.) Beentje Wild 468
Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet FoZ #2344
Helichrysum panduratum O.Hoffm. var. panduratum Chase 1237
Helichrysum panduratum O.Hoffm. var. transvaalense Moeser FoZ #7468
Helichrysum schimperi (A.Rich.) Moeser Chase 1237
Helichrysum umbraculigerum Less. Chase 1355
Hypericophyllum compositarum Steetz Chase 7093
*Hypochaeris radicata L. FoZ #2048
Inula glomerata Oliv.& Hiern FoZ #1413
Kleinia chimanimaniensis Van Jaarsv. (=K. galpinii Hook.f.) Schelpe 377
Lactuca inermis Forssk. FoZ #19054
Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood FoZ #33120
Lipotriche scandens (Schumach.) Orchard subsp. madagascariensis (Baker) D.J.N.Hind (=Melanthera scandens (Schumach.& Thonn.) Roberty) Chase 7111
Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze FoZ #1621
Mikania carteri Baker FoZ #4007
Mikania sp. of FoZ Müller 3036
Mikaniopsis cissampelina (DC.) C.Jeffrey Fisher 1576
*Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth. Wild 5513
*Neojeffreya decurrens (L.) Cabrera FoZ #7332
Nidorella auriculata DC. subsp. auriculata FoZ #15227
Nidorella resedifolia DC. subsp. resedifolia Chase 761
Osteospermum monocepahalum (Oliv.& Hiern) Norl. FoZ #3919
Phymaspermum bolusii (Hutch.) Källersjö FoZ #15330
*Pseudognaphalium luteo-album (L.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt FoZ #2186
Pseudognaphalium oligandrum (DC.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt FoZ #2188
Schistostephium crataegifolium (DC.) Harv. (=S. artemisiifolium Baker) Bishop 395
Schistostephium heptalobum (DC.) Oliv.& Hiern FoZ #15218
Schistostephium oxylobum S.Moore Chase 8423
Senecio deltoideus Less. FoZ #2219
Senecio gazensis S.Moore FoZ #15411
Senecio hochstetteri A.Rich. Wild 2821
Senecio inornatus DC. Chase 6105
Senecio latifolius DC. Wild 38
*Senecio macroglossus DC. Fisher 1545
Senecio milanjianus S.Moore Wild 2830
Senecio oxyriifolius DC. Wild 520
Senecio purpureus L. Chase 7140
Senecio ruwenzoriensis S.Moore Wild 2822
Senecio syringifolius O.Hoffm. Hopkins 8046
Senecio tamoides DC. FoZ #2222
Senecio triactinus S.Moore FoZ #5793
Sigesbeckia orientalis L. FoZ #84888
Solanecio mannii (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey FoZ #469
Sonchus friesii Boulos var. integer G.V.Pope FoZ #922
*Sonchus oleraceus L. FoZ #920
Spilanthes mauritiana (Pers.) DC. Eyles 7082
Stomatanthes africanus (Oliv.& Hiern) R.M.King & H.Rob. FoZ #15199
*Tagetes minuta L. FoZ #35492
Tolpis capensis (L.) Sch.Bip. FoZ #3753
*Tridax procumbens L. FoZ #3925
*Vernonanthura polyanthes (Sprengel) Vega & Dematteis FoZ #3740
Vernonia acuminatissima S.Moore Hopkins 8053
Vernonia adoensis Sch.Bip. FoZ #25856
Vernonia bainesii Oliv.& Hiern subsp. bainesii Whellan 747
Vernonia calvoana (Hook.f.) Hook.f. subsp. meridionalis (Wild) C.Jeffrey FoZ # 475
Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake subsp. colorata FoZ #2322
Vernonia galpinii Klatt Chase 3105
Vernonia glaberrima O.Hoffm. FoZ #4878
Vernonia holstii O.Hoffm. Chase 5595
Vernonia karaguensis Oliv.& Hiern Chase 7138
Vernonia lundiensis (Hutch.) Wild & G.V.Pope Ferrar 4069
Vernonia melleri Oliv.& Hiern var. melleri Chase 5582
Vernonia myriantha Hook.f. Plowes 2706
Vernonia natalensis Walp. Fisher 212
Vernonia wollastonii S.Moore Müller 3060
Vernonia petersii Oliv. FoZ #43356
Impatiens cecilii N.E.Br. subsp. cecilii Plowes 2322
Impatiens sylvicola Burtt Davy & Greenway Eyles 5476
Begonia sonderiana Irmsch. Chase 995
*Amphilophium crucigerum (L.) L.G.Lohmann FoZ #18307
*Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) L.G.Lohmann FoZ #3975
*Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don FoZ #18352
Podranea brycei (N.E.Br.) Sprague FoZ #3576
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. Chase 4390
Cynoglossum wildii E.S.Martins Williams 215
Cardamine africana L. FoZ #15459
*Cardamine flexuosa With. FoZ #636
*Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. FoZ #19047
*Lepidium bonariense L. FoZ #41218
Rhipsalis baccifera (J.Mill.) Stearn Eyles 6589
Lobelia erinus L. Schelpe 366
Lobelia goetzei Diels FoZ #867
Lobelia stricklandiae Gilliland Wild 1592
Wahlenbergia denticulata (Burch.) A.DC. FoZ #34881
Wahlenbergia madagascariensis A.DC. FoZ #5012
Wahlenbergia subaphylla (Baker) Thulin subsp. scoparia (Wild) Thulin Chase 3104
Wahlenbergia undulata (L.f.) A.DC. Chase 6125
Wahlenbergia virgata Engl. FoZ #3750
Cleome monophylla L. Hyde s.r.
Ritchiea albersii Gilg Chase 6225
*Sambucus canadensis L. FoZ #37446
*Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Whellan 1560
Drymaria cordata (L.) Roem.& Schult. var. cordata Chase 6049
*Sagina apetala Ard. FoZ #1808
Silene burchellii DC. var. angustifolia Sond. Chase 7224
Stellaria mannii Hook.f. Müller plot 68
*Stellaria media (L.) Vill. FoZ #79972
Allocassine laurifolia (Harv.) N.Robson Chase 7199
Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl. Chase 784
Elaeodendron croceum (Thunb.) DC. Müller plot 150
Gymnosporia buxifolia (L.) Szyszyl. Chase 5571
Gymnosporia harveyana Loes. subsp. harveyana FoZ #15259
Gymnosporia mossambicensis (Klotzsch) Loes. subsp. mossambicensis Chase 6279
Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. FoZ #15183
Hippocratea africana (Willd.) Loes. var. richardiana (Cambess.) N.Robson Müller 3149
Maytenus acuminata (L.f.) Loes. var. acuminata Chase 4416
Maytenus chasei N.Robson Chase 5634
Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock Müller 2803
Parinari curatellifolia Benth. FoZ #2039
Garcinia buchananii Baker Chase 5296
Garcinia kingaensis Engl. Müller plot 74
Harungana madagascariensis Poir. Chase 1970
Hypericum aethiopicum Thunb. subsp. sonderi (Bredell) N.Robson FoZ #15321
Hypericum peplidifolium A.Rich. FoZ #15310
Hypericum revolutum Vahl Chase 1181
Hypericum roeperianum A.Rich. Whellan 1138
Psorospermum febrifugum Spach FoZ #15157
Combretum molle G.Don FoZ #23920
Combretum psidioides Welw. subsp. psidioides West 6373
Agelaea pentagyna (Lam.) Baill. Drummond 5079
*Dichondra micrantha Urb. FoZ #929
Hewittia malabarica (L.) Suresh FoZ #18123
*Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet var. cairica FoZ #1404
Ipomoea involucrata P.Beauv. var. involucrata Chase 2163
Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker Gawl. var. obscura FoZ #4128
Turbina holubii (Baker) A.Meeuse Chase 8589
Curtisia dentata (Burm.f.) C.A.Sm. Chase 4168
*Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken FoZ #25790
*Bryophyllum tubiflorum Harv. FoZ #3407
Crassula alsinoides (Hook.f.) Engl. Mavi 1558
Crassula alticola R.Fern. FoZ #39862
Crassula capitella Thunb. subsp. nodulosa (Schönland) Toelken FoZ #7384
Crassula expansa Dryand. subsp. expansa FoZ #79967
Crassula lanceolata (Eckl.& Zeyh) Walp. subsp. transvaalensis (Kuntze) Toelken FoZ #3494
Crassula sarcocaulis Eckl.& Zeyh. subsp. sarcocaulis Ferrar s.n.
Crassula sarmentosa Harv. FoZ #3499
Crassula setulosa Harv. var. setulosa Chase 6134
Crassula swaziensis Schönland subsp. swaziensis var. swaziensis Chase 6149
Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. Chase 8445
Kalanchoe lanceolata (Forssk.) Pers. FoZ #1620
Kalanchoe luciae Raym.-Hamet subsp. luciae FoZ #4061
Coccinia adoensis (A.Rich.) Cogn. Chase 7388
Cucumis zeyheri Sond. Chase 8485
Momordica foetida Schumach. Wild 14218
Oreosyce africana Hook.f. Chase 6222
Peponium chirindense (Baker f.) Cogn. Müller 3486
Zehneria minutiflora (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey Ferrar 4020
Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond. subsp. scabra Müller plot 169
Zehneria thwaitesii (Schweinf.) C.Jeffrey Chase 5550
Scabiosa columbaria L. FoZ #556
Monotes engleri Gilg FoZ #557
Drosera burkeana Planch. Carly 467
Drosera dielsiana Exell & J.R.Laundon FoZ #644
Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White subsp. abyssinica Müller 3043
Diospyros lycioides Desf. subsp. sericea (Bernh.) De Winter Bamps 626
Diospyros natalensis (Harv.) Brenan subsp. nummularia (Brenan) Jordaan Müller 2556
Diospyros whyteana (Hiern) F.White Chase 1495
Erica hexandra (S.Moore) E.G.H.Oliv. van der Berghen 623
Erica johnstoniana Britten Galpin 9267
Erythroxylum emarginatum Thonn. Bamps et al. 648
Adenocline acuta (Thunb.) Baill. Chase 8491
Croton sylvaticus C.Krauss Drummond 5090
Euphorbia benthamii Hiern Chase 5539
*Euphorbia peplus L. FoZ #581
*Euphorbia prostrata Aiton FoZ #3742
*Euphorbia tirucalli L. Chase 5161
*Homalanthus populifolius Graham FoZ #3728
Leidesia procumbens (L.) Prain Wild 6447
Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim Chase 5565
Macaranga mellifera Prain Chase 5455
Neoboutonia macrocalyx Pax FoZ #7425
*Ricinus communis L. var. communis FoZ #25729
Shirakiopsis elliptica (Hochst.) Esser (=Sapium ellipticum (Krauss) Pax) Chase 7115
Suregada procera (Prain) Croizat Müller 2557
Tannodia swynnertonii (S.Moore) Prain Müller plot 172
*Vernicia montana Lour. FoZ #3799
Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae
Bauhinia galpinii N.E.Br. FoZ #506
Bauhinia petersiana Bolle FoZ #1030
*Bauhinia variegata L. var. variegata FoZ #17371
Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. Chase 4153
Brachystegia utilis Hutch.& Burtt Davy Chase 4154
Chamaecrista kirkii (Oliv.) Standl. var. kirkii Chase 5489
Chamaecrista parva (Steyaert) Lock Ferrar s.n.
Chamaecrista wittei (Ghesq.) Lock Chase 8493
Julbernardia globiflora (Benth.) Troupin FoZ #1040
*Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby Methuen 43
Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock FoZ #3923
*Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby Grosvenor 11
Fabaceae: Mimosoideae
Acacia abyssinica Benth. Chase 7796
Acacia amythethophylla A.Rich. FoZ #15446
Acacia cornigera (L.) Willd. (=A. spadicigera Schltr. & Cham.) Obermeyer 2061
*Acacia mearnsii De Wild. FoZ #3591
*Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. Biegel 2431
*Acacia podalyriifolia G.Don FoZ #3800
Acacia sieberiana DC. var. woodii (Burtt Davy) Keay & Brenan Biegel 2430
Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W.Wight Müller 3383
Albizia antunesiana Harms FoZ #15145
Albizia glaberrima (Schumach.& Thonn.) Benth. var. glabrescens (Oliv.) Brenan Müller 3097
Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm. Wild 1596
Albizia schimperiana Oliv. var. schimperiana Chase 6223
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. FoZ #15202
Entada abyssinica A.Rich. Chase 5554
Newtonia buchananii (Baker f.) G.C.C.Gilbert & Boutique Chase 878
Fabaceae: Papilionoideae
Aeschynomene nodulosa (Baker) Baker f. var. nodulosa FoZ #2041
Argyrolobium rupestre (E.Mey.) Walp. subsp. rupestre Bamps et al. s.n.
Argyrolobium tomentosum (Andrews) Druce FoZ #41255
Craibia brevicaudata (Vatke) Dunn subsp. baptistarum (Büttner) J.B.Gillett Wild 1586
Crotalaria capensis Jacq. Corby 1582
Crotalaria cephalotes A.Rich. Chase 8565
Crotalaria chirindae Baker f. Hopkins 8033
Crotalaria gazensis Baker f. subsp. gazensis Müller 6684
Crotalaria hyssopifolia Klotzsch Chase 7055
Crotalaria laburnifolia L. subsp. australis (Baker f.) Polhill Corby 1445
Crotalaria lachnophora A.Rich. Chase 7449
Crotalaria lanceolata E.Mey. subsp. lanceolata Chase 7469
Crotalaria pallida Aiton var. pallida FoZ #5617
Crotalaria variegata Baker (=C. sericifolia Harms) Chase 6366
Dalbergia lactea Vatke Müller plot 149
Dalbergia nitidula Baker Chase 168
Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. var. robustum B.G.Schub. FoZ #35168
Desmodium barbatum (L.) Benth. var. dimorphum (Baker) B.G.Schub. Staples 183
Desmodium repandum (Vahl) DC. Chase 580
Desmodium setigerum (E.Mey.) Harv. Chase 8557
*Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC. FoZ #3543
Dolichos kilimandscharicus Taub. subsp. kilimandscharicus FoZ #15323
Dolichos sericeus E.Mey. subsp. sericeus Chase 6930
Dumasia villosa DC. var. villosa Whellan 1598
Eriosema buchananii Baker f. var. buchananii FoZ #52033
Eriosema burkei Harv. Corby 266
Eriosema chrysadenium Taub. var. chrysadenium FoZ #6264
Eriosema ellipticum Baker subsp. ellipticum FoZ #1617
Eriosema psoraleoides (Lam.) G.Don FoZ #1697
Erythrina lysistemon Hutch. FoZ #1688
Flemingia grahamiana Wight & Arn. Chase 1739
Indigofera arrecta A.Rich. FoZ #40764
Indigofera cecilii N.E.Br. FoZ #7519
Indigofera hilaris Eckl.& Zeyh. Jacobsen 1488
Indigofera lyallii Baker subsp. lyallii FoZ #5628
Indigofera paniculata Pers. subsp. gazensis (Baker f.) J.B.Gillett Chase 6109
Indigofera setiflora Baker var. setifera Hopkins 7080
Kotschya strigosa (Benth.) Dewit & P.A.Duvign. var. strigosa Chase 3732
Lablab purpureus (L.) Sw. subsp. uncinatus Verdc. var. uncinatus Chase 8292
Lotononis listii Polhill FoZ #73221
Lotus arabicus L. Bamps et al. 676
Lotus discolor E.Mey. subsp. mollis J.B.Gillett Chase 3107
Lotus namulensis Brand Chase 3106
Macrotyloma densiflorum (Baker) Verdc. var. densiflorum Carter 2128
Mucuna coriacea Baker subsp. irritans (Burtt Davy) Verdc. FoZ #1699
Ormocarpum kirkii S.Moore Carter 2129
Otholobium foliosum (Oliv.) C.H.Stirt. subsp. gazense (Baker f.) Verdc. FoZ #2366
Philenoptera violacea (Klotzsch) Schrire (=Lonchocarpus capassa Rolfe) Chase 60
Pseudarthria hookeri Wight & Arn. var. hookeri FoZ #2457
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. FoZ #15141
Pterocarpus rotundifolius (Sond.) Druce subsp. rotundifolius FoZ #98755
Rhynchosia clivorum S.Moore subsp. pycnantha (Harms) Verdc. Fischer 1313
Rhynchosia monophylla Schltr. FoZ #3749
Rhynchosia swynnertonii Baker f. Chase 8004
Sphenostylis zimbabweensis Mithen Chase 1530
Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston Staples 185
Tephrosia dasyphylla Baker subsp. dasyphylla Chase 1964
Tephrosia festina Brummitt Biegel 2432
Tephrosia meisneri Hutch.& Burtt Davy (=T. glomeruliflora Meisn. subsp. meisneri (Hutch.& Burtt Davy) Schrire) Chase 8151
Tephrosia paniculata Baker subsp. paniculata Chase 7318
Tephrosia rhodesica Baker f. var. polystachyoides (Baker f.) Brummitt Chase 1966
Tylosema fassoglensis (Schweinf.) Torre & Hillc. FoZ #3927
Vigna gazensis Baker f. Chase 6510
Vigna schlechteri Harms Wild 2844
Vigna vexillata (L.) A.Rich. var. vexillata FoZ #24719
Zornia milneana Mohlenbr. FoZ #41451
Mostuea brunonis Didr. var. brunonis Chase 6745
Sebaea leiostyla Gilg Hopkins 7257
Geranium arabicum Forssk. subsp. arabicum FoZ #25127
Geranium incanum Burm.f. subsp. nyassense (R.Knuth) J.R.Laundon Drummond 5093
Pelargonium luridum (Andrews) Sweet Chase 7921
Pelargonium mossambicense Engl. Eyles 9276
Streptocarpus eylesii S.Moore subsp. eylesii Plowes 2170
Streptocarpus hirticapsa B.L.Burtt Ferrar s.n.
Streptocarpus michelmorei B.L.Burtt FoZ #627
Streptocarpus umtaliensis B.L.Burtt NE Chase 1374
*Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. Denny 1312
Heteropyxis dehniae Suess. FoZ #3610
Hydrostachys polymorpha A.Braun Chase 6637
Apodytes dimidiata Arn. subsp. dimidiata Chase 366
Choristylis rhamnoides Harv. Chase 1736
Aeollanthus buchnerianus Briq. Fisher 1627
Aeollanthus serpiculoides Baker Whellan 749
Clerodendrum cephalanthum Oliv. subsp. swynnertonii (S.Moore) Verdc. Chase 2164
Haumaniastrum dissitifolium (Baker) A.J.Paton FoZ #73536
Haumaniastrum sericeum (Briq.) A.J.Paton Hopkins s.n.
Haumaniastrum villosum (Benth.) A.J.Paton Chase 6566
Hoslundia opposita Vahl FoZ #1752
*Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. FoZ #876
*Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. FoZ #27586
Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson var. raineriana (Vis.) Iwarsson FoZ #34929
Leucas milanjiana Gürke FoZ #3922
Micromeria imbricata (Forssk.) C.Chr. var. imbricata (=Satureja punctata (Benth.) Briq.) Chase 7137
Ocimum obovatum Benth. subsp. obovatum var. obovatum FoZ #3364
Plectranthus chimanimanensis S.Moore Chase 6021
Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br. FoZ #7536
Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Spreng. FoZ #21128
Plectranthus hereroensis Engl. Chase 6512
Plectranthus kapatensis (R.E.Fr.) J.K.Morton Chase 5563
Plectranthus lanuginosus (Benth.) Agnew FoZ #15345
Plectranthus laxiflorus Benth. Chase 1999
Plectranthus sanguineus Britten FoZ #2052
Plectranthus swynnertonii S.Moore Eyles 7084
Pycnostachys reticulata (E.Mey.) Benth. Chase 2000
Pycnostachys urticifolia Hook. FoZ #37502
Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) D.A.Steane & Mabb. FoZ #873
*Salvia coccinea Etl. FoZ #37444
Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd Carter 2131
Vitex doniana Sweet Masterson 570
Vitex madiensis Oliv. subsp. milanjiensis (Britten) F.White Chase 1965
*Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl FoZ #23896
*Cinnamomum verum J.Presl FoZ #25873
Cryptocarya liebertiana Engl. Müller 3382
*Persea americana Mill. FoZ #3716
Genlisea hispidula Stapf Philcox et al. 8951
Utricularia firmula Oliv. Philcox et al. 8952
Utricularia livida E.Mey. Chase 6112
Utricularia scandens Benj. Chase 5539
Utricularia subulata L. Philcox et al. 8950
Craterostigma lanceolatum (Engl.) Skan FoZ #53083
Craterostigma sp. no. 1 cf. lanceolatum FoZ #28553
Linderniella pulchella (Skan) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh.& Kai Müll. (=Lindernia pulchella (Skan) Philcox) Philcox 8971
Linderniella wilmsii (Engl.) Eb.Fisch., Schäferh.& Kai Müll. (=Lindernia wilmsii (Engl.) Philcox) Philcox 8972
Strychnos angolensis Gilg Müller 3801
Strychnos lucens Baker FoZ #1306
Strychnos spinosa Lam. FoZ #15189
Strychnos usambarensis Gilg FoZ #1308
Agelanthus lancifolius Polhill & Wiens FoZ #39863
Agelanthus molleri (Engl.) Polhill & Wiens Polhill & Pope 4746
Agelanthus nyasicus (Baker & Sprague) Polhill & Wiens Chase 578
Englerina oedostemon (Danser) Polhill & Wiens NE Polhill & Pope 4747
Malvaceae: Byttnerioideae, Helicteroideae & Sterculioideae
Cola greenwayi Brenan var. greenwayi Drummond 5092
Dombeya burgessiae Harv. Loveridge 1089
Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch. FoZ #1785
Melhania randii Baker f. FoZ #3924
Waltheria indica L. FoZ #37490
Malvaceae: Grewioideae
Grewia occidentalis L. var. occidentalis FoZ #3190
Grewia stolzii Ulbr. FoZ #7353
Sparrmannia ricinocarpa (Eckl.& Zeyh.) Kuntze Chase 1678
Triumfetta annua L. FoZ #7392
Triumfetta pilosa Roth var. pilosa FoZ #7393
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Wild 500
Malvaceae: Malvoideae
Abutilon sonneratianum (Cav.) Sweet Wild 472
Azanza garckeana (F.Hoffm.) Exell & Hillc. FoZ #98753
Hibiscus fuscus Garcke Chase 8301
Hibiscus shirensis Sprague & Hutch. FoZ #7152
Hibiscus surattensis L. Chase 8558
*Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke FoZ #4040
Pavonia columella Cav. Fisher 1601
Pavonia urens Cav. FoZ #1221
Antherotoma naudinii Hook.f. Schelpe 365
Dissotis princeps (Kunth) Triana var. princeps Whellan 1980
Ekebergia benguelensis C.DC. FoZ #98848
Ekebergia capensis Sparrm. Chase 555
Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C.DC. FoZ #25861
Trichilia dregeana Sond. Chase 3506
Bersama abyssinica Fresen. subsp. nyassae (Baker f.) F.White FoZ #98884
Bersama swynnertonii Baker f. Chase 7020
Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich. FoZ #37441
Cissampelos torulosa Harv. Chase 1544
Stephania abyssinica (Quart.-Dill.& A.Rich.) Walp. var. abyssinica Wild 495
Stephania abyssinica (Quart.-Dill.& A.Rich.) Walp. var. tomentella (Oliv.) Diels FoZ #27674
Tiliacora funifera (Miers) Oliv. Grosvenor 265
Corrigiola drymarioides Baker f. Chase 1183
Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser. var. cerviana Chase s.n.
Xymalos monospora (Harv.) Baill. Chase 6179
Dorstenia buchananii Engl. var. buchananii Chase 6259
Ficus chirindensis C.C.Berg Müller plot 78
Ficus craterostoma Mildbr.& Burret Plowes 2184
Ficus exasperata Vahl Masterson 602
Ficus natalensis Hochst. subsp. graniticola J.E.Burrows Hyde s.n.
Ficus rokko Warb.& Schweinf. (=F. thonningii Blume in part) Biegel 2490
Ficus scassellatii Pamp. subsp. scassellatii FoZ #15572
Ficus sur Forssk. FoZ #3525
Trilepisium madagascariense DC. Chase 5625
Morella pilulifera (Rendle) Killick FoZ #3553
Myrothamnus flabellifolius Welw. FoZ #2038
Embelia schimperi Vatke Chase 1443
Maesa lanceolata Forssk. Obermeyer 2053
Myrsine africana L. Chase 5295
Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez Chase 6739
Eugenia malangensis (O.Hoffm.) Nied. FoZ #1226
Eugenia natalitia Sond. (incl. E. nyassensis Engl., E. capensis (Eckl.& Zeyh.) Sond. subsp. nyassensis (Engl.) F.White) Chase 7219
*Psidium cattleianum Sabine FoZ #7397
*Psidium guajava L. FoZ #3529
Syzygium cordatum C.Krauss Bamps et al. 621
Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC. subsp. afromontanum F.White (=S. gerrardii (Hook.f.) F.White) Chase 5626
*Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston FoZ #25884
Ochna holstii Engl. Wild 1594
Chionanthus battiscombei (Hutch.) Stearn Müller 3077
Chionanthus foveolatus (E.Mey.) Stearn subsp. major (I.Verd.) Stearn Müller plot 153
Jasminum abyssinicum DC. FoZ #15266
Jasminum streptopus E.Mey. Müller plot 149
Olea capensis L. subsp. macrocarpa (C.H.Wright) I.Verd. Müller plot 152
Schrebera alata (Hochst.) Welw. FoZ #3586
Opilia amentacea Roxb. FoZ #6110
Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze (incl. var. monticola (Engl.) Melch. & var. senegalensis (Benth.) Hepper) Chase 6035, Philcox 8953
Buchnera speciosa Skan Chase 4199
Cycnium adonense Benth. subsp. adonense Chase 611
Sopubia ramosa (Hochst.) Hochst. Bacon s.n.
Striga bilabiata (Thunb.) Kuntze Wild 2807
Striga elegans Benth. FoZ #24937
Biophytum umbraculum Welw. Chase 5534
*Oxalis corniculata L. FoZ #7
*Oxalis latifolia Kunth FoZ #5774
Oxalis semiloba Sond. subsp. semiloba FoZ #15219
Adenia digitata (Harv.) Engl. FoZ #37462
Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms var. gummifera FoZ #98866
Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. subsp. rumicifolia (Engl.& Harms) Lye Müller 3621
Basananthe apetala (Baker f.) Wilde FoZ #22042
*Passiflora edulis Sims FoZ #3760
Olinia vanguerioides Baker f. Fisher 1218
Clutia abyssinica Jaub.& Spach var. abyssinica Whellan 1599
Clutia paxii Pax FoZ #40916
Clutia swynnertonii S.Moore Galpin 9271
Antidesma membranaceum Müll.Arg. Müller 3380
Antidesma venosum Tul. FoZ #15191
Antidesma vogelianum Müll.Arg. Hyde s.r.
Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. FoZ #3580
Cleistanthus polystachyus Planch. subsp. milleri (Dunkley) Radcl.-Sm. (=C. apetalus S.Moore) Wild 5551
Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.) Webster var. nitida (Pax) Radcl.-Sm. Chase 5483
Phyllanthus beillei Hutch. Chase 5596
Phyllanthus ovalifolius Forssk. (=P. guineensis Pax) Müller plot 79
Uapaca kirkiana Müll.Arg. var. kirkiana FoZ #596
Phytolacca dodecandra L’Hér. Müller 3092
*Phytolacca octandra L. FoZ #2561
Peperomia bangroana C.DC. (=P. rotundifolia sensu FZ) Müller 3067
Peperomia blanda (Jacq.) Kunth var. leptostachya (Hook.& Arn.) Düll Chase 851
Peperomia retusa (L.f.) A.Dietr. Wild 2836
Peperomia tetraphylla (G.Forst.) Hook.& Arn. Müller 3061
Piper capense L.f. var. capense Plowes 2163
Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims var. viridiflorum Chase 7218
*Linaria vulgaris Mill. FoZ #5438
*Plantago major L. Ferrar s.n.
*Veronica javanica Blume Wild 1591
*Cobaea scandens Cav. Edwards s.n.
Polygala gazensis Baker f. Schelpe 374
Polygala ohlendorfiana Eckl.& Zeyh. Chase 7873
Polygala virgata Thunb. var. decora (Sond.) Harv. FoZ #25783
Polygala wilmsii Chodat Obermeyer 2048
Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. FoZ #3920
Oxygonum dregeanum Meisn. subsp. canescens (Sond.) Germish. Craster s.n.
*Persicaria capitata (D.Don) H.Gross FoZ #1294
*Rumex acetosella L. subsp. angiocarpus (Murb.) Murb. FoZ #2778
*Rumex crispus L. FoZ #2781
Rumex sagittatus Thunb. FoZ #2783
Ardisiandra wettsteinii R.Wagner FoZ #2772
Faurea rochetiana (A.Rich.) Pic.Serm. Fisher 337
Faurea rubriflora Marner Chase 6045
Faurea saligna Harv. Hyde s.n.
*Grevillea robusta R.Br. FoZ #7595
Protea caffra Meisn. subsp. gazensis (Beard) Chisumpa & Brummitt FoZ #7648
Protea gaguedi J.F.Gmel. FoZ #4872
Protea petiolaris (Hiern) Baker subsp. elegans Chisumpa & Brummitt Mitchell s.n.
Protea welwitschii Engl. FoZ #1352
Drypetes gerrardii Hutch. var. gerrardii Hyde s.n.
Drypetes natalensis (Harv.) Hutch. var. natalensis FoZ #5654
Clematis brachiata Thunb. Müller 3403
Clematis simensis Fresen. Müller 3087
Ranunculus multifidus Forssk. FoZ #98776
Thalictrum rhynchocarpum Quart.-Dill.& A.Rich. FoZ #2887
Gouania longispicata Engl. Simon 925
Rhamnus prinoides L’Hér. Fisher 1334
Scutia myrtina (Burm.f.) Kurz Müller 3391
Ziziphus mucronata Willd. FoZ #5025
Cassipourea gummiflua Tul. var. verticillata (N.E.Br.) J.Lewis Chase 1802
Cassipourea malosana (Baker) Alston (=C. congoensis sensu auct.) Chase 5454
Alchemilla kiwuensis Engl. Chase 1162
Cliffortia serpyllifolia Cham.& Schltdl. Chase 1182
*Cotoneaster pannosus Franch. FoZ #3811
*Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. FoZ #18306
Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman Chase 6198
*Prunus cerasoides D.Don Bannermann s.n.
*Rubus niveus Thunb. FoZ #2697
Afrocanthium ngonii (Bridson) Lantz (=Canthium ngonii Bridson, C. pseudoverticillatum sensu R.B. Drumm.) Müller 3068
Agathisanthemum bojeri Klotzsch subsp. bojeri FoZ #35444
Aidia micrantha (K.Schum.) F.White var. msonju (K.Krause) Petit Chase 5552
Anthospermum ammanioides S.Moore FoZ #1592
Anthospermum herbaceum L.f. FoZ #1907
Anthospermum vallicola S.Moore Chase 6037
Anthospermum whyteanum Britten Chase 6038
Anthospermum zimbabwense Puff NE FoZ #2034
Canthium inerme (L.f.) Kuntze Chase 5351
Cephalanthus natalensis Oliv. Greenway 8802
*Coffea arabica L. FoZ #14119
Coffea mufindiensis Bridson subsp. australis Bridson (=C. ligustroides sensu Garcia) Drummond 5088
Conostomium natalense (Hochst.) Bremek. Chase 6039
Coptosperma supra-axillare (Hemsl.) Degreef (=Tarenna supra-axillaris (Hemsl.) Bremek. subsp. barbertonensis (Bremek.) Bridson) Müller 2561
Cremaspora triflora (Thonn.) K.Schum. subsp. triflora FoZ #99093
Fadogia ancylantha Schweinf. FoZ #786
Fadogia homblei De Wild. FoZ #2219
Galium chloroionanthum K.Schum. Müller plot 82
Galopina circaeoides Thunb. Chase 342
Gardenia imperialis K.Schum. subsp. imperialis Chase 6555
Heinsenia diervilleoides K.Schum. subsp. diervilleoides Chase 1466
Hymenodictyon floribundum (Hochst.& Steud.) B.L.Rob. FoZ #3505
Keetia gueinzii (Sond.) Bridson (=Canthium gueinzii Sond.) Chase 1810
Kohautia amatymbica Eckl.& Zeyh. FoZ #4405
Leptactina benguelensis (Benth.& Hook.f.) R.D.Good subsp. pubescens Verdc. FoZ #2042
Mussaenda arcuata Poir. Wild 552
Oldenlandia affinis (Roem.& Schult.) DC. subsp. fugax (Vatke) Verdc. Chase 2162
Oldenlandia goreensis (DC.) Summerh. var. goreensis FoZ #3350
Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb. var. herbacea Ballings 1734
Otiophora inyangana N.E.Br. subsp. inyangana Chase 7299
Oxyanthus goetzei K.Schum. subsp. goetzei FoZ #3772
Oxyanthus speciosus DC. subsp. stenocarpus (K.Schum.) Bridson Chase 281
Pavetta comostyla S.Moore subsp. comostyla var. inyangensis (Bremek.) Bridson FoZ #7191
Pavetta umtalensis Bremek. Chase 5490
Pentanisia schweinfurthii Hiern Obermeyer 2029
Pentas purpurea Oliv. subsp. purpurea Eyles 7081
Psychotria mahonii C.H.Wright Chase 6280
Psychotria peduncularis (Salisb.) Steyerm. Masterson 559b
Psychotria zombamontana (Kuntze) E.M.A.Petit Drummond 5098
Psydrax kraussioides (Hiern) Bridson Müller 25
Psydrax parviflora (Afzel.) Bridson subsp. chapmanii Bridson (=Canthium vulgare (K.Schum.) Bullock) Müller 3050
Pyrostria bibracteata (Baker) Cavaco Müller 3747
*Richardia brasiliensis Gomes FoZ #37438
*Richardia scabra L. FoZ #3354
Rothmannia fischeri (K.Schum.) Bullock subsp. moramballae (Hiern) Bridson Chase 6999
Rothmannia urcelliformis (Hiern) Robyns Chase 6210
Rubia cordifolia L. subsp. conotricha (Gand.) Verdc. Greatrex-SRGH 14938
Rutidea fuscescens Hiern subsp. fuscescens FoZ #15915
Rytigynia macrura Verdc. (=R. sp. 1 of Drummond) Müller 3595
Sericanthe andongensis (Hiern) Robbr. subsp. engleri (K.Krause) Bridson FoZ #3509
Sericanthe sp. A of FZ Müller 3082
Spermacoce natalensis Hochst. Hopkins 7096
Tapiphyllum velutinum (Hiern) Robyns Chase 4151
Tarenna pavettoides (Harv.) Sim subsp. affinis (K.Schum.) Bridson FoZ #3806
Tricalysia coriacea (Benth.) Hiern subsp. angustifolia (J.C.Garcia) Robbr. Müller plot 68
Tricalysia pallens Hiern Müller plot 91
Vangueria apiculata K.Schum. Müller 2425
Vangueria esculenta S.Moore Müller 3054
Vangueria infausta Burch. subsp. infausta FoZ #15143
Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb. Hyde s.r.
*Casimiroa edulis La Llave FoZ #21844
*Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. FoZ #4034
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Benth. var. anisata Whellan 761
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Bamps et al 625
Vepris bachmannii (Engl.) Mziray (=Oricia bachmannii (Engl.) I.Verd.) Chase s.n.
Vepris nobilis (Delile) Mziray (=Teclea nobilis Delile) Chase 5297
Zanthoxylum davyi (I.Verd.) P.G.Waterman Müller plot 152
Casearia battiscombei R.E.Fr. Chase 6177
Dovyalis lucida Sim FoZ #79997
Scolopia stolzii Gilg var. stolzii Chase 5594
Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb. subsp. grandifolia Drummond 5095
Osyridicarpos schimperianus (A.Rich.) A.DC. Müller 3594
Osyris lanceolata Hochst.& Steud. FoZ #955
Thesium ussanguense Engl. Bamps et al 691
Viscum shirense Sprague Müller 4744
Alophyllus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk. Chase 6226
Alophyllus africanus P.Beauv. Carter 2130
Alophyllus chirindensis Baker f. Müller 3494
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. subsp. angustifolia (L.f.) J.G.West Williams 223
Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn.) Thwaites Chase 1968
Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell FoZ #15195
Zanha golungensis Hiern Müller 3373
Chrysophyllum gorungosanum Engl. Chase 7690
Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.Penn. FoZ #1383
Englerophytum natalense (Sond.) T.D.Penn. Müller 3622
Manilkara discolor (Sond.) J.H.Hemsl. Chase 4559
Mimusops zeyheri Sond. Chase 1741
Buddleja pulchella N.E.Br. Müller plot 146
Buddleja salviifolia (L.) Lam. Chase 7798
Diclis ovata Benth. Mavi 1785
Diclis tenella Hemsl. Chase 6119
Freylinia tropica S.Moore FoZ #784
Hebenstretia angolensis Rolfe Chase 6124
Hebenstretia oatesii Rolfe subsp. rhodesiana Roessler FoZ #24443
Jamesbrittenia carvalhoi (Engl.) Hilliard Chase 259
Nemesia zimbabwensis Rendle Whellan 1559
Selago goetzei Rolfe subsp. ambigua Hilliard Whellan 1143
*Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. FoZ #18295
*Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. FoZ #114
*Physalis peruviana L. FoZ #1201
*Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. Biegel 2429
Solanum anguivi Lam. Müller 2628
*Solanum betaceum Cav. (=Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn.) Masterson 1327
Solanum campylacanthum A.Rich. (=S. panduriforme E.Mey., S. incanum auct.) FoZ #7241
*Solanum lycopersicum L. (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) FoZ #21088
*Solanum mauritianum Scop. FoZ #7344
Solanum terminale Forssk. Drummond 5083
Sterculiaceae (see Malvaceae: Byttnerioideae, Helicteroideae & Sterculioideae)
Halleria lucida L. Plowes 2503
Nuxia congesta Fresen. Simon 921
Nuxia floribunda Benth. Plowes 2183
Dais cotinifolia L. FoZ #4994
Gnidia kraussiana Meisn. var. kraussiana Chase 7368
Peddiea africana Harv. Chase 1969
Synaptolepis alternifolia Oliv. Chase 6502
Tiliaceae (see Malvaceae: Grewioideae)
Tricliceras longepedunculatum (Mast.) R.Fern. var. longepedunculatum Bamps et al 643
Celtis africana Burm.f. Chase 7012
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume Bamps et al 728
Boehmeria macrophylla Hornem. Chase 7135
Droguetia iners (Forssk.) Schweinf. FoZ #3789
Elatostema monticola Hook.f. Müller 803
Laportea alatipes Hook.f. Biegel 3498
Laportea mooreana (Hiern) Chew Chase 6059
Laportea peduncularis (Wedd.) Chew subsp. peduncularis Müller 3398
Myrianthus holstii Engl. Chase 5790
*Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. FoZ #37433
Pilea tetraphylla (Steud.) Blume Chase 7487
Pouzolzia parasitica (Forssk.) Schweinf. FoZ #15694
Urera hypselodendron (A.Rich.) Wedd. Chase 8439
Urera trinervis (Hochst.) Friis & Immelman Müller 3498
*Lantana camara L. FoZ #7593
Lantana swynnertonii Moldenke FoZ #29009
Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng. FoZ #1552
*Verbena bonariensis L. FoZ #1582
*Verbena brasiliensis Vell. Bamps et al 617
Rinorea convallarioides (Baker f.) Eyles subsp. convallarioides Müller 3495
Rinorea ferruginea Engl. Drummond 5081
Viola abyssinica Oliv. Biegel 2423
Cayratia gracilis (Guill.& Perr.) Suess. Chase 7300
Cissus petiolata Hook.f. Müller 3093
Cyphostemma buchananii (Planch.) Wild & R.B.Drumm. Wild 2834
Cyphostemma kilimandscharicum (Gilg) Wild & R.B.Drumm. Chase 8182
Cyphostemma montanum Wild & R.B.Drumm. FoZ #1776
Rhoicissus rhomboidea (Harv.) Planch. Chase 7394
Rhoicissus tomentosa (Lam.) Wild & R.B.Drumm. FoZ #3574
Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Wild & R.B.Drumm. FoZ #15342