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Checklist of the grasses of India
expand article infoElizabeth Kellogg, J. Richard Abbott§, Kamaljit Bawa|, Kanchi Gandhi, B. R. Kailash#, K. N. Ganeshaiah¤, Uttam Babu Shrestha«, Peter Raven»
‡ Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, United States of America
§ Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, United States of America
| University of Massachusetts, Boston, Boston, United States of America
¶ Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, United States of America
# 5Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore, India
¤ University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India
« University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
» Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

A checklist of the grasses of India is presented, as compiled from survey of all available literature. Of the twelve subfamilies of grasses, ten are represented in India. Most subfamilies have been examined by taxonomic experts for up-to-date nomenclature. The list includes 1506 species plus infraspecific taxa and presents information on types, synonyms, distribution within India, and habit. Twelve new combinations are made, viz. Arctopoa tibetica (Munro ex Stapf) Prob. var. aristulata (Stapf) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Chimonocalamus nagalandianus (H.B. Naithani) L.G. Clark, comb. nov.; Chionachne digitata (L.f.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Chionachne wallichiana (Nees) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Dinebra polystachyos (R. Br.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Moorochloa eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp var. divaricata (Basappa & Muniv.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro var. puberula (Miq.) Kailash, comb. & stat. nov.; Tzveleviochloa schmidii (Hook. f.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Urochloa lata (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb. var. pubescens (C.E. Hubb.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Urochloa ramosa (L.) T.Q. Nguyen var. pubescens (Basappa & Muniy.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.; Urochloa semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair var. intermedia (Basappa & Muniy.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

Keywords

Poaceae, taxonomy, biodiversity, biogeography, south Asia

Introduction

The following is a checklist of the grasses of India, produced as part of the Plants of India project. The grass family has been the subject of two major new classifications, Kellogg (2015b) and Soreng et al. (2015, 2017), based on phylogenetic data. Even before these appeared, molecular phylogenies had resolved circumscription of the subfamilies and there has been general agreement for at least the last 15 years on the monophyly of the major subfamilies. Nearly all known genera have been firmly assigned to subfamily and a large majority to tribe. Division into subtribes remains an item of discussion in some groups.

The two current classifications are quite similar, which is not surprising since they are based on the same underlying data and phylogenies. Many of the differences reflect simply different preferences for classification. Kellogg (2015b) generally avoids monogeneric tribes or subtribes on the grounds that they convey no phylogenetic information and are unnecessary. This means that, while all genera are assigned to subfamily, the smaller subfamilies (e.g. Pharoideae) are not divided into tribes. In contrast, Soreng et al. (2015, 2017) prefer consistency in the use of ranks throughout the classification, meaning that all subfamilies include tribes, even if or when the tribes are unnecessary from the point of view of identification or phylogeny. The same arguments apply to subtribes. The Soreng et al. (2015, 2017) classification is thus more split than Kellogg (2015b). In addition, there are a few differences in generic circumscription. Because Kellogg (2015b) appeared in book form, it really represents the state of data a couple of years earlier, whereas Soreng et al. (2017) includes more recent information.

All grass subfamilies are represented in India except for Anomochlooideae, which is found only in the New World, and Puelioideae, which is restricted to Africa. We follow Kellogg (2015b) in using italics in the taxonomic descriptions to indicate putative synapomorphies (shared derived characters) indicating monophyly of the described group. Numbers of tribes and genera are listed in Table 1. This list includes 266 genera, representing about a third of the 711 (Kellogg 2015b) to 768 (Soreng et al. 2017) genera currently recognized in the family.

Table 1.

The ten subfamilies of grasses represented in the flora of India, showing numbers of tribes, genera, and species recorded in India for each. Tribes are not recognized here for Pharoideae and Aristidoideae because they are redundant, nor for Micrairoideae and Arundinoideae because the number of genera is too small to require tribal designations. Two hundred sixty-six genera have been recorded for the country, representing about 1/3 of the total in the family.<br/>

Subfamily Tribes Genera Species + subspecies + varieties
Pharoideae (1, redundant) 1 1
Bambusoideae 2 (of 3) 32 148
Oryzoideae 3 (of 3) 6 29
Pooideae 8 (of 11) 70 383
Aristidoideae (1, redundant) 2 15
Panicoideae 6 (of 8) 98 668
Danthonioideae (1, redundant) 3 5
Chloridoideae 5 (of 5) 43 201
Micrairoideae (4, not recognized here) 7 50
Arundinoideae (2, not recognized here) 4 6

Many of the tribes and subfamilies have been checked by taxonomic experts and those experts are acknowledged in the appropriate section. Because of in some cases considerable time elapsed between the review of the list and the current publication, recent taxonomic changes may have been missed. Most nomenclatural information is consistent with that in the Tropicos database (http://www.tropicos.org), but the synonymy is not fully consistent with that in GrassBase (Clayton et al. 2006 onwards)

The compilation presented here is meant to be a starting point for future work, which requires detailed mapping and verification with herbarium material. Distributions within India are compiled from a broad range of sources only some of which included specimen citations to support their claims of geographical distribution. All distribution records should thus be considered provisional. Of particular note is the work of Naithani (1990), which added many new distribution records but largely without documentation. When Naithani (1990) is the only source for a record, this is noted in the text. We have avoided use of the term “endemic” since endemism is hard to verify in the absence of extensive herbarium material. Synonyms are ones that have been used in the Indian literature in the past. Some of these are New World names and are included here as a way to be able to follow up older Indian literature.

India is the most poorly studied of all subcontinents for grasses. The country has been largely inaccessible to foreign botanists for the last several decades and the revolution in molecular systematics has largely missed Indian grasses because of the near-impossibility of obtaining material. We present this list in hopes of showing the richness of the grass flora and the discoveries to be made.

Background and methods

The objective of the overall project is to produce an authenticated and authoritative digital list of vascular plants of India, both native and naturalized. This list is to include all taxa of seed plants with their accepted names, synonyms, author names, publication details, habit, and distribution ranges. It has been a major task to coalesce the available taxonomic information into a unified list of names representing India’s plant diversity. Doing so required a significant amount of effort and time to compile the information in source materials and produce a functional list. Despite its tentative nature, this list contains the best information available for many groups, and is likely to find diverse uses and applications.

The current checklist has resulted from collaboration between the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), the Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG), and Harvard University Herbaria (HUH). In mid-1990s, prior to the present collaboration, Dr. K.N. Ganeshaiah of the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and Dr. Sebastian Padayatty of Shaman Scientific, Bangalore, along with Kanchi N. Gandhi of the HUH, were independently compiling data on plant names for a checklist of vascular plants of India. Dr. Peter H. Raven (MBG) and Dr. Kamal Bawa (ATREE) organized a meeting of relevant staff from the two teams at the Missouri Botanical Garden in 2002. At this meeting, it was agreed that a team would compile the available data at ATREE, the nomenclature would be verified at the Harvard University Herbaria, and taxonomic revision would be carried out by specialists under the guidance of Dr. Raven. The Sehgal Family Foundation, a previous donor to both ATREE and MBG, provided the initial funds for preparing a comprehensive list of India’s plants.

National and international botanical journals, floras, manuals, monographs, and revisionary works were reviewed, with the data compiled by a team of energetic staff members under the supervision of the late Dr. S. N. I. Yoganarasimhan (1944–2017). At the HUH, Gandhi received a copy of the data that had been compiled at ATREE and verified the nomenclature over a period almost 6 years (2007–2013). Initially, two assistants, Mr. Uttam B. Shrestha (a Ph.D. student of Dr. Bawa) and Mr. B. R. Kailash (ATREE staff) worked under the supervision of Gandhi; later Uttam’s wife Sujata Shrestha also joined the crew for a few months.

Regardless of the status of a name (accepted or synonym), an effort was made to check each protologue to verify its validity, authorship, bibliography, and legitimacy. The investigation was helpful in correcting errors that had found their way into earlier botanical works. A number of recent monographs and journals were consulted to add new taxa reported for India and to revise taxonomy and ranges of taxa. In the course of this work, type information was added when feasible.

Poaceae Barnh., 1895, nom. cons

Type. Poa L.

Ancestrally rhizomatous perennials but diversified into caespitose or scarcely branched forms; annual habit derived multiple times. Culms herbaceous but woody culms derived more than once. Height varying from a few mm to several m. Leaf blades broad, pseudopetioles synapomorphic for the family but repeatedly lost. Ligule membranous or a fringe of hairs. Inflorescences branched or unbranched. Stamens ancestrally 6, but reduced to 3 in many species. Style branches and stigmas ancestrally 3, but reduced to 2 in many species. Pollen monoporate, lacking scrobiculi in the exine. Ovule 1. Embryo lateral, highly differentiated with clear root and shoot meristems, each enclosed by a sheath, and with several well-developed leaves and a lateral haustorial organ (scutellum). Fruit indehiscent with a single seed, the seed coat tightly appressed or fused to the inner wall of the pericarp. Leaf mesophyll with fusoid cells and with cells with invaginated cell walls, midrib complex; these characters lost during evolution of the family. Epidermis with multicellular microhairs, with alternating long and short cells, the short cells developing silica bodies. Photosynthetic pathway ancestrally C3.

Poaceae is a monophyletic family as documented by decades of phylogenetic studies (e.g., (Campbell and Kellogg 1987; Clark et al. 1995; Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001; Grass Phylogeny Working Group II 2012; Linder 1987)). Morphological characters that are unique to the family (synapomorphic) include the highly differentiated embryo, the unique fruit structure, and the unique leaf morphology. In all grasses except Anomochlooideae (i.e., in all Indian species), the branches terminate in units known as spikelets, with each spikelet subtended by two bracts (glumes) and bearing one or more flowers. Also in this slightly more restricted group the inner perianth is modified to form tiny hyaline structures known as lodicules that function in flower opening and then wither after anthesis.

Subfamily Pharoideae L. G. Clark & Judz., 1996

Plants herbaceous, rhizomatous. Leaf blades with a pseudopetiole, resupinate, with lateral veins running obliquely from midvein to margins. Inflorescence branched, with hooked hairs on the branches and spikelets. Spikelets unisexual, with staminate and pistillate spikelets borne in pairs. Lemma margins fused such that lemmas are tubular and often inflated. Lodicules lacking, or present only in staminate flowers. Inner bundle sheath of veins with multiple layers of cells. Intercostal epidermis with files of long fibers alternating with normal files of intercostal long cells.

Subfamily Pharoideae includes only about 12 species, which grow in shade in tropical forests. The subfamily is monophyletic, with obvious morphological and molecular synapomorphies. The spikelets are unisexual and paired, with a large pistillate spikelet associated with a much smaller staminate spikelet. The leaf anatomy is also distinctive in that the inner bundle sheath of the veins has multiple layers of cells (Judziewicz and Clark 2007). The intercostal epidermis has files of long fibers alternating with normal files of intercostal long cells (Soderstrom et al. 1987). It is unclear whether this subfamily actually occurs in India, although Leptaspis urceolata has been reported, as noted below.

Leptaspis R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 211. 1810

Type. Leptaspis banksii R. Br.

1. Leptaspis urceolata (Roxb.) R. Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. (Bennett) 23. t. 6. 1838

Pharus urceolatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 3: 611. 1832. Type: Malaysia: A native of Pulo Pinaug

Leptaspis manillensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 8. 1853. Type: Thailand: Manila; Cuming Herb. no. 1739

Leptaspis zeylanica Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 8. 1853. Type: Sri Lanka.

Distribution. Kerala [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Rhizomatous perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Subfamily Bambusoideae Luerss., 1893

Woody or herbaceous perennials. Leaves pseudopetiolate, the culm leaves generally morphologically distinct from those on the lateral branches. Ligule membranous, with or without a fringe of hairs. Inflorescences branched or unbranched, bearing conventional spikelets or pseudospikelets. Glumes 0 or 1 to several. Lodicules 3. Stamens 3 or 6. First seedling leaf lacking a lamina.

Bambusoideae includes both woody and herbaceous bamboos. The lack of a lamina on the first seedling leaf may be synapomorphic (Soderstrom and Ellis 1987). In addition, the leaf anatomy is distinctive. The leaf mesophyll is marked by fusoid cells, which appear large and seemingly empty in cross section; this cell type is actually symplesiomorphic in the family (Clark et al. 1995; Kellogg 2015b; Leandro et al. 2018). Adaxial and abaxial to the fusoid cells are mesophyll cells with invaginated cell walls, known as arm cells. In the bamboos, these are asymmetric, a characteristic that is synapomorphic for the subfamily. The last several years have seen considerable progress on phylogeny and classification of bamboos (Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012; Kelchner and Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2013), but in general work on Old World species has proceeded more slowly than that in the New World. Of the three tribes, only two occur in India.

Much of the data presented here relies on the authoritative World Checklist of Bamboos and Rattans (Vorontsova et al. 2016).

Taxonomic Editor: Lynn G. Clark, Iowa State University

Tribe Arundinarieae Asch. & Graebn., 1902

Plants woody, with rhizomes leptomorph (running) and the plants forming more or less diffuse stands, or pachymorph (clumping), these taxa sometimes with elongated necks. Branches developing from the top to the bottom of the plant (basipetal). Foliage leaves with an outer ligule. Spikelets laterally compressed. Midrib with complex vasculature.

All members of this tribe are woody and temperate and are tetraploid (2n = 48) (Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012; Kelchner and Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2013). Generic limits are not well defined in most cases and hybridization has been documented repeatedly (Triplett et al. 2010, 2014; Wong and Low 2011).

Ampelocalamus S.L. Chen, T.H. Wen & G.Y. Sheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 332. 1981

Type. Ampelocalamus actinotrichus (Merrill & Chun) S.L. Chen, T.H. Wen & G.Y. Sheng

2. Ampelocalamus patellaris (Gamble) Stapleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 51(3): 321. 1994

Dendrocalamus patellaris Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 86–87. t. 75. 1896. Type: Sikkim, Jungat, alt. 4000 ft.; November, 1881; Gamble 10045 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 321. 1994.

Patellocalamus patellaris (Gamble) W.T. Lin, J. S. China Agric. Univ. 10(2): 46. 1989

Sinocalamus patellaris (Gamble) T.Q. Nguyen, Bot. Žur. (Moscow & Leningrad) 74: 1662. 1989

Chimonobambusa jainiana C.R. Das & D.C. Pal, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 4(3): 1023. 1983. Type: India: West Bengal, Kalimpong; CNH 12178 (CAL).

Drepanostachyum jainianum (C.R. Das & D.C. Pal) R.B. Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 235. 1985 (“1983”) (as “jainiana”)

Sinarundinaria jainiana (C.R. Das & D.C. Pal) H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 116(12): 990. 1990

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Chimonobambusa Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 153. 1914

Lectotype. Chimonobambusa marmorea (Mitford) Makino (Bambusa marmorea Mitford). LT designated by McClure in Taxon 6(7): 201–202. 1957.

3. Chimonobambusa armata (Gamble) J. R. Xue & T. P. Yi, J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 38. 1983

Arundinaria armata Gamble Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 130, pl. 119. 1896. Type: Burma: “Hills of Upper Burma. Bernardmyo”; Mr. J.W. Oliver 1894 (K).

Oreocalamus armatus (Gamble) T. H. Wen, J. Bamboo Res. 5(2): 22. 1986

Chimonocalamus armatus (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 275. 1989

Distribution. India, cultivated only [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

4. Chimonobambusa arunachalensis T. P. Sharma & Borthakur, Pleione 2(1): 1. 2008

Type. India: Arunachal Pradesh, Ziro, Lower Subansiri district, 8 May 2006, TP0140A.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

5. Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6(3): 151. 1925

Arundinaria callosa Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 30. 1868. Lectotype: India: Meghalaya, Myrung; July 6, 1850; J.D. Hooker & Thompson 1504 (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull. 44(2): 366. 1989.

Chimonocalamus callosus (Munro) J. R. Xue & T. P. Yi, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 84. 1979

Sinobambusa callosa (Munro) T.H. Wen, J. Bamboo Res. 1(1): 35. 1982

Arundinaria phar E.G. Camus, Bambusées: 37. 1913

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland [Bhutan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

6. Chimonobambusa jainii T. P. Sharma & Borthakur, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 32(4): 783–785, f. 1. 2008

Type. India: Arunachal Pradesh, Ziro, Lower Subansiri district, 6 May 2006, TP0140.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

7. Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 153. 1914

Bambusa quadrangularis Franceschi, Bull. Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 5: 401. 1880 Type unknown.

Arundinaria quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 9: 71. 1895

Phyllostachys quadrangularis (Fraceschi) Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 443. 1904

Tetragonocalamus quadrangularis (Franceschi) Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 9: 90. 1933

Distribution. Meghalaya, cultivated? [China, Japan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Chimonocalamus J. R. Xue & T. P. Yi, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 76. 1979

Type. Chimonocalamus delicatus J. R. Xue & T. P. Yi.

8. Chimonocalamus griffithianus (Munro) J. R. Xue & T. P. Yi, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 83–84. 1979

Arundinaria griffithiana Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 20. 1888. Syntypes: India: Assam, Khasia Mountain, Mofong; Griffith Assam Dept. 39 (K). J.D. Hooker s.n. (K).

Chimonobambusa griffithiana (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6(3): 151. 1925

Sinarundinaria griffithiana (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 353. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

9. Chimonocalamus longiusculus Hsueh & T. P. Yi, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(2): 80–81, pl. 6. 1979.

Type. China: Yunnan: Xichou, evergreen broad-leaved forests, 1600–1700 m, 31 May 1977; S.W. Xian 6979?

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

10. Chimonocalamus lushaiensis Ohrnb., Bamboos World Introd. 3: 14. 1996.

Sinarundinaria longispiculata C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 43: 411. 1988. Type: India: Assam, Sangao, Lushai Hills, 1300 m; Mar 1953; Thakur Rup Chand 6889 (K) [Replaced synonym]

Chimonocalamus longispiculatus R. B. Majumdar. Fl. Ind. Enum. Monocot 276. 1989. Type: ?

Chimonocalamus longispiculatus (C.S. Chao & Renvoize) D.Z. Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 16: 41. 1994. Nom. illegit.

Sinarundinaria arunachalensis H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 117(1): 78. 1991

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam.

Habit. Woody perennial.

11. Chimonocalamus nagalandianus (H.B. Naithani) L.G. Clark, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212051-1

Sinarundinaria nagalandiana H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 120(12): 1120. 1994. Type: India: Nagaland, Niriyo Peak, alt. 3840 ft., Wokha; November, 1986; H.B. Naithani 1477 (DD).

Distribution. Nagaland.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Seethalakshmi and Kumar (1998) indicate that this species is allied to Chimonocalamus griffithianus (as Sinarundinaria griffithianus) so a new combination in Chimonocalamus is here proposed. This species has the root spines characteristic of this genus, but is unknown in flower.

Drepanostachyum Keng f., Journal of Bamboo Research 2(1): 15. 1983

Type. Drepanostachyum falcatum (Nees) Keng f.

12. Drepanostachyum falcatum (Nees) Keng f., J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 16. 1983

Arundinaria falcata Nees, Linnaea 9: 478. 1835

Sinarundinaria falcata (Nees) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 357. 1989

Arundinaria gracilis (hort. ex Rivière & C. Rivière) Blanch., Rev. Hist. Nat. [Paris]. 58: 490. 1886

Bambusa gracilis hort. ex Rivière & C. Rivière, Bull. Soc. Natl. Acclim. France Ser. 3, 5(25): 682. 1878

Type. “In Nepalia legit, Royle.” Lectotype: Northwest India; Royle s.n. (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull. 44(2): 358. 1989.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Arundinaria gracilis (hort. ex Rivière & C. Rivière) Blanch. is included in Seethalakshmi and Kumar (1998) but is the subject of taxonomic confusion. The name is based on Bambusa gracilis hort. ex Rivière & C. Rivière, but this is a synonym of Drepanostachyum falcatum (Nees) Keng f., according to Vorontsova et al. (2016). As noted by taxonomic editor Clark, Arundinaria gracilis Lafossse is listed as a nomen nudum in TROPICOS, apparently because the protologue fails to cite a type. This entity requires further investigation.

13. Drepanostachyum intermedium (Munro) Keng f., J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 18. 1983

Arundinaria intermedia Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 28. 1868. Type: India: Sikkim, alt. 7000–8000 ft.; 1848; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K)

Chimonobambusa intermedia (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 151. 1925

Sinarundinaria intermedia (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 357. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

14. Drepanostachyum khasianum (Munro) Keng f., Journal of Bamboo Research 2(1): 18. 1983

Arundinaria khasiana Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 28. 1868. Type: India: Khasia, Shillong, 5800 ft.; Griffith 1058 (K)

Chimonobambusa khasiana (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 151. 1925

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

15. Drepanostachyum kurzii (Gamble) Pandey ex D.N. Tewari, Monogr. Bamboo 90. 1993

Arundinaria kurzii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 25. t. 25. 1896. Type: Burma: Southern coast; 1878; Kurz s.n. (K).

Sinarundinaria kurzii (Gamble) M. Kumar, Bamboos of India, compendium 279. 1998

Distribution. Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, West Bengal.

Habit. Woody perennial.

16. Drepanostachyum polystachyum (Kurz ex Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 277. 1989

Arundinaria polystachya Kurz ex Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 7. t. 5. 1896. Lectotype: India: Sikkim, alt. 4000–5000 ft.; 1868; Kurz & Anderson s.n. (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull 44(2): 359. 1989

Chimonobambusa polystachya (Kurz ex Gamble) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 151. 1925

Sinarundinaria polystachya (Kurz ex Gamble) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 359. 1989

Distribution. Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal.

Habit. Woody perennial.

17. Drepanostachyum suberectum (Munro) R.B. Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 236. 1985 (“1983”)

Arundinaria suberecta Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 32. 1868. Lectotype: India: Meghalaya, Mamlo; October 27, 1835; Griffith 558 (K). LT designated by Stapleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 308. 1994.

Sinarundinaria suberecta (Munro) M. Kumar, Bamboos of India, compendium 286. 1998

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Himalayacalamus Keng f., J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 23. 1983

Type. Himalayacalamus falconeri (Hook. f. ex Munro) Keng f. (Thamnocalamus falconeri Hook. f. ex Munro)

18. Himalayacalamus falconeri (Hook. f. ex Munro) Keng f., J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 24. 1983

Thamnocalamus falconeri Hook. f. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 34. 1868. Type: Nepal: Bagmati Zone, Kathmandu, Sheopore [Shivapuri], alt. 8000 ft.; 1821; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 5040 (K).

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

19. Himalayacalamus hookerianus (Munro) Stapleton, Bamboo Soc. Newsl. 17: 21. 1993

Arundinaria hookeriana Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 29. 1868. Lectotype: India: Sikkim [Neongong, 6800 ft.,] “Praong, 4000–6000 ft.”; December, 1848; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 318. 1995.

Sinarundinaria hookeriana (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull.44(2): 358. 1989

Drepanostachyum hookerianum (Munro) Keng f., J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 17. 1983

Chimonobambusa hookeriana (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6(3): 151. 1925

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan]. Native to Bhutan and north-eastern India, but commonly cultivated in West Bengal and also in Nepal.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Kuruna Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark, Phytotaxa 174: 199–200. 2014

Type. Kuruna debilis (Thwaites) Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark.

20. Kuruna densifolia (Munro) Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark, Phytotaxa 174: 200. 2014

Arundinaria densifolia Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 32. 1868. Lectotype: Sri Lanka; Watson 25 (K). LT designated by Soderstrom & Ellis in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 72: 12. 1988

Chimonobambusa densifolia (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 151. 1925

Sinarundinaria densifolia (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 354. 1989

Yushania densifolia (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989

Distribution. Kerala [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Woody perennial.

21. Kuruna floribunda (Thwaites) Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark, Phytotaxa 174: 200. 2014

Arundinaria floribunda Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites) 375. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Maturatte District, alt. 5000 ft.; 1863; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 2624 (PDA).

Indocalamus floribundus (Thwaites) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 148. 1925

Sinarundinaria floribunda (Thwaites) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 356. 1989

Yushania floribunda (Thwaites) Demoly, Bambou 48: 12. 2006

Distribution. Kerala [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Woody perennial.

22. Kuruna walkeriana (Munro) Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark, Phytotaxa 174: 200. 2014

Arundinaria walkeriana Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 21. 1868. Lectotype: Sri Lanka; Mrs. Walker 96 (K). LT designated by Soderstrom & Ellis in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 72: 27. 1988

Indocalamus walkerianus (Munro) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 148. 1925

Sinarundinaria walkeriana (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 354. 1989

Yushania walkeriana (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Woody perennial.

23. Kuruna wightiana (Nees) Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark, Syst. Bot. 41(1): 191, f. 13. 2016.

Arundinaria wightiana Nees, Linnaea 9: 482. 1835. Type: “Peninsula Indiae orientalis; Herb Wight.” India: Nilgiris District; Wight 1797 (K, Isotype).

Indocalamus wightianus (Nees) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 149. 1925

Sinarundinaria wightiana (Nees) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 356. 1989

Yushania wightiana (Nees) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Indocalamus wightianus (Nees) Nakai var. hispida (Steud.) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 149. 1925

Arundinaria wightiana Nees var. hispida (Steud.) Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 5. 1896

Yushania wightiana (Nees) R.B. Majumdar var. hispida (Steud.) R.B. Majumdar & S. Karthikeyan in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1(Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Arundinaria hispida Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 335. 1854. Type: India: “In sylvis prope Sispara Nilagiri”; Hohenacker 1282 (K).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 3: 745. 1843, nom. cons.

Type. Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc.

24. Phyllostachys aurea Carrière ex Rivière & C. Rivière, Bull. Soc. Natl. Acclim. France ser. 3, 5: 716 f. 36, 37. 1878

Type. Tunis, Cultivated in “Jardim du Hamma”; Anonymous s.n. (P).

Distribution. Uttarakhand [China]. Cultivated; native to China and Japan, widely cultivated.

Habit. Woody perennial.

25. Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 3(3): 746. pl. 5. f. 3. 1843

Type. Japan; P.F. von Siebold s.n. (L).

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh [China]. Cultivated; native to China and Japan, widely cultivated.

Habit. Woody perennial.

26. Phyllostachys mannii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 28. t. 28. 1896

Phyllostachys assamica Gamble ex Brandis, Indian Trees 667. 1906. Type: India: Mishmi Hills, Namdang, Lakhimpur District, Sadiya; Griffith s.n.

Phyllostachys bambusoides sensu Gamble, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 386. 1896, non Siebold & Zucc., 1843

Type. India: Shillong, Kashia Hills and said to have come from the Naga Hills; 1889; G. Mann s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland [China, Myanmar]. Native, but also cultivated.

Habit. Woody perennial.

27. Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 38, 123. 1868

Bambusa nigra Lodd. ex Lindl., Penny Cyclop. 3: 357. 1835

Phyllostachys puberula var. nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 14: 64. 1900

Phyllostachys puberula var. nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) J. Houz., Act. Congr. Int. Bot. (Brux.) 2: 223. 1912, isonym.

Sinoarundinaria nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Ohwi ex Mayeb., Fl. Austro-Higo. 86. 1931

Distribution. India. Cultivated only; native to S Hunan, China.

Habit. Woody perennial.

28. Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro var. puberula (Miq.) Kailash, comb. & stat. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212052-1

Phyllostachys puberula var. puberula in Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 14: 64. 1900

Phyllostachys henonis Mitford, Garden (London 1871–1927) 47: 3. 1895

Bambusa puberula Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 285. 1866. Type: Japan: Osakka; Siebold, Buerger & Textor s.n.

Phyllostachys puberula (Miq.) Munro, Gard. Chron., n. s. 6: 773, 774. 1876

Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro var. henonis (Mitford) Stapf ex Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36(254): 442–443. 1904

Distribution. India. Cultivated; native to S Hunan, China.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Pleioblastus Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6(3): 145. 1925

Lectotype. Pleioblastus communis (Makino) Nakai (Arundinaria communis Makino). LT designated by McClure in Taxon 6: 207. 1957.

29. Pleioblastus simonii (Carrière) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6(3): 147. 1925

Bambusa simonii Carrière, Rev. Hort. [Paris]. 37: 380. 1866. Type: China?; 1862; E. Simon s.n. (P).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh. Possibly cultivated in India; probably native to Japan.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes, “Although the type is supposedly from China, I know of no valid records from that country.”

Pseudosasa Makino ex Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6(1): 150. 1925

Lectotype. Pseudosasa japonica (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Nakai (Arundinaria japonica Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.). LT designated by LT designated by McClure in Taxon 6(7): 207. 1957.

30. Pseudosasa japonica (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino. ex Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 150. 1925

Arundinaria japonica Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 334. 1854. Type: “Java” Japan: Metake; P. F. von Siebold s.n. (L).

Distribution. Meghalaya, West Bengal [China]. Cultivated only; native to Japan.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Sarocalamus Stapleton, Novon 14(3): 346. 2004

Type. Sarocalamus racemosus (Munro) Stapleton.

31. Sarocalamus racemosus (Munro) Stapleton, Novon 14(3): 347. 2004

Arundinaria racemosa Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 17. 1868 Lectotype: India: North East Himalaya [Sikkim & Darjeeling District], Birch Hill, alt. 6000 ft.; August, 1857; Thomson s.n. (K). LT selected by Gamble, 1912 (fide Stapleton et al. 2004).

Fargesia racemosa (Munro) T. P. Yi, J. Bamboo Res. 2: 39. 1983

Yushania racemosa (Munro) R. B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Semiarundinaria Makino ex Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 150. 1925

Lectotype. Semiarundinaria fastuosa (Mitford) Nakai (Bambusa fastuosa Mitford). LT designated by A. Rehder in Bibliogr. Cult. Trees Shrubs 638. 1949

32. Semiarundinaria densiflora (Rendle) T.H. Wen, J. Bamboo Res. 8(1): 24. 1989

Arundinaria densiflora Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 434. 1904. Syntypes: Kiangsu: Kiangsu Hills; Faber 19 (K). Chekiang: Hills near Huchan, Taiboo Lake; Charles 227(K).

Fargesia densiflora (Rendle) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 152. 1925

Brachystachyum densiflorum (Rendle) Keng, Sunyatsenia 4 (3–4): 153. 1940

Distribution. Kerala [China]. Cultivated in India.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Thamnocalamus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 33, 157. 1868

Lectotype. Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Trin.) Munro (Arundinaria spathiflora Trin.). LT designated by A. Rehder in Bibliogr. Cult. Trees 639. 1949.

33. Thamnocalamus aristatus (Gamble) E.G. Camus, Bambusees (Camus) 54. 1913

Arundinaria aristata Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 18, t. 17. 1896. Lectotype: India: Sikkim, Phalut, alt. 10000 ft.; Gammie s.n. (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull. 44(2): 363. 1989.

Thamnocalamus spathiflorus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 34. 1868, p.p., non Trin. 1935

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

34. Thamnocalamus occidentalis (Stapleton) Stapleton, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 140. 2007

Thamnocalamus spathiflorus Munro ssp. occidentalis Stapleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 51(2): 283. 1994. Type: India: Uttar Pradesh, Kedarkanda, 9000 ft.; June, 1893; Gamble 24341 (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

35. Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Trin.) Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 34. 1868

Arundinaria spathiflora Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3: 617. 1835. Lectotype: Nepal: North West of Himalaya, alt. 7000 ft.; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 5041 (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull. 44(2): 363. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Yushania Keng f., Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 6(4): 355–356. 1957

Type. Yushania niitakaymensis (Hayata) P. C. Keng (Arundinaria niitakaymensis Hayata)

36. Yushania anceps (Mitf.) W.C. Lin, Bull. Taiwan Forest Res. Inst. 248: 9. 1974

Arundinaria anceps Mitf., Bamb. Gard. 181. 1896. Type: Asia.

Sinarundinaria anceps (Mitf.) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 359. 1989

Arundinaria jaunsarensis Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 23. t. 22. 1896. Type: India: Uttar Pradesh, Jaunsar Hills, Mundali, alt. 7500 ft.; May, 1891; Gamble 23134 (K).

Chimonobambusa jaunsarensis (Gamble) K.N. Bahadur & H.B. Naithani, Indian J. Forest. 1(1): 41. 1978

Yushania jaunsarensis (Gamble) T.P. Yi, J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 39. 1983

Fargesia elegans (Kurz) J. Campbell ssp. jaunsarensis (Gamble) J. Campbell, Gen. Himal. Bamb. 38. 1985

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh. Cultivated in Europe and the U.S.A.

Habit. Woody perennial.

37. Yushania elegans (Kurz) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989

Arundinaria elegans Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 249. 1873. Type: Burma: Martaban, Nattaung Hills, alt. 5000–7000 ft.; Kurz 144 (K).

Sinobambusa elegans (Kurz) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 152. 1925

Fargesia elegans (Kurz) J. Campbell, Gen. Himal. Bamb. 37. 1985

Sinarundinaria elegans (Kurz) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 357. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

38. Yushania hirsuta (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989

Arundinaria hirsuta Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 30. 1868. Lectotype: India: Khasi Hills, among rocks, 5600 ft.; November, 1835; Griffith 6726 (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull. 44(2): 355. 1989.

Sinarundinaria hirsuta (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 355. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

39. Yushania maling (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Arundinaria maling Gamble, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1912: 139. 1912. Lectotype: India: Darjeeling District, Tonglo [Tanglu], alt. 9000 ft.; May 23, 1904; Osmaston s.n. (K). LT designated by C.S. Chao & Renvoize in Kew Bull. 44(2): 356. 1989.

Fargesia maling (Gamble) J. Campbell, Gen. Himal. Bamb. 40. 1985

Sinarundinaria maling (Gamble) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 356. 1988

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal (all Naithani). [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

40. Yushania microphylla (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Arundinaria microphylla Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 32. 1868. Syntypes: Bhutan: Tashigang District, Sanah, alt. 7000 ft.; Griffiths 623 (K). Bhutan: Sanah, alt. 6000–10000 ft.; Griffiths s.n. (K).

Bambusa microphylla Griff., J. Trav. 1: 242, 259. 1847, nom. nud.

Sinarundinaria microphylla (Munro) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 354. 1989

Distribution. Assam, Kerala, Sikkim, Meghalaya [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

41. Yushania pantlingii (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 283. 1989

Arundinaria pantlingii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 129 (‘Pantlingi’). t. 118. 1896. Type: India: Darjeeling District, Sikkim border “Hills of British Bhutan,” Rechi La, 11000 ft.; September, 1895; Pantling’s collectors s.n. (K).

Fargesia pantlingii (Gamble) J. Campbell, Gen. Himal. Bamb. 41. 1985

Semiarundinaria pantlingii (Gamble) Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 151. 1925

Sinarundinaria pantlingii (Gamble) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 359. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

42. Yushania rolloana (Gamble) T.P. Yi, J. Bamboo Res. 2(1): 39. 1983

Arundinaria rolloana Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 24. t. 23. 1896. Type: India: Assam, Naga Hills, Zullah Valley, alt. 5000–7000 ft.;1889; “Gopal Banerjee”; J. Rollo s.n. (K).

Sinarundinaria rolloana (Gamble) C.S. Chao & Renvoize, Kew Bull. 44(2): 355. 1989

Distribution. Assam, Nagaland.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Taxonomic editor Clark suggests that it is doubtful that the following species of Arundinarieae occur in India:

Himalayacalamus gyirongensis (T.P. Yi) Stapleton, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 141. 2007 [doubtful species; also, this is considered a synonym of Himalayacalamus falconeri in the Flora of China.]

Himalayacalamus planatus Stapleton, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 137. 2007 [known from Nepal]

Himalayacalamus porcatus Stapleton, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 141. 2007 [doubtful species]

Thamnocalamus chigar (Stapleton) Stapleton, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 140. 2007 [doubtful species]

Thamnocalamus nepalensis (Stapleton) Stapleton, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 140. 2007 [doubtful species]

Tribe Bambuseae Kunth ex Dumort., 1829

Woody bamboos, often tree-like. Rhizomes pachymorph and the plants clumping, but necks sometimes elongated; one New World genus sometimes with amphimorph rhizomes.Branches developing either from the bottom to the top of the plant (acropetal) or bidirectional. Outer ligule generally present. Spikelets laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes. Midrib mostly with complex vasculature.

Members of this tribe are tropical and either tetraploid or hexaploid, mostly with 2n = 48 or 72, although some aneuploid numbers have been reported (Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012). Pseudospikelets, in which the spikelet themselves form branched structures, are common but not universal in this group (Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012). The Old World species of Bambuseae form a clade separate from the New World species (Kelchner and Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2013; Triplett et al. 2014).

Bambusa Schreb., Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a] 236. 1789, nom. cons.

Type. Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd. (Bambos arundinacea Retz.).

43. Bambusa affinis Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 93. 1868

Type. “Hab. in Ind. or. Burmah, Yoongalum (Teesheincolis); Brandis 18.”

Distribution. Tripura [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

44. Bambusa alamii Stapleton, J. Edinb. J. Bot. 51(1): 10, f. 3. 1994.

Type. Nepal; 9 Jan 1991; Stapleton 907 (E).

Distribution. Assam [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

45. Bambusa alemtemshii H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 133(11): 1575. 2007

Type. India: Nagaland, Longsa village, Mokokchung District; December 5, 2004; H.B. Naithani 4338 (DD).

Distribution. Assam, Nagaland.

Habit. Woody perennial.

46. Bambusa balcooa Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 2: 196. 1832

Dendrocalamus balcooa (Roxb.) Voigt, Hort. SubLurb. Calcutt. 718. 1845

Type. “A native of India: Bengal.” Lectotype: Roxb. Icones 1402 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51(1): 12. 1994.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China]. Widely cultivated in northern India and Bangladesh, thought to originate from this region but known only in cultivation.

Habit. Woody perennial.

47. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn., ed. 3. 1: 1189. 1895 var. bambos

Arundo bambos L., Sp. Pl. 1: 81. 1753. Type: “Habitat in India utraque.” Lectotype = “Ily” in Rheede, Hort. Malab. 1: 25. t. 16. 1678. LT designated by Judziewicz in Görts-van Rijn (ed.), Fl. Guianas, ser. A, 8: 50. 1990.

Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 2: 245. 1799

Bambos arundinacea Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 24. 1788 (“1789”). Lectotype: India orientalis: Herbarium Retzii s.n. right-hand side only (No. 2), H554/90 (LD). LT designated by Xia & Stapleton in Kew Bull. 52(3): 697. 1997.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka]. Cultivated and naturalized in India.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that there are more synonyms in the literature; see Ohrnberger (1999) and Vorontsova et al. (2016).

48. Bambusa burmanica Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 35–36. t. 33. 1896

Type. Burma: Katha District, dry slopes; J.W. Oliver s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

49. Bambusa cacharensis R.B. Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 237. f. 1. 1985 (“1983”)

Type. India: Cachar, Lakhimpur, Mar Bastee; Majumdar 74265A (CAL).

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura [Bangladesh].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that Devi and Bhattacharyya (2013) reported the range listed here. Record for Assam fide Naithani (1990).

50. Bambusa copelandii Gamble ex Brandis, Indian Trees 671. 1906 (as “copelandi”)

Sinocalamus copelandii (Gamble ex Brandis) Raizada, Indian Forester 74(1): 10. 1948 (as “copelandi”)

Dendrocalamus copelandii (Gamble ex Brandis) N.H.Xia & Stapleton, Kew Bull. 52: 484. 1997

Lectotype. India: Dehra Dun, cultivated, alt. 2200 ft.; September, 1898; Gamble 27166 (K). LT designated by Xia & Stapleton in Kew Bull. 52: 484. 1997.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark wrote, “This species is indicated as occurring in these two states in Seethalakshmi & Kumar (1998).” She also notes that it is cultivated in the Botanical Garden at the Calcutta & Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, as well as in the Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute, Kerala.

51. Bambusa griffithiana Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 99. 1868

Type. “Hab. in Ind. or. Burmah, Mogoung; Griffith s.n.

Distribution. Manipur [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Manipur fide Naithani (1990).

52. Bambusa jaintiana R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 274. 1989

Type. India: Shillong; G.K. Deka 31765 (CAL).

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

53. Bambusa khasiana Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 97. 1868

Syntypes. India: Khasia, alt. 2000–4000 ft., Churra; Hooker no. 1097. Jasper Hill, Mahadeb; Hooker 496

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

54. Bambusa kingiana Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 46. t. 42 1896

Type. Burma: Katha District, Petsut; J.W. Oliver s.n.

Distribution. Manipur [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Manipur fide Naithani (1990).

55. Bambusa longispiculata Gamble ex Brandis, Indian Trees 668. 1906

Type. Bangladesh: Chittagong Hill tracts, Ruby mine District, alt. 3500 ft.; Griffith s.n.

Distribution. Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Records for Meghalaya and Mizoram fide Naithani (1990).

56. Bambusa majumdari P. Kumari & P. Singh, Kew Bull. 64: 565. 2009

Type. India: Meghalaya: Garo Hills, near Tura, 14 Sept. 2005, Kumari & Singh 34696 (CAL).

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Woody perennial.

57. Bambusa mohanramii P. Kumari & P. Singh, Kew Bull. 64: 567. 2009

Type. India: Meghalaya: Jaintia hills, Khleiriaht, 9 April 2004, Kumari 34608 (CAL).

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Woody perennial.

58. Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult.f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7(2): 1350. 1830

Arundo multiplex Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1: 58. 1790. Type: “Habitat loca culta in provinciis Borialibus Cochinchinae, ex eaque Plantantur fepes ad divifionem hortorum.”

Bambusa nana Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 2: 199. 1832. Type: “Keu-fa, of the Chinese; a native of their country, and now plentiful in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta…”

Ludolfia glaucescens Willd., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. 2: 320. 1808. Type: “Die von Michaux beschriebene Art soll ein hoher Baum werden und in einer Rispe bluhen. Ich nenne sie.”

Bambusa glaucescens Siebold ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 89. 1868, nom. invalid, pro. syn.

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka]. Probably naturalized in addition to being cultivated; probably native to Indo-China and southern China, but now known only in cultivation

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark wrote, “Introduced into the Indian Botanical Garden in 1794.”

59. Bambusa nagalandiana H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 133(9): 1267–1269. 2007 (as “nagalandeana”)

Type. India: Nagaland, Mon District, Wanching village; December 9, 2004; H.R. Naithani 4344 (DD).

Distribution. Nagaland.

Habit. Woody perennial.

60. Bambusa nairiana P. Kumari & P. Singh, Bull. Surv. India 50: 13. 2009 (“2008”)

Type. India: Meghalaya: Garo hills, near Nokrek, 14 Sept. 2005, Kumari & Singh 34698 (CAL).

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Woody perennial.

61. Bambusa nutans Wall ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 92. 1868

Bambusa falconeri Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 95. 1868

Lectotype. Nepal: Kathmandu, Naga-Arjun [Nagarjun, 27°44'N, 85°71'E]; 1821; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 5031(K-W). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 17 1994.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh].

Habit. Woody perennial.

62. Bambusa oliveriana Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 130. t. 116. 1896

Syntypes. Burma: 30 miles north from Mandalay, alt. 1000–2000 ft.; 1893–94; J.W. Oliver s.n. Ruby Mines Hills; C.S. Rogers s.n.

Distribution. Mizoram, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Myanmar]. Cultivated; native to Myanmar.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Mizoram fide Naithani (1990).

63. Bambusa pallida Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 97. 1868

Bambusa critica Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 255. 1873. Type: Burma.

Dendrocalamus criticus (Kurz) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. B: 94. 1875

Bambusa pseudopallida R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 275. 1989. Type: India: Umtaph on Dawki-Jarain Road; N.P. Balakrishnan 42700 (CAL).

Syntypes. India: Bengalia, Pundua & Silhet (cult.), Cachar, Khasia, Joowye, alt. 3500 ft. Hooker & Thomson 602, 607 (K).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, North Bengal, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

64. Bambusa polymorpha Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 98. 1868

Syntypes. Burma: Martaban, Pegu, (“Kijathounwa”); Brandis no. 1. Rangoon; McClelland s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar]. Cultivated in northwestern parts of India, introduced in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; probably native to northeastern India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Records for Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and Tripura fide Naithani (1990).

65. Bambusa teres Buch.-Ham. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 95. 1868

Syntypes. India: Bengal, Gongachora; Buchanan-Hamilton 881, Griffith s.n. Assam; Jenkins s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

66. Bambusa tulda Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 2: 193. 1832 var. tulda

Type. “The common bamboo of India: Bengal, where it grows in the greatest abundance every where.” Lectotype: Roxb. Icones 1403 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburg J. Bot. 51(1): 19. 1994.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, North Bengal, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes “Kumari & Singh (2014) indicate that this variety is cultivated in Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, North Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.”

67. Bambusa tulda Roxb. var. gamblei P. Kumari & P. Singh, Bamboo of Meghalaya 58. 2014

Type. India: Meghalaya: Garo hills, near Nokrek, 14 Sept. 2005, Kumari & Singh 346700 (CAL).

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Woody perennial.

68. Bambusa vulgaris J.C. Wendl., Coll. Pl. 2: 26, t. 47. 1810, nom. cons.

Bambusa surinamensis Rupr., Bambuseae 49, t. 11. f. 49. 1839. Type: Surinam; 1827–1828; Weigelt s.n.

Bambusa thouarsii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 323, t. 73, 74. 1830. Type: “Crescit in insulis Madagascariae et Borboniae.”

Type.Bambusa vulgaris Wend.”, India; ex herb Wendland (GOET nos. 13986–13919) (typ. cons.).

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that there are many other synonyms in the literature; see Ohrnberger (1999) and Vorontsova et al. (2016).

Cephalostachyum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 138. 1868.

Type. LT.: C. capitatum Munro (designated by McClure, Taxon 6: 201. 1957).

69. Cephalostachyum capitatum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 139. 1868 var. capitatum

Schizostachyum capitatum (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989, non (Trin.) Rupr., 1840

Schizostachyum munroi S.Kumar & Par. Singh, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 70(1–4): 423. 1991

Syntypes. “Hab. in India or montibus, Khasia, Churra, 4000 ped. s.m.; Wallich et Griffith 1078, 1392 (in Herb. Griff.) Nunklow (“Sillee et Sullea”), no. 1813. Sikkim, 4000–6000 ft., Myong Valle (“Pyong”), Hooker & Thomson.”

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim [Bhutan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that, “According to Kumari & Singh (2014), this was lectotypified by Stapleton in 1994. This needs to be verified, as they cite Griffith hb. No. 2682 as the LT.”

70. Cephalostachyum capitatum Munro var. decompositum Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 105. 1896 (as “decomposita”)

Schizostachyum capitatum (Trin.) Rupr. var. decompositum (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Type. India: Sikkim; T. Anderson & Kurz s.n.

Distribution. Meghalaya, Sikkim.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this variety was “not recognized in Kumari & Singh (2014), but also not formally synonymized.”

71. Cephalostachyum flavescens Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 252. 1873

Schizostachyum flavescens (Kurz) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Type. Pegu: H.B.C. culta.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this is also cultivated in West Bengal (Indian Botanic Gardens, Kolkata). Record for Andaman & Nicobar Islands fide Naithani (1990).

72. Cephalostachyum latifolium Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 140. 1868

Schizostachyum latifolium (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989, non Gamble, 1896     

Cephalostachyum fuchsianum Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 107, t. 94. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, Songchonglu, alt. 6000 ft.; 1889–1892; Gammie s.n. (K).

Schizostachyum fuchsianum (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Cephalostachyum longwanum H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 136: 406. 2010

Lectotype. Bhutan; W. Griffith 2682 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 29. 1994.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

73. Cephalostachyum mannii (Gamble) Stapleton & D. Z. Li, Kew Bull. 52: 700. 1997

Arundinaria mannii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 26. 1896. Type: India: Meghalaya, Amkasur, Jainita Hills, 3000 ft.; April 24, 1889; G. Mann 21845 (K).

Neomicrocalamus mannii (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 279. 1989

Racemobambos mannii (Gamble) M. Kumar, Bamboos of India, Compendium 230. 1998

Distribution. Meghalaya [China].

Habit. Woody perennial.

74. Cephalostachyum mishimianum H. B. Naithani, Indian Forester 140(7): 733. 2014 (as “mishmieanum”)

Type. Arunchal Pradesh: 5 km after Udayk Pass, way to Hayuling 1200 m, Lohit District, H.B. Naithani 2141 (holotype: DD).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

75. Cephalostachyum pallidum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 139. 1868

Schizostachyum pallidum (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989

Type. India: Mishmee, Birmah, Patkaye, 5000 ft.; Griffith s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that “In their discussion on p. 63, Kumari and Singh (2014) evidently consider this species as a synonym of C. capitatum, but do not formally synonymize it.”

76. Cephalostachyum pergracile Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 141. 1868

Schizostachyum pergracile (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989

Syntypes. Burma: Rangoon; J.E. McClelland s.n. Pegu; Brandis s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Dendrocalamus Nees, Linnaea 9: 476. 1835

Type. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees (Bambusa stricta Roxb.).

77. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult. & Schult. f.) Backer ex K. Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2, 1: 301. 1927

Bambusa aspera Schult. & Schult. f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7(2): 1352–1353. 1830. Type: “Arundarbor aspera Rumphius, Herb. Amb. 4: 11. In Amboina et Huamchela ad montium pedes.”

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this name has other synonyms in the literature; see Ohrnberger (1999) and Vorontsova et al. (2016).

78. Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. B: 94. 1875 

Bambusa brandisii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 109–110. 1868. Type: “Hab. in Ind. or. Tenasserim, Martaban, Pegu, usque ad 4000 ped. S.M., praecipue in saxis calcareis, Brandis no. 2

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, West Bengal [Myanmar, China, Myanmar]. Naturalized and cultivated; native to Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam but its natural distribution may include Manipur and the Andaman Islands.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Karnataka fide Naithani (1990).

79. Dendrocalamus calostachyus (Kurz) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. B: 94. 1875

Bambusa calostachya Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist 42: 250. 1873. Type: Burma: Ava, Bhamo, Kakhyen Hills, alt. 3500 ft.; Kurz s.n.

Distribution. Meghalaya, Nagaland [China, Myanmar]. Native to northeastern India, China and Myanmar and also cultivated more widely in India.

Habit. Woody perennial.

80. Dendrocalamus collettianus Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 93. t. 83. 1896

Type. Burma: Fort Stedman; 1892; Abdul Huk s.n.

Distribution. West Bengal [China, Myanmar]. Only cultivated in India.

Habit. Woody perennial.

81. Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 150. 1868

Type. “Cult. Calcatta” [Botanical Garden, Calcutta], Lectotype: Hb. Munro (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburg J. Bot. 51(1): 23. 1994.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka]. Probably only cultivated in India; probably native to Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand.

Habit. Woody perennial.

82. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 151. 1868

Bambusa monogynia Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 63. 1851 (non B. monogyna Blanco, 1837)

Lectotype. India: Assam, Goalpara; July 17, 1808; Buchanan-Hamilton 882 (E). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburg J. Bot. 51(1): 23. 1994

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

83. Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 151. 1868 var. hookeri

Lectotype. India: Bengal orient, Pundua; June 11, 1850; J.D. Hooker & Thomson 411 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburg J. Bot. 51(1): 26. 1994

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, North Bengal, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

84. Dendrocalamus longispathus Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. B: 94. 1875

Type. Burma: mixed and tropical forests of Arracan, Pegu Yomah and Martaban; Metam s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Thailand].

Habit. Woody perennial.

85. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 149. 1868

Bambusa membranacea (Munro) Stapleton & N.H. Xia, Kew Bull. 52(1): 238. 1997

Dendrocalamus longifimbriatus Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 92. 1896

Type. Burma: Martaban, Trogla; March 12, 1827; Numer. List [Wallich] no 5029 (K). LT designated by Stapleton & N.H. Xia in Kew Bull. 52: 238. 1997.

Distribution. Kerala, West Bengal [China, Myanmar]. Apparently only cultivated in India; native to Laos, Myanmar and Thailand.

Habit. Woody perennial.

86. Dendrocalamus parishii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 149. 1868

Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro var. parishii (Munro) Blatt., Indian Forester 55(11): 594. 1929

Type. India: Punjab Himalaya; Parish s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Sikkim, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that “This species is not treated in Kumari and Singh (2014) and is not even included in their index. Perhaps does not occur in Meghalaya? Or more likely, given the distribution, is considered synonymous with D. hookeri. Needs further study.”

87. Dendrocalamus sahnii H.B. Naithani & Bahadur, Indian Forester 108(3): 212. f. 1. 1982

Type. India: Arunachal Pradesh, Subansiri District, Zoram, alt. 6000 ft.; April 28, 1977; H.B. Naithani ser II no. 902 (DD).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

88. Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 148. 1868

Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees var. sericeus (Munro) Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb., ed. 2, 751. 1902

Syntypes. India: Behar [Bihar], Parasnath, alt. 4000 ft.; September, 1858; Thomson s.n., (K). India: Behar [Bihar], Parasnath; February, 1848; Hooker s.n. (K).

Distribution. Bihar.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this was treated in Ohrnberger (1999) as a variety of D. strictus. Further study is required.

89. Dendrocalamus sikkimensis Gamble ex Oliver, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 18: t. 1770. 1888

Lectotype. India: Sikkim; July 20, 1885; Pantling s.n. (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburg J. Bot. 51(1): 26. 1994

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, North Bengal, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

90. Dendrocalamus somdevae H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 119(6): 504. 1993 (as “somdevai”)

Type. Uttarakhand: Dehra Dun, Hardwar road between Jogiwala and Majri (Mokhampur), 11.3.1991, Som Deva 10985 (Holotype DD).

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

91. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees, Linnaea 9: 476–477. 1835

Bambos stricta Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 58. t. 80. 1798. Type: India: undershrub in deciduous forests; Roxburgh s.n. (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Bangladesh, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Author K. Gandhi observes, “Since Roxburgh’s collections from the Coromandel Coast were destroyed in a flood, a good comprehensive collection with the same local name from the same area should be made and designated as a neotype.” See also Stapleton (1994).

Dinochloa Buse, Gram. (Buse) 47. 1854

Type. Dinochloa tjankorreh Buse, nom. illeg. (Bambusa scandens Blume, Dinochloa scandens (Blume) Kuntze).

92. Dinochloa andamanica Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 253. 1873

Type. India: “Andamans (etiam in insula Nicobaricis)”.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Habit. Woody perennial.

93. Dinochloa mcclellandii (Munro) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 253. 1873 (as “maclellandii”)

Bambusa mcclellandii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 114. 1868 (as “McClellandi”). Type: “Hab. in Ind. or Pegu, Rangon, Phoungee Valley; M’Clelland v.s.”

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Records for Arunachal Pradesh and Assam fide Naithani (1990).

94. Dinochloa nicobariana R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 277. 1989

Type. India: Nicobar Island, North Nicobar, Katchal Island, Coastal Forest; P. Chakravarty 1129 (CAL).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Habit. Woody perennial.

95. Dinochloa scandens (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 773. 1891

Bambusa scandens Blume, Flora 7: 291. 1824. Type: Java: Megamendung; Blume s.n. (L).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Cultivated; native to Indonesia.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 123. 1868

Lectotype. Gigantochloa atter (Hassk.) Kurz ex Munro (Bambusa vulgaris var. atter Hassk.). LT designated by Holttum in Taxon 5: 28–30. 1956.

96. Gigantochloa albociliata (Munro) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A: cxxxvi; App. B: 93. 1875 (as “albo-ciliata”) 

Oxytenanthera albociliata Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 129. 1868 (as “albo-ciliata”). Type: “Hab. in India or.” [Burma]: Pegu; Brandis 19 (“Wapyoogle” incolis). India: Moulmein; Falconer 27

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, West Bengal [China, Myanmar]. Cultivated, perhaps also naturalized; native to Myanmar.

Habit. Woody perennial.

97. Gigantochloa andamanica (Kurz) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. For. Veg. Pegu, App. A. cxxxvi; App. B. 93 in clavi. 1875

Bambusa andamanica Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal n.s. 39 (2): 88. 1870. Type: Andaman Islands, south Andaman; 1875; Kurz s.n.

Distribution. Andaman Islands [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this name was treated as a synonym of Gigantochloa nigrociliata in Vorontsova et al. (2016); see also remarks under that species. The status of this taxon requires further study.

98. Gigantochloa apus (Schult. & Schult. f.) Kurz ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 126. 1868

Bambusa apus Schult. & Schult.f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7(2): 1353. 1830. Type: Indonesia: “Java ad montem Salaki”; Blume s.n. (check author).

Gigantochloa kurzii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 65. 1896

Distribution. Meghalaya [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

99. Gigantochloa atroviolacea Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10(3): 323. 1987

Type. Indonesia: Java, Wonosari, Nagasari; February, 1983; Ramlanto s.n. (BO).

Distribution. West Bengal. Known only from cultivation; also in Indonesia and Malaysia.

Habit. Woody perennial.

100. Gigantochloa atter (Hassk.) Kurz ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 125. 1868

Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl. var. atter Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (Hasskarl) 19. 1844

Bambusa thouarsii Kunth var. atter Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. 41. 1848

Syntypes. Indonesia: Java; Horsfield s.n. Java: Buitenzorg; Kurz s.n.

Distribution. West Bengal. Cultivated only. [Indonesia and Malaysia].

Habit. Woody perennial.

101. Gigantochloa auriculata (Kurz) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A: cxxxvii; App. B: 94. 1875 

Bambusa auriculata Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist 39: 86. 1870. Type: Burma: Southern Pegu; Kurz 20 (CAL).

Distribution. Assam [Bangladesh, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that Seethalakshmi and Kumar (1998) treat this as a member of the genus Bambusa, but Widjaja, quoted in Ohrnberger (1999), discussed it as a species of Gigantochloa. The placement here follows Widjaja, but on the basis of the available information, she does not regard the generic placement as settled. Both Wu et al. (2006) and Vorontsova et al. (2016) treat this name as a synonym of Bambusa vulgaris.

102. Gigantochloa hasskarliana (Kurz) Backer ex K. Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2 1: 299. 1927

Schizostachyum hasskarlianum Kurz, Indian Forester 1: 352. 1876. Syntypes: Indonesia: Java, alt. 2000–3000 ft. Sumatra: Padang

Distribution. Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, cultivated [also in Indonesia, where it is native].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Madhya Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

103. Gigantochloa macrostachya Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 251. 1873.

Type. Martaban, Tenasserim

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram [Bangladesh, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

104. Gigantochloa nigrociliata (Buse) Kurz, Indian Forester 1(4): 345, 1876 var. nigrociliata

Bambusa nigrociliata Buse, Pl. Jungh. 389. 1854 (as “Nigro-ciliata”). Type: “Habitat insulam Javae Prope Tjiberem”; Junghuhn s.n.

Oxytenanthera nigrociliata (Buse) Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 228. 1868 (as “nigro-ciliata”)

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala, cultivated [Myanmar]. Native to Indonesia.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that Seethalakshmi and Kumar (1998) consider this to be a synonym of Gigantochloa rostrata, but other treatments maintain it as a species. Ohrnberger (1999) indicates that it occurs in the “eastern, central, and north-eastern parts” of India in addition to the Andamans. Dransfield and Widjaja (1995) list G. nigrociliata as doubtful for India, suggesting that the Indian records refer to other species. The status of the species and the following variety both need reevaluation in India and generally.

105. Gigantochloa nigrociliata (Buse) Kurz var. hohenackeri (Fischer) H. B. Naithani, Fl. Pl. India, Nepal & Bhutan 514. 1990

Oxytenanthera nigrociliata (Buse) Munro var. hohenackeri Fischer, Kew Bull. 1935:96. 1935

Distribution. Karnataka. Overall occurrence not understood well.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Karnataka fide Naithani (1990).

106. Gigantochloa parvifolia (Brandis ex Gamble) T.Q. Nguyen, Bot. Zhurn. 75(2): 224. 1990

Pseudoxytenanthera parvifolia (Brandis ex Gamble) T.Q. Nyugen, Bot. Zurn. (Moscow and Leningrad) 76(7): 993. 1991

Oxytenanthera parvifolia Brandis ex Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 72. t. 63. 1896. Type: Burma: Yonzalin Valley; March, 1880; D. Brandis s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Mizoram [Myanmar]. Cultivated.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Records for Assam and Mizoram fide Naithani (1990).

107. Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 10(3): 305. 1987

Bambusa pseudoarundinacea Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 330. 1854. Type: Indonesia: Java; H. Zollinger 3479 (L).

Bambusa verticillata Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 2: 245. 1799

Gigantochloa verticillata (Willd.) Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 124. 1868

Nastus verticillatus (Willd.) Sm., Cycl. (Rees) 24: n. 3. 1819

Distribution. West Bengal [Myanmar]. Known only in cultivation.

Habit. Woody perennial.

108. Gigantochloa rostrata K.M. Wong, Malaysian Forester 45(3): 349. 1982

Type. Malaya; October 15, 1980; K.M. Wong KEP FRI 28981 (L).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tripura [Bangladesh]. Known only in cultivation.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that “Kumari and Singh (2014) synonymize G. nigrociliata under this species, and in the discussion mention the G. nigrociliata of Widjaja. This needs to be addressed, as noted under G. nigrociliata.”

109. Gigantochloa tekserah E.G. Camus, Bamb. 141. 1913

Type. Garo Hills; 1889; G. Mann s.n. (?).

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this species is not mentioned by Kumari and Singh (2014), and furthermore, that this name is treated as a synonym of Gigantochloa macrostachya by Vorontsova et al. (2016).

Melocalamus Benth. in Benth. & J.D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 2: 1095, 1212. 1883

Type. Melocalamus compactiflorus (Kurz) Benth. (Pseudostachyum compactiflorum Kurz).

110. Melocalamus compactiflorus (Kurz) Benth., Gen. Pl. (Bentham & Hooker f.) 3: 1212. 1883

Pseudostachyum compactiflorum Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 252. 1873. Type: ?

Dinochloa compactiflora (Kurz) McClure, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1936: 253. 1936

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

111. Melocalamus indicus R.B. Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 236. 1985 (“1983”)

Dinochloa indica (R.B. Majumdar) Bennet, Van Vigyan 27(2): 121. 1989

Type. India: Cachar, Bhuban Hills; Majumder 73083 (CAL).

Distribution. Assam, Manipur.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

112. Melocalamus mastersii (Munro) R.B. Majumdar, in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 278. 1989

Bambusa mastersii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 113. 1868. Type: India: Assam, Dibrooghur; Masters 1123

Melocalamus gracilis R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 278. 1989. Type: India: Barail Range, near Kailana, 9 km from Gumri rest house on Shillong, Cachar Road near P.W.D. Shed; R.B. Majumdar 1138 (CAL).

Dinochloa gracilis (R.B. Majumdar) Bennet & Jain ex D.N. Tewari, Monogr. Bamboo 82. 1992.

Distribution. Assam.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Melocanna Trin. in K.P.J. Sprengel, Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 43. 1820 (sero) (“1821”)

Type. Melocanna bambusoides Trin., nom. illeg. (Bambusa baccifera Roxb.; Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz).

113. Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu App. B: 94. 1875, nom. cons.

Bambusa baccifera Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3: 37, t. 243. 1795. Lectotype: Roxburgh, Icones 1401 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 27. 1994.

Distribution. Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

114. Melocanna clarkei (Gamble ex Brandis) P. Kumari & P. Singh, Nelumbo 51: 234. 2009

Arundinaria clarkei Gamble ex Brandis, Indian Trees 666. 1906 (Note: considered to be an invalid name fide Stapleton, 1994).

Neomicrocalamus clarkei (Gamble ex Brandis) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 279. 1989

Racemobambos clarkei (Gamble ex Brandis) M. Kumar, Bamboos of India, Compendium 230. 1998

Schizostachyum mannii R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon) 281. 1989. Type: India: Jowai, Khasia & Jaintia Hills; G. Mann 31982 (CAL).

Bambusa khasiana sensu Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 39. t. 37. 1896, non Munro, 1868.

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya Manipur, Sikkim.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Manipur fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Clark notes that S. mannii has been synonymized with M. clarkei by Kumari and Singh (2014).

115. Melocanna humilis Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42(4): 251. 1873, non Roep. ex Trin., 1822

Melocanna arundina C.E. Parkinson, Indian Forester 61: 326. 1935

Distribution. Assam, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Thailand].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Record for Assam fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Clark notes that “Kumari and Singh (2014) indicate that there are two species of Melocanna, M. baccifera and M. clarkei, and that both occur in Meghalaya, but they do not make any reference to M. humilis.”

Neohouzeaua A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat. Paris 28: 100. 1922

Type. LT.: Neohouzeaua mekongensis A. Camus (vide McClure, Taxon 6: 206. 1957).

116. Neohouzeaua dullooa (Gamble) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 28: 101. 1922

Teinostachyum dullooa Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 101. 1896 (as “dulloa”). Type: Burma: Katha District, Hawyaw Monastery Garden; February, 1892; Oliver s.n. (K).

Schizostachyum dullooa (Gamble) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

117. Neohouzeaua helferi (Munro) Gamble, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1923: 91. 1923

Bambusa helferi Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 114. 1868. Type: Burma: Tenasserim; Helfer 411

Pseudostachyum helferi (Munro) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 42: 253. 1872

Teinostachyum helferi (Munro) Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 102. t. 90. 1896

Schizostachyum helferi (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Neololeba Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11(2): 112–113. 1997

Type. Neololeba atra (Lindl.) Widjaja (Bambusa atra Lindl.).

118. Neololeba atra (Lindl.) Widjaja, Reinwardtia 11(2): 114. 1997.

Bambusa atra Lindl., Penny, Cyclop. 3: 357. 1835. Type: found in Amboyna

Bambusa lineata Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 118. 1868. Type: “Hab. in Ins. Ternate et Celebe. In Amboina exotica, Rumph.”

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Cultivated and perhaps also naturalized; native to New Guinea, the Moluccas and Sangihe Island and possibly also the Philippines.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this name has many other synonyms in the literature; see Ohrnberger (1999) and Vorontsova et al. (2016).

Neomicrocalamus P.C. Keng, J. Bamboo Res. 2(2): 10. 1983

Type. Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) Keng f. (Microcalamus prainii Gamble). Substitute name for Microcalamus J.S. Gamble 1890, non A.R. Franchet 1889.

119. Neomicrocalamus andropogonifolius (Griff.) Stapleton, Edinburgh J. Bot. 51(3): 325. 1994

Bambusa andropogonifolia Griff., Itin. Pl. Khasyah Mts. 124. 1848. Type: Bhutan, Tashigang District, Diri Chhu, [27°10'N, 91°26'E], alt. 3600 ft.; Griffith Itin 417 (K).

Distribution. Nagaland [Bhutan].

Habit. Woody perennial.

120. Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) Keng f., J. Bamboo Res. 2(2): 10. 1983

Microcalamus prainii Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 59(2): 207. pl. 7. 1890. Type: India: Assam, Naga Hills, 8300 ft.; April 23, 1886; Prain s.n. (K).

Arundinaria prainii (Gamble) Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 21. t. 19. 1896

Racemobambos prainii (Gamble) Keng f. & T.H. Wen, J. Bamboo Res. 5(2): 13. 1986

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland [China].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Ochlandra Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 376. 1864

Type. Ochlandra stridula Thwaites.

121. Ochlandra beddomei Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 124. t. 110. 1896

Type. India: Wynaad; Beddome s.n.

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

122. Ochlandra ebracteata Raizada & Chatterjee, Indian Forester 89(5): 362. 1963

Type. India: Kerala, Parithipally range, Kottur reserve, Trivandrum division; June 28, 1961; Managing Agents, Punalur Paper Mills s.n. (DD).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Kerala fide Naithani (1990).

123. Ochlandra keralensis M. Kumar, Remesh & Sequiera, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25(1): 49–51. f. 1(A–N). 2001

Type. India: Kerala, Pathanamthitta District, Pachakkanam, 3200 ft.; December 9, 1998; Remesh; Stephen 20730 (KFRI).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Woody perennial.

124. Ochlandra scriptoria (Dennst.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1863. 1934 

Bambusa scriptoria Dennst., Schlussel Hort. Malab. 31. 1818. Type: Rheede, Hortus. Malab. 3. t. 60 as “Beesha”

Beesha rheedii Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1: 434. 1833. Type: Rheede, Hortus. Malab. 5. 119. t. 60 as “Beesha”

Ochlandra rheedii (Kunth) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 121. t. 107. 1896

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

125. Ochlandra setigera Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 128. t. 115. 1896

Type. India: western slopes of Nilgiri Hills, Gudalur, alt. 3000 ft.; H. Trimen s.n.

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

126. Ochlandra sivagiriana (Gamble) E.G. Camus, Bambusees (Camus) 181. t. 99. f. c. 1913

Ochlandra rheedii Benth. ex Gamble var. sivagiriana Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 122. t. 108. 1896. Syntypes: India: Sivagiri Hills, 4000–4500 ft.; Gamble s.n. (K). Pulney Hills, alt. 1300–1400 ft.; 1873; Beddome s.n.

Ochlandra scriptoria (Dennst.) Fisch. var. sivagiriana (Gamble) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3: 1863. 1934

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

127. Ochlandra soderstromiana M. Kumar & Sequiera, Rheedea 9(1): 33. f. 2. 1999

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki District, Kallar, Kallar Valley Estate, alt. 3200 ft.; June 15, 1998; Stephen Sequiera 008883 (KFRI).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Woody perennial.

128. Ochlandra spirostylis M. Kumar, K.K. Seethal. & Sequiera, Rheedea 9(1): 31–33. 1999

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki District, Adimali, Chattuparakudy, 3000 ft.; May 30, 1998; Stephen Sequiera 008884 (KFRI).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Woody perennial.

129. Ochlandra talbotii Brandis, Indian Trees 684. 1906 (as “talboti”)

Type. India: North Kanara; Brandis s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Woody perennial.

130. Ochlandra travancorica (Bedd.) Benth. ex Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 125. t. 111. 1896 var. travancorica

Beesha travancorica Bedd., Forester’s Man. Bot. 234. 1873. Type: India: Mountains of Tinnevelly and Travancore, alt. 3000–5000 ft., Madras; Beddome s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Woody perennial.

131. Ochlandra travancorica (Bedd.) Benth. ex Gamble var. hirsuta Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 126. t. 112. 1896

Type. India: Travancore Hills; Beddome s.n.

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Woody perennial.

132. Ochlandra wightii (Munro) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1864. 1934

Bambusa wightii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 111. 1868. Syntypes: India: Courtallum; Wight 1009. Malabar; Wight 117, Wight 1346.

Ochlandra brandisii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 126. t. 113. 1896. Type: India: Tinnevelly Ghats, Courtallum, alt. 3000 ft.; 1835; Wight 1009

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Ochlandra kadambaranii. Taxonomic editor Clark suggests that the name Ochlandra kadambaranii, for which UmaShaanker et al. (2004) provide a distribution map, is probably a nomen nudum, but this needs to be checked.

Oxytenanthera Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 126. 1868

Lectotype. Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich.) Munro (Bambusa abyssinica A. Rich.). LT designated by McClure in Taxon 6: 206. 1957.

133. Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich.) Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 127. 1868

Bambusa abyssinica A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 439. 1850–1851. Syntypes: Ethiopia: near Djeladjeranne [Tchelatchekanne]; December 15, 1839; G.H.W. Schimper s.n. [501] (P). Ethiopia: Banks of R. Tacazze; Quartin Dillon & Petit s.n. (P). Ethiopia: Aderbati; Quartin Dillon & Petit s.n. (P).

Distribution. Uttarakhand. Cultivated; native to tropical Africa.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Pseudobambusa Nguyen, Bot. Zurn. 76(7): 992. 1991

Type. Pseudobambusa kurzii (Munro) Ohrnb.

134. Pseudobambusa kurzii (Munro) Ohrnb., Bamb. World Introd. Ed. 4: 19. 1997

Melocanna kurzii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 134. 1868. Type: India: Andaman Island; Kurz s.n.

Bambusa kurzii (Munro) N.P. Balakr., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 22(1–4): 176. 1982 (“1980”)

Schizostachyum kurzii (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Bambusa schizostachyoides Kurz in Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 48, t. 44. 1896, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Teinostachyum schizostachyoides Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 39: 89. 1870, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Cephalostachyum schizostachyoides Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu Append. App. B. 94., in clavi, A. A., 137, 1875, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Manipur [Myanmar, Vietnam].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark observes that Manipur seems unlikely to be part of the native range, since this species is native to the southern part of Myanmar and also the southern part of Vietnam, as well the Andamans.

Pseudostachyum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 141. 1868

Type. Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro.

135. Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 142. t. 4. 1868

Schizostachyum polymorphum (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989

Lectotype. India: Assam, Nigrigam; January 18, 1836; Griffith 6735 (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Edinburgh J. Bot. 51: 30. 1994.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Pseudoxytenanthera Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 72: 52. 1988

Type. Pseudoxytenanthera monadelpha (Thwaites) Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis (Dendrocalamus monadelphus Thwaites).

136. Pseudoxytenanthera bourdillonii (Gamble) H.B. Naithani, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87: 440. 1991 (“1990”)

Oxytenanthera bourdillonii Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 76. 1896 (as “ bourdilloni”). Type: “Western Ghats of Travancore, grows only on steep precipitous places and wet rocks at elevations of 3000–4000 ft.”; J.F. Bourdillon s.n.

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Woody perennial.

137. Pseudoxytenanthera monadelpha (Thwaites) Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 72: 52. 1988

Dendrocalamus monadelphus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 5: 376. 1864. Lectotype: Sri Lanka: Ambagamuwa; December, 1854; Thwaites C.P. 3359 (PDA). LT designated by Soderstrom and Ellis in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 72: 52. 1988.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Woody perennial.

138. Pseudoxytenanthera ritcheyi (Munro) H.B. Naithani, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87(3): 440. 1991 (“1990”)

Bambusa ritcheyi Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 113. 1868. Type: India: Bombay, Kala Nuddi; Ritchie 820

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

139. Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii (Munro) H.B. Naithani, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87(3): 440 1991 (“1990”)

Oxytenanthera stocksii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 130. 1868. Type: India: Concan; Stocks s.n.

Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro) M. Kumar, Remesh & Unnikr. Sida 21(1): 95. 2004

Distribution. Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra [also in Vietnam]. Cultivated, or perhaps also native.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Schizostachyum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 535. 1829

Type. Schizostachyum blumei Nees.

140. Schizostachyum brachycladum (Kurz ex Munro) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 39(2): 89. t. 6. f. 2. 29. 1870

Melocanna zollingeri (Steud.) Kurz ex Munro var. brachyclada Kurz ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 134. 1868

Schizostachyum zollingeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 332. 1854. Type: Java

Distribution. West Bengal [also in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore]. Probably only cultivated in India.

Habit. Woody perennial.

141. Schizostachyum rogersii Brandis, Indian Trees 679. 1906

Type. India: Andamans; G. Rogers s.n.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Nagaland.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that Seethalakshmi and Kumar (1998) consider this species to be endemic to the Andamans, suggesting that the mainland records refer to cultivated plants or are erroneous.

142. Schizostachyum virgatum (Munro) H.B. Naithani & Bennet, Indian Forester 117(1): 68. 1991

Melocanna virgata Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 133. 1868. Type: Hab. in India or Burmah, Keouksik ad fluv. Mogong; Griffith s.n. (K).

Cephalostachyum virgatum (Munro) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu App. A 137: 1875

Distribution. India, cultivated [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Stapletonia P. Singh, S.S. Dash, & P. Kumari, Nelumbo 51: 241. 2009

Type. Stapletonia arunachalensis (H.B. Naithani) P. Singh, S.S. Dash & P. Kumari (Schizostachyum arunachalense H.B. Naithani).

143. Stapletonia arunachalensis (H.B. Naithani) P. Singh, S.S. Dash & P. Kumari, Nelumbo 51: 241. 2009

Schizostachyum arunachalensis H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 118(3): 230. 1992. Type: India: Arunachal Pradesh: Subansiri District, Baja near Daporijo, 300 m; 17.3.1986; H.B. Naithani 1406 (holotype, DD).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

144. Stapletonia rigoensis L. B. Singha, P. Niri, & R. Devi, Phytotaxa 350(1): 82. 2018

Type. India: Arunachal Pradesh, Near Rigo village, 400 – 500 m, 001/LBS/2017 (holotype: ASSAM).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial

145. Stapletonia seshagiriana (R.B. Majumdar) H.B. Naithani, Indian Forester 139: 1048. 2013

Schizostachyum seshagirianum R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 282. 1989. Type: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Garsing to Eyo, Spiang, alt. 1900 ft.; R.S. Rao 1794 (CAL).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Teinostachyum Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 142. 1868

Lectotype. Teinostachyum griffithii Munro (designated by McClure, Taxon 6: 209. 1957).

146. Teinostachyum beddomei C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(9): 1860. 1934

Schizostachyum beddomei (C.E.C. Fisch.) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Bambusa wightii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 111. 1868. Syntypes: India; R.H. Beddome 117, 1009, 1346 (US-79430). Hab. in Ind. or. Courtallum; Wight 1009. India: Malabar; Wight 117. India; Wight 1346

Teinostachyum wightii (Munro) Bedd., Fl. Sylv. S. India t. 323. 1873

Type. Nilgiri and Travancore Hills, alt. 3000–5000 ft.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that the nomenclature here needs to be investigated and the type material studied. The name B. wightii has several syntypes and was based on vegetative material only, so it is unclear what species name really applies to although it appears to be validly published. In addition, T. wightii may be misapplied fide Ohrnberger (1999).

147. Teinostachyum griffithii Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 143, t. 3. 1868

Schizostachyum griffithii (Munro) R.B. Majumdar in S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 281. 1989

Type. Burma: Prope Wulloboom “in sylvis collinis”; Griffith s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya [Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Thyrsostachys Gamble, Indian Forester 20: 1. 1894

Type. Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble.

148. Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble, Indian Forester 20: 1. 1894

Type. “The bamboo was discovered by Mr. J.W. Oliver, conservator of forests of the eastern circile of Upper Burma and the photograph from the negative of which our picture has been obtained, was taken by him.” Burma; J.W. Oliver s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this species is cultivated in the Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta and Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

149. Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 7: 59–60. t. 51. 1896, nom. cons.

Bambusa regia Thomson ex Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26(1): 116. 1868 Lectotype: Kurz s.n. (K). LT designated by Stapleton in Taxon 47: 739. 1998.

Thyrsostachys regia (Thomson ex Munro) Bennet, Indian Forester 114(10): 711. 1988

Distribution. Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar]. Probably only cultivated in India.

Habit. Woody perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Clark notes that this species is cultivated in the Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta and Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

Subfamily Oryzoideae Kunth x Beilschm. (1833)

Plants perennial, generally herbaceous and with or without rhizomes or stolons. Spikelets with 2 glumes, or the glumes lacking. Flowers 3, the proximal two sterile and only the distal one fertile. Lemma with or without an awn. Lodicules 2. Fusoid cells absent or present, mesophyll cells with or without invaginated cell walls, midrib simple or complex.

Within Oryzoideae, Ehrharteae and Oryzeae are clearly sisters (e.g., (Kellogg 2009; Saarela et al. 2018; Tang et al. 2010)). Members of these two tribes have characteristic “oryzoid” silica bodies in the leaves. These are narrow and elongated perpendicular to the proximo-distal axis of the leaf and form over the veins, which is an unusual position for silica bodies (Metcalfe 1960). Most species have a chromosome base number of x = 12. All Oryzeae and many Ehrharteae are plants of moist habitats, a character that may be ancestral (Kellogg 2015b).

In contrast to Ehrharteae and Oryzeae, the position of Streptogyna has long been controversial. However, recent phylogenetic work using complete plastomes places it sister to the Ehrharteae + Oryzeae clade (Saarela et al. 2018). It lacks the distinctive characters of the other two tribes having multi-flowered spikelets and lacking the distinctive silica bodies. Nuclear phylogenies place it sister to the BOP clade (Mathews et al. 2000) or to Bambusoideae (Hisamoto et al. 2008).

Taxonomic editor: G. Anthony Verboom, University of Cape Town

Tribe Ehrharteae Nevski, 1937

Ehrharteae has no obvious diagnostic character, although the simple vasculature in the midrib and lack of an epiblast in the embryo might be synapomorphic (Kellogg 2015b). The plants vary in habit, presence or absence of auricles in the leaves, and ligule morphology. Stamen number also varies, with individual species having 2, 3, 4, or 6 stamens. This character has been used in the past to segregate genera from Ehrharta but phylogenetic studies (Verboom et al. 2003) show that all species are best placed in a single genus.

Ehrharta Thunb., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 40: 217. t. 8. 1779, nom. cons. [incl. Microlaena R. Br., Tetrarrhena R. Br., Zotovia Edgar & Connor]

Type. Ehrharta capensis Thunb.

150. Ehrharta abyssinica Hochst., Flora 38: 193. 1855

Ehrharta erecta Lam. var. abyssinica (Hochst.) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9(87): 508. 1926. Type: Abyssina; Buchinger 1460

Type. Abyssina [Ethiopia]; 1853; Schimper, Hb. abyss. Buchinger 1460 (STR).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu, presumably naturalized. Native to Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Verboom notes that this species may or may not be distinct from E. erecta, and might be treated better as a variety of that species.

151. Ehrharta calycina Sm., Pl. Icon. Ined. 2: t. 33. 1790

Trochera calycina (Sm.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 62. t. 12 f. 4. 1812

Ehrharta auriculata Steud., Flora 12: 491. 1829

Melica geniculata Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 21. 1794. Type: Promontorio Bonae Spei Africas. [South Africa: Cape of Good Hope]; Thunberg s.n.

Ehrharta geniculata (Thunb.) Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 2: 192. 1800

Ehrharta ovata Nees, Linnaea 7: 336. 1832. Type: “Sandige Flache unter dem Tigerberge bei Duiker vallei.”; Ecklon s.n.

Ehrharta paniculata Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 2: 542. 1812

Ehrharta adscendens Schrad. ex Schult. & Schult. f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7(2): 1372. 1830 pro syn.

Ehrharta undulata Nees ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3(3): 70. 1839, nom. nud., pro syn.

Melica festucoides Licht. ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3(3): 70. 1839, pro syn. Ehrharta calycina Sm.

Ehrharta mnemateia Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 66. 1794, non L.f., 1782. Type: Africa; Thunberg s.n.

Ehrharta laxiflora sensu Schult. & Schult. f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7(2): 1373. 1830, non Schrad., 1821

Aira capensis L.f., Suppl. Pl. 108. 1782 (“1781”), non Ehrharta capensis Thunb., 1779. Type: “Habitat ad Cap. Bonae spei, Sparrmann.”

Distribution. India. Naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to Africa, and also naturalized in Australasia, South America.

Habit. Annual or perennial.

152. Ehrharta capensis Thunb., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 40: 217. t. 8. 1779

Ehrharta mnemateia L.f., Suppl. Pl. 209. 1782 (“1781”). Type: “Habitat in Africa.” D.D. Thunberg s.n.

Ehrharta nutans Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 2(1): 346. 1786, nom. superfl. & illeg. for E. capensis. Type: “Cette plante croit au Cap de Bonne-Esperance, & nous a été communiquée par M. Sonnerat, ainsi que celle qui fuit.”

Type. “Herr Ehrhart vistas nu I Hannover.”

Distribution. India. Naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

153. Ehrharta erecta Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 2(1): 347. 1786

Ehrharta panicea Sm., Pl. Icon. Ined. t. 9. 1789. Type: “Ex Capite Bonae Spei adtulit Sonnerat anno 1776.” Sonnerat s.n. (Herb. Thouin).

Ehrharta paniciformis Nees ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3(3): 64. 1839. Type: not given

Panicum deflexum Guss., Fl. Napol. 5: 320. 1835, nom. later hom., non Schumach, 1827

Trochera panicea Baill., Hist. Pl. (Baillon) 12: 171, f. 313, 314. 1894, non (Sm.) Kuntze, 1891

Type. “Cette plante se trouve fans aucune etiquette dans la collection de Graminees que M. Sonnerat nous a communiquee; mais nous ne savons pas positivement si ell est du Cap, comme la precedente ou si elle est de l’Inde.”

Distribution. India. Naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to southern Africa, and also naturalized in China.

Habit. Perennial.

154. Ehrharta longiflora Sm., Pl. Icon. Ined. 2: t. 32. 1790

Ehrharta aristata Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 66. 1794. Type: Promontoria Bonae Spei Africes; 1772–1775; Thurnberg s.n.

Ehrharta eckloniana Schrad. ex Schult. & Schult. f., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 7(2): 1376. 1830. Type: “In Promont. b. spei, prope muros ad urbem Cap, Ecklon s.n.

Ehrharta longiseta Schrad., Gött. Gel. Anz. 3: 2078. 1821. Type: South Africa: Cape, Cape Good Hope; Hesse s.n.

Ehrharta urvilleana Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 9. t. 6. 1829. Type: “Legit cel Dumont d’Urville in insula S. Helenae.”

Ehrharta banksii J.F. Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13[bis] 2: 549. 1791, nom. superfl & illeg? (cited Smith pl. ic. ined. p. 9)

Type. “Ad Prom. Bonae Spei legit Masson. Herb. Banks. Herb Lin. Ex eadem regione relata adest nescio quo lecta botanico.”

Distribution. Reported for India. Apparently naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to Africa.

Habit. Annual.

155. Ehrharta stipoides Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 1: 91, t. 118. 1805

Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 210. 1810

Type. “Habitat in capite Van-Diemen.” Australia: Tasmania, Capite van-Dieman; Labillardière s.n. (FI).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka]. Apparently naturalized. Likely native to Australia.

Habit. Perennial.

Tribe Oryzeae Dumort. (1824)

Plants annual or perennial. Leaves with a membranous ligule, with or without a pseudopetiole. Spikelets with the sterile flowers reduced to lemmas or lacking entirely. Glumes reduced or absent. Midrib with two or more vascular bundles, with bundles placed ad- and abaxially, and often with air spaces.

The distinctive midrib anatomy that is here interpreted as synapomorphic for the tribe is lost in Luziola and Hygroryza (Kellogg 2015b; Tateoka 1963). All members of the tribe grow in sites that are moist or regularly flooded, and a few are truly aquatic (Kellogg 2015b).

Hygroryza Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 15: 380. 1833

Type. Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees (Pharus aristatus Retz.).

156. Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 15: 380. 1833.

Pharus aristatus Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 23. 1788 (“1789”). Type: “Habitat in Indiae aquosis.”

Leersia aristata (Retz.) Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 207. 1832.

Zizania aristata (Retz.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 8. 1829

Potamochloa retzii Griff., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5: 571. t. 24. 1836, nom. illeg. superfl.?

Zizania retzii Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 2: 136. 1824 (“1825”), nom. superfl. & illeg. for Pharus aristatus Retz.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Aquatic perennial.

Leersia Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 1, 21. 1788, nom. cons.

Type. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. (Phalaris oryzoides L.) (typ. cons.)

157. Leersia hackelii Keng, Sinensia 11: 412. 1940

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. var. japonica Hack., Bull. Herb. Boissier 7: 645. 1899, non Leersia japonica Makino, 1892. Type: Coll. Matsum: Tokyo

Leersia oryzoides sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 94. 1896, non (L.) Sw., 1788

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Perennial.

158. Leersia hexandra Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 21. 1788

Asprella hexandra (Sw.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 267. 1817

Leersia australis R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 210. 1810. Type: “Designat vicinitatem Coloniae apud Portum Jackson, inclusis ripis aestuarii Hunter’s River vel Coal River nuncupati”; Brown s.n. (BM). Littora Novae Hollandiae intra tropicum; R. Brown s.n.

Asprella australis (R. Br.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 267. 1817

Leersia abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 356. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in locis paludosis planitiei montanae Chiré, mense Octobre, Schimp. no. 1823.” Ethiopia: Locis Paludosis in Planitie Montana, Provincia Schire; October 10, 1840; W. Schimper 1823

Leersia capensis C. Muell, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 14(20): 345. 1856. Type: South Africa “Prom. bonae spei, Uitenhagen”; 1847; Alexander s.n. (K)

Leersia griffithiana C. Muell, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 14(20): 345. 1856. Type: Bengal; Griffith s.n. (B?).

Leersia luzonensis J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 207. 1830. Type: “Hab. in insula Luzonia.” Philippines: Luzonia; Haenke s.n.

Leersia mauritanica Salzm. ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3(4): 174. 1840. Type: Egypt: Tingit; Sieber s.n. (M, Isotype).

Leersia mexicana Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 195 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit in convsalle Mexicana inter Chalco et Xochimilco, alt. 1168 hexap.” Mexico: Chalco, Xochimilco; Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (P).

Asprella mexicana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 267. 1817

Leersia parviflora Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 61. 1831. Type: “Crescit in Aegyptia.”

Leersia triniana Siebold ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5: 174. 1840, nom. invalid? (vide Tropicos)

Oryza hexandra (Sw.) Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 10–11. 1871

Pharus ciliatus Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 23. 1788 (“1789”). Type: “Ad margines stagnorum lectum dedit honor Koenig.”

Type. Jamaica; Swartz s.n. (S).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

159. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 21. 1788

Phalaris oryzoides L., Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Virginiae paludibus nemorosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 78.10 (LINN). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 12: 115. 1908.

Leersia hackelii sensu Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 599. 1960, non Keng., 1940

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan]. Possibly naturalized in India.

Habit. Perennial.

Oryza L., Sp. Pl. 1: 333. 1753

Type. Oryza sativa L.

160. Oryza australiensis Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 20 (Heft. 85): 333. 1915

Type. Nord Australien: Queensl.; F.M. Bailey s.n.

Distribution. India; states not reported [China]. Naturalized in both countries; native to Australia and New Zealand.

Habit. Perennial.

161. Oryza barthii A. Chev., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 16(7): 405–406. 1911

Oryza breviligulata A. Chev. & Roehr., Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 159: 560. 1914

Type. Chevalier 9615; Chad.

Distribution. India. Naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to Africa.

Habit. Annual.

162. Oryza brachyantha A. Chev. & Roehr., Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 159: 561. 1914

Syntypes. Chevalier s.n.; Sudan: western Sudan, Ségou; Schweinfurth s.n.; Egypt: pays des Djurs.

Distribution. India. Naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to Africa.

Habit. Annual.

163. Oryza coarctata Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 2: 206. 1832

Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka, Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus., Tokyo 8(3): 406. 1965

Sclerophyllum coarctatum (Roxb.) Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 8. 1851

Oryza triticoides Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 8. t. 142. f. 1. 1851

Type. India: Delta of the Gangas; 1796; Buchanan-Hamilton s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha.

Habit. Perennial.

164. Oryza glaberrima Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 3. 1853

Type. Guinea; Jardin s.n. (P).

Distribution. Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh [China]. Naturalized in both countries; native to Africa.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

165. Oryza grandiglumis (Döll) Prodhl., Bot. Arch. 1: 233. 1922

Oryza sativa L. var. grandiglumis Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 8. 1871. Type: Brasilia: in valle Broco lectae; Luschnath s.n.

Type. Brasilien; Riedel 1261.

Distribution. India. Naturalized, but state localities not reported. Native to South America; also naturalized in China.

Habit. Annual.

166. Oryza indandamanica Ellis, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 27(1–4): 225. f. 1–7. 1987 (“1985”)

Type. India: Andamans Island, Rutland Island; July 26, 1986; Ellis PBL 12248A.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Habit. Perennial.

167. Oryza jeyporensis Govindasw. & K.H. Krishnam., Sci. & Cult. 24: 234. 1956, nom. invalid.

Distribution. Odisha.

Habit. Not reported.

Remarks. Protologue lacks Latin description.

168. Oryza latifolia Desv., J. Bot. Agric. 1: 77. 1813

Oryza sativa L. var. latifolia (Desv.) Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 7. 1871

Type. “Habitat in Carolina (error), insulaque Portorici.” Puerto Rico; Desvaux s.n. (P-Juss).

Distribution. Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Sikkim [China].

Habit. Perennial.

169. Oryza meyeriana (Zollinger & Moritzi) Baill. ssp. granulata (Nees & Arn. ex G. Watt) Tateoka, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 75: 460. 1962

Oryza granulata Nees & Arn. ex G. Watt., Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5: 500. 1891. Syntypes: Sikkim, Assam, Burma, Bengal, Malabar, Courtallum; Wight s.n., Griffith s.n., Simons s.n., Hooker s.n., Beddome s.n., Kurz s.n., Brandeis s.n.

Oryza meyeriana (Zollinger & Moritzi) Baill. var. granulata (Nees & Arn. ex Watt) Duistermaat, Blumea 32: 185. 1987

Oryza meyeriana sensu C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1845. 1934, non Baill., 1894

Oryza indandamanica J.L. Ellis, Bull. Bot. Surv. Ind. 27: 225. 1985. Type: Andaman Islands, Rutland Is., 30 m alt., 26 Jul 1986; PBL 12248 (Ellis)

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

170. Oryza minuta J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 208. 1830

Oryza manilensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C. 3(4): 219. 1908. Type: Philippines: Luzon Island, Rizal Province; March, 1907; M. Ramos BS 2194 (PNH).

Oryza latifolia sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 92. 1896, non Desv., 1813

Type. Habitat in insula Luzonia.” Philippines: Luzon; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

171. Oryza nivara Sharma & Shashtry, Indian J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 25: 161. 1965

Oryza sativa L. var. fatua Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 1184. 1903, p.p. Type: India: “Orissa, Sundribuns; W. Bengal, N. Bengal.”

Distribution. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Gujarat and Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

172. Oryza officinalis Wall. ex G. Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5: 501. 1891 ssp. officinalis

Oryza latifolia sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 92. 1896, non Desv.,

Oryza minuta sensu Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 605. 1960, p.p., non J. Presl, 1830

Type. Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8685 and cited many syntypes.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

173. Oryza malampuzhaensis Krishnasw. & Chandras., Madras Agric. J. 45: 471. 1958

Oryza officinalis Wall. ex G. Watt ssp. malampuzhaensis (Krishnasw. & Chandras.) Tateoka, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 75: 422. 1962

Type. India: Madras.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

174. Oryza rufipogon Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 5. t. 144. f. 2. 1851

Oryza sativa L. var. rufipogon (Giff.) G. Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5: 504. 1891

Oryza fatua Trin. var. longiaristata Ridl., Fl. Malay. Penin. 5: 252. 1925 (as “longe-aristata”). Type: Malaysia: Malacca, Batu Berendam; Burkill s.n.

Oryza sativa L. fo. spontanea Roshev., Bull. App. Bot. & Pl. 27: 37. 1931

Oryza sativa L. var. coarctata G. Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5: 504. 1891. Type: unknown locality; Buchanan-Hamilton s.n.

Oryza sativa L. var. bengalensis G. Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5: 504. 1891. Type: India, Bengal

Oryza sativa L. var. abuensis G. Watt, Dict. Econ. Prod. India 5: 504–505. 1891. Type: India: Bengal and Madras

Type. “Eastern part of Bengal, In aquis (Jheel dictis) prope Hubbegunge et Nubbeyunge; October 1, 1835.” NT: Bangladesh; Tim s.n. (CAL). NT designated by Sharma and Shastry in Indian J. Genet. Pl. Breed. 25(20): 157–167. 1965.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

175. Oryza sativa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 333. 1753 var. sativa

Type. “Habitat forte in Aethiopia, colitur in Indiae paludosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 460.1 (LINN). LT designated by Meikle in Fl. Cyprus 2: 1716. 1985.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

176. Oryza sativa L. var. plena Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 1184. 1903

Oryza plena (Prain) N.P. Chowdhury, Indian Forester 75(11): 497. 1949

Type. Bangladesh: Chittagong [Cultivated double rice].

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. [Bangladesh]

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

Zizania L., Sp. Pl. 2: 991. 1753

Lectotype. Zizania aquatica L. LT designated by Nash in Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (Britton & Brown), ed. 2. 1: 168. 1913, affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 209. 1920

177. Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 385. 1909

Hydropyrum latifolium Griseb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 4: 466. 1853. Type: “Hab. in Davuria in Lacu ad confluentiam fl. Schilka et Argun”; Turcz. as Zizania latifolia Cat. Baikal no. 1337.

Distribution. Manipur [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Manipur fide Naithani (1990).

Tribe Streptogyneae C.E. Hubb. ex C.E. Calderón & Soderstr. (1980)

Plants rhizomatous or caespitose. Leaf blades pseudopetiolate, with an abaxial ligule. Spikelets with several flowers, the distal ones reduced, disarticulating between the flowers. Rachilla internode developing into a hook. Style branches and stigmas 2 or 3, elongating and twisting around each other at maturity, becoming indurate.

Streptogyna P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 80. 1812

Type. Streptogyna crinita P. Beauv.

178. Streptogyna crinita P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 80, t. 16. f. 8. 1812

Streptogyna gerontogaea Hook. f., Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 301. 1900 (as “streptogyne”). Type: Sri Lanka; Thwaites s.n. Ceylon Plant 922

Type. Nigeria; 1786–1788; Beauvois s.n. (G).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Kerala fide Naithani (1990).

Subfamily Pooideae Benth., 1861

Plants annual or perennial, variously caespitose, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Culms hollow. Leaf blades without a pseudopetiole, ancestrally lacking auricles; ligules membranous. Spikelets with 1 to many flowers, disarticulating above the glumes. Lodicules 2 not vascularized. Stigmas borne on separate style branches (i.e., style branches not fused).

Brachyelytrum is sister to all other Pooideae, with the remainder of the species having inflorescence branches initiating in a two-ranked pattern, the spikelets laterally compressed, the embryo lacking a scutellar cleft, and the embryonic leaf margins overlapping (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001; Kellogg et al. 2013; Saarela et al. 2015; Schubert et al. 2019a, 2019b). The next diverging tribe is Nardeae; all members of the large clade sister to Nardeae (i.e., the remainder of the subfamily) lack bicellular microhairs anywhere on the plant (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Parallel-sided subsidiary cells are synapomorphic for Brachypodium plus Bromeae, Triticeae, and Poeae (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). A substantial increase in genome size occurred before the crown node of the clade Bromeae+ Triticeae+ Poeae, and nearly all members of the group have a chromosome base number of x=7 (Avdulov 1931; Bennetzen and Kellogg 1997; Kellogg and Bennetzen 2004).

Taxonomic editor: Robert J. Soreng, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, with additional contributions for Stipeae by Paul M. Peterson, Smithsonian Institution, for Agrostis and Calamagrostis by Beata Paszko, Polish Academy of Sciences, and for Poa sect. Stenopoa by Marina V. Olonova, Tomsk State University.

Tribe Nardeae W. D. J. Koch, 1837

Perennial plants with leathery leaves. Lower glume absent or reduced to a narrow ridge; upper glume absent or minute. Lodicules absent; stigma one.

Lygeum Loefl. in C. Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5. 27. 1754

Type. Lygeum spartum L.

179. Lygeum spartum L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5, addend. [p.”522”]. 1754

Type. “Habitat in Hispania.” Lectotype: Loefling 36a, Herb. Linn. No. 75.1 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Nasir and Ali (ed.), Fl. Pakistan 143: 39. 1982.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that the species is native to the Mediterranean, and was cultivated historically for fiber.

Tribe Phaenospermateae Renvoize & Clayton, 1985

Leaves with pseudopetiolate and resupinate blades, and long membranous, glabrous ligules. Spikelets 1-flowered, globose, disarticulating below the glumes. Rachilla extension absent.

Soreng et al. (2017), and taxonomic editor of subfamily Pooideae here, recognizes Phaenospermateae as distinct from Duthieeae. The two tribes are sisters in molecular phylogenies and thus would be monophyletic whether combined or kept separate. Phaenosperma is morphologically distinctive and the combined tribe has no morphological synapomorphies. In contrast, Kellogg (2015b) combined Phaenospermateae with Duthieeae, noting that they are sister taxa and that Phaenospermateae s.s. is monogeneric; thus recognition of Phaenospermateae offers no phylogenetic information. The decision whether to combine or separate the two tribes is a matter of ranking, for which there are no taxonomic rules.

Phaenosperma Munro ex Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 59. 1881

Type. Phaenosperma globosum Munro ex Benth. (as “globosa”).

180. Phaenosperma globosum Munro ex Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 59–60. 1881 (as “globosa”)

Type. “First received from the Jardin des Plantes at Paris where it had been raised from seeds brought from China by the Pere David, but it has since turned up among Shearer’s Kiu-Kaing plants.”

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim fide Naithani (1990).

Tribe Duthieeae Röser & Jul. Schneid., Syst. Biodivers. 9(1): 41. 2011

Leaf blades neither pseudopetiolate, nor resupinate, ligules short and sometimes ciliolate. Spikelets 1 to several flowered, disarticulating above the glumes. Rachilla extension present or absent. Lemma apex deeply 2-lobed, lobes acuminate or setaceous.

None of these morphological characters is synapomorphic.

Duthiea Hack., Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 45: 200. 1896

Type. Duthiea bromoides Hack.

181. Duthiea bromoides Hack., Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 45: 200. 1896

Type. India: Kashmir, Liddar Valley, alt. 12000 ft.; J.F. Duthie 13155, 13382.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Pseudodanthonia Bor & C.E. Hubb., Kew Bull. 1957: 425. 1958

Type. Pseudodanthonia himalaica (Hook. f.) Bor & C.E. Hubb. (Danthonia himalaica Hook. f.)

182. Pseudodanthonia himalaica (Hook. f.) Bor & Hubbard, Kew Bull.1957: 427. 1958

Danthonia himalaica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 281. 1896. Type: India: Kunawar, Jaunsar, Lokardi Peak, alt. 8000–9000 ft.; J.F. Duthie 14467 (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Sinochasea Keng, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48(4): 115, f. 1. 1958

Type. Sinochasea trigyna Keng.

183. Sinochasea trigyna Keng, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48(4): 115, f. 1. 1958

Trikeraia oreophila Cope, Kew Bull. 42(2): 350. 1987. Type: Bhutan: Jangothang, 13350 ft [4069 m], 28 Sept. 1979; Dunbar 18

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Bhutan fide Naithani (1990).

Tribe Meliceae Link ex Endl., 1830

Most species perennial. Leaf sheaths with margins fused up to the collar, the margins often joined by a hyaline membrane. Glumes usually shorter than the florets. Lemma margins papery above, the veins not converging at the apex. Lodicules thick, truncate, their margins partially or wholly fused. Style branches 2, free to the base, the branches persistent in the fruit.

Glyceria R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 179. 1810, nom. cons.

Type. Glyceria fluitans (L.) R. Br. (Festuca fluitans L.).

184. Glyceria fluitans (L.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 179. 1810

Festuca fluitans L., Sp. Pl. 1: 75. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae fossis & paludibus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 92.22 (LINN). LT designated by Kit Tan in Davis (ed.), Fl. Turkey 9: 537. 1985.

Distribution. Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu [also in Africa, Europe, North America, South America]. Naturalized; native to Europe.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Glyceria fluitans is sometimes confused with G. plicata (= G. notata Chevall (Clayton et al. 2006 onwards)) and G. distans. Cope (1982) accepts G. plicata but this is G. notata (Clayton et al. 2006 onwards), and these three are often confused. Based on the discussion and synonym in the Flora of China treatment (Tian 2006), it is likely that this record refers to G. notata, not G. fluitans.

185. Glyceria spicata Guss., Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 784. 1845

Poa spicata Biv. ex Guss., Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 784. 1845, nom. invalid. cited as synonym of Glyceria spicata, non L., 1753

Type. “In rivulis, stagnis, inundatis in Sicilia.”

Distribution. Tamil Nadu. Naturalized; native to southwestern Europe and northwestern Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

186. Glyceria tonglensis C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 119. 1876

Glyceria kashmiriensis Kelso, Rhodora 37: 262. 1935. Type: India: Jammu and Kashmir, Liddar Valley above Palgam, 8000–9000 ft.; September 17, 1893; J.F. Duthie 13092 (US).

Type. India: Himalaya, between Darjeeling and Tonglo, “Mert. Koch. Proxima.”

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Koordersiochloa Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 12: 67. 1917

Type. Koordersiochloa javanica Merr.

187. Koordersiochloa sanjappae (Kabeer & V.J. Nair) Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 13(3): 302. 2012

Streblochaete sanjappae Kabeer & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 47(1–4): 137 (-138, fig). 2006 (“2005”). Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District, Ooty, Dodabetta, about 4000 ft.; March, 4, 2002; K. Althaf Ahamed Kabeer 114021 (MH).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial

Remarks. Koordersiochloa Merr. is the correct name for Streblochaete Hochst. ex Pilg. (Veldkamp 2012).

Melica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 66. 1753

Lectotype. Melica nutans L. LT designated by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 69. 1920.

188. Melica nutans L., Sp. Pl. 1: 66. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europae frigidioris rupibus.” Proposed Conserved Type: Herb. Linn. No. 86.2 (LINN). Proposed type designated by Hempel in Jarvis (ed.), Taxon 41: 566. 1992.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Melica was recently revised (Hempel 2011).

189. Melica onoei Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 603. 1878

Melica scaberrima (Nees) Hook. f. var. micrantha Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 331. 1896. Type: India: Kishtwar, alt. 6000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Type. Japan: unde sine loci indicatione e botanico japonensi ono habuit; Dr. Savatier s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

190. Melica persica Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 122. 351. t. 89. 1830

Melica cupani Hook. f. var. canescens Regel, Descr. Pl. Nov. fasc. 8: 88. 1880. Type: Turkestan: in angustiis Basmandinsk; O. Fedtschenko s.n. (vide Tropicos)

Melica canescens (Regel) Lavrenko, Fl. URSS 2: 752. 1934

Melica cupani Guss. var. vestita (Boiss.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 591. 1884

Melica hohenackeri Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 1(13): 54. 1854. Type: “Hab. in districtu Talusch prov. transcaucasicarum (Hochstetler).”

Melica inaequiglumis Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 1(7): 124. 1846. Type: Iran: “Hab. ad saxa prope urbem Schiraz, Kotschy no. 315.”

Melica jacquemontii Decne. in Jacquem., Voy. Inde. 4(3): 174–175. t. 175. 1844. Type: India: Kanum

Melica kotschyi Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 289. 1854. Type: Kurdistan: Persia bor.; Kotsch. Herb. alepp. no. 366

Melica lanata Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 289. 1854. Type: “In cacumine montis St. Catharinae Arab. herb. Arab. un. it 104”

Melica pannosa Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 2(13): 55. 1854. Type: “Hab. in rupibus calidis Antilibani ad Souk Wadi Barrada, legi Maio 1846.”

Melica vestita Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 1(7): 125. 1846. Type: “Hab. in rupestribus alpis Kuh-Delu Persiae australis Kotschy no. 414.”

Melica cupani auct. non Guss., 1832: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 329. 1896, p.p.

Type. “Crescit in Persia inter Kermachan et Amadan.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

191. Melica scaberrima (Steud.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 330. 1896

Festuca scaberrima Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 316. 1854. Type: India; Wight s.n.

Glyceria scaberrima Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 287. 1854. Type: India: Nees mpt. & Royle herb. no. 376

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

192. Melica secunda Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 7(2): 629. 1881

Melica gracilis Aitch. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 192. 1882. Type: Afghanistan: Kuram District, in the Shend-Toi gorge, alt. 9000 ft.

Type. “In kokania inter Karakasuk et Schagimardan (O. Fedtschenko), in valle Afghanistaniae Kurrum (Aitchison no. 1257), in trajectu montium Alexander Karakia(A. Regel), in valle fluvii Almatinka majoris prope Wernoje (Kuschakewicz).”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Tribe Stipeae Dumort., 1824

Caespitose perennials, the leaves generally stiff and slender. Spikelets one-flowered, the rachilla not extended beyond the flower. Glumes generally longer than the pubescent lemma; lemma generally wrapped around the palea, awned from the apex, the awn straight or twisted and often geniculate. Lodicules 3.

The tribe is monophyletic and the single flowered spikelet could be synapomorphic (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001; Kellogg 2015b). Generic limits are the subject of much ongoing research and extensive hybridization is likely (Romaschenko et al. 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014; Soreng et al. 2017).

Achnatherum P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 19, 146, pl. 6, f. 7. 1812

Lectotype. Agrostis calamagrostis L. Designated by Niles & Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24(6): 181 (1925).

193. Achnatherum brandisii (Mez) Z.L. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34: 154. 1996

Stipa brandisii Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 207. 1921. Type: India: [Himachal Pradesh], Kulla; D. Brandis s.n. (B?; IT: US-866139 (fragm. ex B).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

194. Achnatherum duthiei (Hook. f.) P.C. Kuo & S.L. Lu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(3): 322, pl. 80, f. 9–14. 1987

Stipa duthiei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 232. 1896. Type: Western Himalaya, Garhwal, alt. 12000–13000 ft.; Duthie 273

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

195. Achnatherum jacquemontii (Jaub. & Spach) P.C. Kuo & S.L. Lu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(3): 323. 1987

Stipa jacquemontii Jaub. & Spach, Ill. Pl. Orient. 4: 60, t. 339. 1851. Type: “Ad rupes in excelsis Emodi Cachemyriani (altitudine circiter 9000 pedum) legit Jacquemont Augusto anni 1831 (Herb. Mus. Par.)” Kashmir: arid soils in rock crevices, 6400–14000 ft.; August 1831; Jacquemont 994 (P).

Lasiagrostis jacquemontii (Jaub. & Spach) Munro ex Aitch., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 107. 1880

Lasiagrostis jacquemontii (Jaub. & Spach) Munro ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 5: 506. 1884, nom. iso., non (Jaub. & Spach) Munro ex Aitch., 1880

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Neotrinia (Tzvelev) M. Nobis, P.D. Gudkova & A. Nowak, Turczaninowia 22(1): 40. 2019.

Type. Neotrinia splendens (Trin.) M. Nobis, P.D. Gudkova & A. Nowak.

196. Neotrinia splendens (Trin.) M. Nobis, P.D. Gudkova & A. Nowak, Turczaninowia 22(1): 40. 2019.

Stipa splendens Trin., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 54. 1821. Type: “Habitat in transbaicalensibus Sibirae.”

Stipa splendens Trin. var. gracilis Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 647. 1960. Type: Baltistan, Karakoram; C.B. Clarke 30097

Achnatherum splendens (Trin.) Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 17: 404. 1941

Lasiagrostis splendens (Trin.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 58. 1829

Stipa altaica Trin. ex Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. 1: 80. 1829. Type: “In arenosis et sterilibus subsalsis frequens (L.M.), in montosis apricis ad fl. Ursul. (B).”

Stipa schlagintweitii Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 208. 1921. Type: China: Xizang, Balti province “Tibet”; H. von Schlagintweit 5787

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Orthoraphium Nees, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 94. 1841.

Type. Orthoraphium roylei Nees.

197. Orthoraphium roylei Nees, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 94. 1841.

Stipa roylei (Nees) Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 207. 1921

Stipa orthoraphium Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 131. 1854, nom. superf. & illegit.

Type. Not given.

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Piptatherum P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 17, 173. 1812

Lectotype. P. caerulescens (Desf.) P. Beauv. (Milium caerulescens Desf.) (vide Hitchcock, U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772: 156. 1920).

198. Piptatherum aequiglume (Duthie ex Hook. f.) Munro ex Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 14: 113. 1951

Oryzopsis aequiglumis Duthie ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 234. 1896. Type: Temperate Himalaya: from Kashmir to Sikkim, alt. 6000–10000 ft.; Duthie s.n.  

Piptatherum aequiglume (Duthie ex Hook. f.) Munro ex Roshev. var. fasciculatum (Hack.) Freitag, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburg 33(3): 379. 1975

Oryzopsis fasciculata Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 52: 10. 1902. Lectotype: Pakistan: Kashmir, Astor District, in valle Kamri prope Kalapani, alt. 9000 ft.; August 25, 1892; Duthie 12644 (W). (vide Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburg 33(3): 379. 1975)

Piptatherum fasciculatum (Hack.) Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 14: 114. 1951

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Sikkim [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

199. Piptatherum gracile Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 211. 1921

Oryzopsis gracilis (Mez) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 347. 1939

Oryzopsis brachyclada Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 345. 1939. Type: Kashmir, Nanga-Parbat-Gebiet, Oberes Rakhiot-Tal, Moränen des Ganalo-Gletschers, nach Suden exponierte Hochgras-Matten, 12800 ft.; July 9, 1937; C. Troll 7774

Oryzopsis lateralis Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 234. 1896, p.p. excluding basionym.

Type. China: West Tibet; Thomson s.n. (B).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

200. Piptatherum hilariae Pazij, Notul. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. Uzbeckistanicae 10: 20. 1948

Oryzopsis humilis Bor, Kew Bull. 1951: 445. 1952. Type: India: Jaunsar, Rocks north of Deoban, alt. 8000 ft.; June 21, 1897; J.F. Duthie 19850a (K).

Piptatherum humile (Bor) S. Kumar & Raizada, Indian J. Forest. 9(2): 177. 1986

Oryzopsis wendelboi Bor, Nytt Mag. Bot. 1: 16. 1952. Type: Chitral, Barum Gol, Shokor Shal, alt. 11200 ft.; July 14, 1950; Per Wendelbo s.n. (K).

Type. Asia Centre Pamir Alai.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng suggests accepting this name, which is older than any of Bor’s taxa listed here in synonymy.

201. Piptatherum laterale (Munro ex Regel) Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 14: 117. 1951

Milium laterale Munro ex Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Petersburgsk. Bot. Sada 7(2): 645. 1881. Type: “In Afghanistania. Piptatherum laterale Muroe.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

202. Piptatherum munroi (Stapf) Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 212. 1921

Oryzopsis munroi Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 234. 1896. Type: Western Himalaya: Kashmir to Garhwal, alt. 7000–11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n.

Oryzopsis stewartiana Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 272. 1953. Type: India: Pulga, Parbatti Valley, 6400 ft.; July 22, 1935; Mohinder Nath 988 (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

203. Piptatherum vicarium (Grig.) Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 14: 105. 1951

Oryzopsis vicaria Grig, Trudy Tadzhikistansk. Bazy 8: 574. 1938. Type: Central deciduous woodland and open vegetation, 1600 ft.-9000 ft.; Tuturin & Besedin 81 (LE).

Oryzopsis microcarpa Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 346. 1939. Type: Kashmir, Nanga-Parbat-Gebiet, Astor Tal, Daschkin, im Artemisien Gesträuch zwischen Büschen und Steinen, 7500 ft.; May 30, 1937; C. Troll 7272

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Ptilagrostis Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4: 447. 1852

Type. Ptilagrostis mongholica (Turcz.) Griseb. (Stipa mongholica Turcz.).

204. Ptilagrostis concinna (Hook. f.) Roshev., Fl. URSS 2: 75. 1934

Stipa concinna Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 230. 1896. Type: Sikkim Himalaya, in the Tibetan region, alt. 14000–16000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

205. Ptilagrostis dichotoma Keng ex Tzvelev, Rast. Tsentr. Azii 4: 43. 1968

Type. China: Gansu/Qinghai border; Y.C. Wu 478.

Distribution. India; states not recorded. [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

206. Ptilagrostis mongholica (Turcz. ex Trin.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 4: 447. 1852

Stipa mongholica Turcz. ex Trin., Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 1: 67–68. 1836. Type: “Habitat in Sibiria baikalensi in pratis humidis ad torrentem Dschiginai in oxam influentem et ad fl. Tschikoi”; Turcz s.n.

Achnatherum mongholicum (Turcz. ex Trin.) Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 17: 403. 1941

Lasiagrostis mongholica (Turcz. ex Trin.) Trin. & Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5: 87. 1842

Stipa tibetica Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 207. 1921. Type: China: Xizang, Lasiang, Mougholica, Iriu, 14,000 ft. “West Tibet”; J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Stipa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 78. 1753

Lectotype. Stipa pennata L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 1: 176. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 159. 1920.

207. Stipa arabica Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 77. 1842

Stipa arabica Trin. & Rupr. var. szowitsiana Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5: 77. 1842. Type: “Persia borealis: in salsas arenosis inter Khoi et Seidkozi prov. Aderbeischan rarius; Junio (Szovitis). Transcaucin collibus aridis lapidosis prope Tatuni tractus Suwant (Hohenacker).”

Stipa szowitsiana (Trin.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 4: 450. 1853 (as “szovitsiana”)

Type. “Inter lapides ad radices montis Sinai; 15 Majo. (Schimper Un. Itin n. 107).” Israel: Mount Sinai; G.H.W. Schimper 107

Distribution. India; states not recorded (Northwest Himalaya) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

208. Stipa breviflora Griseb., Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math.-Phys. Kl. 82. 1868

Stipa aliciae Kanitz, Növényt. Gyujtesek Eredm. Grof Szechenyi Bela Keletazsiai Utjabol 61. t. 7. f. 4. 1891. Type: China: “Hab Prov. Kansu n. 62. Ku-lang-szhien; June 24, 1879.”

Type. China: Western Xizang, Tnari Khorsum.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Ladakh fide Naithani (1990).

209. Stipa bungeana Trin. ex Bunge, Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor. 70. 1833

Type. China: “Hebei, ad radices montium Zui-wey-schan et ad vias prope Ssi-jui-ssi”; Bunge s.n.

Distribution. India; states not recorded (Eastern Himalaya) [China].

Habit. Perennial.

210. Stipa capillacea Keng, Sunyatsenia 6(2): 100–102, pl. 15. 1941

Type. China: Sichuan: open grass land in rear of Shaowusi Agricultural Station, Taining Xian; K.L. Chu 7449

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

211. Stipa capillata L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 116. 1762

Type. “Habitat in Germania, Gallia.” Lectotype: Herb. Burser I: 127 (UPS). LT designated by Freitag in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 42: 453. 1985.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

212. Stipa caragana Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 1: 74. 1830

Lasiagrostis caragana (Trin.) Trin. & Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 7: 90. 1843

Oryzopsis pallescens Vestberg, Trudy Bot. Sada Imp. Yur’evsk. Univ. 5: 147. 1904. Type: Given in Russian language

Type. “V. ssp. e littore oriental. maris Caspici.” Russia: Caspian region; Eichwald s.n. (LE).

Distribution. India; states not recorded [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

213. Stipa caucasica Schmalh., Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 10: 293. 1892 ssp. caucasica

Stipa orientalis Trin var. grandiflora Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7 14(4): 35. 1869. Type: not given

Stipa bella Drob., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 37. 1925, nom. later hom. illeg., non Phil, 1870

Syntypes. “Caucasus septentrionalis: Kislowodsk, 24 Julio 1886 (Akinefijew). Daghestania: Czir-Jurt 11 Majo et Tem ir-Chan Schura 6 Majo 1891 (Lipski).” Russia: Caucasus, Kislowodsk; July 24, 1886; Lipsky s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Ladakh fide Naithani (1990).

214. Stipa caucasica Schmalh. ssp. glareosa (Smirnow) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Nizsh. Rast. 11: 20. 1974

Stipa glareosa Smirnow, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26: 266. 1929. Type: “Hab in deserto Gobi et in Altaj locis petrosis V. glareosis.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [also in Mongolia].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

215. Stipa chitralensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 500. 1954

Type. India Orientalis, Chitral, Guger, alt. 3000; May 18, 1895; Surgeon Lt. Harris 16800 (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

216. Stipa consanguinea Trin. & Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5: 78. 1842

Stipa koelzii R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 441. 1945. Type: India: Kashmir, Ladakh, Gya; August 13–14, 1933; W. Koelz 6432 (US-1607603).

Type. “Habitus totus Stipae orientalis, sed pubes adpressa aristarum Stipae holosericeae.” Russia: Siberi, Altai, near Tschuga river; 1832; Bunge s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Himachal Pradesh, Ladakh, and Sikkim fide Naithani (1990).

217. Stipa himalaica Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 5(1): 11. 1924

Stipa pennata sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 230. 1896, non L., 1753

Type. China: Tibet Province Ladakh; July 1–15, 1856; Herbarium Schlagintweit 3 gen No Catalogue 1337.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

218. Stipa orientalis Trin. ex Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. 1: 83. 1829

Type. “In rupium fissures ad flum. Tscharysch (L.B.) et n montibus Kurtschum et Arkaul.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh [China].

Habit. Perennial.

219. Stipa pennata L. ssp. kirghisorum (Smirnow) Freitag, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 42: 438. f. 19. 1985

Stipa kirghisorum Smirnow, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 232. 1925. Type: “Habitat in montosis et stepposis Turkestaniae et in Mongolia occidentali.”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

220. Stipa purpurea Griseb., Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Math.-Phys. Kl. 82. 1868

Ptilagrostis purpurea (Griseb.) Roshev., Fl. URSS 2: 76. 1934

Lasiagrostis tremula Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7. 14(4): 35. 1869. Type: Not given

Stipa semenowii Krassn., Bot. Zap. 2: 22. 1889. Type: “In valle fluminis Sary-Jassy in montibus Thian-Schan non procul ab alpe Chan-tengri et in trajectu Turguen-Aksu non rara.”

Type. China: Western Xizang, Tnari Khorsum, 15300–18500 ft.; Schlagintweit 7116 (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editors Soreng and Peterson note that this species should continue to be classified in Stipa, although it has copies of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from three genera (Romaschenko et al. 2008). The dominant copy is from Stipa as is the chloroplast (Lu et al. 2016).

221. Stipa regeliana Hack., Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1 89: 130. 1884

Type. Kyrgyzstan: Tien Shan, Issikul Musart pass, alt. 7000–8000 ft.; August, 1877; A. Regel s.n. (W).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

222. Stipa roborowskyi Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 1(6): 1. 1920

Stipa basi-plumosa Munro ex Hook. f. var. longe-aristata Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 229. 1896. Type: China: Western Tibet; Thomson s.n.

Stipa purpurea sensu Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 645. 1960, non Griseb., 1868

Type. “In montium Kuen Lun jugo Russky, alt. 9700–12200 ft.; July 3, 1890; Roborowsky s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

223. Stipa sibirica (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 158. 1791

Avena sibirica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 79. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Sibiria.” Lectotype: Amman 27, Herb. Linn. No. 95.1 (LINN). LT designated by Scholz in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 248. 2000.

Achnatherum sibiricum (L.) Keng., ex Tzvelev, Probl. Ekol. Geobot. Bot. Geogr. Florist. 140. 1977.

Stipa confusa Litw., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. 7: 53. 1928. Type: Russia: “In Sibiriae prov. Tobolsk, Altai, Semipalatinsk (distr. Ustkamenogorsk), Jenisej (prov. Krasnojarsk. et Minusinsk), Irkutsk, Transbajcalia, Jakutsk (distr. Jakutsk).”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

224. Stipa subsessiliflora (Rupr.) Roshev., Izv. Imp. Bot. Sada Petra Velikago 14(Suppl. 2): 50. 1915

Lasiagrostis subsessiliflora Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7. 14(4): 35. 1869. Type: Kyrgyzstan: Tian Shan, Toyandyund Sunktu-Thal, 15400–16000 ft.; July 30, 1867; F. Osten-Sacken s.n. (LE).

Stipa basi-plumosa Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 229. 1896. Type: China: Western Tibet, Nubra, and the Lanak Pass, alt. 15000–17000 ft.; Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

225. Stipa turkestanica Hack., Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 26: 59. 1910 ssp. turkestanica

Type. Turkestania: Schugnan, Dschidak in valle fl. Badamdara; July 27, 1904; B.A. Fedtschenko s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [also in Asia].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

226. Stipa turkestanica Hack. ssp. trichoides (P.A. Smirn.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 11: 17. 1974

Stipa trichoides P.A. Smirn., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 233. 1925. Syntypes: Turkmenistan: Ashabad Province, Mt. Ludsha, 6500 ft.; Litvinov 2222 (LE). Turcomania: Fergana, Alaicum, Langar; B. Fedtschenko s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Stipellula Röser & H.R. Hamasha, Schlechtendalia 24: 91. 2012

227. Stipellula capensis (Thunb.) Röser & H.R. Hamasha, Schlechtendalia 24: 92. 2012

Stipa capensis Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 19. 1794. Type: South Africa; Thunberg s.n. (UPS).

Stipa tortilis Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 99. t. 31. f. 1. 1798. Type: “Habitat in arvis.”

Distribution. Punjab [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Trikeraia Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 555. 1955

Type. Trikeraia hookeri (Stapf) Bor (Stipa hookeri Stapf).

228. Trikeraia hookeri (Stapf) Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 555. 1955 var. hookeri

Stipa hookeri Stapf, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 30: 120. 1894. Type: China: Tibet, Probably in the vicinity of Lhasa; July, September, 1891; Thorold 124 (K).

Achnatherum hookeri (Stapf) Keng, Clav. Gen. Sp. Gram. Prim. Sin. 213. 1957

Timouria aurita Hitchc., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23: 134–136. 1933. Type: India: Western Himalaya, Kashmir, Rupshu, Kugzil, alt. 13700; July 16, 1931; Walter Koelz 2328

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

229. Trikeraia hookeri (Stapf) Bor var. ramosa Bor, Kew Bull. 1954(4): 557. 1955

Stipa hookeri Stapf var. ramosa (Bor) S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): VI. 1989

Type. China: Tibet, Nye, Tsangpo Valley, 12500 ft.; September 2, 1935; F. Kingdon Ward 12295 (BM).

Distribution. India; states not recorded [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editors Soreng and Peterson question whether this species truly occurs in India.

Tribe Brachypodieae Harz, 1880

Plants annual or perennial. Inflorescence unbranched, the spikelets on short pedicels. Spikelets laterally compressed, generally with more than 5 flowers. Glumes shorter than the flowers. Ovary apex pubescent.

Brachypodium P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 100, 155. 1812

Lectotype. Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. (Bromus pinnatus L.). LT designated by Niles and Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24: 196. 1925.

230. Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 156. 1812 (as “distachyos”)

Bromus distachyos L., Fl. Palaest. 13. 1756. Type: “Habitat in H. [= Hasselquist]…Palaestina.” Lectotype: Hasselquist, Herb. Linn. No. 93.48 (LINN). LT designated by Schippmann & Jarvis in Taxon 37: 158. f. 1. 1988.

Festuca distachyos (L.) Roth, Catal. Bot. 1: 11. 1797

Trachynia distachya (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 43. 1827

Zerna distachyos Panz. ex B.D. Jacks., Index Kew. 1(4): 1249. 1895

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that B. distachyon has been split into three species (Catalán et al. 2012; Lopez-Alvarez et al. 2012). It is unclear which name, or if all 3, would be applicable to material from India. Also, there may be older names for the new species, but this will require checking the types of heterotypic synonyms.

231. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 156. 1812

Festuca sylvatica Huds., Fl. Angl. (Hudson) 38. 1762. Type: “Habitat in sylvis et sepibus frequens.”

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. var. khasianum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 363. 1886. Type: India: Khasia Hills

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. var. longe-aristatum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 363. 1886. Type: North West Himalaya: Kumaon and Dalhousie, alt. 6000–9000 ft.

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. var. pseudo-distachyon Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 363. 1886. Type: India: Kashmir and Kumaon

Brachypodium wattii C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 90. t. 40. 1889. Type: India: Kohima, alt. 7500 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n. Jakpho, alt. 7500 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. var. luzoniense (Hack.) H. Hara Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 52: 228. 1938.

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. ssp. luzoniense Hack., Philipp. J. Sci. 1(Suppl. 4): 269. 1906. Type: Philippines: Luzon Province, Benguet, Pauai to Baguio; November 9, 1905; Merrill 4698

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir (C82), Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Tribe Bromeae Dumort., 1824

Plants annual or perennial, caespitose or rhizomatous. Leaf sheaths with fused margins. Spikelets with 3 or more flowers, disarticulating above the glumes. Lemma entire or bidentate, if awned then the awn forming from the sinus or on the abaxial side just below the apex. Style branches on the abaxial side of the ovary, the ovary enlarged and lobed above the point of insertion of the style branches.

This tribe included Littledalea in the treatment of Kellogg (2015b), but Littledalea is now placed in its own tribe (Soreng et al. 2015) so that Bromus is the sole member of Bromeae.

Bromus L, Sp. Pl. 1: 76. 1753, nom. cons.

Synonyms. Anisantha K. Koch, Bromopsis (Dumort.) Fourr., Ceratochloa P. Beauv.

Type. Bromus secalinus L. (typ. cons.)

232. Bromus arvensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 77. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europa ad versuras agrorum.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 93.21 (LINN). LT designated by Smith in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 42: 499. 1985.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng cites Cope (1982), saying that this species is not confirmed for Pakistan. “Bor (1960) keys it out but has no distribution for it other than temperate Europe and Asia.”

233. Bromus berteroanus Colla, Herb. Pedem. 6: 68. 1836

Bromus barobalianus G. Singh, For. Fl. Srinagar 129. 1976

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir. Native to South America.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from India fide Naithani (1990).

234. Bromus catharticus Vahl, Symb. Bot. (Vahl) 2: 22. 1791

Bromus unioloides Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 151 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit locis alsis regni Quitensi prope Chillo, Conocoto et Sangolqui, alt. 1340 hexap.” Ecuador: Pichincha, Chillo, Conocoto & Sangolqui, alt. 1340 ft.; Humboldt & Bonpland 2286 (P).

Bromus willdenowii Kunth, Revis. Gramin. 1: 134. 1829. Type: Willdenow Herb. 2103 (B).

Ceratochloa cathartica (Vahl) Herter, Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6(5–6): 144. 1940

Type. “Habitat in Lima.” Lectotype: Peru: Lima; sd; P. Commerson s.n. (P-JU, US-865523). LT designated by Pinto-Escobar, Caldasia 11(54): 9–16. 1976.

Distribution. Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Nepal]. Naturalized; native to southern South America.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Sikkim, and West Bengal fide Naithani (1990).

235. Bromus confinis Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 320. 1854

Bromus inermis Leyss. var. confinis (Nees) Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 358. 1896

Type. Nepal; Royle Herb. no. 325.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh (B60), Sikkim [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

236. Bromus danthoniae Trin. ex C.A. Mey., Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer. (C.A. von Meyer) 24. 1831

Triniusa danthoniae (Trin. ex C.A. Mey.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 328. 1854 (as “danthonia”)

Bromus macrostachys Desf. var. triaristatus Hack., Flora 62: 155. 1879, in obs. Type: Teheran; Kotschy s.n. ?

Type. Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Talush; June 22, 1830; C.A. Meyer s.n. (LE). “In locis lapidosis aridis montium Talusch prope pagum Swant (alt. 670 Hexap.)”.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

237. Bromus diandrus Roth, Bot. Abh. Beobacht. 44. 1787

Bromus gussonii Parl., Pl. Nov. 66. 1842 (as “gussoni”). Type: “Habitat in collibus, ad sepes, et in sylvaticis Siciliae, insulae Capri, aliisque Italiae locis. Obtinui ex Corsica ab amico botanico Le Maire.” Sicilia; Gussone s.n. (FI).

Neotype. Gr. Bromoides, locustis maximus, lanuginosum, Italicum. Hist. Nat. 261, no. 444, (OXF (Scheuzer Herb.)). NT designated by Sales, Edinb. J. Bot. 50(1): 8–9. 1993.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [also in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, North America, South America]. Naturalized.

Habit. Annual.

238. Bromus gracillimus Bunge, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 7: 527. 1852

Nevskiella gracillima (Bunge) Krecz. & Vved., Trudy Sredne-Aziatsk. Gosud. Univ., Ser. 8b, Bot.17: 22. 1934

Bromus crinitus Boiss. & Hohen. ex Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 2(13): 64. 1854. Type: “Hab. In monte Elbrus prope pagum Passgala.”

Deschampsia aralensis Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 41(2): 300. 1868. Type: “Steppe des Aralses im Gebiete des Syr-Darja, Ende Mai fruchttragende Exemplare; Borazozow 774.

Type. “Hab. in der Wuste Karakum bei Kuk-Kabak Zwischen Tschi (Lasiagrostis splendes) 19 Mai 1842 (Deflor. et fr. Maturo).”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

239. Bromus himalaicus Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 358. 1896

Zerna himalaica (Stapf) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 499. 1941

Type. Temperate Himalaya; East Nepal, Sikkim and North Bhutan, alt. 8000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

240. Bromus hordeaceus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 77. 1753

Bromus mollis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 112. 1762. Type: “Habitat in Europae australioris siccis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 93.6 (LINN). LT designated by Smith in Cafferty et al. (Ed.), Taxon 49: 248. 2000.

Bromus hordeaceus L. ssp. mollis (L.) Hyl., Uppsala Univ. Arsskr. 7: 84. 1945

Serrafalcus mollis (L.) Parl., Rar. Pl. Sicilia. 2: 11. 1840

Lectotype. “Gramen Avenaceum pratense gluma breviore squamosa et villosa” in Morison, Pl. Hist. Univ., 3: 213. s. 8. t. 7. f. 18. 1699. LT designated by Smith in Cafferty et al. (Ed.), Taxon 49: 248. 2000. Epitype: Herb. Linn. No. 93.7 (LINN). Epitype designated by Smith, P.M. in Cafferty et al. (Ed.), Taxon 49: 248. 2000.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

241. Bromus inermis Leyss., Fl. Halens. 16. 1761

Schedonorus inermis (Leyss.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 177. 181

Zerna inermis (Leyss.) Lindm., Sv. Fanerogamfl. 101. 1918

Bromus inermis Leyss. var. villosus (Mert. & W.D. J. Koch) Beck., Fl. Nieder-Oesterreich. 1: 106. 1890

Festuca inermis (Leyss.) Lam. & DC. var. villosus Mert. & W.D.J. Koch, Deutschl. Fl. (Mertens & W.D.J. Koch), ed. 3, 1: 675. 1823

Bromus latifolius Kar. & Kir., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 14: 865. 1841. Type: “Hab. in umbrosis montium Aktschavly ad fl. Karakol.”

Type. “In pratis fertilibus succulentis Pomariis in den Pulverweiden im Amstgarten ad Belberg Crollwitz et alibi frequens.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh. Widespread in Eurasia.

Habit. Perennial.

242. Bromus japonicus Houtt., Natuurlijke Historie [tweede deel (second part)] 2(13): 315, t. 91, f. 4. Aanwyzing Pl. [2]. 1782

Bromus abolinii Drobow., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 40. 1925. Syntypes: Turkey: Semi-reczie Province, Almaata District; Abolin 909,1502, 1578, 1634, 1655, 1721, 1838, 1864, 1866, 1869

Bromus cyri Trin., Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer. (C.A. von Meyer) 24. 1831. Type: [Caucasus: Azerbaijan: Kura river]; C.A. Meyer s.n. (LE).

Bromus patulus Mert. & W.D.J. Koch in Röhl., Deutschl. Fl. (Mertens & W.D.J. Koch), ed. 3, 1: 685. 1823

Bromus patulus Mert. & W.D.J. Koch var. microstachya Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 361. 1896. Type: Northwest India; Falconer s.n.

Serrafalcus patulus (Mert. & W.D.J. Koch) Parl., Fl. Ital. (Parlatore) 1: 394. 1848

Type. Japan; Thunburg s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Annual.

243. Bromus lanceolatus Roth, Catalect. Bot. 1: 18. 1797

Type. Europe: Semina benignitati debeo amici aestimatiss cel. Roemeri; Roemer.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

244. Bromus moeszii Penzes, Magyar Bot. Lapok 33: 24, pl. 10. 1934

Bromus sericeus Drobow, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 39. 1925, non Ten. 1811. Type: Turkey: Syrdarja Province, Taschkent District, Kaplanbek; 1921; Abolin 7496

Bromus tectorum L. ssp. lucidus F. Sales, Fl. & Veg. Mundi 9: 32. 1991, nom. nov. for Bromus sericeus Drobow, non. Ten. 1823

Type. Iran: auf Aker und Strassen Graben bei [Daulatabad] Dolitabad; Fichler 18.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

245. Bromus oxyodon Schrenk, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg. 10: 355. 1842

Bromus nototropus Rupr., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Petersbourg Ser. 7, 14(4): 73. 1869, in adnot. Type: Not given [Mittleren Tian-Schan]

Bromus lanceolatus Roth. ssp. oxyodon (Schrenk) Tzvelev, Spisok Rastenij Gerbarija Flory SSSR 18: 19. 1970

Type. China: Xinjiang: Dzhungaria, desert grasslands, 500–2600 m; Schrenk s.n. (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

246. Bromus pectinatus Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 22. 1794

Bromus gedrosianus Penz., Bot. Kozlem. 33: 111. f. 39 (a-d). 48. 1936. Type: Biluchistan: Gedrosia, Killa abdulla; April 10, 1888; J.F. Duthie 8738

Bromus japonicus Thunb. var. falconeri (Stapf) R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 413. 1945

Bromus patulus Mert. & W.D.J. Koch var. falconeri Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 361. 1896. Type: North West India; Falconer s.n.

Type. South Africa: Cape of Good Hope; Thunberg 2522 (UPS).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

247. Bromus porphyranthos Cope, Fl. Pakistan 143: 574. 1982

Bromus himalaicus Stapf var. grandis Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 359. 1896. Type: India: Kumaon, Sikkim, alt. 11000–12000 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n.

Bromus grandis (Stapf) Melderis in H. Hara et al., Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 1: 125. 1978, non (Shear) Hitchc., 1912

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

248. Bromus ramosus Huds., Fl. Angl. (Hudson) 40. 1762

Zerna ramosa (Huds.) Lindm., Sv. Fanerogamfl. 101. 1918

Bromus asper Murray, Prodr. Strip. Gott. 42. 1770. Type: “Hall. Hist. fl. Helun. 1503. Habitau proxime ad Bromum giganteum accedit, cui vero spiculae quadriflorae. Cl Willich Nordheimi inuenit ego in sylua plessensi.”

Type. “Habitat in Sylvis et sepibus frequens.”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

249. Bromus scoparius L., Cent. Pl. I 6. 1755

Bromus confertus M. Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 71. 1808. Type: “Habitat in Iberia.” D. Steuen s.n.

Bromus ovatus Gaertn., Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop. 14: 537. t. 19/1. 1770

Serrafalcus scoparius (L.) Parl., Rar. Pl. Sicilia. 2: 19. 1840

Type. “Habitat in Hispania.” Lectotype: Loefling 81, Herb. Linn. No. 93.32 (LINN). LT designated by Smith in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 42: 499. 1985.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Annual.

250. Bromus staintonii Melderis in H. Hara et al., Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 1: 125. 1978 var. staintonii

Type. Nepal: Central Nepal, Tukucha, Kali Gandaki, open grassy slopes, 10200 ft.; August 21, 1954; Stainton, Sykes & Williams 7366 (BM).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. All records for India fide Naithani (1990).

251. Bromus tectorum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 77. 1753

Schedonorus tectorum (L.) Fr., Bot. Not. 1843(9): 131. 1843

Zerna tectorum (L.) Panz. ex B.D. Jacks., Index. Kew. 1(4): 1249. 1895

Anisantha pontica C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 394. 1848. Type: Turkey: Coruh, Ispir, alt. 4000 ft.; Koch s.n.

Bromus abortiflorus St.-Amans, Fl. Agen. 44. 1821. Type: “Fl. E. I. Le. Bord. Des champs sablonneux, a St. Laurent, vis-à-vis le Port-Saint-Marie, a Villeneuve-sur-lot, C. Dans Les Landes, a La Lague, pres Xaintrailles.”

Bromus setaceus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 98–99. 1862. Lectotype: USA: Northern Texas; Buckley s.n. (US-865474 (fragm.)). LT designated by Hitchcock in Man. Grasses U.S. 817. 1935

Type. “Habitat in Europae collibus siccis et tectis terrestribus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 93.23 (LINN). LT designated by Smith in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 42: 500. 1985.

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Tribe Triticeae Dumort., 1824

Plants annual or perennial, caespitose or rhizomatous. Leaf sheaths often with prominent auricles. Inflorescence unbranched, the spikelets borne crosswise to the rachis. Spikelets 1 to 5 per node, laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes. Lodicules ciliate. Endosperm with simple starch grains.

Generic limits in this tribe are problematical (Barkworth 2007; Stebbins 1956; Stebbins and Snyder 1956; Stebbins, Jr. and Walters 1949). Extensive hybridization and polyploidy mean that the evolutionary history is not tree-like and hence cannot be converted to a hierarchical classification (Kellogg et al. 1996); therefore, all efforts to create monophyletic genera are somewhat arbitrary.

Aegilops L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1050. 1753, nom. cons.

Type. Aegilops triuncialis L. (type cons.).

252. Aegilops tauschii Coss., Notes Pl. Crit. 2: 69. 1850 (“1849”)

Patropyrum tauschii (Coss.) A. Love, Biol. Zeutralbl. 101(2): 206. 1982

Triticum aegilops sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 367. 1896, non P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., 1817

Type. “Habitat in lberia (Buxbaum. Loc. cit, Wilhems in Herb. Gay). In Tauria (Tauch, Loc. cit.). In Graminosis et aridis prope Elisabethpol Georgia Caucasicae (Hohenacker, un. it. 1834).” Lectotype: Ill., pl. 50. f. 1. in Buxbaum, Pl. minus cognit. Centuria 1. 1728. (Illustration). LT designated by van Slageren in Wegen. Agric. Univ. Pap. 94–7: 328. 1994.

Distribution. Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. See van Slageren (1994)

Elymus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 83. 1753

Lectotype. Elymus sibiricus L. LT designated by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 93. 1920.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng cites the major generic synonyms of Elymus as Elytrigia Desv., Hystrix Moench, and Roegneria K. Koch. In contrast, he notes, Anthosachne, Pseudoroegneria, Stenostachys, and Thinopyrum are generally maintained as separate genera, although Australasian members of Anthosachne and Stenostachys are not part of those genera as currently understood. See Barkworth et al. (2009).

253. Elymus borianus (Melderis) Cope in E. Nasir & S.I. Ali, Fl. Pakistan 143: 617. 1982

Agropyron borianum Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 690. 1960. Type: Swat: Kalam, 7000 ft.; August 24, 1955; A. Rahmann 229 (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

254. Elymus burchan-buddae (Nevski) Tzvelev, Rast. Tsentr. Azii 4: 220. 1968

Agropyron burchan-buddae Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk SSSR 30: 514. 1932

Distribution. India; states not recorded [China, Nepal].

Habit. Not recorded.

255. Elymus cacuminis B. Rong Lu & B. Salomon, Nordic J. Bot. 13: 355, f. 1. 1993

Roegneria cacuminis (B. Rong Lu & B. Salomon) L.B. Cai, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 35(2): 160. 1997

Distribution. India; states not recorded [China, Nepal].

Habit. Not recorded.

256. Elymus caninus (L.) L., Fl. Suec. ed. 2, (Linnaeus) 39. 1755

Agropyron caninum (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 146. 1812

Triticum caninum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 86–87. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae sepibus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 100.10 (LINN). LT designated by Cope & van Slageren in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 258. 2000.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir. Widespread in Eurasia.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

257. Elymus ciliaris (Trin. ex Bunge) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 9: 61. 1972

Agropyron ciliare (Trin. ex Bunge) Franch., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Ser. 2, 7: 151. 1884

Triticum ciliare Trin. ex Bunge, Enum. Pl. Chin. Bor 72. 1833. Type: “Habitat in pratensibus prope Kan-tai.”

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Arunachal Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

258. Elymus dahuricus Turcz. ex Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4: 331. 1852

Clinelymus dahuricus (Trucz. ex Griseb.) Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R 30: 645. 1932

Elymus dahuricus Turcz. ex Griseb. var. micranthus Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 697. 1960. Type: Pakistan: Bumbrait; July 22, 1956; J.H. Norris 25184 (K).

Type. “Hab. In sibiria altaica pr. Krasnojarsk”; Turcz s.n. “inque Davuria”; Turcz s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

259. Elymus dentatus (Hook. f.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 10: 21. 1973 ssp. dentatus

Agropyron dentatum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 370. 1896. Type: India: Kashmir, alt. 9000–12000 ft.; Jacquemont s.n., Thomson s.n. Western Tibet; Karakoram, alt. 14000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

260. Elymus dentatus (Hook. f.) Tzvelev ssp. elatus (Hook. f.) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 455. 1984

Agropyron dentatum Hook. f. var. elatum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 371. 1896. Type: India: Kashmir, Dras, alt. 12000–13000 ft.; Thomson s.n.

Elymus dentatus (Hook. f.) Tzvelev var. elatus (Hook. f.) G. Singh, J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 8(2): 497. 1986

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

261. Elymus dentatus (Hook. f.) Tzvelev ssp. kashmiricus (Melderis) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 455. 1984

Elymus dentatus (Hook. f.) Tzvelev var. kashmiricus (Melderis) Signh, J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 8: 497. 1986

Agropyron dentatum Hook. f. var. kashmiricum Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 690. 1960. Type: India: Kashmir; W. Munro s.n. (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

262. Elymus dentatus (Hook. f.) Tzvelev ssp. scabrus (Nevski) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 455. 1984

Agropyron dentatum Hook. f. var. scabrum Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R 30: 626. 1932. Type: India: Kashmir, Gilgit, Multur Valley in the bed of stream, 9000–10000 ft.; August 5, 1892; J.F. Duthie 12423

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

263. Elymus duthiei (Melderis) G. Singh, Taxon 32(4): 639. 1983

Agropyron duthiei Melderis, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 662, 690. 1960. Type: Western Himalaya: near Simla, 7000–8000 ft.; August 23, 1889; J.F. Duthie 10123 (K).

Elymus longearistatus (Boiss.) Tzvelev ssp. duthiei (Melderis) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 468. 1984

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

264. Elymus fedtschenkoi Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 10: 21. 1973

Agropyron curvatum Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R 30: 629. 1932. Type: “Habitat in Turkestania (Prov. Semipalatinsk, Semireczie, Fergana (Alaj) Kuldsha).”

Agropyron macrolepis auct. non Drobow 1925: Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 663. 1960

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

265. Elymus himalayanus (Nevski) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 9: 61. 1972

Roegneria himalayana Nevski, Trudy Sredne-Aziatsk. Gosud. Univ., Ser. 8b, Bot. 17: 68. 1934. Type: NW Himalaya: Jihri-Garhwal, Rhudughera; August 19, 1983; J.F. Duttie 140 (LE).

Agropyron himalayanum (Nevski) Melderis, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 662. 1960

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

266. Elymus jacquemontii (Hook. f.) Tzvelev, Rast. Centr. Azii, Mater. Bot. Inst. Komarov 4: 221. 1968

Anthosachne jacquemontii (Hook. f.) Nevski Fl. URSS 2: 598, pl. 44, f. 20a and b 1934

Agropyron jacquemontii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 369–370. 1896. Syntypes: Western Tibet, Bekar; Jacquemont s.n. Nubra, alt. 17000 ft.; Thomson s.n. Kumaon, alt. 15500 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n.

Distribution. Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

267. Elymus longe-aristatus (Boiss.) Tzvelev ssp. canaliculatus (Nevski) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast.9: 62. 1972

Agropyron canaliculatum Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 30: 509. 1932. Type: Tajikistan: Darvaz, Peter the Great Range southern slope, Vereshkai glacier, alt. 10500 ft.; July 29, 1899; V. Lipskii 2500 (LE).

Roegneria longe-aristata (Boiss.) Drobow var. canaliculata (Nevski) L.B. Cai, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 35(2): 165. 1997

Agropyron longe-aristatum auct. non (Boiss.) Boiss., 1884: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 368. 1896

Elymus x incertus H. Hartmann, Candollea 39(2): 519. 1984. Type: Zanskar, Tungri Tal, Doda Rivers, alt. 12800 ft.; H. Hartmann 2613

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990). Anthosachne Steud. is currently a recognized genus, but restricted to Australasia. Anthosachne longe-aristatus (Boiss.) Nevski does not belong to that genus according to Mary Barkworth (pers. comm. Dec 2013).

268. Elymus mutabilis (Drobov) Tzvelev, Pl. As. Cent. 4:217. 1968

Agropyron mutabile Drobow, Trudy Botaničeskago Muzeja Imperatorskoj Akademii Nauk 16: 88, pl. 9, f. 3–4. 1916. Type: Drobov 315.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir. [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

269. Elymus nayarii Karthik. in S. Karthikeyan et al., Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 213. 1984. Replacement name.

Agropyron thomsonii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 370. 1896 (as “thomsoni”). Syntypes: Western Himalaya, alt. 10000–12000 ft. from Kunawur and Piti; Jacquemont s.n., Thomson s.n. Garhwal; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n., Duthie s.n.

Elymus thomsonii (Hook. f.) Melderis in H. Hara et al., Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 1: 132. 1978, non Hook. f., 1896

Distribution. Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Clayton et al. (2006 onwards) cite this as Agropyron thompsonii, endemic to India. However, Löve (1984) placed it in the synonymy of Leymus secalinus. Evidently, more study is needed.

270. Elymus nutans Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 72. 1868 var. nutans

Clinelymus nutans (Griseb.) Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 30: 644. 1932

Elymus nutans Griseb. var. elatior Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 73. 1868. Type: Himalaya occidentalis: Garhwal, 10000–10600 ft.; Thomson s.n.

Elymus nutans Griseb. var. condensatus Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 73. 1868. Type: Himalaya occidentalis, Garhwal, 13400–17600 ft.; T. Nari Khorsum

Elymus sibiricus L. var. minor Hack. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 373. 1896. Type: Duthie no. 13745

Elymus nutans Griseb. var. albidus Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 697. 1960. Type: West Himalaya: Kunawur, Soognam, circa agros; V. Jacquemont 1638 (K).

Type. “West Himalaya”: Garhval, from Ghastoli North of Badrinath up the Sarsutti Valley do Deo Tal on South foot of Mana Pass; September 3–5, 1855; Schlagintweit 9158 (LE). Based on Hooker’s misapplication of E. sibiricus Hook., non L.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

271. Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Madroño 9(4): 127. 1947

Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1: 14. 1933

Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 102. 146, 180, pl. 20. f. 2. 1812

Triticum repens L., Sp. Pl. 1: 86. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae cultis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 104.7 (LINN). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1431. 1965.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

272. Elymus russellii (Melderis) Cope, Fl. Pakistan 143: 618. 1982

Agropyron russellii Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 665, 694. 1960. Type: Karakoram, Hispar Glacier, dry Bank, 12500 ft.; August 1, 1939; R. Scott Russell 1388 (BM).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan]

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that it is unclear if this species occurs in India or if it is truly endemic only to the Pakistan portion of Kashmir (Baltistan, Gilgit, Markerum).

273. Elymus schrenkianus (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Tzvelev, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 428. 1960

Agropyron schrenkianum (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) P. Candargy, Etude Monogr. Tribu des Hordes 1: 22, 41. 1901

Triticum schrenkianum Fisch. & C.A. Mey., Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 3(68): 305. 1845. Type: “In monte Tarbagtai.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

274. Elymus schugnanicus (Nevski) Tzvelev, Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 9: 62. 1972

Agropyron schugnanicum Nevski, Izvestiya Botanicheskogo Sada Akademii Nauk SSSR 30: 512. 1932

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

275. Elymus sibiricus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 83. 1753

Clinelymus sibiricus (L.) Nevski, Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 30: 641. 1932

Elymus krascheninnikovii Roshev., Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 30: 780. 1932 (as “krascheninnikovi”). Type: Mongolia bor. Occidentalis: In valle fl. Dshargalanta (47° lat. Bor., 104–105 ° long. or.) Ad fontem fl. Uber-Dshargalanta; September 11, 1925; H. Krascheninnikov 967/169

Elymus praetervisus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 348. 1854. Type: Russia: [South] Urals Mountains, Lake Ilmen; 1832; Lessing s.n. (LE).

Type. “Habitat in Sibiria.” Proposed Conserved Type: Herb. Linn. No. 100.2 (LINN). Type designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 42: 554. 1964.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

276. Elymus sikkimensis (Melderis) Melderis, En. Fl. Pl. Nepal 1: 132. 1978

Agropyron sikkimense Melderis, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 694. 1960

Distribution. Sikkim [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Sikkim fide Naithani (1990).

277. Elymus stewartii (Melderis) Cope, Fl. Pakistan 143: 627. 1982

Agropyron stewartii Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 695. 1960. Type: Baltistan: near Kasurmik, Shyok watershed, 9000–10000 ft.; August 15, 1940; R.R. Stewart & I. D. Stewart 20704 (BM).

Pseudoroegneria stewartii (Melderis) A. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 447. 1984

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Not recorded but likely perennial.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Pseudoroegneria is usually separated from Elymus, but it is unclear whether P. stewartii is a good member of Pseudoroegneria.

278. Elymus tschimganicus (Drobow) Tzvelev, Rasteniia Tsentral’noi Azii 4: 221. 1968

Agropyron tschimganicum Drobow, Key Fl. Tashkent 1: 40. 1923

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng comments on the orthographic variations in the history of this name. In 1923 Drobow spelled it tschimganicum; in 1940 Drobow spelled it czimganicum; in Fl. Central Azii, 4: 221 (270 in English ed.) 1968, Tzvelev, comb. nov. the combination was spelled as Elymus czimganicus, later corrected to tschimganicus.

279. Elymus × nothus (Melderis) G. Singh, Taxon 32(4): 639. 1983

Agropyron × nothum Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 693. 1960. Type: Karakoram, Makerum, Hispar Glacier, dry bank, 12,500 ft.; August 1, 1939; R. Scott Russell 1387 (BM).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng states that this is the named hybrid Elymus dentatus × E. fedtschenkoi. Cope (1982) lists it among other putative hybrids but says none have been investigated beyond original characterization.

Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. & Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3. 14: 360. 1851

Triticum sect. Eremopyrum Ledeb., Fl. Altaica 1: 112. 1829.

Lectotype. Eremopyrum orientale (L.) Jaub. & Spach (Secale orientale L.). LT designated by A. Love in Biol. Zentralbl. 101: 208. 1982.

280. Eremopyrum bonaepartis (Spreng.) Nevski, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1: 18. 1933

Triticum bonaepartis Spreng., Bot. Gart. Halle erster Nachtrag [Suppl. 1]. 40. 1801. Type: “Habitat in Aegypto, Sprengel.” Africa: Egypt, alt. 4200–7000 ft. (B-W-2335.1). (vide Tropicos)

Agropyron bonaepartis (Spreng.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 936. 1894 (as “Agropyrum buonapartis”)

Agropyron orientale (L.) Roem. & Schult. var. sublanuginosum Drobow, Trudy Bot. Muz. Imp. Akad. Nauk 16: 135. 1916. Type: “Prov. Syr-Darja. Circa urb. Petro-Alexandrowsk. In arenosis (Lg. A. Zaregradsky, 1914).”

Eremopyrum buonapartis (Spreng.) Nevski var. sublanuginosum (Drobow) Melderis, Ark. Bot., n.s. 2: 215, 305. 1952

Agropyron turkestanicum Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 420. 1913. Type: Turkestan: Merw province, near Repetek; April 16, 1902; Androssow in Herb. fl. Ross 1899 (C).

Hordeum hirsutum Bertol., Misc. Bot. 1: 11. 1842. Lectotype: Chesney’s Exped. Pl. Sicc. 196, 1837, “Euphr. ex oris Euphratis” (BOLO). LT designated by Frederikden, Nordic J. Bot. 11: 279. 1991.

Eremopyrum hirsutum (Bertol.) Nevski, Fl. URSS 2: 663. 1934

Triticum squarrosum Roth, Neue Beytr. Bot. 128. 1802, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Triticum bonaepartis

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

281. Eremopyrum distans (K. Koch) Nevski, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1: 18. 1933

Agropyron distans K. Koch, Linnaea 21: 426. 1848 (as “Agropyrum”). Type: “Aus der Provinz Eriwan, c. 3000’ hoch, auf basaltisch-trachytischem Boden.” Russia: Armenia, ultra Araxen fluv. apud Amaranth; 1838; C. Koch 636 (LE)

Agropyron lasianthum Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 2(13): 68. 1854 (as “Agropyrum”). Type: “Hab. in Campis Caspiis (Fisch.) in Songaria (Turcz) sub nominee Tr. Orientalis acceptum.”

Distribution. India (Western Himalaya; states not recorded) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

282. Eremopyrum orientale (L.) Jaub. & Spach, Ill. Pl. Orient. 4: 26–27. t. 319. 1851

Secale orientale L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753. Type: “Habitat ad Archipelagum.” Neotype: Herb. Tournefort No. 4939 (P-TOURN). LT designated by Frederiksen in Nordic J. Bot. 11: 277. 1991.

Agropyrum orientale (L.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 757. 1817

Triticum orientale (L.) M. Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 86. 1808

Distribution. India (Western Himalaya; states not recorded) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Hordeum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753

Lectotype. Hordeum vulgare L. (Designated by Nash in N.L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 1: 286. 7 Jun 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 98. 1920).

283. Hordeum aegiceras Royle ex Lindl., Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2. 1836

Critho aegiceras (Royle ex Lindl.) E. Mey., Index Seminum [Königsberg (Regimontanum)]. 5. 1848

Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. aegiceras (Royle ex Lindl.) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95(7–8): 435. 1984)

Hordeum vulgare L. var. aegiceras (Royle ex Lindl.) Aitch., Cat. Pl. Punjab Sindh 171. 1869

Type. Kashmir: cultivated at over 3000 m.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is sometimes cultivated in Eastern Europe where it is accepted as Hordeum vulgare subsp. aegiceras (Nees ex Royle) Á. Löve (PlantBase 2005). Clayton et al. (2006 onwards) accept it as a species, and Flora of China (Wu et al. 2006) as a variety, Hordeum vulgare var. trifurcatum (Schltdl.) Alef.

284. Hordeum bogdanii Wilensky, Trudy Glavn. Bot. Sada 40: 248. 1928 (as “bogdani”)

Critesion bogdanii (Wilensky) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 438. 1984

Hordeum secalinum sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 372. 1896, p.p., non Schreb., 1771

Type. Russia: Volga region, Lake Elton, near farm Smutnev; March 27, 1917; D. Wilensky 374a (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record in India fide Naithani (1990).

285. Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link, Linnaea 17: 391–392. 1844 ssp. brevisubulatum

Hordeum secalinum Schreb. var. brevisubulatum Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 1(1): t. 4. 1823. Type: “Figura ad speciment ircutense.”

Hordeum secalinum sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 372. 1896, p.p., non Schreb., 1771

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya; states not recorded) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

286. Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link ssp. nevskianum (Bowden) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 8: 66. 1971

Hordeum nevskianum Bowden, Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 7: 396. 1965

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial

Remarks. Records from India and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

287. Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link ssp. turkestanicum (Nevski) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 8: 66. 1971

Hordeum turkestanicum Nevski, Trudy Sredne-Aziatsk. Gosud. Univ., Ser. 8b, Bot. 17: 40. 1934. Type: “Montes meridionales: Tian-schan occidentalis. Ad declivia argilloso-saxosa montis Tschimgan Majoris”; August 10, 1926; Rajkova s.n.

Critesion brevisubulatum (Trin.) Á. Löve ssp. turkestanicum (Nevski) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 438. 1984

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial

Remarks. Records from India and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

288. Hordeum lagunculiforme Bakhteyer, Kungl. Lantbrukshogskolans Ann. 23: 309, pl. 1. 1957

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Annual.

289. Hordeum leporinum Link, Linnaea 9: 133. 1834

Hordeum murinum L. var. leporinum (Link) K. Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 130. 1890

Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. 805. 1882.

Critesion murinum (L.) Á. Löve ssp. leporinum (Link) Á. Löve, Taxon 29(2–3): 350. 1980

Hordeum pseudomurinum Tapp. ex W.D.J. Koch., Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2, 955. 1845. Type: “Ad vias in Tyroli australi, (bei Schlanders im Vintschgau, Dr. Tappeiner)”; Tappeiner s.n.

Hordeum ambiguum Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(3): 231. 1880. Type: “Habitat ad Monte video, sello d. n. 755.” Uruguay: Montevideo; Sellow 755

Hordeum rubens Willk., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 25: 109. 1875. Type: “Mallorea: in cultis, muris, ruderatis, hortis in oppido Soller. Die 6 Maji Jam fere defloratum.”

Type. “Frequens in Graecia.”

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [also in Europe].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species may not occur in India. It is native across the Mid-east to Pakistan including Kashmir. While Cope (1982) cites it as occurring in China, it is not listed by Wu et al. (2006).

290. Hordeum marinum Huds. ssp. gussoneanum (Parl.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. [Ascherson & Graebner]. 2: 737. 1902

Hordeum gussoneanum Parl., Fl. Palerm. 1: 246. 1845, in obs. Type: Italy: Sicily; Gussone s.n.

Critesion marinum (Huds.) Á. Löve ssp. gussoneanum (Parl.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey, Amer. J. Bot. 72(5): 772. 1985

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan]. Naturalized; native from Europe to central Asia.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record in India fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that if this actually occurs in India, it is probably naturalized. Cope (1982) records it as occurring in Europe to central Asia, and cites one record from Pakistan.

291. Hordeum murinum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85. 1753 ssp. murinum

Zeocriton murinum (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 182. 1812

Critesion murinum (L.) Á. Löve, Taxon 29(2–3): 350. 1980

Triticum murale Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 27. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in Europae locis ruderatis.” Lectotype: Herb. Clifford: 24, Hordeum 3 (BM-000557673). LT designated by Baum & Jarvis in Taxon 34: 529. f. 1. 1985.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan].

Habit. Annual.

292. Hordeum murinum L. ssp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 8: 67. 1971

Hordeum glaucum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 352. 1854. Type: Saudi Arabia: Mons. Sinai; Schimper 383 (P).

Critesion glaucum (Steud.) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 440. 1984

Hordeum stebbinsii Covas, Madrono 10(1): 17–19, pl. 2. F. 8, 12[left], 13. 1949. Type: USA: California: Lake County, Middletown; May 9, 1948; G.L. Stebbins & G. Covas 3927 (UC-754601).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Eurasia].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record from India fide Naithani (1990).

293. Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 430–431. 1848

Hordeum ithaburense Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. Ser. 1, 2(13): 70. 1854. Type: “Hab. In declivibus siccis montis Ithaburis in latere meridionali supra Daburieh.”

Hordeum vulgare L. var. spontaneum (C. Koch) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. [Ascherson & Graebner]. 2(1): 723. 1902 [cited as synonym]

Type. “Auf den steppenartigen Matten des schirwanschen Theiles des Kaukasus, 500–1000 ft.” Russia: Caucasus, 500–1000 ft.; C. Koch s.n.

Distribution. India (Northwest; states not recorded) [China].

Habit. Perennial.

294. Hordeum vulgare L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84–85. 1753

Hordeum distichon L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85. 1753. Neotype: France. “Pl. de l’Ouest de la France”; June 29, 1879; Guadeceau s.n. (BM-000576277). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 251. 2000.

Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. agriocrithon (Åberg) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 435. 1984

Hordeum agriocrithon Åberg, Ann. Agri. Coll. Sweden 6: 159. 1938. Type: China: Xizang, Taofu (Dawo), 9600 ft. (“two specimens grown from the seed collection no. 13064”); H. Smith.

Lectotype. Herb. Linn. No. 103.1 (LINN). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 37: 679. 1959.

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated throughout semi-arid regions of Eurasia.

Kengyilia C. Yen & J.L. Yang, Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1897. 1990

Type. Kengyilia gobicola C. Yen & J.L. Yang.

295. Kengyilia thoroldiana (Oliv.) J.L. Yang, C. Yen & B.R. Baum, Hereditas (Lund) 116(1–2): 27. 1992

Agropyron thoroldianum Oliv., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 23(3): t. 2262. 1893

Elymus thoroldianus (Oliv.) G. Singh, Taxon 32(4): 640. 1983

Roegneria thoroldiana (Oliv.) Keng, Acta Univ. Nankin. Sci. Nat. 1963(3): 79. 1963

Distribution. Sikkim [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Leymus Hochst., Flora 31: 118. 1848

Type. Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst. (Elymus arenarius L.).

296. Leymus secalinus (Georgi) Tzvelev, 4: 209. 1968

Triticum secalinum Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich 1: 198. 1775. Type: Russia, 2600–5000m.

Elymus dasystachys Trin., Fl. Altaic. (Ledebour). 1: 120. 1829

Elymus thomsonii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 374. 1896 (as “thomsoni”). Type: China: Western Tibet, Xizang, Danskar, Piti, alt. 13000 ft.; T. Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

297. Leymus duthiei (Stapf ex Hook. f.), J. Syst. Evol. 47: 83. 2009

Asperella duthiei Stapf ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 375. 1896. Type: India: Western Himalaya, Tihri-Garhwal, alt. 7000–8000 ft.; J.F. Duthie 14564 (K).

Hystrix duthiei (Stapf ex Hook. f.) Bor, Indian Forester 66(9): 544. 1940

Macrohystrix duthiei (Stapf ex Hook. f.) Tzvelev & Prob., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow and Leningrad) 95: 858. 2010.

Distribution. Western Himalaya.

Habit. Perennial.

Pseudoroegneria (Nevski) Á. Löve, Taxon 29: 168. 1980

Elytrigia sect. Pseudoroegneria Nevski, Trudy Sredne-Aziatsk. Gosud. Univ., Ser. 8b, Bot. 17: 60. 1934

Type. Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (Bromus strigosus M. Bieb.).

298. Pseudoroegneria cognata (Hack.) A. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 446. 1984

Agropyron cognatum Hack., Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 10: 22. 1904. Type: India: Kashmir; J.F. Duthie 11895 (W).

Elymus cognatus (Hack.) Cope, Fl. Pakistan 143: 628. 1982

Agropyron cognatum Hack. var. shingoense Melderis in Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 660, 690. 1960. Type: Baltistan: Kashmir, Shingo Valley, 10000–11000 ft.; July 7, 1893; J.F. Duthie 11895 (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

Secale L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753

Lectotype. Secale cereale L. LT designated by Designated by Hitchcock in U.S.D.A. Bull. 772: 91. 1920.

299. Secale cereale L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753

Triticum cereale (L.) Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 27. 1796

Type. “Habitat - - - -” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 102.1 (LINN). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 40: 1704. 1962.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Native to Eurasia; widely cultivated.

300. Secale segetale (Zhuk.) Roshev., Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 6: 143. 1947

Secale cereale L. ssp. segetale Zhuk., Trudy Prikl. Bot. 19(2): 56. 1928

Secale afghanicum (Vavilov) Roshev., Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 6: 139. 1947

Secale cereale L. var. afghanicum Vavilov, Trudy Prikl. Bot. 16(2): 77. 1926

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Triticum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85. 1753

Lectotype. Triticum aestivum L. LT designated by Hitchcock in Amer. J. Bot. 10: 513. 1923.

301. Triticum aestivum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 85. 1753, nom. cons.

Triticum compositum L., Syst. Veg., ed. 13. 108. 1774. Neotype : Cultivated. “Triticum compositum L. Introdotto nella coltura del basso Egitto,” Herb. Figari (K). Neotype designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 258. 2000.

Triticum hybernum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 86. 1753. Type: “Habitat - - - -” Lectotype: Herb. Clifford: 24, Triticum 2 (BM-000557669). LT designated by Hanelt et al. in Taxon 32: 496, f. 2. 1983.

Triticum sativum Lam., Fl. Franc. (Lamarck). 3: 625. 1779 (“1778”), nom. superfl. & illeg. for Triticum turgidum

Triticum vulgare Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 2: 153. 1787. Type: “N. Froment Tourn. Tab. 293.”

Type. “Habitat - - - -” Lectotype: Herb. Clifford: 24, Triticum 3 (BM-000557670). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 37: 674. 1959.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own. See van Slageren (1994).

302. Triticum dicoccum (Schrank) Schübl., Diss. Char. Descr. Cereal. 29. 1818

Triticum spelta L. var. dicoccum Schrank, Baier. Fl. 1: 389. 1789, sphalm. Type: Germany: Bavaria, Stuttgart; H.R. Kerner s.n. “ult. die vom H.R. Kerner von Stuttgart”; H.R. Kerner s.n.

Triticum spelta Host, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 3: 21, t. 30. 1805, non L., 1753

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own.

303. Triticum durum Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 114. 1798

Triticum polonicum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) A. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 497. 1984

Type. “Colitur in Barbaria.”

Distribution. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own.

304. Triticum monococcum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 86. 1753

Crithodium monococcum (L.) Á. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 490. 1984

Lectotype. Herb. Linn. No. 104.4 (LINN). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 37: 664. 1959.

Distribution. India; states not recorded [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own. Editor Kellogg questions whether this is truly cultivated in India.

305. Triticum polonicum L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 127. 1762

Triticum glaucum Moench, Methodus (Moench) 174. 1794, nom. superfl. & illeg. for T. polonicum

Triticum levissimum Hall., Stirp. Ind. Helv. 209. 1768

Type. “Habitat - - - -” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 104.3 (LINN). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 37: 670. 1959.

Distribution. Assam [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own. The Linnaean typification project assigns the name Gigachilon polonicum (L.) Seidl ssp. polonicum to this taxon (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/data/linnaean-typification/), but Soreng notes that Gigachilon is invalid.

306. Triticum spelta L., Sp. Pl. 1: 86. 1753

Triticum aestivum L. ssp. spelta (L.) Thell., Mitt. Naturwiss. Ges. Winterthur 12: 471. 1918

Triticum zea Host, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 3: 20. t. 29. 1805. Type: Seritur

Type. “Habitat - - -” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 104.1 (LINN). LT designated by Morrison in Taxon 47: 709. 1998.

Distribution. India; states not recorded [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own.

307. Triticum sphaerococcum Percival, Wheat Pl. Monogr. 321. 1921

Triticum aestivum L. ssp. sphaerococcum (Percival) Mackey, Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. 48: 586. 1954

Type. India: parts of Persia; Howard s.n.

Distribution. Madhya Pradesh, Punjab.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own.

308. Triticum turgidum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 86. 1753

Triticum polonicum L. ssp. turgidum (L.) A. Löve, Feddes Repert. 95: 497. 1984

Type. “Habitat - - - -” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 913.62–257 (L). LT designated by Morrison in Taxon 47: 707. 1998.

Distribution. Northwest India [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is cultivated. It sporadically germinates on roadsides and pastures and market areas due to spillage of grain, but it would not persist on its own. The Linnaean typification project assigns the name Gigachilon polonicum (L.) Seidl ssp. turgidum (L.) Á. Löve to this taxon (Cafferty et al. 2000), but Soreng notes that Gigachilon is invalid.

Tribe Poeae R. Br., 1814

Plants annual or perennial, rhizomatous or caespitose, inflorescence and spikelets variable; spikelets laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes. The punctate hilum may be synapomorphic; having an endosperm with lipid may also be derived here although this character is sparsely sampled.

×Agropogon P. Fourn., Quatre Fl. France (ed. 1) 50. 1934 (parent: Agrostis L., 1753 × Polypogon Desf. 1798)

309. ×Agropogon lutosus (Poir.) P. Fourn., Quatre Fl. France (ed. 1) 50. 1934

[Agrostis stolonifera × Polypogon monspeliensis]

Agrostis lutosa Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 1: 249. 1810, nom. nov. for Agrostis littoralis With.

Agrostis subaristata Aitch. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 192. pl. 29. 1881. Type: Afghanistan: Kuram District, on margins of fields, alt. 7000 ft.; J.E.T. Aitchison s.n. (K).

Polypogon subaristatus (Aitch. ex Hemsl.) Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Curr. Sci. 49(11): 444. 1980

Polypogon littoralis Sm., Comp. Fl. Brit. 13. 1816, nom. nov.

Agrostis littoralis With., Arr. Brit. Pl., ed. 3. 2: 129. t. 23. 1796, non Lam., 1791. Type: England: Specimens from Wells, on the Norfolk coast

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial (short-lived).

Remarks. Widespread, sporadic across Eurasia, sterile.

Agrostis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 61. 1753, nom. cons.

Type. Agrostis canina L. (typ. cons.).

Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that generic boundaries among Agrostis, Calamagrostis and Deyeuxia are confusing. No molecular studies have yet resolved the problem of how to divide these genera or determined if it is even possible to divide them. See also discussion under Calamagrostis.

310. Agrostis brachiata Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 256. 1896

Type. India: Bihar (“Behar”), Monghyr; Wallich (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 3769B).

Distribution. Bihar [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

311. Agrostis canina L., Sp. Pl. 1: 62. 1753, nom. cons.

Agraulus caninus (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 5, 147. t. 4. f. 7. 1812

Trichodium caninum (L.) Schrad., Fl. Germ. 1: 198. 1806

Agrostis wightii Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 168. 1854. Type: Wight Herb. no. 78 as Vilfa vulgaris

Type. “Habitat in Europae pascuis humidiusculis.” Conserved Type: Herb. Burser I: 3 (UPS). Type designated by Widén in Fl. Fennica 5 : 29. f. 25. 1971.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu [China].

Habit. Perennial.

312. Agrostis capillaris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 62 1753

Agrostis tenuis Sibth., Fl. Oxon. 36. 1794

Agrostis alba L. var. tenuis (Sibth.) Fiori, Nuov. Fl. Italia. 1: 97. 1923

Agrostis hispida Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 1: 370. 1797. Type: “Habitat in Europae parties, pascuis et arvis.”

Agrostis vulgaris With. var. hispida (Willd.) Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 1: 191. 1828

Agrostis stolonifera L. fo. hispida (Willd.) Farw., Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 21: 351. 1920

Agrostis stolonifera L. var. vulgaris (With.) Celak., Prodr. Fl. Bohmen. 4: 710. 1881 (as “1880”)

Agrostis vulgaris With., Arr. Brit. Pl., ed. 3. 2: 132. 1796. Type: England: very common but grows chiefly on poor dry and sandy soil

Decandolia vulgaris (With.) Bastard, Essai Fl. Maine-et-Loire 28. 1809

Vilfa vulgaris (With.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 146. 1821

Agrostis vulgaris With. var. mutica G. Sinclair, Hort. Gram. Woburn. 269. 1824. Type: Germany

Agrostis vulgaris With. var. plena G. Mey., Fl. Kon. Hanov. 3, sig. 22. 1842

Agrostis capillaris Huds., Fl. Angl. (Hudson), ed. 2. 1: 27. 1778, non L., 1753

Agrostis alba L. var. vulgaris (With.) Plues, Brit. Grass. 151. 1867, non G. Mey., 1824

Type. ”Habitat in Europae pratis” LT: Herb. A. van Royen (L-912.356–69 (left-hand specimen); ILT: L); designated by Widen, Fl. Fenn. 5: ? (1971).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

313. Agrostis filipes Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 256. 1896

Type. Unresolved. Several syntypes: “Khasia Hills, alt. 5–6000 ft., in several places, Clarke.

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

314. Agrostis gigantea Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 31–32. 1788

Agrostis stolonifera L. var. ramosa (Gray) Veldkamp, Blumea 28(1): 223–225. 1982. Type: “Not indicated and according to Philipson not preserved. The type of the next name might be appointed as lectotype.”

Vilfa alba (L.) P. Beauv. var. ramosa Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 145. 1821. Type: Marshes and Woods

Type. Europe: Germany; Roth s.n. (B). “Habitat inter arundinum et salices ad ripas Visurgi Ducatus Bremensis.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim [Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

315. Agrostis griffithiana (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 387. 1960

Calamagrostis griffithiana Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 263. 1896. Syntypes: Western Himalaya: Kumaon, alt. 5500 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n. Khasia Hills, alt. 5000 ft.; Griffith s.n., J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n.

Agrostis wardii Bor, Kew Bull. 1949: 444. 1949. Type: India: Manipur State, Sirhoi Kashong, 9400 ft.; 8.10.1948; Kingdon-Ward 18145 (K).

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See (Paszko and Pendry 2013).

316. Agrostis hissarica Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 4: 93. 1923

Polypogon hissaricus (Roshev.) Bor, Fl. Iranica 70: 307. 1970

Agrostis stewartii Bor, Kew Bull. 1956: 255. 1956. Type: India: Swat State, Kalam, alt. 8000 ft.; August 23, 1952; R.R. Stewart 24733 (K).

Syntypes. Turkestan: Buchara, Hissar District, Sorbo. 8000 ft.; July 23, 1896; W. Lipsky 3511. Prov. Samerkand Utsch-Chada; July 20, 1915; Balabajew s.n. Minkwitz; O. Knorring s.n. Prov. Fergana, Distr. Andishan, Otusart, sub trajectu Taldy bel.; August 21, 1911; Z. Minkwitz & O. Knorring 1791.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Polypogon hissaricus (Roshev.) Bor is the accepted name in Lu and Phillips (2006) and Clayton et al. (2006 onwards). Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

317. Agrostis hookeriana C.B. Clarke ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 256. 1896

Type. India: Sikkim Himalaya, in meadow, alt. 9000–11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

318. Agrostis inaequiglumis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 80. 1868

Type. India: Sikkim, 12000–15000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, N West Bengal. [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

319. Agrostis micrantha Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 170. 1854

Agrostis myriantha Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 257. 1896. Lectotype: India: Sikkim, Lachen, 9000–10000 ft.; August 2, 1849; J.D. Hooker & Thomson, Agrostis 7 (K). LT designated by H.J. Noltie in Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 390. 1999.

Agrostis myriantha Hook. f. var. khasiana Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 257. 1896. Lectotype: India: Khasia; J.D. Hooker & Thomson, Agrostis 8 (part) (K). LT designated by H.J. Noltie in Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 390. 1999.

Agrostis myriantha Hook. f. var. sikkimensis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 257. 1896 (nom. superfl. for var. myriantha by lectotypification; H.J. Noltie in Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 390. 1999).

Agrostis platyphylla Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 302. 1921. Holotype: J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson, Agrostis 8 (in part); no date; India: Khasia (B (photo, K); IT: US-73398 (fragm. ex B)) B destroyed

Agrostis himalayana Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 269. 1953. Type: Assam: Balipara Frontier Tract, Nyukmadung, 6400 ft.; F. Kingdon-Ward 11538 (BM).

Type. Nepal; Wallich (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 3776) (P).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

320. Agrostis munroana Aitch. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 192. 1882 ssp. munroana

Calamagrostis munroana (Aitch. & Hemsl.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 523. 1884

Calamagrostis munroana (Aitch. & Hemsl.) Boiss. var. stricta Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 263. 1896. Type: Common at altitudes of 11000–15000 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom, Agrostis no 4

Type. Afghanistan: Kuram District, Shend-toi gorge, alt. 10000–11000 ft.; J.E.T. Aitchison s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

321. Agrostis munroana Aitch. & Hemsl. ssp. indica Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 205. f. 1. 1985 (“1983”)

Type. India: Himachal Pradesh, Karcham-Brue Road; August 27, 1973; Janardhanan 52862A (CAL).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

322. Agrostis nervosa Nees ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 328. 1841

Agrostis clarkei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 257. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, alt. 9000–11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Agrostis sikkimensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 502. 1954

Agrostis divaricata Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 81. 1868, non Hoffman, 1800. Type: Himalaya orientalis: Sikkim, alt. 9000–12000; J.D. Hooker Agrostis no. 11

Type. India; Royle s.n. (LE).

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Hooker cited four specimens for A. clarkei, which are syntypes. A lectotype appears not to have been designated yet.

323. Agrostis peninsularis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 255. 1896

Syntypes. India: Deccan Peninsula; Wight Cat no. 1746. Pulney Hills; Wight s.n.

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Afghanistan].

Habit. Annual.

324. Agrostis pilosula Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 372. 1841 var. pilosula

Agrostis pilosula Trin. var. wallichiana (Steud.) Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 459. 1954

Agrostis pilosula Trin. f. wallichiana (Steud.) Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 210. 1985 (“1983”)

Calamagrostis pilosula (Trin.) Hook. f. var. wallichiana (Steud.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 264. 1896

Agrostis wallichiana Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 174. 1854. Type: Himalaya; Wallich (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 3775a)

Agrostis royleana Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6,4(3–4): 371. 1841. Type: India; Royle s.n. (LE).

Agrostis ciliata Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 373. 1841. Type: India

Calamagrostis ciliata Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 193. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle 67, 71 & 303

Calamagrostis hookeriana Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 192. 1854. Type: Sri Lanka

Calamagrostis jacquemontii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 265. 1896. Type: India: Kashmir; moist places on the Pyr Panjal; Jacquemont no. 97

Calamagrostis neesii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 193. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle 72

Agrostis pilosula Trin. var. alpestris (Hook. f.) Veldkamp, Blumea 28(1): 203. 1982

Calamagrostis pilosula (Trin.) Hook. f. var. alpestris Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 264. 1896. Type: Kashmir to Sikkim, alt. 11000–15000 ft.

Calamagrostis pilosula (Trin.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 263. 1896

Calamagrostis pilosula (Trin.) Hook. f. var. ciliata (Trin.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 264. 1896

Lachnagrostis ciliata Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 373. 1841, pro. syn., nom. nud. Type: “Ind. orient.”

Calamagrostis pilosula (Trin.) Hook. f. var. scabra Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 264. 1896. Type: India: in woods at about 7000–10000 ft., Kashmir to Sikkim. Hack. in Herb. Duthie n. 10,088, as Agrostis bicuspidata Hack. in Herb. Duthie 7583, as Agrostis royleana Nees in Herb. Royle s.n., as Lachnagrostis scabra.

Calamagrostis roylei Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 193. 1854. Type: Nepal

Deyeuxia royleana (Trin.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 108. 1885

Lachnagrostis royleana Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 371. 1841, pro. syn., nom. nud. Type: “In Royle Herb. Ind. reg. mont. sup. no. 266”

Lachnagrostis scabra Nees ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 372. 1841, pro. syn., nom. nud. Type: “Ind. orient. reg. mont. super”; Royle s.n.

Agrostis pilosula Trin. var. royleana (Trin.) Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 459. 1954, nom. illeg.

Agrostis tungnathii Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 204–205, f. 1. 1985 (“1983”). Type: India: Uttar Pradesh, Chamoli, on way to Tungnath, 12800 ft.; August 29, 1978; Bhattacharya 1524A (CAL).

Type. India; Royle 72 (LE).

Distribution. Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Clayton et al. (2006 onwards) places A. tungnathii in synonymy here.

325. Agrostis pilosula Trin. var. filifolia Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 459. 1954

Agrostis pilosula Trin. f. filiifolia (Bor) Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 210. 1985 (“1983”)

Syntypes. India: Madras, Silva cascade, Riverside Pulneys; June 1, 1898; A.G. Bourne 1022. Lidcot Valley, Kodaikanal, Pulney; July 10, 1898; A.G. Bourne 3143. Bear Shola Valley, Pulneys; June 21, 1901; A.G. Bourne 1486.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

326. Agrostis pleiophylla Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 301. 1921.

Lectotype. C.B. Clarke 26852; 31 Jul 1875; Sikkim: Darjeeling, 2280 m (B100448371) LT designated by B. Paszko and Soreng 2013, to supersede that by Noltie.

Distribution. Assam, Khasa Hills, Meghalaya, Sikkim.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See Paszko and Soreng (2013) for a discussion of typification of this species. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this is not a synonym of A. zenkeri, but rather is a good taxon on its own.

327. Agrostis schmidii (Hook. f.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1810. 1934

Calamagrostis schmidii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 264. 1896. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilghiri Hills, Ootacamund; Schmid s.n.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

328. Agrostis stolonifera L., Sp. Pl. 1: 62. 1753

Agrostis alba sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 254. 1896, non L., 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europa.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen, sheet no. 912.356–55 (L). LT designated by Widén in Fl. Fennica 5: 77. f. 28. 1971.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Meghalaya, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

329. Agrostis tripilifera (Hook. f.) Forsan, ined.

Agrostis triaristata (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 391. 1960, nom. later hom., non Knapp, 1804

Calamagrostis tripilifera Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 262. 1896. Syntypes. India: Sikkim, in the drier interior, 10000–13000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.; Clarke s.n, King’s Collector

Deyeuxia triaristata Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 266. 1896. Type: Sikkim Himalaya: in woods, Yeumtong, alt. 12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. 

Deyeuxia tripilifera (Hook. f.) Keng, Sunyatsenia 6(1): 68. 1941

Distribution. Sikkim.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. This combination is accepted by Clayton et al. (2006 onwards) but appears not to be published. See also Paszko (2012b).

330. Agrostis vinealis Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips. 47. 1771

Agrostis canina sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 255. 1896, non L.,1753

Type. Germany: “In siccioribus ad Schoenfeld templum S. Theclae.”

Distribution. Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

331. Agrostis zenkeri Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 6, 4(3–4): 363. 1841

Deyeuxia zenkeri (Trin.) Veldkamp, The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 37(2): 219. 1984[1985].

Calamagrostis zenkeri (Trin.) Davidse, in M.D. Dassanayake et al. (eds.), Revised Handb. Fl. Ceylon 8: 107. 1994

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Nilagiri; Zenker s.n. (LE-TRIN-1669.01).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial (perhaps annual?).

Remarks. Paszko argues that this species is properly placed in Agrostis (Paszko and Soreng 2013)

Aira L., Sp. Pl. 1: 63. 1753, nom. cons.

Type. Aira praecox L. (typ. cons.)

332. Aira caryophyllea L., Sp. Pl. 1: 66. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Angliae, Germaniae, Galliae glareosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 85.22 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 84. 1970.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh [China].

Habit. Annual.

Alopecurus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 60. 1753

Lectotype. Alopecurus pratensis L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton and A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 191. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock in Bull. U.S.D.A 772: 137. 1920.

333. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol., Fl. Petrop. 16. 1799

Alopecurus caespitosus Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 3(21): t. 241. 1829. Type: “Figura ad specimen Boreali-Americanum.” NW America: Douglas; J. Lindley s.n. (LE-TRIN-1537.01).

Alopecurus diandrus Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 11. 1851. Type: India: “Assam in ripas arenosis Brahmaputra fluminis rarus March 1836. It. Ass. 45.”

Alopecurus aristulatus Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 1: 43. 1803. Type: “Hab. in Paludosis Canadae”; H. Pittier, T.A. Durand s.n.

Alopecurus fulvus Sm., Engl. Bot. 21: t. 1467. 1805. Type: England: Swainsthorpe, four miles south of Norwich; Stone s.n.

Alopecurus subaristatus Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 80. 1805, nom. superfl & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in locis uliginosis cum Alopecurus geniculatus, in lacubus natans est”; Sobolewski s.n. (LE).

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual or perennial.

Remarks. Records for Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, and Nagaland fide Naithani (1990).

334. Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 8: 776. 1808

Alopecurus ventricosus Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 80. 1805, non Huds. 1778. Type: “Hab. in Gallia.”

Type. “Cette plante est cultivate au Jardin des Plantes de Paris Jignore son lieu natal. (herb. Desfont.)”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

335. Alopecurus geniculatus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 60. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europae uliginosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Burser I: 26 (UPS). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 245. 2000.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

336. Alopecurus himalaicus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 238. 1896

Type. India: Kashmir and Dras, alt.10000–14500 ft.; Falconer s.n. (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

337. Alopecurus myosuroides Huds., Fl. Angl. (Hudson) 23. 1762

Alopecurus agrestis L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 89. 1762. Type: “Habitat in Europa australi.” Lectotype: Hudson 29, Herb. Linn. No. 82.2 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 245. 2000.

Type. “Habitat in arvis, et ad vias”; Hudson s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

338. Alopecurus nepalensis Trin. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 148. 1854

Alopecurus borii Tzvelev, Vasailchenko, Nov. Syst. Plant Vasc. 8: 21. 1971. Type: Turcomania, in valley fl. Amu-Darja, 15 km ad astros versus urb. Czardzhou; 8 May 1958, T. Nadezhina s.n. (LE)

Type. Nepal; Wallich (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 3780).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Doğan (1999) places A. borii in the synonymy of A. nepalensis.

Aniselytron Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C. 5: 328. 1910

Type. Aniselytron agrostoides Merr.

339. Aniselytron treutleri (Kuntze) Soják, Cas. Nar. Muz. Praze, Rada Prir. 148(3–4): 202. 1980

Milium treutleri Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 780. 1891. Type: India: Sikkim: Tanglo, beim Dorf Shimong, 10500 ft.; August 5, 1874; Von Treutler 486 (K).

Calamagrostis treutleri (Kuntze) U. Shukla, non Govaerts. Grasses N.E. India 51. 1996.

Deyeuxia treutleri (Kuntze) Stapf, non Rauschert. Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 24(4): pl. 2396. 1895.

Neoaulacolepis treutleri (Kuntze) Rauschert. Taxon 31(3): 561. 1982.

Aniselytron treutleri (Kuntze) Bennet & Raizada, Indian Forester 107(7): 434. 1981, isonym, nom. inval.

Distribution. Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

Anthoxanthum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 28. 1753

Lectotype. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 171. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A 772: 201. 1920.

340. Anthoxanthum borii S.K. Jain & D.C. Pal, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 72: 92. 1975

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Palnis, Pambar Stream near Shenthadikanal; December 6, 1898; Bourne 1954 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record from Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

341. Anthoxanthum flexuosum (Hook. f.) Veldkamp, Blumea 30(2): 347. 1985

Hierochloe flexuosa Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 222. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim Himalaya, Bijean; King’s collector s.n. (K).

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

342. Anthoxanthum hookeri (Griseb.) Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 380. 1904

Ataxia hookeri Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 77. 1868. Type: India: Sikkim, 9000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker Ataxia no. 2

Hierochloe hookeri (Griseb.) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 32: 627. 1888

Hierochloe hookeri (Griseb.) C.B. Clarke ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 223. 1896, isonym, non (Griseb) Maxim., 1888

Distribution. Tamil Nadu, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

343. Anthoxanthum horsfieldii (Kunth ex Bennett) Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 291. 1921

Ataxia horsfieldii Kunth ex Bennett, Pl. Jav. Rar. (Bennett) 8, pl. 3. 1838

Hierochloe horsfieldii (Kunth ex Benn.) Maxim., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Asiat. 7: 930. 1888

Anthoxanthum formosanum Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40(474): 318. 1926

Anthoxanthum horsfieldii var. formosanum (Honda) Veldkamp, J. Jap. Bot. 68(6): 344. 1993

Anthoxanthum horsfieldii var. luzoniense (Merr.) Y. Schouten, Blumea 30(2): 337. 1985

Anthoxanthum japonicum ssp. luzoniense (Merr.) T. Koyama, Grass. Jap. Neighb. Reg. 486. 1987

Anthoxanthum luzoniense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1(Suppl.): 178. 1906

Anthoxanthum horsfieldii var. viridescens (Honda) Veldkamp, J. Jap. Bot. 68(6): 344. 1993

Anthoxanthum viridescens Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 41: 379. 1927

Anthoxanthum clarkei (Hook. f.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 8. 1947

Hierochloe clarkei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 223. 1896. Type: India: Khasia Hills, Lailan Kote, alt. 5500; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim [China].

Habit. Perennial.

344. Anthoxanthum khasiana (C.B. Clarke) Ohwi, Bulletin of the Tokyo Science Museum 18: 8. 1947

Hierochloe khasiana C.B. Clarke ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 223. 1896. Type: India: Khasia Hills, alt. 4500–6000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Perennial.

345. Anthoxanthum laxum (R. Br. ex Hook. f.) Veldkamp, Blumea 30(2): 348. 1985

Hierochloe laxa R. Br. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 222. 1896. Type: Western Himalaya, Kashmir, from alt. 10000–12000 ft. to Kumaon, alt. 12000–16000 ft.; R. Brown (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 3796)

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

346. Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 28. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europae pratis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 46.1 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 19. 1993.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

347. Anthoxanthum sikkimense (Maxim.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 8. 1947

Hierochloe sikkimensis Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 32: 626. 1888. Type: India: Sikkim; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson Ataxia 1

Anthoxanthum gracillimum (Hook. f.) Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 291. 1921

Hierochloe gracillima Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 223. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, alt. 10000–11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Sikkim [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

348. Anthoxanthum tibeticum (Bor) Veldkamp, Blumea 30(2): 350. 1985

Hierochloe tibetica Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 271. 1953

Distribution. Sikkim. [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record in India fide Naithani (1990).

Arctopoa (Griseb.) Prob., Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 11: 49. 1974

Glyceria sect. Arctopoa Griseb., in Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 4(13): 392 1852

Type. Glyceria glumaris (Trin.) Griseb. ==Arctopoa eminens (J. Presl) Prob.

349. Arctopoa tibetica (Munro ex Stapf) Prob., Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 11: 52 1974

Poa tibetica Munro ex Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 339. 1896 var. tibetica. Syntypes: China: Western Tibet, Piti, alt. 9000–16000 ft.; Jacquemont s.n. Ladakh; Thomson s.n. Plains of Tibet north of Kumaon, alt. 15000 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Arctopoa has been demonstrated be of old reticulate origin (Gillespie et al. 2008), derived from an extinct parent (chloroplast donor) from an early lineage of Poa crossed with a parent from a lineage outside Poa but related to Cinna and Arctagrostis (nrDNA donor). The genus has diversified and now includes at least three well marked and stable species, although Probatova (2003) recognizes eight.

350. Arctopoa tibetica (Munro ex Stapf) Prob. var. aristulata (Stapf) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212054-1

Poa tibetica Munro ex Stapf var. aristulata Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 339. 1896. Type: Eastern Tibet, North of Sikkim, alt. 16000–17000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Poa pseudotibetica Noltie, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 57(2): 279–281, f. 1A–D. 2000. (Edinburgh J. Bot.). Type: Sikkim; Chholhamoo, marshy meadows, 17820 ft, 6 Aug. 1972, Pradham, Norbu & Naku 206 (HT: E00393981)

Distribution. Sikkim [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that recognizing this variety requires a new combination in Arctopoa, which we make here. It could also be recognized as a separate species but he does not feel that this is warranted.

Avena L., Sp. Pl. 1: 79. 1753

Lectotype. Avena sativa L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 218. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 110. 1920.

351. Avena barbata Pott ex Link in Schrader, J. Bot. (Schrader) 2: 315. 1799

Lectotype. Lusitania, ex cult. mea; July 1796; Pott s.n. (LE).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

352. Avena byzantina C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 392. 1848

Type. “Ich erhielt sie auch unter den Thirkenschen aus der Umgegend von Brussa gesammelten Pflanzen.”

Distribution. Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this is a Mediterranean taxon, presumably introduced to India in cultivation. It was placed in Avena sativa by Baum (1977). This species does grow outside of cultivation as a weed in other crops and disturbed places around where it is cultivated. It is recognized as a separate species by some taxonomists (e.g. by Chiapella and Amarilla (2012)), based on its slender, non-geniculate awn on both florets. Other authors (e.g. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html) consider it as a subspecies – Avena sativa subsp. byzantina (K. Koch) Romero Zarco (Euro+Med Plantbase on-line). The latter treatment seems preferable.

353. Avena fatua L., Sp. Pl. 1: 80. 1753

Avena fatua L. var. pilosissima Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 131. 1821. Type: Corn fields

Avena fatua L. var. glabrata Peterm., Fl. Bienitz. 13. 1841

Avena sativa L. var. sericea Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 275. 1896. Type: Bhutan; Griffith s.n.

Avena fatua L. var. pilosa Syme, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club 1871: 20. 1872. Type: Beanfield Claygate, Surrey; H.C. Watson s.n.

Avena fatua L. ssp. meridionalis Malzev, Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl. Br., Suppl. 38: 304. 1930

Avena meridionalis (Malzev) Roshev., Fl. Turkmen. 1: 105. 1932

Type. “Habitat in Europae agris inter segetes.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 95.9 (LINN). LT designated by Hubbard in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 82. 1970.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record from Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

354. Avena sativa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 79. 1753

Lectotype. Herb. Clifford: 25, Avena 1 (BM-000557678). LT designated by Baum in Taxon 23: 579. f. 1. 1974.

Distribution. Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab,

Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. It is unclear whether this species is naturalized or only cultivated.

355. Avena sterilis L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 118. 1762 var. sterilis

Type. “Habitat in Hispania. Alströmer.” Lectotype: Alströmer 7, Herb. Linn. No. 95.12 (LINN). LT designated by Hubbard in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1 : 84. 1970.

Distribution. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

356. Avena sterilis L. var. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gillet & Magne, Nouv. Fl. Franc., ed. 3, 532. 1875

Avena ludoviciana Durieu, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 20: 41. 1855. Type: “Cette espece est assez frequente dans les environs de Bordeaux, aux lieux deja cites, elle semble preferer les terrain calcaires aux siliceux, quand I’A.” France: Bordeaux; May 27, 1855; G. Lespinasse s.n. (LE). [France]: de la Garonne: Bordeaux; July 6 1855; F. Schultz 386 herbarium normale. Cent. 4. (LE).

Distribution. Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

Briza L., Sp. Pl. 1: 70. 1753

Macrobriza (Tzvelev) Tzvelev Komarovskie Čtenija (Moscow and Leningrad) 37: 32 1987

Lectotype. Briza media L. LT designated by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 45. 1920.

357. Briza maxima L., Sp. Pl. 1: 70. 1753

Macrobriza maxima (L.) Tzvelev., Bot. Žhurn. (Moscow and Leningrad) 78(10): 91 1993

Type. “Habitat in Italia, Lusitania.” Lectotype: Seguier, Herb. Linn. No. 88.6 (LINN). LT designated by Hubbard in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 53. 1970.

Distribution. Karnataka, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

358. Briza media L., Sp. Pl. 1: 70. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europae partis [sic] siccioribus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 88.5 (LINN). LT designated by Meikle in Fl. Cyprus 2: 1720. 1985.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

359. Briza minor L., Sp. Pl. 1: 70. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Helvetia, Italia.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 88.1 (LINN). LT designated by Hubbard in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 53. 1970.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. Perhaps naturalized. [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Possibly naturalized. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

Calamagrostis Adans., Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 31, 530. 1763

Deyeuxia Clarion ex P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 43. 1812. LT: Deyeuxia montana P. Beauv. (D. pyramidalis (Host.) Veldkamp), designated by Niles & Chase, Contr. US Natl. Herb. 24: 169. 1925.

Type. Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth (Tent. Fl. Germ. 2: 34. 1789) (Arundo calamagrostis L.).

Notes. The treatment here of Calamagrostis and Deyeuxia should be considered provisional as the generic boundaries are unclear. The two are considered distinct by Lu et al. (2006) and Kellogg (2015b). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Calamagrostis is deeply polyphyletic (Saarela et al. 2010). See also Paszko and Chen (2013), and Paszko and Ma (2011).

360. Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 33. 1788

Agrostis arundinacea L., Sp. Pl. 1: 61. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae monticulis sylvosis glareosis juniperitis.” Lectotype: Amman 26, Herb. Linn. No. 84.7 (LINN). LT designated by Veldkamp in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 243. 2000.

Deyeuxia sylvatica (Schrad.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 77. 1829

Calamagrostis pyramidalis Host., Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum 4: 28, pl. 49. 1809. (Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac.). Type: In sylvis Pannoniae...Bruck an der Leitha...Junio, Julio, Anon. s.n. (W?)

Deyeuxia pyramidalis (Host.) Veldkamp, Blumea 37(1): 230. 1992

Deyeuxia montana P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 43. 1812.

Arundo montana Gaudin, nom. illeg. superfl. for Agrostis arundinacea L.

Arundo sylvatica Schrad., Fl. Germ. (Schrader) 1: 218. t. 4. f. 7. 1806 (as “Siluativa”), nom. superfl. & illeg.

Deyeuxia arundinacea (L.) Jansen, Acta Bot. Neerl. 1: 470. 1952, nom. illeg. hom., non P. Beauv., 1812

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Deyeuxia arundinacea P. Beauv. has no connection with any Indian species and is equal to Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.) T. Durand & Schinz.

361. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 15: 157. 1812

Calamagrostis cinnoides Barton, Compend. Fl. Phila. 1:45. 1818.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990). However, these records are dubious. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that the only correct name for this as misapplied is Calamagrostis nuttaliana Steud., but he remains skeptical that this should be in Asia at all.

362. Calamagrostis debilis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 262. 1896

Deyeuxia debilis (Hook. f.) Veldkamp, Gard. Bull. Singapore 37(2): 220. 1985

Agrostis debilis (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan. 387. 1960, non Poir, 1810

Agrostis neodebilis Bennet & Raizada, Indian Forester 107(7): 433. 1981

Type. India: Sikkim: Chola, 9800 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K).

Distribution. Sikkim [China].

Habit. Perennial.

363. Calamagrostis decora Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 260. 1896

Type. India: Kashmir, Astor Valley, alt. 9000–10000 ft.; J.F. Duthie no. 12600.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

364. Calamagrostis diffusa (Keng) Keng f., Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 195–196. 1984

Deyeuxia diffusa Keng, Sunyatsenia 6(2): 94–95. 1941. Type: China: Yunnan: 1900–2750 m, E.E. Maire 6863 p.p.

Agrostis nagensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 497. 1954. Type: India: Assam, Naga Hills, Japvo, alt. 7500 ft.; September 28, 1935; N.L. Bor 6449 (K).

Calamagrostis nagensis (Bor) Uniyal, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 8(1): 235. 1986

Deyeuxia nagensis (Bor) Veldkamp, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 13(1): 74. 1989

Aulacolepis petelotii Hitchc., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 24(7): 291. 1934 (= Agrostis abnormis Munro ex Hook. f, Fl. Brit. India 7(22): 268. 1897[1896]; nom. inval., as syn. Deyeuxia abnormis Munro ex Hook. f.)

Agrostis petelotii (Hitchc.) Noltie, Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 386–387. 1999

Calamagrostis petelotii (Hitchc.) Govaerts, World Checkl. Seed Pl. 3(1): 11. 1999

Deyeuxia petelotii (Hitchc.) S.M. Phillips & W.L. Chen, Novon 13(3): 319. 2003

Aniselytron petelotii (Hitchc.) Soják, Cas. Nar. Muz. Praze, Rada Prir. 148(3–4): 202. 1980

Neoaulacolepis petelotii (Hitchc.) Rauschert, Taxon 31(3): 561. 1982

Deyeuxia abnormis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 268. 1896. Syntypes: Sikkim Himalaya: Lachong Valley, alt. 9000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. 5000–5500 ft.; Griffith s.n.

Agrostis continentalis Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7(5): 1297, pl. 40, f. 2. 1936

Anisachne gracilis Keng, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 48(4): 117–118, f. 2. 1958

Deyeuxia borii Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 208. 1985 (“1983”), nom. superfl. & illeg.

Distribution. Meghalaya, Nagaland [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Nagaland fide Naithani (1990). See Paszko and Ma (2011) for discussion of Deyeuxia abnormis and its synonyms.

365. Calamagrostis emodensis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 80. 1868

Type. India: Garhwal, alt. 9000–15400 ft., Sikkim, 6000–9000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

366. Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 34. 1788

Arundo epigejos L., Sp. Pl. 1: 81. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae collibus aridis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 97.11 (LINN). LT designated by Hubbard in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 102. 1970.

Calamagrostis macrolepis Litv., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 2: 125. 1921. Type: Turkestania, Dominium Buchara, Schugnan District, Anderob Province; S. Korschinsky s.n.

Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth ssp. macrolepis (Litv.) Tzvelev

Calamagrostis gigantea Roshev., Izv. Bot. Sada Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 30: 294. 1932, nom. illeg. hom., non Nutt., 1835. Type: Province Semiretschensk, distr. Lepsinsk in parties ad ripam lacus Alakul prope vicum Ksyl- agatch; July 10, 1928; N. Pavlov 671, based on Calamagrostis epigeios var. gigantea Roshev.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China].

Remarks. Records for Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal fide Naithani (1990).

367. Calamagrostis gamblei Paszko, Polish Bot. J. 57: 327, 2012

Type. Uttarakhand prov., [Dehradun distr.], Jaunsar, Mundali, 7000 ft; Oct 1894, J.S. Gamble 25249 (K; IT: CAL).

Distribution. Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See discussion in Paszko (2012a).

368. Calamagrostis garhwalensis C.E. Hubb. & Bor, Indian Forester 68(7): 355. 1942

Type. Himalaya, Kedarnath, alt. 10000–11000 ft.; October 19, 1938; C.E. Hubbard & Bor 8945? (DD).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

369. Calamagrostis holciformis Jaub. & Spach, Ill. Pl. Orient. 4: 61. t. 340. 1851

Deyeuxia holciformis (Jaub. & Spach) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 398. 1960

Deyeuxia compacta Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 267. 1896. Type: Western Tibet; Jacquemont s.n. Nubra Valley, alt. 14000–16000 ft.; Thomson s.n. Kumaon, alt. 15000 ft.; R. Strachey& J.E. Winterbottom Deyeuxia no. 1

Calamagrostis compacta (Munro) Hack. ex Paulsen, Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjobenhavn 167. 1903

Calamagrostis tianschanica Rupr., Sert. Tianschan. 34. 1869. Type: Not given.

Type. “In humidis altissimis Emodi Thibetani legit Jacquemont August auni 1830.” (P).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

370. Calamagrostis kashmiriana (Bor) Govaerts, World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1): 10. 1999

Deyeuxia kashmiriana Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 558. 1955

Deyeuxia hackelii Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 497. 1954, nom. later hom., non (Lillo ex Stuck.) Parodi, 1953. Type: India: Kashmir, Astor Valley, above Doian, alt. 10500- 11600 ft.; August 14, 1892; J.F. Duthie 12454 (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Perennial.

371. Calamagrostis lahulensis G. Singh, Taxon 33(1): 94. 1984

Deyeuxia pulchella Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 268. 1896. Type: Himalaya: Kumaon and Garhwal, alt. 10000–15000 ft., Sikkim, alt. 14000–16000 ft.; J.D. Hooker Deyeuxia no. 10

Calamagrostis pulchella Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 78. 1868, nom. illeg., non Saut. ex Rchb., 1830

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

372. Calamagrostis nagarum (Bor) G. Singh, Taxon 33(1): 94. 1984

Deyeuxia nagarum Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. n. s. 1(3): 69. 1938. Type: India: Assam, Naga Hills, Japvo, alt. 9500 ft.; N.L. Bor s.n. (K).

Distribution. Assam, Nagaland.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record from Nagaland fide Naithani (1990).

373. Calamagrostis nivicola (Hook. f.) Hand.-Mazz., Symbolae Sinicae 7(5): 1299. 1936

Deyeuxia nivicola Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 267. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, Momay, 15000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & Thomson Deyeuxia no. 4

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

374. Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Haller f.) Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 106. 1802 var. pseudophragmites

Arundo pseudophragmites Haller f., Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 1, 2: 11. 1797. Type: “ubi vicina Saxifragae mutatae habitabat.”

Arundo littorea Schrad., Fl. Germ. (Schrader) 1: 212. t. 4. f. 2. 1806 (as “litorea”). Type: [Austria]: In arenosis litoralis austriaci litoribus. Wulfen s.n. [Austria]:et similibus locis in insulis Danubialibus; Flugge s.n.

Calamagrostis littorea (Schrad.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 15: 157. 1812

Calamagrostis laxa Host, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 4: 25. t. 43. 1809. Type: “In arenosis, praecipue ad Danubii, aliorumque fluviorum ripas.”

Calamagrostis nepalensis Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 193. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle 288

Calamagrostis onoei Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 598. 1879. Syntypes: Japan: in provincial Senano; Dr. Rein s.n. Sine loci indicatione e botanico japonensi Ono primum habuit; Dr. Savatier s.n.

Calamagrostis lanceolata sensu Aitch., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 107. 1880, non Roth, 1788

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

375. Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Hall.f.) Koeler ssp. tartarica (Hook. f.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 2: 42. 1965

Calamagrostis littorea (Schrad.) P. Beauv. var. tartarica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 261. 1896. Type: Western Tibet; J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n.

Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Hall.f.) Koeler var. tartarica (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 396. 1960

Calamagrostis hedinii Pilg., S. Tibet, Bot. 6(3): 93. 1922

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [Russia].

Habit. Perennial.

376. Calamagrostis scabrescens Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 79. 1868 var. scabrescens

Deyeuxia scabrescens (Griseb.) Munro ex Duthie in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 623. 1882

Calamagrostis filiformis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 79. 1868. Type: India: “’H. or Sikkim 11–12000’, H.[Hooker]: D[eyeuxia] nr. 3”

Deyeuxia filiformis (Griseb.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 268. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, Lachen Valley, alt. 10000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Calamagrostis scabrescens Griseb. var. humilis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 79. 1868. Type: India: Sikkim, Lachen Valley, alt. 10000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & Thomson Deyeuxia no. 2

Deyeuxia scabrescens (Griseb.) Munro ex Duthie var. humilis (Griseb.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 268. 1896

Deyeuxia scabrescens (Griseb.) Munro ex C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 89, t. 39. 1889, non (Griseb.) Munro ex Duthie, 1882, isonym

Type. India: Sikkim, Lachen Valley, 10000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Manipur, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

377. Calamagrostis scabrescens Griseb. var. elatior Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 79. 1868

Deyeuxia elatior (Griseb.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 266. 1896

Type. India: Khasia Hills, alt. 5000–5500 ft.; J.D. Hooker Deyuxia no. 9.

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Perennial.

378. Calamagrostis simlensis (Bor) G. Singh, Taxon 33(1): 94. 1984

Deyeuxia simlensis Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. n. s. 3: 149. 1941. Type: India: Simla; D.M. Strong s.n. (DD).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Himachal Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

379. Calamagrostis stoliczkae Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 262. 1896

Type. Western Tibet: Zanskar, on the Pensi-la, alt. 12000–15000 ft.; Stoliczka s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China]

Habit. Perennial.

380. Calamagrostis tibetica (Bor) Tzvelev, Rast. Tsentral. Azii 4: 86. 1968

Deyeuxia tibetica Bor, Kew Bull. 1949: 66. 1949. Type: India: Sikkim, Chakalunga, alt. 16000 ft.; June 1. 1915; Rohmoo Lepcha s.n. (K).

Distribution. Sikkim [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Castellia Tineo, Pl. Rar. Sicil. 2: 17. 1846

Type. Castellia tuberculata Tineo.

381. Castellia tuberculosa (Moris) Bor, Indian Forester 74(3): 90. 1948

Catapodium tuberculosum Moris, Atti Riunione Sci. Ital. 481. 1841. Type: “Appartiene questa specie alla Sardegna occidentale, e vi fiorisce in April e in Maggio.” Italy: South Sardinia; Moris s.n.

Desmazeria tuberculosa (Moris) Batt. & Trab., Fl. Alger (Battandier & Trabut) 100. 1884

Festuca tuberculosa (Moris) Coss. & Durieu., Expl. Sci. Algerie 2: 189, t. 14. 1856

Micropyrum tuberculosum (Moris) Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 74(4): 567. 1949

Castellia tuberculata Tineo, Pl. Rar. Sicil. 2: 18. 1846. Type: “In arenosis vulcanicis. Linosa.”

Festuca tuberculata (Tineo) Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 128. 1881, isonym, non (Moris) Coss. & Durieu., 1856

Distribution. India [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Localities within India not recorded.

Catabrosa P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 97. 1812

Lectotype. Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv. (Aira aquatica L.) LT. designated by Nash in N.L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 245. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 47. 1920.

382. Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 97, 149. t. 19. f. 8. 1812 var. aquatica

Aira aquatica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 64. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae pascuis aquosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 85.6 (LINN). LT designated by Sherif & Siddiqi in El-Gadi (ed.), Fl. Libya 145: 84. 1988.

Colpodium aquaticum (L.) Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1(4): 395. 1830

Glyceria aquatica (L.) J. Presl. & C. Presl., Fl. Čech. 25. 1819

Poa airoides Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 194. 1802, nom. superfl & illeg. for Aira aquatica L.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

383. Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv. var. angusta Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 311. 1896

Type. Western Tibet, Lanak Pass, alt. 15000–16000 ft.; Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

384. Catabrosa sikkimensis Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 311. 1896

Type. India: alpine Sikkim, alt. 17000 ft.; Gammie s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim.

Habit. Presumed perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Dickoré (1995) treats this as a synonym of C. aquatica.

Catabrosella (Tzvelev) Tzvelev, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320 (in obs.). 1965

Colpodium subg. Catabrosella Tzvelev, Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 1964: 12, 1964.

Type. Catabrosella humilis (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev (Aira humilis M. Bieb.).

385. Catabrosella himalaica (Hook. f.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1966: 32. 1966

Phippsia himalaica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 240. 1896. Type: Alpine Western Himalaya: Kumaon, Barji-Khang Pass, alt. 14500 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n. Garhwal, Duder Glacier, alt. 13000–14000 ft.; Duthie s.n.

Catabrosa himalaica (Hook. f.) Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 311. 1896

Colpodium himalaicum (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 529. 1960

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Colpodium trollii Pilg. was placed in Catabrosella himalaica by Alexeev (1988) with some doubt. However, the species was described as 3(4)-flowered, and as no lemma vestiture was mentioned, presumably the type (if it is extant) has glabrous lemmas, so it probably is not C. himalaica. This also casts doubt on the synonymy of Catabrosa trollii (Pilg.) R.R. Stewart. Neither name is included here.

Catapodium Link, Hortus Berol. 1: 44 (“Catopodium”), 380. 1827

Type. Catapodium loliaceum (Huds.) Link (Poa loliacea Huds.).

386. Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubbard in Dony, Fl. Bedfordshire 437. 1953

Poa rigida L., Cent. Pl. I 5. 1755. Type: “Habitat in Gallia, Anglia.” Lectotype: “Gramen panicula multiplici” in Bauhin, Prodr. Theatri Bot. 6. 6. 1620. LT designated by Stace in Cafferty et al. (ed.) Taxon 49: 256. 2000.

Desmazeria rigida (L.) Tutin & Stace in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5: 158. 1980.

Festuca rigida (L.) Kunth Révis. Gramin. 2: 392. 1831, non Roth, 1797

Scleropoa rigida (L.) Griseb., Sp. Fl. Rumel 2: 431. 1845

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir. Possibly naturalized; native to Europe.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Cyathopus Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 24: sub t. 2395. 1895

Type. Cyathopus sikkimensis Stapf.

387. Cyathopus sikkimensis Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 24: t. 2395. 1895

Type. India: North Sikkim, Lachoong Valley in woods, alt. 11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Cynosurus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 72. 1753

Lectotype. Cynosurus cristatus L. (Designated by Nash in N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 251. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 67. 1920).

388. Cynosurus cristatus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 72. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europa pratis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 91.1 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 41. 1993

Distribution. Meghalaya [China].

Habit. Perennial.

389. Cynosurus echinatus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 72. 1753

Phalona echinata (L.) Dumort., Observ. Gramin. Belg. 114. 1824 (“1823”)

Type. “Habitat in Europa australiori.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen, sheet no. 913.62–79 (L). LT designated by Veldkamp in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 249. 2000.

Distribution. India [also in Africa, Europe, North America, South America]. Possibly naturalized.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Specific states in India not recorded.

Dactylis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 71. 1753

Lectotype. Dactylis glomerata L. (“glomeratus”). (Designated by Nash in N.L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed 2. 1: 251. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 67. 1920).

390. Dactylis glomerata L., Sp. Pl. 1: 71. 1753 (as “glomeratus”)

Bromus glomeratus (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2. 1: 76. 1771

Festuca glomerata (L.) All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 252. 1785

Trachypoa vulgaris Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 4: 359. 1901, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in Europae cultis ruderatis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 90.3 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 43. 1970.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Deschampsia P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 91. 1812

Lectotype. Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. (“caespitosa”) (Aira cespitosa L.). LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2., 1: 215. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 116. 1920.

391. Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 149, 160. 1812 (as “caespitosa”)

Aira cespitosa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 64–65. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae partis cultis & fertilibus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 85.8 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton in Milne-Redhead and Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 1: 92. 1970.

Agrostis cespitosa (L.) Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 25. 1796

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

392. Deschampsia koelerioides Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 41(2): 299. 1868

Type. “Eine ausgezeichnete neue Art, die in ihrer Tracht an eine Koeleria oder eine Hierochloe erinnert. Am Kok-djar im Thian-Shan bei 8000 Fuss Hohe vom H. v. Semenow auf Alpenwiesen gesammelt.” “cis- et Transsiliensibus”; 1857; P.P. Semenov-Tjan-Schansky 1197 (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Festuca L., Sp. Pl. 1: 73. 1753

Lectotype. Festuca ovina L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton and A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2., 1: 269. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 28. 1920.

393. Festuca alaica Drobow, Trudy Bot. Muz. Imp. Akad. Nauk 16: 134, t. 17/5. 1916

Type. Turkestan: Fergana Prov., Skobelev District; Margelan s.n. “In pratis alpinis ad fl. Dugova, circa pag. Jordan, alt. 14000 ft. (Drobov 303).”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

394. Festuca alatavica (St.-Yves) Roshev., Fl. URSS. 2: 528. 1934

Festuca rubra L. ssp. alatavica St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 393. 1928. Type: Turkestan: Chaine de l’Alatau, Kokoirak, aux sources du Kabir; Brotherus no. 784 (B). Kokbulak, aux sources du Naryn; Brotherus s.n. (B).

Festuca altaica auct. non Trin., 1829: Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 351. 1896

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

395. Festuca altaica Trin., Fl. Altaic. [Ledebour]. 1: 109. 1829

Type. USSR: Siberia “In summa alpe ad fontem fl. Acjulac rarissima”; Bunge s.n.

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. States within India not recorded.

396. Festuca asthenica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 354. 1896

Type. India: Kashmir, alt. 7000–9000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n., Duthie s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

397. Festuca bromoides L., Sp. Pl. 1: 75. 1753

Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 124. 1821

Type. “Habitat in Anglia, Gallia.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 912.356–219 (L). LT designated by Stace & Jarvis in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 436. 1985.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [Bhutan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

398. Festuca coelestis (St.-Yves) Krecz. & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 2: 514. t. 50. f. 12. 1934

Festuca ovina L. ssp. coelestis St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 376. 1928. Type: Thian-schan Mount celestes, vallee de Djoukoutchiak, alt. 6300–7200 ft.; Brocherel 392 (Herb. Deless.) and many syntypes.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

399. Festuca cumminsii Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 349. 1896

Syntypes. India: Sikkim, alt. 11000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. Bhutan; Cummins s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim [Bhutan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

400. Festuca danthonii Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2: 551. 1901

Festuca ciliata Danthoine ex Lam. & DC. , 1805, Flore Française. Troisième Édition 3: 55. 1805, non. Gouan, 1762. Type. France: près Montepellier, et dans les îles sablonneuses de la Durance

Vulpia ciliata Dumort., Observ. Gramin. Belg. 100. 1824. Type: Yugoslavia: Dalmatiae arenosis, herbidis ad mare: copiosae in insula Vergada, Vaena.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

401. Festuca debilis (Stapf) E.B. Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 109. 1978

Festuca kashmiriana Stapf var. debilis Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 351. 1896. Lectotype: India: Kashmir, Lidder Valley, above Kainmul, alt. 11000–12000 ft.; July 21, 1893; J.F. Duthie 13139 (K). LT designated by E.B. Alexeev in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 109. 1978.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

402. Festuca hartmannii (Markgr.-Dann.) E.B.Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 121. 1978

Festuca ovina L. var. hartmannii Markgr.-Dann., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85(3): 376. 1966. Type: Karakorum Central: Baintha, alt. 12800 ft.; July, 1962; H. Hartmann s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

403. Festuca kashmiriana Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 351. 1896

Festuca kashmiriana Stapf var. ligulata Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 351. 1896. Type: India: Kashmir, alt. 11000–13000 ft.; Duthie s.n.

Festuca rubra L. ssp. kashmiriana (Stapf) St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 395. 1928

Type. Temperate and Alpine Himalaya, from Kashmir to Kumaon, alt. 8000–14000 ft.; Royle s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

404. Festuca leptopogon Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 354. 1896

Festuca subulata Trin. var. leptopogon (Stapf) St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 450–451. 1928

Type. India: Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 8000–11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. Khasia Hills, alt. 5000–6000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & Thomson, C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

405. Festuca levingei Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 352. 1896

Type. India: Kashmir; Levinge 27394 (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

406. Festuca lucida Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 355. 1896

Type. India: NW Himalaya, Jaunsar, Karambar Peak, alt. 9000 ft.; May 1, 1894; J.F. Duthie 14481 (LE).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

407. Festuca maritima L., Sp. Pl. 1: 75. 1753

Nardurus maritimus (L.) Murb., Acta Univ. Lund. 4: 25. 1900

Vulpia unilateralis (L.) Stace, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 76: 350. 1978

Agropyron unilaterale (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 102. 1812, alternative name to Brachypodium unilaterale

Brachypodium unilaterale (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 155. 1812, alternative name to Agropyron unilaterale

Nardurus unilateralis (L.) Boiss., Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 667. 1844

Triticum unilaterale L., Mant. Pl. 35. 1767. Type: “Habitat in maritimis Italiae, Galliae australis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 104.15 (LINN). LT designated by Stace & Jarvis in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 442. 1985

Festuca tenuifolia Schrad., Fl. Germ. (Schrader) 1: 345. 1806, non Sibth, 1794. Type: “In iftriae herbidis.”

Type. “Habitat in Hispania.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 104.17 (LINN). LT designated by Hubbard in Proc. Linn. Soc. London 148: 110. 1936.

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [Asia: Saudi Arabia; Africa; Europe: Germany, Italy, Spain].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded.

408. Festuca megalura Nutt., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4: 24. 1848; J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia ser. 2, 1: 188. 1848

Vulpia megalura (Nutt.) Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 538. 1909

Vulpia myuros var. megalura (Nutt.) Auquier, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 47(1–2): 123. 1977

Festuca commutata Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 304. 1854. Type: “Chili, Hrbr Bertero nr. 274 et 1002 ex parte, mixta cum praecedente.”

Type. USA: California, Hab. Santa Barbara, Upper California; Wm. Gambel s.n. (PH).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu. Naturalized; native to western North and South America.

Habit. Annual.

409. Festuca modesta Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 316. 1854

Schedonorus modestus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 316. 1854, nom. nud. pro. syn.

Type. Nepal; Royle Herb. 161.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this taxon belongs to the broad-leaved lineage of Festuca s.l., and possibly should be transferred to Lolium.

410. Festuca muralis Kunth, Syn. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 218. 1822

Vulpia muralis (Kunth) Nees, Linnaea 19: 694. 1847

Vulpia muralis (Kunth) Henrard, Blumea 2: 319. 1937

Type. “Crescit in muris, quibus horti circumsepti sunt, prope Conocoto Quitensium, alt. 1350 hex., Humboldt & Bonpland s.n.” Ecuador; F.W.H. Humboldt & A.J.A. Bonpland s.n.(P).

Distribution. India, presumably naturalized; native to South America.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded.

411. Festuca myuros L., Sp. Pl. 1: 74. 1753

Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel., Fl. Bad. 1: 8. 1805

Zerna myuros Panz. ex Jacks., Index Kew. 2: 1249. 1895, pro syn.

Avena muralis Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 22. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in Anglia, Italia.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 912.356–218 (L). LT designated by Stace & Jarvis in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 436. 1985.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

412. Festuca nandadevica Hajra, Indian J. Forest. 6(1): 79–80. f. 1. 1983

Type. India: Uttar Pradesh, Chamoli, Nandadevi National Park, Deodi-Ramani; P.K. Hajra 73285A (CAL).

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

413. Festuca nitidula Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 350. 1896

Syntypes. Western Tibet, Nubra, alt. 12000–14000 ft.; Thomson s.n. India: North of Kumaon, alt. 15000 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

414. Festuca octoflora Walter, Fl. Carol. 81. 1788

Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 538. 1909

Festuca tenella Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 1(1): 419. 1797. Type: “Habitat in America boreali.”

Type. USA: South Carolina, Santee Valley; Walter s.n. (BM?). According to Hitchcock, this specimen is not at BM; see Lonard and Gould, Madroño 22: 221. 1974.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh. Naturalized. Native to North America.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

415. Festuca ovina L., Sp. Pl. 1: 73–74. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Alpibus Lapponicae, Helvetiae, Scotiae.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 92.1; Lapland Herb. No. 55 (LINN). LT designated by Kerguélen in Lejeunia, n.s. 75: 150. 1975.

Distribution. Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

416. Festuca pamirica Tzvelev, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 422. 1960

Festuca rubra L. ssp. schlagintweitii St.- Yves, Candollea 3: 389. 1928, p.p.

Type. Tadzhikistania, Pamir Boreali-occidentalis, in parties lapidosis in fontibus fluminis tachta-Korum prope trajectum Tachtakorum, alt. 13000 ft.; July 30, 1958; N. Tzvelev. 1008 (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

417. Festuca parvigluma Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 305. 1854

Type. “Ex Hrbo. Mus. Lugd. Batav. Japonia.”

Distribution. Sikkim [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Sikkim and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

418. Festuca polycolea Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 349. 1896 var. polycolea

Festuca ovina L. ssp. polycolea (Stapf) St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 373. 1928

Syntypes. Nepal; Wallich s.n. India: Sikkim, alt. 12000–16000 ft.; J.D. Hooker &c.

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

419. Festuca polycolea Stapf var. brevia Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 350. 1896

Type. India: Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 11000–13000 ft.

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

420. Festuca rubra L., Sp. Pl. 1: 74. 1753 var. rubra

Type. “Habitat in Europae sterilibus siccis.” Lectotype: Linnaeus s.n. (GB). LT designated by Jarvis et al. in Watsonia 16: 302. pl. 2B. 1987.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh,

Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

421. Festuca rubra L. ssp. arctica (Hack.) Govor., Fl. Ural. 127. 1937

Festuca rubra f. arctica Hack., Monogr. Festuc. Eur.: 138. 1882. Type not cited.

Festuca richardsonii Hook., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 250, t. 230. 1840. Type: Arctic Sea-coast. Dr. Richardson s.n., s.d.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

422. Festuca rubra L. ssp. clarkei (Stapf) St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 398. 1928

Festuca rubra L. var. clarkei Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 353. 1896. Syntypes: India: Kangara & Dalhousie, alt. 7000–8000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n. Khasia Hills, alt. 4000–6000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Festuca rubra L. var. stapfiana St.-Yves, Candollea 3: 398. 1928

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya [Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Meghalaya fide Naithani (1990).

423. Festuca rubra L. var. villosa Mert. & W.D.J. Koch, Deutschl. Fl. (Roehling), ed. 3. 1: 654. 1823

Type. [Europe], Not Spenner, 1825.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh. Also in Europe.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

424. Festuca sanjappae Chandra Sek. & S.K. Srivast., J. Jap. Bot. 80(2): 72–75. f. 1. 2005

Type. India: Himachal Pradesh, Pin Valley National Park, Chhohem, 12800–13100 ft.; K. Chandra Sekar 103271 (CAL).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

425. Festuca simlensis (Stapf) E.B. Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 110. 1978

Festuca kashmiriana Stapf var. simlensis Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 351. 1896. Lectotype: India: Simla, alt. 7000–8000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n. (K). LT designated by E.B. Alexeev in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 110. 1978.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

426. Festuca stapfii E.B. Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 115 1978

Festuca undata Stapf var. aristata Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 351. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, alt. 11,000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

427. Festuca tibetica (Stapf) E.B. Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 118. 1978

Festuca valesiaca Schlecht. ex Gaudin var. tibetica Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 349. 1896. Lectotype: Tibet Orientalis, region alpine, alt. 14000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n. (K). LT designated by E.B. Alexeev in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 83(4): 118. 1978

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

428. Festuca undata Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 350. 1896

Syntypes. India: Sikkim, alt. 12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n., Herb. Ind. Or.; J.D. Hooker & Thomson Bromus no. 16.

Distribution. Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

429. Festuca valesiaca Schlecht. ex Gaudin, Agrost. Helv. 1: 242. 1811 var. valesiaca

Festuca ovina L. var. valesiaca (Schlecht. ex Gaudin) W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 812. 1837, isonym, non Festuca ovina L. var. valesiaca (Schleich. ex Gaudin) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 2: 267. 1833.

Type. “Habitat in locis arenosis Valesiae. Circa Branson copiose Perennis.”

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

430. Festuca wallichiana E.B. Alexeev, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 83(4): 120. 1978

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Helictochloa Romero Zarco, Candollea 66(1): 96. 2011

Type. Helictochloa bromoides (Gouan) Romero Zarco (Avena bromoides Gouan).

431. Helictochloa pratensis (L.) Romero Zarco, Candollea 66(1): 103. 2011

Avena pratensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 80. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae pascuis siccis apricis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 44.5 (S). LT designated by Röser in Taxon 44: 397. 1995.

Avena alpina Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 335. 1811, non Honck., 1782? Type: “Discovered in 1807, on rocks upon the summits of the highest Mountains of Clova, Angusshire.”

Heuffelia pratensis (L.) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 762. 1866

Helictotrichon pratense (L.) Pilg., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 45: 6. 1938

Distribution. Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Dr. Romero Zarco (pers. comm.) speculates that this species could have been introduced into India as a pasture grass.

Holcus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1047. 1753, nom. cons.

Type. Holcus lanatus L. (typ. cons.).

432. Holcus lanatus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1048. 1753

Avena lanata (L.) Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 303. 1802

Notholcus lanatus (L.) Nash ex Hitchc. in Jepson, Fl. Calif. 1: 126. 1912

Ginannia lanata (L.) F.T. Hubb., Rhodora 18: 234. 1916, nom. superfl. & illeg. for H. lanatus L.

Ginannia pubescens Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 4: 321. 1901, nom. superfl. & illeg. for H. lanatus L.

Aira holcus-lanatus Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 2: 87. 1787, nom. superfl. & illeg. for H. lanatus L.

Avena pallida Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 24. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg. for H. lanatus L.

Type. “Habitat in Europae pascuis arenosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1212.10 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 54. 1993.

Distribution. Sikkim, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Perennial.

433. Holcus mollis L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1305. 1759

Aira mollis (L.) Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips. 51. 1771

Avena mollis (L.) Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 300. 1802

Avena sylvatica Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 24. 1796, nom. superfl. & illegit.

Ginannia mollis (L.) Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 4: 322. 1901

Notholcus mollis (L.) Hitchc., Amer. J. Bot. 2(6): 304. 1915

Type. “Habitat [in Europa: in Hallandia. [sic] Osbeck.] Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1485. 1763.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1212.9 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 251. 2000.

Distribution. Meghalaya [also in Europe, North America]. Naturalized. Native to Europe.

Habit. Perennial.

Hyalopoa (Tzvelev) Tzvelev, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50(9): 1320. 1965

Colpodium subg. Hyalopoa Tzvelev, Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 1964: 6. 1964.

Type. H. pontica (Balansa) Tzvelev (Catabrosa pontica Balansa).

434. Hyalopoa nutans (Stapf) E.B. Alexeev ex Cope, Fl. Pakistan 143: 423. 1982

Catabrosa nutans Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 312. 1896. Type: Alpine Himalaya: from Kashmir to Garhwal, alt. 10000–14000 ft.; Jacquemont s.n.

Colpodium nutans (Stapf) Bor, Fl. Iranica 70: 54. 1970

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Koeleria Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 97. 1805

Lectotype. Aira cristata L. Designated by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 107. 1920.

Notes. The generic limits of Koeleria, Trisetum and related genera have been the subject of much recent taxonomic work. See comments under Trisetum.

435. Koeleria argentea Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 77. 1868 var. argentea

Koeleria litvinowii ssp. argentea (Griseb.) S.M. Phillips & Z.L. Wu, Fl. China 22: 331 2006

Type. India: “T. Nubra, Ladak pr. Leh, Nari Khorsum.”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

436. Koeleria argentea Griseb. var. nepalensis Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 14(Heft. 65): 115. t. 7. f. 6. 1907

Type. “Herb. Schlaginweit from India and High Asia 1. Gen, Nro. Of Catal 4118 K. nepalensis Griseb. (Teste Grisebach) (1856).”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

437. Koeleria hookeri Barberá, Quintanar, Soreng, & P.M. Peterson, Phytoneuron 2019–46: 4. 2019. Name changed to avoid confusion with Koeleria clarkeana Domin.

Avena clarkei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 278. 1896. Type: India: Kashmir, at Laka and Badrawur, alt. 10000–11000 ft. Chamba, Dalhousie, alt. 8700 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Trisetum clarkei (Hook. f.) R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 431. 1945

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

438. Koeleria litvinowii Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 14(65): 116. 1907

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

439. Koeleria micans (Hook. f.) Barberá, Quintanar, Soreng, & P.M. Peterson, Phytoneuron 2019–46: 5. 2019

Avena micans Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 279. 1896. Type: Western Himalaya: Garhwal, banks of the Ganges, alt. 8000–10000 ft.; Duthie s.n.

Trisetum micans (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 448. 1960. Type: Teri Garhwal, alt. 8600- 9600 ft.; J.F. Duthie 46

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

440. Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 84, 166, 175. 1812

Poa pyramidata Lam., Tabl. Encycl 1: 183. 1791

Koeleria cristata Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 97. 1805, nom. illeg. superfl.; [Persoon included Lamarck’s older name as a variety (K. cristata var. pyramidata (Lam.) Pers.) within his new Koeleria cristata Pers. (non. L.; often erroneously cited as K. cristata (L.) Pers.)]

Aira cristata L., Sp. Pl. 1: 63. 1753, p.p. Type: “Habitat in Angliae, Galliae, Helvetiae siccioribus.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen, sheet no. 913.62–99 (L). LT designated by Humphries in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 244. 2000. Epitype: France. Jura, Bas-Bugey, Montagny de Ste Claire sur Brioguier, 400–500 m; 3 Jun 1929; Briquet 6737 (BM). Epitype designated by Humphries, C.J. in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 244. 2000.

Airochloa cristata (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 127. 1827

Dactylis cristata (L.) M. Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 67. 1808

Festuca cristata (L.) Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 2: 93. 1787, non L. (1753)

Poa nitida Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 182. 1791. Type: France: “Ex Galliae siccis & montosis Leer S.T. 5. f. 6.”

Aira gracilis Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 144. 1820

Airochloa gracilis Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 2: 276. 1833

Koeleria gracilis Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 97. 1805, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Koeleria cristata Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 97. 1805, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 345. 1824

Aira macrantha Ledeb., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 7, 5: 515–516. 1812. Type: “Hab. in jugo montium jablonnoi-Chrebet.”

Koeleria cristata auct. non (L.) Pers., 1805: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 308. 1896

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that according to the Linnaean typification website, the current name for Aira cristata L. is Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 2: 345. 1824. Koeleria cristata might not be made on the basis of Aira cristata. Koeleria cristata is treated as a synonym of Koeleria macrantha in the Flora of Pakistan, and according to Quintanar Koeleria macrantha is a taxonomic synonym of K. pyramidata. There is no morphological discontinuity among these taxa. Thus, our distribution information and synonymy reflect the merging of these taxa, with the understanding that (as above), Koeleria cristata might not really belong here. See also comments in IPNI (2020).

441. Koeleria spicata (L.) Barberá & al. subsp. virescens (Regel) Barberá, A. Quintanar, Soreng & P.M. Peterson, Phytoneuron 2019–46: 9. 2019

Avena flavescens L. var. virescens Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 41(2): 299. 1868

Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. ssp. virescens (Regel) Tzvelev, Novosti Sistematiki Vysshchikh Rastenii 7: 65. 1971. 1970

Aira spicata L., Sp. Pl. 1: 64. 1753 [applies to ssp. spicatum] Type: “Habitat in Lapponiae alpibus.” Lectotype = “Gramen Avenaceum paniculatum Alp. humile, locustis in spicam collectis varicoloribus aristatis” in Scheuchzer, Agrostographia Helv. Prodr., 24, t. 6, 1708. LT designated by Louis-Marie in Rhodora 30: 238. 1928.

Avena virescens (Regel) Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 7: 635. 1880

Avena flavescens L. var. virescens Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 41(2): 299. 1868. Type: “Tschilik und Djenischke. Wasserscheide im Altau transiliensis, auf Alpenwiesen bei 8000 fuss Hohe (Semenow).”

Trisetum pubiflorum Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 52: 187. 1902. Type: India: Kashmir, Sangam Valley, in rupibus, circ. 13500 ft.; Duthie 13543

Trisetum subspicatum (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 88, 180. 1812, Basionym is nom. superfl.

Trisetum virescens (Regel) B. Fedtsch., Izv. Imp. Bot. Sada Petra Velikago 14 (Suppl. 2): 64. 1915, non Nees ex Steud., 1854

Aira subspicata L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 873. 1759, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Avena airoides Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 298. 1802 non Avena spicata L., 1753

Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. ssp. himalaicum Hulten, Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. 53: 213. 1959, nom. inval., type not indicated (many specimens cited, none indicated as type)

Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. ssp. himalaicum Hulten ex Veldkamp, The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 36(1): 135. 1983. Holotype, as lectotype: Nepal: Chilime Kharka, 4570 m, July 1949, Polunin 1175 (S; IT: BM).

Koeleria spicata subsp. himalaica (Hultén ex Veldkamp) Barberá, A. Quintanar, Soreng & P.M. Peterson, Phytoneuron 2019–46: 8. 2019

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990). Because Trisetum spicatum ssp. himalaicum, ssp. spicatum and ssp. virescens may be lumped together in the literature, it is not clear if all subspecies are in India and, if so, what their ranges are.

Lagurus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 81. 1753

Type. Lagurus ovatus L.

442. Lagurus ovatus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 81. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Italia, Gallia, Sicilia, Lusitania.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 96.1 (LINN). LT designated by Meikle in Fl. Cyprus 2: 1788. 1985.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Lamarckia Moench, Methodus (Moench) 201. 1794 (“Lamarkia”), nom. et orth. cons.

Type. Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench (Cynosurus aureus L.).

443. Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench, Methodus (Moench) 201. 1794

Cynosurus aureus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 73. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europa australi.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 91.19 (LINN). LT designated by Scholz in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 249. 2000.

Achyrodes aureum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 758. 1891

Chrysurus aureus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 296. 1824 (“1825”), non (L.) Besser, 1810 c. f. Taxon 31(1): 70. 1982, Isonym

Chrysurus cynosuroides Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 80. 1805, nom. superfl. & illeg. for C. aureus

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Leucopoa Griseb. in Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 4(13): 383 1852

Type. Leucopoa sibirica Griseb. (Leucopoa albida (Turcz. ex Trin.) Krecz. & Bobrov).

444. Leucopoa albida (Turcz. ex Trin.) Krecz. & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 2: 495. 1934

Poa albida Turcz. ex Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1: 387. 1830, non Festuca albida Lowe, 1831. Lectotype: [Siberia]: Lk. Baikal, mineral springs Turkinskije; 1829; Turczaninow s.n. (LE). LT orig. label: “In arenosis ad Baicalem prope thermes Turkenses.” (vide TROPICOS)

Leucopoa sibirica Griseb. in Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 4(13): 383. 1852, nom. superfl. for Poa albida Turcz. ex Trin.

Festuca sibirica Hack. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 626. 1884, nom. nov. for Poa albida Turcz. ex Trin.

Distribution. Reported from Jammu and Kashmir, but probably not in India [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan]. See comments under Leucopoa olgae.

Habit. Perennial.

445. Leucopoa karatavica (Bunge) Krecz. & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 2: 496. t. 39. f. 2 (a–f). 1934

Poa karatavica Bunge, Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 7: 525. 1851. Type: “Hab. Auf den Alpen des Karatau 12 Septbr. 1841 (specima duo deflorata sine fructu)”; Alexandrio Lehmann s.n.

Festuca karatavica (Bunge) B. Fedtsch., Rastitel’n. Turkestana 136. 1915

Xanthochloa karatavica (Bunge) Tzvelev, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow and Leningrad) 91(2): 275. 2006.

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [also in Russia].

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

446. Leucopoa olgae (Regel) Krecz. & Bobrov, Flora URSS 2: 495. 1934

Molinia olgae Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 7(2): 625. 1881. Type: “In Kokaniae montibus Alai”; O. Fedtschenko s.n.

Festuca olgae (Regel) Krivot., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 56. 1960

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Although Leucopoa albida (Turcz. ex Trin.) Krecz. & Bobrov has been reported from India this is most likely an error, confusing L. albida with L. olgae. See Dickoré (1995).

Lolium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 83. 1753

Lectotype. Lolium perenne L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 281. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 103. 1920.

447. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., Novon 3(3): 241. 1993

Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips. 57. 1771. Type: “In prato acclivi hinter dem Biniz, loco humido” Lectotype: Scheuzer, Agrostographia, t. 5. f. 18. 1719. LT designated by Reveal, Terrell, Wiersema & Scholz in Taxon 40: 136. 1991.

Bromus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 2(1): 141. 1789

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh [native to Europe].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990). It is unclear where this is naturalized there or not.

448. Lolium giganteum (L.) Darbysh., Novon 3(3): 241. 1993

Bromus giganteus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 77–78. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae sylvis siccis.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen, sheet no. 913.62–78 (L). LT designated by Darbyshire in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 248. 2000.

Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 2: 110. 1787

Zerna gigantea (L.) Panz. ex B.D. Jacks., Index Kew. 1(4): 1249. 1895

Trisetum flaccidum (Hack. ex Hook. f.) R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 431. 1945

Avena flaccida Hack. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 280. 1896. Type: India: Punjab, Black Mountains, alt. 8000–9000 ft.; J.F. Duthie 7609.

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Bor (1960, p. 448) notes that Trisetum flaccidum is a species of Festuca, possibly F. gigantea. This species is now Lolium giganteum.

449. Lolium perenne L., Sp. Pl. 1: 83. 1753

Lolium brasilianum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 443. 1829. Type: Uruguay: Montevideo; Sellow s.n. (B).

Type. “Habitat in Europa ad agrorum versuras solo fertili.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 99.1 (LINN). LT designated by Terrell in Taxon. Revis. Genus Lolium 7. 1968.

Distribution. Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

450. Lolium persicum Boiss. & Hohen., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 2(13): 66. 1854

Lolium rigidum Gaudin var. duthiei Hack. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 364. 1896. Type: India: Kashmir, Sirinagur, alt. 5000–6000 ft.; Duthie no. 10846

Type. Iran: “Hab. in uliginosis montis Elbrus prope Derbend; June 9, 1943; Kotschy 278.” (G).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

451. Lolium remotum Schrank, Baier. Fl. 1: 382. 1789 var. remotum

Type. Germany: Bavaria, “um Burghausen”, type not known according to Terrell (1968).

Distribution. Northwest India [Afghanistan, China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded.

452. Lolium remotum Schrank var. aristatum (Doell) Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 1(2): 876. 1864

Lolium linicolum A. Braun var. aristatum Doell, Fl. Baden [Doell] 1: 113. 1857. Type: Herbarium Doell

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

453. Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Agrost. Helv. 1: 334–335. 1811

Lolium loliaceum (Bory & Chaub.) Hand.-Mazz., Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 28(1–2): 32. 1914

Rottboellia loliacea Bory & Chaub., Exp. Sci. Moree Bot. 3: 46. t. 3. f. 2. 1832

Type. “Augustae Praetoriae ad vias apricas anno 1809 inveni.” Gaudin s.n. (LAU).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

454. Lolium temulentum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 83. 1753 var. temulentum

Type. “Habitat in Europae agris inter Hordeum, Linum.” Lectotype: Herb. Burser I: 113 (UPS). LT designated by Loos & Jarvis in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 108: 408. 1992.

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

455. Lolium temulentum L. var. arvense (With.) Lilj., Utkast Sv. Fl., ed. 3 80. 1816

Lolium arvense With., Arr. Brit. Pl., ed. 3. 2: 168. 1796. Type: United Kingdom and cited many syntypes.

Distribution. Assam, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [also in Europe].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Himachal Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

Milium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 61. 1753

Lectotype. Milium effusum L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 173. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 156. 1920.

456. Milium effusum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 61. 1753

Melica effusa (L.) Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 20. 1796

Miliarium effusum (L.) Moench, Methodus (Moench) 204. 1794

Paspalum effusum (L.) Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 301. 1825

Type. “Habitat in Europae nemoribus umbrosis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 83.3 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 66. 1993.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Paracolpodium (Tzvelev) Tzvelev, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 50: 1320. 1965

Colpodium subg. Paracolpodium Tzvelev, Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 1964: 9. 1964.

Type. Paracolpodium altaicum (Trin.) Tzvelev (Colpodium altaicum Trin.).

457. Paracolpodium altaicum (Trin.) Tzvelev ssp. leucolepis (Nevski) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3: 33. 1966

Colpodium leucolepis Nevski, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir. Otd. Biol. 43: 224. 1934. Type: Tajikistan: Pamir, Fontes fl. Aksu (Murgab), in declivitate NW faucium Beik, in herbosis; July 18, 1901; Th. Alexeenko 2120 (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [also in Tajikistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

458. Paracolpodium wallichii (Hook. f. ex Stapf) E.B. Alexeev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 18: 94. 1981

Colpodium wallichii (Hook. f. ex Stapf) Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 270. 1953

Catabrosa wallichii Hook. f. ex Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 312. 1896. Syntypes: Nepal; 1821; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8907. India: Sikkim, Kankola Pass, alt. 14000–15000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Parapholis C.E. Hubb., Blumea Suppl. 3: 14. 1946

Lectotype. Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb. (Aegilops incurva L.) Probably designated by A. Chase, Misc. Publ. U.S.D.A. 200: 997. 1950.

459. Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb., Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14. 1946

Aegilops incurva L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1051. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Oriente. Tournefort.” Neotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1218.11 (LINN). LT designated by Cuccuini in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 242. 2000.

Lepturus incurvus (L.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 123. t. 8. 1820 (as “incurvatus”)

Pholiurus incurvus (L.) Hitch., Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 106. 1920 (as “incurvatus”)

Distribution. Northwest India [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded.

Phalaris L., Sp. Pl. 54. 1753

Lectotype. Phalaris canariensis L. LT designated by Hitchcock, Amer. J. Bot. 5: 252. 1918.

460. Phalaris aquatica L., Cent. Pl. I. 4. 1755

Phalaris tuberosa L., Mant. Pl. Altera 557. 1771. Type: “Habitat in Europae australi.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 78.3 (LINN). LT designated by Anderson in Iowa State J. Sci. 36: 43. 1961.

Type. “Habitat in Aegypto & ad Tyberia.” Lectotype: Hasselquist, Herb. Linn. No. 78.4 (LINN). LT designated by Anderson in Iowa State J. Sci. 36: 43. 1961.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [China].

Habit. Perennial.

461. Phalaris arundinacea L., Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753

Digraphis arundinacea (L.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 127. 1820

Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Rauschert, Feddes Repert. 79: 409. 1969

Typhoides arundinacea (L.) Moench, Methodus (Moench) 202. 1794

Arundo colorata Aiton, Hortus. Kew. (W. Aiton) 1: 116. 1789. Type: Britain

Calamagrostis variegata With., Arr. Brit. Pl., ed. 3. 2: 124. 1796

Arundo riparia Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 24. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in Europae subhumidis adripas lacuum.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 78.7 (LINN). LT designated by Anderson in Iowa State J. Sci. 36: 37. 1961.

Distribution. Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

462. Phalaris canariensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 54. 1753

Phalaris avicularis Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 17. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in Europa australi, Canariis.” Proposed Conserved Type: Herb. Clifford: 23, Phalaris 1 (BM-000557659). Type designated by Baldini & Jarvis in Taxon 40: 482. 1991.

Distribution. India [China, Pakistan]. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean region.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded.

463. Phalaris minor Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 8. 1783 var. minor

Lectotype. LINN 89/31.1962. LT designated by R.M. Baldini in Webbia 47(1): 22. 1993.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

464. Phalaris minor Retz. var. nepalensis (Trin.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 616. 1960

Phalaris nepalensis Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 1(7): t. 80. 1827. Type: “Figura as specimen nepalense.” Lectotype: Trinius, Sp. Gram. Icon. t. 80. 1827. LT designated by Baldini in Webbia 49(2): 279. 1995.

Distribution. Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

465. Phalaris paradoxa L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1665. 1763

Type. “Habitat in Oriente. P. Forskåhl.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 78.6 (LINN). LT designated by Anderson in Iowa State J. Sci. 36: 22. 1961.

Distribution. Northwest India [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded.

Phippsia (Trin.) R. Br., Chlor. Melvill. 27. 1823

Vilfa subg. Phippsia Trin. in K.P.J. Sprengel, Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 37. 1820 (as “Phipsia”)

Type. Phippsia algida (Sol.) R. Br. (Agrostis algida Sol.).

466. Phippsia algida (Sol.) R. Br., Chlor. Melvill. 27. 1823

Agrostis algida Sol., Voy. North Pole 200. 1774. Type: Arctic: “voyage toward the North Pole.” [syntype (BM): Capt. Phipps, Spitsbergen]

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh [also in Europe, North America].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng comments that it is doubtful that this species actually occurs in India.

Phleum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 59. 1753

Lectotype. Phleum pratense L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 190. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 140. 1920.

467. Phleum alpinum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 59. 1753 

Phleum commutatum Gaudin, Alpina 3: 4. 1808. Type: “Auf den hoheren Alpen im Wallis… z.b. auf den Bernhard und auf den Alpen des Visperthals. Ludw. Thomas, Schleicher.” European Alps, alt. 6400–13000 ft.

Type. “Habitat in Alpibus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 81.4 (LINN). LT designated by Bowden in Canad. J. Bot. 43: 286. 1965.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

468. Phleum himalaicum Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 17: 293. 1921

Phleum arenarium L. var. thomsonii Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 83. 1868. Type: Himalaya occidentalis, 6000–8000 ft.; Thomson s.n.

Phleum arenarium sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 237. 1896, non L., 1753

Syntypes. Afghanistan; Griffith s.n. Northwest Himalaya; Thomson s.n. Kashmir; Meebold s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

469. Phleum paniculatum Huds., Fl. Angl. (Hudson) 23. 1762

Phleum asperum Jacq., Collectanea [Jacquin] 1: 110. 1786. Type: “Gramen hoc quibusdam in Europe provincis sponte obvium.”

Type. “Habitat in partes infra King’s Waston prope Bristolium.”

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

470. Phleum pratense L. var. pratense, Sp. Pl. 1: 59. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europae versuris & pratis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 26 (LAPP). LT designated by Humphries in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 75. 1993.

Distribution. Assam [China].

Habit. Perennial.

471. Phleum pratense L. var. nodosum (L.) Arcang., Compend. Fl. Ital. 757. 1882

Phleum nodosum L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10:871. 1759.

Distribution. Nagaland.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990). It is unclear if this species is naturalized in India.

Poa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67. 1753

Lectotype. Poa pratensis L. LT designated by Nash in N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 252. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 41. 1920.

472. Poa aitchisonii Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 602. 1884 (as “aitchisoni”)

Type. Afghanistan; Kurum Valley; Aitchinson 405, 497.

Distribution. Northwest India [Afghanistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

473. Poa alpina L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67. 1753

Type. “Habitat in alpibus Lapponicis, Helveticis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 87.2 (LINN). LT designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 254. 2000.

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

474. Poa annua L., Sp. Pl. 1: 68. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europa ad vias.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 87.17, right specimen (LINN). LT designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 254. 2000.

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka]. Native to Eurasia and weedy elsewhere around the world.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

475. Poa arnoldii Melderis, Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 1: 142. 1978.

Poa albertii ssp. arnoldii (Melderis) Olonova & G.H. Zhu, Fl. China 22: 308. 2006.

Poa mustangensis Rajbh., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 39(1–3): 61. 1988. Type: Nepal: Mustang Distr., 4900 m, in open place, 25 July 1983; Rajbhandari 8352 (TI, KATH)

Type. Nepal: west, 5 mi NE of Saipal, scree, 5600 m, 25 Aug. 1954, J.E.M. Arnold 226 (BM).

Distribution. Uttarakhand [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Specimen records for Uttarakhand listed by Nautiyal and Gaur (2017). Zhu et al. (2006) place this as a subspecies of P. albertii and also consider P. mustangensis as a synonym.

476. Poa asperifolia Bor, Kew Bull.1952: 130. 1952

Type. China: Tibet, Pembu La, 10–15 miles north from Lhasa; September, 1904; H.J. Walton s.n. (K).

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Sikkim fide Naithani (1990).

477. Poa attenuata Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 2: 527. 1835

Type. Russia: Siberia, Altai Mountain, “in montosis ad fontem fluvii”; July, 1833; D. Bunge s.n. (LE-TRIN-2584.01, Isotype).

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Olonova (pers. comm.) doubts that this species, at least in its strict sense, occurs in India.

478. Poa bactriana Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 4: 93. 1923

Poa bactriana Roshev. ssp. glabriflora (Roshev. ex Ovcz.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 10: 96. 1973

Poa bulbosa var. glabriflora Roshev. ex Ovcz., Fl. Turkmen. 1(2): 143. 1932 Lectotype: N. Desyatova [N. Dessinatoff 1398]; 25 Jun 1913; [Tadjikistan]: Iter ad distr. Margelan, Alai valley, Valley of Dara Rv., from Izmail burial ground to Aran-Kungei winter quarters, soft hillocks (LE). ILT: LE.

Lectotype. V. Lipsky; ; Turkmenistan: Gissar Range southern slope, Pyanjkhan, 7800 ft (LE; ILT: K-969/64, LE) LT cited by Tzvelev, Zlaki SSSR 450 (1976).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng has investigated the lectotypification of P. bulbosa var. glabriflora. He notes that Tzvelev (Zlaki SSSR p 450, 1976), cited the Desyatova specimen as the holotype of P. glabriflora Roshev. ex Ovcz., and therefore he (Soreng) takes this to be the lectotype. Roshevits did not cite any material. OM: S. Nevski 464; 27 Jun 1931; [Uzbekistan] Turkomania orientalis: In regione subalpina montium Kuhitang supra pagum Chodsha-i-fil (K-67, K-68) K-67 was annotated as P. glabriflora by Roshevits in 1931, but this specimen keys to P. bactriana subsp. drobovi in Tzvelev (1976); fide RJS 2004.

479. Poa bucharica Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 4: 94. 1923 ssp. bucharica

Type. LT: V. Lipskii; 2 Aug 1896; Afghanistan: Bukhara, southern slope of Gissar range, upper reaches of Sio River, 10000 ft (LE; ILT: K). LT: cited by Tzvelev, Zlaki SSSR p. 462 (1976).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

480. Poa bucharica Roshev. ssp. karateginensis (Roshev. ex Ovcz.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 11: 28. 1974

Poa karateginensis Roshev. ex Ovcz., Izv. Tadzh. Bazy Akad. Nauk. SSSR 1(1): 12, 26. 1933. Type: Tajikistan: Buchara, Nusratabadskij Range, Karategin, Karashibet glacier, 3000 m, 3–15 Aug 1896, V. Lipski. HT: LE; IT: K, LE

Poa suruana H. Hartmann, Candollea 39(6): 516–519. f. 1. 1984. Type: India: Karakorum, Skardu, Suru, Sanmodagsa (Gulmatungo) 12500 ft.; August 27; 1976; H. Hartmann 2873 (G).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Perennial.

481. Poa bulbosa L. var. vivipara Koeler, Descr. Gram. 189. 1802

Poa bulbosa L. ssp. vivipara (Koeler) Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital. 785. 1882

Paneion bulbosum var. viviparum (Koeler) Lunell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 222. 1915

Poa bulbosa L. forma vivipara (Koeler) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 3: 86. 1855

Type. Prope Moguntiam [Mainz, Germany] in arenosis.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that possibly all collections in India are more or less viviparous, and doubts that any representatives of P. bulbosa var. bulbosa occur there. Bor (1960, p. 556) also indicates “almost invariably found as var. vivipara”.

482. Poa burmanica Bor, Kew Bull. 3: 141. 1948.

Type. Myanmar: Kachin State, Myitkyina Distr., Hpimaw Pass, 11,000 ft, 6 Aug. 1929, Sukoe 10074 (K).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Specimen records for India listed by Nautiyal and Gaur (2017). This species is also accepted by Zhu et al. (2006) in the Flora of China.

483. Poa calliopsis Litw. ex Ovcz., Izv. Tadzhik. Bazy Bot. 1: 11, 18. 1933

Lectotype. Th. Alexeenko 3023/1451; 26 July 1901; Tajikistan: Pamir in angustiis ad fauces Chargosch. N. versus in pratis, 4300–5500 m (LE) LT designated (as holotype) by Roshevits, Fl. SSSR 2: 755 (1934).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

484. Poa compressa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 69. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europae & Americae septentrionalis siccis. muris, tectis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 87.41 (LINN). LT designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 255. 2000.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

485. Poa diaphora Trin., Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 1: 69–70. 1836

Poa persica var. diaphora (Trin.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. [Ascherson & Graebner 2: 437. 1900

Aira altaica Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 2: 526. 1835

Eremopoa altaica (Trin.) Roshev., Fl. URSS 2: 431. t. 32. f. 13. 1934

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

486. Poa diaphora Trin. var. songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Soreng, Cabi & L.J. Gillespie, PhytoKeys 111: 85. 2018.

Glyceria songarica Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey., Enum. Pl. Nov. 1: 1. 1841. Type: Kazakhstan: “ad fl. Karatai versus montes Karatau”; June 13, 1840; H. Schrenk s.n. (LE).

Poa songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 611. 1884 (as “soongarica”)

Eremopoa songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Roshev., Fl. URSS 2: 431. t. 32. f. 11. 1937 (as “soongorica”)

Poa persica Trin. var. songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker)

Eremopoa persica (Trin.) Roshev. var. songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 532. 1960

Eremopoa altaica (Trin.) Roshev. var. songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey..) Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 479. 1976

Eremopoa altaica subsp. songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Tzvelev, Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Moscow & Leningrad) 51(8): 1104. 1966

Nephelochloa songarica (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4: 367. 1852 (as “soongorica”)

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng places P. songarica as a variety of P. diaphora.

487. Poa dzongicola Noltie, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2): 283, f. 1M-P. 2000

Poa yakiangensis L. Liou, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(2): 405. 2002

Type. HT: I.W.J. Sinclair & D. G. Long 5396; 28 Sep 1984; Bhutan: Upper Mo Chu District, Lingshi Dzong, 27°55', 89°27', on wall of dzong, ca. 4100m (E).

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

488. Poa eleanorae Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 142. 1948

Type. H.A. Cummins; “Laid in” 13 Jun 1894; India: Northeast Sikkim. K000789631.

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960), and Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

489. Poa falconeri Hook. f. ex Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 342. 1896

Syntypes. Falconer; 10 Aug. 1870–1871; Garwahl, 12–13000 ft (K000789637; IST: K000789636) [Jumnotri to Kasauli, Uttar Pradesh to Himachal Pradesh]; Duthie 288; 16 Aug. 1983; India: Uttar Pradesh: Tihri-Garwhal, in Nila Valley 12–13,000 ft (K000789635).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

490. Poa gamblei Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 144. 1948

Type. India: Madras, Nilgiris Distr. Ootacamund, 7000 ft, Sep 1886, J.S. Gamble 18129 (K000789628).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960).

491. Poa gammieana Hook. f. ex Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 345. 1896

Type. India: Sikkim, Tankra Mountains, alt. 12000 ft.; August 5, 1892; G.A. Gammie 641 (HT: (K000789632).

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960), and Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

492. Poa garhwalensis D.C. Nautiyal & R.D. Gaur, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 96(2): 285. 1999.

Type. Jammu-Kashmir: NW Himalaya, Leptal, 4000m, 4 Aug 1996; D.C. Nautiyal (GUH-13501A).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

493. Poa glauca Vahl, Fl. Dan. 6(17): 3, pl. 964. 1790.

Poa araratica s. auct., non Trautv.

Poa sterilis M. Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 62. 1808. Type: “Habitat in tauriae collibus apricis sterilibus [Crimea].” (LE).

Type. “Legi tantummodo in paroecia Vang (Valders) ad pedes montium, in Finmarkia non frequens.”

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that the specialist in this group of Poa (sect. Stenopoa), M.V. Olonova, now considers P. araratica to be a taxonomic synonym of Poa glauca Vahl. but probably does not extend to India. The Cenral Asian plants may be better treated as Poa glauciculmis Ovcz. More research is needed. Certainly the taxonomy of this section is complex; see (Zhu et al. 2006). Poa glauca is circumboreal and also occurs in S America. Poa sterilis was accepted as a separate species by Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006), but now is considered a synonym of P. glauca s.l. or possibly P. nemoraliformis and almost certainly does not occur in India.

494. Poa harae Rajbh., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 39(1–3): 55. 1988

Type. Nepal: Sagarmantha Zone, Solukhumbu Distr., Denikharka (Dambuk) – Yurigolcha, 4600m, on grassy slope, 23 Aug 1985; Rajbhandari 61665 (TI, KATH).

Distribution. Uttarakhand [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Not listed for China by Zhu et al. (2006).

495. Poa himalayana Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 256. 1854

Poa stewartiana Bor, Kew Bull.1951: 185. 1951. Type: India: Jaunsar District, Mandali, 6400 ft.; May 5, 1897; J.F. Duthie 19777 (K).

Type. Nepal, Lectotype: India: Uttar Pradesh, Mussooree, Shalma; Royle 163 on 187/163 (LIV-12514). LT designated by Noltie in Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2): 289. 2000.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Nautiyal and Gaur (2017). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Poa himalayana sensu Bor is Poa rajbhandari; see Noltie (2000). Poa stewartiana Bor is Poa himalayana.

496. Poa hirtiglumis Hook. f. ex Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 343–344. 1896

Type. India: Sikkim: Donkaih Pass, alt. 18000 ft.; September 9, 1849; Herb. Ind. Or. J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n. (K).

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

497. Poa hylobates Bor, Bull. Bot. Surv. Ind. 7: 132. 1965

Type. Nepal: near Tarakoti, Bheri River, 10500 ft, grassy clearings in mixed forest, 13 July 1952; Polunin, Sykes & Williams 2445 (K, BM).

Distribution. Uttarakhand [China, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. This species is also reported for China by Zhu et al. (2006).

498. Poa infirma Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 158 (ed. qto.). 1816

Catabrosa thomsonii Stapf ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 311. 1896 (as “thomsoni”). Type: China: Xizang, Nubra Valley, alt. 10000–11000 ft.; T. Thomson s.n.

Poa annua L. ssp. exilis Tomm. ex Freyn, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 27: 469. 1878 (“1877”). Type: Langs der Kust von Fasana bis Medolino; auch auf S. Marina; 1872; Tommasini s.n.

Poa exilis (Tomm. ex Freyn) Murb., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. [Ascherson & Graebner]. 2(1): 389. 1900

Poa remotiflora (Hack.) Murb., Acta Univ. Lund. 36(2): 22. 1900, non Rupr., 1845.

Poa annua L. forma remotiflora Hack., Flore de l’Algérie 2: 206. 1895. (Fl. Algérie). Type: Algeria: Lieux humides et region Montagneuse, Rouiba, Teniet-el-Haad.

Type. Colombia; August, 1801; Humboldt & Bonpland 134 (P). “Crescit in frigidis regni Novogranatensis, inter Fonibon, Suba et Santa Fe de Bogota, 1360 hexap.”

Distribution. Bilaspur, Uttarakhand. [Introduced. Widespread in Europé and North America].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

499. Poa kanaii Rajbh., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 39(1–3): 58. 1988

Type. Nepal: Mustang Distr., Thourungse, 4600 m, in open place, 25 Jul 1983; Rajbhandari 8356 (TI, KATH).

Distribution. Uttarakhand [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Not listed for China by Zhu et al. (2006).

500. Poa khasiana Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 343. 1896

Lectotype. Designated by Bor, Bombay Natur. Hist. Soc. J. 50: 831 (1952), without indication of herb. As in the protolog, this was originally det as “P. himalayana Nees”. Stapf’s figures pinned on illustrate the LT, K000789598.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See also Nautiyal and Gaur (2017) for additional discussion of this species.

501. Poa koelzii Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 139–140. 1948

Poa albertii Regel ssp. kunlunensis (N.R. Cui) Olonova & G.H. Zhu, Flora of China 22: 308. 2006

Poa festucoides Lam. ssp. kunluensis N.R. Cui, Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 7(2): 97, f. 8. 1987, nom. hom. illeg.

Type. India: Kashmir, Tsakzhun Tso, Ladak, alt. 15000 ft.; July 20, 1931; Walter Koelz 2385 (holotype: K000789620).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See discussion in Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

502. Poa lahulensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 138. 1948

Poa albertii Regel ssp. lahulensis (Bor) Olonova & G.H. Zhu, Fl. China 22: 309. 2006

Type. Kashmir: Lingti, Lahul, alt. 12000 ft.; June 29, 1941; N.L. Bor 15024 (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India confirmed by M. Olonova. Specimens for Uttarakhand cited by Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

503. Poa lhasaensis Bor, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 7: 132. 1965

Poa jaunsarensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 143. 1948. Type: India: Kumaon, Kutti Yangti Valley, Byans, 12000–13000 ft.; July 30, 1886; J.F. Duthie 6224 (K000789644).

Type. China: Xizang: Lhasa, 10000 ft,, Sep 1904 Collector and Number: Walton s.n. (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Uttar Pradesh and Nepal fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Poa jaunsarensis was accepted as Poa lhasaensis Bor by Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006), but this is considered tentative.

504. Poa litvinoviana Ovcz., Izv. Tadzhik. Bazy Bot. 1: 22. 1933  

Poa glauca Vahl ssp. litwinowiana (Ovcz.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 11: 32. 1974. Type: USSR, Tadzhikistan; Tajikistan: Pamiro-Alaj, Tian Shan, distr. Matscha, inter rupibus in montibus Zeravschanicis pr. glaciem zeravschanicum, 4500–4700 m, 16 July 1927, Drobov 354 (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

505. Poa mairei Hack., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(333–335): 387. 1913

Poa pseudo-pratensis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 340. 1896, non Beyer, 1891 nec Scribn. & Rydb., 1896. Syntypes: Nepal; Wallich s.n. Sikkim and Western Bhutan, alt. 10000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. Sine loc; Cummins s.n.

Poa patens Keng ex Keng f., Acta Botanica Yunnanica 4(3): 276–277. 1982. Type: China: Yunnan:, Yulong Shan, eastern slopes of mount Dyinaloko, northern peak of Likang Snow Range, 1923, J.F. Rock 10427 (HT: US-1214301)

Poa ludens R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 420. 1945, nom. nov. for Poa pseudo-pratensis Hook. f.

Type. China; Yunnan, pr. Tong-Tchouan, 1910, R.P. Maire 6992, ser. B (HT: W).

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

506. Poa nemoraliformis Roshev., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR 11: 30. 1949.

Syntypes. India, Himachal Pradesh, Bor. or Poa relaxa Ovcz., Izv. Tadzh. Bazy Akad. Nauk. SSSR 1(1): 20, f. 2. 1933. Type: Tajikistan: western Zeravshan range, near Marguzarsky Lake, stony screes along NW slope of Mun-Kua Mt., 2900 m, 20 Aug. 1932. P. Ovchinnikov & A. Slobodov 1257.

Distribution. West Himalaya [China].

Habit. Perennial.

507. Poa nemoralis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 69. 1753

Type. “Habitat in Europa ad radices montium umbrosas.” Lectotype = “Gramen paniculatum angusti-folium Alpin. Locustis rarioribus et angustioribus non aristatis” in Scheuchzer, Agrostographia Helv. Prodr., 18. t. 2. 1708. LT designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 255. 2000. Epitype: Sweden. Uppland: Danmark Parish, Linnés Hammarby; June 14, 1933; Hylander s.n. (BM). Epitype designated by Soreng, R. & Edmondson, J. in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 255. 2000.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

508. Poa nepalensis (Wall. ex Griseb.) Wall. ex Duthie, List Grasses N.W. India 40. 1883 var. nepalensis

Poa annua L. var. nepalensis Wall. ex Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 75. 1868. Lectotype: Strachey & Winterbottom 13, India orientali: Kumaon, Binsar, 2300 m (K; ILT: BM)

Poa nephelophila Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 140. 1948

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that the lectotype of P. annua var. nepalensis was designated by Bor (1952) without indication of herbarium. The K specimen was cited as the holotype by Cope (1982) and by Rajbhandari (1991). Lectotype here designated (refined), K000789542 = p.p. “a”, by R.J. Soreng per annotation 2010 on specimen. (p.p. “b”, is Poa setulosa Bor.) The placement of P. nephelophila in synonymy here follows Bor (1960) and Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

509. Poa nitide-spiculata Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 139. 1948

Type. India: Sikkim Himalaya, Valley running into Teesta from West, Tangu, alt. 13500–14000 ft.; July 13, 1903; F.E. Younghusband s.n. (K000789633).

Distribution. Sikkim [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Sikkim and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

510. Poa pagophila Bor, Fl. Iranica 70: 38. 1970

Poa pagophila Bor, Kew Bull. 1949: 239. 1949, nom. inval., without Latin. Type: Sikkim: Yeumtang, 4600 m, 6 Sept. 1849, Hooker f. s.n. (HT: K000789639; IT: GOET-006888)

Poa flexuosa sensu Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 342. 1896, non Sm., 1800, nec Wahlb., 1814

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Bor’s 1949 publication of P. pagophila was invalid, lacking a Latin description. Bor cited only the English description of P. flexuosa sensu Stapf. The Latin description was provided by Bor (1970), p. 38. Stapf clearly attributed P. flexuosa to Wahlberg.

511. Poa palustris L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 874. 1759

Poa serotina Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. (Ehrhart) 6: 83. 1791, nom. nud.; Ehrh. ex Hoffm., Fl. Germ. 1: 299. 1806. Type: Upsaliae

Type. “Habitat [in Helvetiae, Italiae paludibus.] Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 99. 1762.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 87.21 (LINN). LT designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 256. 2000.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan]. Introduced; native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Habit. Perennial.

512. Poa persica Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1: 373. 1830 var. persica

Eremopoa persica (Trin.) Roshev., Fl. URSS 2: 430. t. 32. f. 8. 1934

Festuca persica (Trin.) C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 410. 1848

Nephelochloa persica (Trin.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4: 366–367. 1852

Poa heptantha (C. Koch) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 255. 1854

Festuca heptantha C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 410. 1848. Type: “Im Hochgebirge, auf sumpfigen Wiesen, auf Urgestein, 5500 ft.” (B).

Festuca polygama C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 409. 1848. Type: “aus dem Wilhelm’schen herbar als.” Caucasus?; Wilhelms s.n. (B).

Lectotype. “V. ssp. Pers.” [Caucasus; Azerbaijan]: in collibus ad Akar-Tschai prob, Karabagh; May 27, 1829; Szowits 246 (LE). LT designated by Tzvelev in Zlaki SSSR. 479. 1976.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. See also Gillespie et al. (2018). Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

513. Poa polycolea Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 342. 1896

Poa chalarantha Keng ex L. Liu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(2): 390 2002. Type: K.L. Chu 7012, China: Sichuan: Yulinkun, ad declivitatem saxosam umbrosam, 1 April 1940 (NAS).

Poa gilgitica Dickoré, Stapfia 39: 169 1995. Type: India: Karakorum: Gilgit, Shinghai Gah - Pahot Gali 35°48'–55'N, 74°10'–17'E, Picea smithiana forest on NW-facing slope, veg. rec. 37, 3100m; 26 Jul 1990, G. & S. Miehe 796 (HT: K; IT: GOET).

Poa lithophila Keng ex L. Liu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(2): 397, 2002. Type: China: Sichuan: Dêgê [ca 31.8°N 98.6°E], alt. 2800–4300 m, Y.W. Tsui 4413 (HT: N).

Poa maerkangica L. Liu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(2): 399, 2002. Type: China: Sichuan: Maerkang, in locis gramineis declivitatis, 2800 m, 11 May 1959, Li Xin 70629 (HT herbarium unknown).

Poa triglumis Keng ex L. Liu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(2): 404, 2002. Type: 10 Jun 1937; Sichuan: Mu-ii, Wa-chin, bank of mt. stream, 2800m, FIB Yunnan exp. T.T. Yu 6032 (HT: NAS (not found 2001 or 2004); IT: KUN-388592, KUN-388590, PE-308548)

Lectotype. J.D. Hooker & Thomson, Herb. Ind. Or. Hf. & T. 15, West Himalaya: Kashmire, Valley north of Chamba, 3–3500 m (K000789594; ILT; BM) LT designated by Bor B.N.H.S.J. 50: 835 (1952), without indication of herb.

Syntype. India: Kumaon, Dugli, alt. 10500 ft.; R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom 11 (as P. serotina) (K; IST: BM).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

514. Poa polyneuron Bor, Kew Bull.1952: 223. 1952

Type. India: Sikkim, Natu La, 12800 ft.; June 23, 1945; N.L. Bor & Kiratram 20685 (K000789638).

Distribution. Sikkim [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

515. Poa poophagorum Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 143. 1948 (as “poiphagorum”)

Poa albertii Regel ssp. poophagorum (Bor) Olonova & G.H. Zhu, Fl. China 22: 308. 2006

Type. India: Sikkim, Temu La, alt. 16000 ft.; 1912; Rohmoo Lepcha 374 (K).

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal].

Habit. Not reported.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species was recognized at the subspecific level by Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006) as P. albertii ssp. poophagorum, but more recently has been accepted as a species.

516. Poa pratensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67–68. 1753 ssp. pratensis, nom. cons.

Type. “Habitat in Europae pratis fertilissimis.” Conserved Type: Russia. Prov. Sanct-Petersburg, 5 km australi-occidentem versus a st. viae ferr. Mga, pratulum ad ripam dextram fl. Mga, 26 Jun 1997, Tzvelev N-257 (BM-000576302). Type designated by Soreng & Barrie in Taxon 48: 157. 1999.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species is widely seeded for lawns and pastures in cool temperate regions. It is presumably naturalized in India.

517. Poa pratensis L. ssp. alpigena (Lindm.) Hiitonen, Suom. Kasvio 205. 1933

Poa alpigena Lindm., Svensk Fanerogamflora 91. 1918. Based on “P. pratensis var. alpigena” Fr. ex Blytt, nom. illeg. superfl. for “P. pratensis var. iantha” Laest.

Poa pratensis L. var. alpigena Fr. ex Blytt, Norg. Flora 130. 1861. Type: “P. prat. Alpigena Fries Herbar. Norm. Fasc. 9.n. 93.1.p. prat. Alpestris Fries Summa Veget. P. 76. P. Prat. δ. Iantha Blytt l.c.”

Poa pratensis L. var. iantha Laest., Kongl[iga]. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar 1822: 329. 1822

Poa poophagorum Bor var. lanata Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 143. 1948. Type: China: Tibet, Rongshar Valley, alt. 12000 ft.; Hingston s.n. (K).

Distribution. Sikkim [China, Nepal (in Naithani as ssp. staintonii)].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).alpina

518. Poa pratensis L. ssp. angustifolia (L.) Gaudin, Agrost. Helv. 1: 214. 1811

Poa angustifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europa ad agrorum versuras.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 87.12, excl. second culm from left (LINN). LT designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 254. 2000.

Poa pratensis L. var. angustifolia (L.) Sm., Fl. Brit. 105. 1800

Distribution. India [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan]. Naturalized and possibly native; native to Europe and west and central Asia.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this name is widely misapplied to Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis; it could be in India, but the identifications should be checked.

519. Poa pratensis L. ssp. irrigata Lindb., Schedae Plantae Findlandiae Exsiccatae 2: 20. 1916

Poa irrigata Lindm., Botaniska Notiser 1905: 88, f. 1. 1905. (Bot. Not.), nom. incorrect as applied by the author, taxonomically superfl.; Poa rigens Hartm. 1820 cited as fo. within, see Art. 52 and 52.3. Isotypes: Ehrhart; Scandinavia: Upsaliae (LE) equals P. humilis Ehrh., nom. nud., P. humilis Ehrh. ex Hoffm. Ehrhart spec. B; 1 Oct 1893; Scandinavia: Upsala (LE)

Poa subcaerulea Sm., Engl. Bot. 14: t. 1004. 1802. Type: England: Anglesea (on the Mountains of Westmoreland and Cumberland); Rev. H. Davies s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir. Naturalized; native to Eurasia.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this is a common lawn grass and sometimes pasture grass, and is widely seeded. This is the currently accepted name for Poa humilis, and for Poa subcaerulea as when treated as subspecies of Poa pratensis L.

520. Poa pratensis L. ssp. pruinosa (Korotky) Dickoré, Stapfia 39: 173. 1995

Poa pruinosa Korotky, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 13: 291. 1914. (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg.) Type: M. Korotky et al. s.n.; 4 Jul 1912; Russia, Transbaical district, Regio lacorum Eravinensis, pr. p. Konstantinowka, pr. ripam fl. Choloj et lacos Brarun-Charga and Syntyr, in arenosis (Lectotype: LE) LT cited in Tzvelev, Zlaki SSSR 459 (1976).

Poa markgrafii H. Hartmann, Candollea 39(2): 514. f. 2. 1984. Type: India: Karakorum, Suru, Chellong Nalla, W Panikhar, 12000 ft.; H. Hartmann 2380 (G).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

521. Poa pseudamoena Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 276. 1953

Poa amoena Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 140. 1949, nom. later hom., non (Presl) Kunth, 1833. Type: India: Kumaon; R. Strachey 26/2 (K000789626).

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Annual or short-lived perennial.

Remarks. Record for Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990), and for Uttarakhand fide Nautiyal and Gaur (2017).

522. Poa rajbhandarii Noltie, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57(2): 288–289, f. 2M-P. 2000

Type. Sikkim: Phedang to Tsoka, S of Dzongri, 27°26'N, 88°10'E, 3500 m, 26 July 1992, Edinburgh Expedition to Sikkim and Darjeeling (ESIK) 748 (E00393984).

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Poa himalayana sensu Bor is Poa rajbhandari (see Noltie 2000). Taxonomic editor Soreng also notes that the situation is further confused by Nautiyal and Gaur (2017) accepting P. stewartiana.

523. Poa royleana Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 256. 1854

Type. 187/140; Mussooree (LIV (12941-I and 12941-II)[upper culm and base mounted separately] (photo K-969/176)).

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. This species is sometimes placed as a synonym of Poa annua, but taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Poa royleana Nees ex Steud. is not at all like P. annua. It is a robust perennial, and a very odd one at that; it is apparently very rare. See also Rajbhandari and Edmondson (1990). Regarding the type specimen Soreng observes that the K-969/176 photo shows that both parts I and II were originally mounted on one sheet belonging to Merseyside County Museums Herbarium LIVCM 1952-121-128H with the 187/140 Poa royleana - Mussooree tag and the Poa Royleana N. ab. E.-- tag. The spikelets are shaped like Glyceria striata; the lemmas are (5)7-(9)veined, glabrous; the rachilla is round, smooth, glabrous; the lodicules have stiff hairs at the apex; the paleas are peculiar -- flanges appressed hispidulous, keels densely hispidulous, and between keels densely hispidulous; the caryopsis is glabrous, with a short round to ovate hilum; sheaths mostly closed ca. 1/2 the length.

524. Poa setulosa Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 142. 1948

Poa rhadina Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 138. 1948. Type: Tehri-Garwahal, Jaulea bah, Srikanta, alt. 12000–13000 ft.; J.F. Duthie 265 (K000789593).

Type. India: Lower Kunawar; August 15, 1847; T. Thomson s.n. (K000789592).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual or perennial.

Remarks. Records for Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990). Nautiyal and Gaur (2017) separate P. rhadina from P. setulosa, and cite localities in Uttarakhand. Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006) place P. rhadina in synonymy as done here.

525. Poa sikkimensis (Stapf) Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 130. 1952

Poa annua L. var. sikkimensis Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 346. 1896. Lectotype: India: Sikkim, Wallanchoon [Walungchung], 10000–12000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K000808543). LT (called type) designated by N.L. Bor in Kew Bull. 1952: 130. 1952. (Accepted as Holotype by Rajbhandhari (1991), and as lectotype by Soreng annotation 2010).

Distribution. Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Bor annotated a different specimen as type in 1947 (K000808542), but later published the Wallanchoon specimen as the Type (Bor 1952). The latter was accepted as the holotype by Rajbhandhari (1991), and by Soreng in annotation.

526. Poa sinaica Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 256. 1854

Isotypes. In cacuminae montis St. Catharinae Arab.; May 19, 1835; Schimper Unio itiner. 326 (BM, K, S).

Distribution. India (West Himalaya) [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that this species apparently reaches to Pakistan, it is mostly viviparous over much of its range, especially eastward, and is thus difficult to separate from Poa bulbosa subsp. vivipara. It has more elongated bulbs at the base of shoots, and longer ligules than P. bulbosa.

527. Poa stapfiana Bor, Kew Bull. 1949: 239. 1949

Poa tremula Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 344. 1896, non Lam., 1791. Syntypes: Temperate and Alpine Himalaya, from Kashmir, alt. 8000–15000 ft.; Jacquemont s.n. to Garhwal; Duthie s.n. Western Tibet, Ladakh; Thomson s.n., Schlagintweit s.n.

Poa stapfiana Bor var. micranthera (Stapf) Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50: 827. 1952

Poa tremula Stapf var. micranthera Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 345. 1896. Syntypes: India: Kashmir, Palgam, 12000–13000 ft.; September 4, 1876; C.B. Clarke s.n., Duthie s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng observes that there are no worthy varieties here; all is one species. However, the Jacquemont collection, listed as a syntype of P. tremula is actually P. hirtiglumis. The lectotype designated by Rajbhandari (1991) is rejected for P. tremula, as it was only cited by Stapf as syntype of the var. micranthera.

528. Poa supina Schrad., Fl. Germ. (Schrader) 1: 289. 1806

Poa variegata Haller f., Cat. Pl. Helv. 38. 1800, nom. illeg., non Lam., 1791

Poa ustulata S.E. Fröhner, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 88: 437. 1968. (Bot. Jahrb. Syst.). Type: Russia: Siberia: Pamiro-Alaj mountains, Alajica valley, Tengiz-bai pass, alpine swales, slope toward Darant-Kurgan, 23 June 1931, S. Lipschitz 122 (HT: MW; IT: LE) 

Poa supina Schrad. ssp. ustulata (S.E. Fröhner) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Botaniska Notiser 128(4): 498. 1975[1976]. (Bot. Not.)

Type. In summis alpibus Salisburgensibus; Mielichhofer s.n.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990). Nautiyal and Gaur (2017) document specimen for Uttarakhand.

529. Poa szechuensis Rendle, J. Bot. 46: 173. 1908 var. szechuensis

Poa gracillima Rendle, Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 36(254): 424–425. 1904, nom. illeg. hom., non Vasey 1893. Type: China; Sichuan, Emei Shan, Faber 1185 (HT: K000789505)

Poa tibeticola Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 139. 1948. Type: China: Tibet, Khambajong; September 7, 1903; F.E. Younghusband s.n. (K000789482).

Poa chumbiensis Noltie, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 57(2): 282, f. 1I–L. 2000. Type: China: Xizang: Chumbi Valley, Yatung, 10000 ft, 18 April 1945, Bor & Kirat Ram 20148 (K)

Distribution. Sikkim, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from Bor (1960) and Zhu et al. (2006).

530. Poa szechuensis Rendle var. rossbergiana (K.S. Hao) Soreng & G.H. Zhu, Fl. China 22: 295. 2006

Poa rossbergiana K. S. Hao, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 581. 1938. Type: China; Qinghai, in der Nähe des Klosters Ta-schiu-sze, 4200 m, im Ja-he-mari-Gebirge, westlich von Tsi-gi-gan-ba, 9 Sep 1930, K.S. Hao 1197 (IT: NAS)

Poa rohmooana Noltie, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 57(2): 281–282, f. 1E–H. 2000. (Edinburgh J. Bot.). Type: Sikkim: Chugya, 15000 ft, 12 Nov. 1912, Rohmoo Lepcha 284 (HT: E)

Distribution. Sikkim [China].

Habit. Annual.

531. Poa trivialis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 67. 1753 ssp. trivialis

Type. “Habitat in Europae pascuis.” Neotype: Hudson 16, Herb. Linn. No. 87.9 (LINN). Neotype designated by Soreng in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 256. 2000.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. All records for India fide Naithani (1990).

532. Poa trivialis L. var. glabra Döll, Rhein. Fl. 92. 1843.

Type. Not found.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record in India fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Bor (1952, 1960) recognized this species, and Tzvelev (1983) says it is sometimes recognized. It has smoother sheaths than the typical variety.

533. Poa wardiana Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 143. 1948

Type. India: Assam, Balipara Frontier Tract, Poshing La, 10000–12000 ft.; July 21, 1938; F. Kingdon-Ward 13990 (K000789597, ex DD).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

Polypogon Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 66. 1798 (“1800”)

Type. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. (as “monspeliense”) (Alopecurus monspeliensis L.).

534. Polypogon fugax Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 184. 1854

Polypogon higegaweri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 422. 1854. Type: Japonica

Polypogon littoralis Sm. var. higegaweri (Steud.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 246. 1896

Type. Nepal.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

535. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 67. 1798 var. monspeliensis

Alopecurus monspeliensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 61. 1753. Type: “Habitat Monspelii.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 82.6 (LINN). LT designated by Scholz in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 245. 2000.

Phleum monspeliense (L.) Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 57. 1802

Santia monspeliensis (L.) Parl., Fl. Palerm. 1: 73. 1845

Agrostis alopecuroides Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 160. 1791. Type: “Ex Gallia & Europa australi.”

Phleum crinitum Schreb., Beschr. Graes. 1: 151. 1768

Polypogon flavescens J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 234. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Peruvia.” Peru; Haenke s.n. (PR)

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

536. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. var. indicus Bhattacharya & S.K. Jain, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25(1–4): 208. f. 1. 1985 (“1983”)

Type. India: Punjab, Ferozepore; S.l. s.n. (CAL).

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Afghanistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Punjab fide Naithani (1990).

537. Polypogon nilgiricus Kabeer & V.J. Nair, Nord. J. Bot. 25(1–2): 9, fig. 1. 2008

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Manjakambai, alt. 3000 ft.; March 3, 2004; K. Althaf Ahamed Kabeer 117749 (CAL).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

538. Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 110 (Sess. Extraord. 89): 56. 1966 (“1963”)

Agrostis viridis Gouan, Hortus Monsp. 546. 1762. Type: France “Habitat au mont Saint Loup. Cum agrost. Ventricosa Altitudo prioris.” (P).

Agrostis semiverticillata (Forssk.) C. Chr., Dansk Bot. Ark. 4(3): 12. 1922

Phalaris semiverticillata Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 17. 1775. Type: “Rofettae & Kahirae frequens, Aprile ineunre florens, Naaejm.”Egypt: Rosetta and Cairo; April, 1762; Forsskal 63 (C).

Agrostis verticillata Vill., Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 16. 1779. Type: France.

Polypogon littoralis Sm. var. muticus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 246. 1896. Type: India: Kunawur; Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Puccinellia Parl., Fl. Ital. 1: 366. 1848, nom. cons.

Type. Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. (Poa distans Jacq.) (type cons.).

For additional information see Liu et al. (2006) and Dickoré (1995). Dickoré notes several poorly known taxa from Karakorum that are not mentioned here.

539. Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl., Fl. Ital. (Parlatore) 1: 367. 1848

Poa distans Jacq., Observ. Bot. (Jacquin) 1: 42. 1764, Type: “Habitat in Austria. D. Jacquin.” Lectotype: Austria. “Poa distans. triandra digyn. Crescit in fossis aquosis et locis humidis per Austriam.” Herb. Jacquin fil. (W). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 255. 2000.

Atropis distans (Jacq.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4: 388. 1852

Glyceria distans (Jacq.) Wahlenb., Fl. Upsal. 36. 1820

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

540. Puccinellia glauca (Regel) V.I. Krecz., Flora URSS 2: 484, pl. 36, f. 19. 1934

Atropis distans var. glauca Regel, Trudy Imperatorskago S.-Peterburgskago Botaničeskago Sada 7(2): 623. 1881. (Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada). Type: P. Fedchenko s.n., 29 May 1869, Environs of Kalta-Kurgon, along the irrigation channel Narupai (LE)

Puccinellia distans Parl. ssp. glauca (Regel) Tzvelev, Zlaki SSSR 507. 1976

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

541. Puccinellia himalaica Tzvelev, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 17: 66. 1955

Type. India: Kashmir, Soo Morari Peldo, Rupshu, alt. 12800 ft.; July 8, 1931; W. Koeltz 2216 (LE).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

542. Puccinellia ladakhensis (H. Hartmann) Dickoré, Stapfia 39: 182. 1995

Poa ladakhensis H. Hartmann, Candollea 39(2): 510. f. 1. 1984. Type: India: Kashmir, Stokphu, alt. 14500 ft.; H. Hartmann 2614 (G).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Perennial.

543. Puccinellia minuta Bor, Nytt Mag. Bot., Oslo 1: 19, f. 8. 1952.

Puccinellia kashmiriana Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 270–271. 1953. Type: India: Kashmir, Kamri Valley, near Kalapani, alt. 11200–12000 ft.; August 25, 1893; J.F. Duthie 12543 (K).

Type. Pakistan: Chitral distr.: Barum Gol, S. Barum Glacier, ca. 4500 m, 27 July 1950, P. Wendelbo s.n. (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990). Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Dickoré (1995) recognized P. minuta with P. kashmiriana Bor as a synonym, a structure that we follow here. Liu et al. (2006) recognize P. minuta but do not mention P. kashmiriana.

544. Puccinellia stapfiana R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 418. 1945

Glyceria pooides Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 348. 1896 (as “poaeoides”), non Puccinellia pooides Keng, 1938. Type: China: Xizang, Rupchu, grassy plains at the head of Salt Lake; T. Thomson s.n., non Puccinellia pooides Keng, 1938

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

545. Puccinellia tenuiflora (Griseb.) Scribn. & Merr., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13: 78. 1910

Atropis tenuiflora Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4(13): 389. 1852. Type: Russia: Siberia, Transbaical; Turczaninov s.n. (LE).

Distribution. India (West Himalaya) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. States in India not recorded. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Liu et al. (2006) include Iran but not Pakistan in the distribution of this species.

546. Puccinellia thomsonii (Stapf) R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 418. 1945 (as “thomsoni”)

Glyceria thomsonii Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 347. 1896. Type: China: Xizang, Rupchu above Pugha, alt. 15500 ft.; T. Thomson s.n.

Atropis thomsonii (Stapf) Pamp., Fl. Caracorum 77. 1930

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Rostraria Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 149. 1820

Lectotype. Rostraria pubescens Trin., nom. illeg. (Bromus dactyloides Roth) (designated by Pfeiffer, Nomenclat. Bot. 2: 991. 1874).

547. Rostraria clarkeana (Domin) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9(3): 271. 1974

Koeleria clarkeana Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 14(Heft 65): 272. 1907. Type: India: Kashmir, Naosheva; 1876; C.B. Clarke 28155 (K).

Lophochloa clarkeana (Domin) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 445. 1960

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

548. Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 7: 47. 1971 (“1970”)

Festuca cristata L., Sp. Pl. 1: 76. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Lusitanae collibus sterilibus.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 92.24 (LINN). LT designated by Sherif & Siddiqi in El-Gadi (ed.), Fl. Libya 145: 167. 1988.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

549. Rostraria pumila (Desf.) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 7: 48. 1971(“1970”)

Avena pumila Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 103. 1798. Lectotype: Morocco; 1806; Broussonet 296 (LE). (Vide Henderson & Schäfer, Bot. J. Linn Soc. 141: 130. 2003.)

Lophochloa pumila (Desf.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 445. 1960. Type: Pakistan: Rawalpindi; R.R. Stewart 23443

Distribution. Rajasthan [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Sclerochloa P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 97, 177. 1812

Lectotype. Sclerochloa dura (L.) P. Beauv. (Cynosurus durus L.). (vide Pfeiffer, Nomenclat. Bot. 2: 1103. 1874).

550. Sclerochloa dura (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 98, 177. t. 19. f. 4. 1812

Cynosurus durus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 72. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europa australi.” Lectotype = “Gramen arvense, Polypodii panicula crassiore” in Barrelier, Pl. Galliam, 111, t. 50, 1714. LT designated by Stace & Jarvis in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 438. 1985.

Eleusine dura (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 203. 1791

Festuca dura (L.) Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 2: 94. 1787

Poa dura (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2. 1: 70. 1772. Type: “Habitat Tergesti, iuxta vias, in aridis.”

Sesleria dura (L.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 110. 1829

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Sibirotrisetum Barberá, Soreng, Romasch., A. Quintanar, & P.M. Peterson, J. Syst. Evol.: 8. 2019

Type. Sibirotrisetum sibiricum (Rupr.) Barberá.

551. Sibirotrisetum aeneum (Hook. f.) Barberá, J. Syst. Evol.: 8. 2019.

Avena aenea Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 279. 1896. Type: Western Himalaya, alt. 11000–12000 ft., from Kashmir to Kumaon.

Trisetum aeneum (Hook. f.) R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 431. 1945

Trisetum aureum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 225. 1854, non Ten., 1820. Type: Nepal; Royle 44

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

552. Sibirotrisetum scitulum (Chrtek ex Barberá) Barberá, J. Syst. Evol. 2019 (doi: 10.1111/jse.12523): 8.

Trisetum scitulum Bor, Kew Bull. 1956: 212. 1956. Type: India: Sikkim; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Avena flavescens sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 279. 1896, non L., 1753

Distribution. Uttarakhand, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

553. Sibirotrisetum sibiricum (Rupr.) Barberá subsp. sibiricum, J. Syst. Evol. 8. 2019.

Trisetum sibiricum Rupr., Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reiches 2: 65. 1845

Trisetum sikkimense (Hook. f.) Chrtek, Acta Univ. Carol., Biol. 1966: 92. 1967 [page 1967: 104?]

Avena sikkimensis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 280. 1896. Type: Sikkim Himalaya, Lachen and Lachoong Valleys, alt. 10000–11000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Sikkim.

Habit. Perennial.

Trisetaria Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 27. 1775

Type. Trisetaria linearis Forssk.

554. Trisetaria loeflingiana (L.) Paunero, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 9: 527. 1950

Avena loeflingiana L., Sp. Pl. 1: 79. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Hispania.” Lectotype: Löfling s.n., Herb. Linn. No. 95.4, upper row of specimens (excl. specimen at bottom left) (LINN). LT designated by Scholz in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 247. 2000.

Lophochloa cavanillesii (Trin.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 445. 1960

Trisetaria cavanillesii (Trin.) Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 2: 251. 1953

Trisetum cavanillesii Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1: 63. 1830 (1831)

Distribution. Northwest India [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. States in India not recorded. Taxonomic editor Soreng cites unpublished phylogenetic data suggesting that this species may be misplaced in Trisetaria.

Trisetopsis Röser & A. Wölk, Schlechtendalia 25: 57. 2013

Type. Trisetopsis elongata (Hochst. Ex A. Rich.) Röser & A. Wölk (Danthonia elongata Hochst. ex A.Rich.).

Notes. Taxonomic editor Soreng notes that Trisetopsis Röser & A. Wölk (2013) and Tzveleviochloa Röser & A. Wölk (2017) were described to accommodate 28 and 3 species formerly treated as Helictotrichon. There is a confusing array of named species along the Himalayan front and extending into the Hengduan Shan of China, for which (in his opinion) there is no adequate taxonomic account. Helictotrichon schmidtii and H. polyneurum belong to this group, but there is no newer combination or synonymy for these two, although Röser may have placed them in synonymy of others. These are all species with lax leaves unlike Helictotrichon s.s. There are no species of Helictotrichon s.s. in India. See also discussions in Wölk and Röser (2013, 2014, 2017) and Wölk et al. (2015).

555. Trisetopsis aspera (Munro ex Thwaites) Röser & A. Wölk, Taxon 66(1): 38. 2017

Avena aspera Munro ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 372. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Newera Ellia and Other of the more elevated parts of the Island; Munro Ceylon Plant 916

Avenastrum asperum (Munro ex Thwaites) Vierh. var. polyneuron (Hook. f.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1803. 1934

Avenastrum asperum (Munro ex Thwaites) Vierh., Verh. Ges. Deutsch. Naturf. 85(2): 672. 1914

Helictotrichon asperum (Munro ex Thwaites) Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. n.s. 1(3): 68. 1938

Avena aspera Munro ex Thwaites var. roylei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 277. 1896. Type: Kashmir to Nepal, alt. 6000–12000 ft.

Avena polyneura Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 277–278. 1896. Type: India: Nilghiri Hills, Dodabetta, alt. 8000 ft.; Gamble s.n.

Helictotrichon polyneurum (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 425. 1940

Helictotrichon roylei (Hook. f.) Keng, Clav. Gen. Sp. Gram. Prim. Sin. 200. 1957

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Note that Avena polyneura Hook. f. has never been formally transferred to Trisetopsis.

556. Trisetopsis junghuhnii (Buse) Röser & A. Wölk, Taxon 66(1): 38. 2017

Avena junghuhnii Buse, Pl. Jungh. 345. 1854. Type: Indonesia: Java, Kedu, in planitie montis Dieng, ubi una cum Bromo insigni Buse prope pagum Parre kesit; Junghuhn s.n. (L).

Helictotrichon junghuhnii (Buse) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 425. 1940

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

557. Trisetopsis virescens (Nees) Röser & Wölk, Taxon 66(1): 38. 2017

Trisetum virescens Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 226. 1854. Type: India; Royle Herb. no. 137, 138

Helictotrichon virescens (Nees) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 425. 1940

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Trisetum Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 97. 1805

Lectotype. Avena flavescens L. LT designated by Hitchcock, U.S.D.A. Bull. 772: 108. 1920.

Notes. Generic limits in Koeleria, Trisetum and related genera have been the subject of much recent work. See Barberá et al. (2017a, 2017b, 2018, 2019a, 2019b) and Peterson et al. (2019).

558. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 88, 153, 180. 1812

Avena flavescens L., Sp. Pl. 1: 80. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Germania, Anglia, Gallia.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 913.7–458 (L). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 247. 2000.

Trisetaria flavescens (L.) Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 263. 1816

Rebentischia flavescens (L.) Opiz, Lotos 4: 104. 1854, nom. inval. pro syn. of Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv., 1812

Trisetum pratense Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 97. 1805, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Avena flavescens

Distribution. Meghalaya, Sikkim [also in Europe, North America, South America]. Widespread and native in Eurasia, but not in China.

Habit. Perennial.

559. Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. ssp. mongolicum Hultén ex Veldkamp, Gard. Bull. Singapore 36(1): 135. 1983

Trisetum mongolicum (Hultén ex Veldkamp) Peshkova, Fl. Centr. Sibir. 1: 97. 1979

Type. China: Xizang: Kuenlun, Ulan Bulak, 5 July 1894, Roborovsky s.n. (HT: S).

Distribution. Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

Tzveleviochloa Röser & A. Wölk, Taxon 66(1): 38. 2017.

Type. Tzveleviochloa parviflora (Hook. f.) Röser & A. Wölk, Taxon 66(1): 38. 2017. (Avena aspera Munro ex Thwaites var. parviflora Hook. f.).

Notes. See comments under Trisetopsis, and also discussions in Wölk and Röser (2013, 2014, 2015, 2017).

560. Tzveleviochloa parviflora (Hook. f.) Röser & A. Wölk, Taxon 66(1): 38. 2017

Avena aspera Munro ex Thwaites var. parviflora Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 277. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, Singalela, alt. 11000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Helictotrichon parviflorum (Hook. f.) Bor, Kew Bull. 1951: 445. 1952

Distribution. Sikkim.

Habit. Perennial.

561. Tzveleviochloa schmidii (Hook. f.) E. A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212057-1

Helictotrichon schmidii (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 427. 1940

Avena aspera Munro ex Thwaites var. schmidii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 277. 1896. Syntypes: India: Nilghiri Hills; Schmid s.n. Ootacamund, alt. 7500–8000 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Avenastrum asperum (Munro ex Thwaites) Vierh. var. schmidii (Hook. f.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1802. 1934

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Soreng suggests placing Helictotrichon schmidii (Hook. f.) Henrard in Tzveleviochloa so the combination is made here.

Subfamily Aristidoideae Caro, 1982

Annuals or perennials, generally with slender leaves. The spikelets have one flower subtended by glumes that are generally longer than the flower, and may be cylindrical or laterally compressed. Lemmas are terete and generally leathery, bearing three awns; the latter condition is synapomorphic for the subfamily. Awns may be free or fused.

While plants in Aristidoideae appear similar to Stipeae, many morphological characters keep them out of the Pooideae (e.g., presence of mcirohairs, lack of an epiblast in the embryo, C4 photosynthesis in two of the genera (Kellogg 2015b; Kellogg and Campbell 1987)). Molecular data place the subfamily firmly in the PACMAD clade (Barker et al. 1995; Clark et al. 1995; Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001; Grass Phylogeny Working Group II 2012). The position of the subfamily within PACMAD is unclear. While GPWG II (Grass Phylogeny Working Group II 2012) placed it sister to all the remaining PACMAD subfamilies (i.e. PCMAD), Cotton et al. (2015) place it sister to the clade comprised of Chloridoideeae+Danthonioideae+Arundinoideae+Micrairoideae. Teisher et al. (2017) and Saarela et al. (2018) find that placement of the clade is ambiguous, with nearly equal support for placement sister to PCMAD, sister to CMAD, or sister to Panicoideae.

The three genera of Aristidoideae are each monophyletic, with Sartidia sister to Stipagrostis and Aristida sister to the two together (Cerros Tlatilpa et al. 2011).

Aristida L., Sp. Pl. 1: 82. 1753

Type. Aristida adscensionis L.

562. Aristida adscensionis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 82. 1753

Aristida divaricata J. Jacq., Ecl. Gram. Rar. 7. t. 6. 1813

Chaetaria adscensionis (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 151, 158. 1812 (as “ascensionis”)

Aristida adscensionis L. var. pumila (Decne.) Coss. & Durieu, Expl. Sci. Algerie 84. 1855

Aristida pumila Decne. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. Ser. 2, 4: 85. 1835. Type: “Hab. l’Hedjas” (P).

Aristida bromoides Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 122 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit in montanis regni Quitensis, Juxta Tambo de Guamote et Lianos de Tiocaxas, alt. 1600 hexap.” Ecuador: Chimborazo, Guamote; Humboldt & Bonpland 3020 (P).

Chaetaria bromoides (Kunth) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 396. 1817

Aristida canariensis Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 1: 99. 1809. Type: “Habitat in Canariis.” Canary Islands: Habitat in Teneriffe; Broussonet s.n.

Aristida coarctata Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 122 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit in alto planitie Mexicana, inter Burras et Guanaxuato, alt. 1060 hexap.” Lectotype: Mexico: Guannajuato, between Burras and Guanaxuato; Humbold & Bonpland s.n. (P-Bonpl. (left-hand plant). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 542. 1924.

Aristida curvata Nees ex A. Rich. var. abyssinica A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 392. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in montibus prope Tchelatchranne et in provincial Chire mense October (Schimper).”

Aristida debilis Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 151. 1921. Lectotype: Jamaica; Macnab s.n. (B; ILT: US-81060 (fragm. ex B)). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 543. 1924.

Aristida depressa Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 22. 1786–1787. Type: “Habitantem invenit honor, Koening in fterilioribus Malabariae cum priori.” India, Malabariae; Koenig s.n. (S).

Aristida fasciculata Torr., Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 1(1): 154–155. 1824. Type: “Habitat in the forests of the Canadian river.” USA: New Mexico, in forests of the Canadian river; 1819–1820; James s.n. (NY).

Chaetaria fasciculata (Torr.) Schult. & Schult. f., Mant. 3 (Schultes & Schultes f.) Add. I 578. 1827

Aristida grisebachiana E. Fourn., Mexic. Pl. 2: 78. 1886. Lectotype: Mexico: Veracruz, Mirador; Schaffner 175 (pl. ed. Hohen. 175) pro parte (P). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 543. 1924.

Aristida heymannii Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 7: 649. 1881 (as “heymanni”). Type: “In valle fluvii Iii in angustiis Koibin.”

Aristida interrupta Cav., Icon. (Cavanilles) 5(1): 45. t. 471. f. 2. 1799. Type: “Habitat prope oppidium Chalma, Regni mexicani. Floret Augusto. Vidi siccam in laudato herbario.”

Aristida maritima Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 137. 1854. Type: Guadeloupe: sabulosis aridis maritimis; 1852; E.P. de F. Duchassaing s.n. (P).

Aristida mauritiana Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 392. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit ad pagum Aitet, in provincial Medat, mense Martio (Schimper).” Lectotype: Mauritius: Anonymous s.n. [Insula franciae ex Museo Paris 1820] (B). LT designated by Henrard in Meded. Rijks-Herb. 54(A): 338. 1927.

Aristida modatica Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 139. 1854. Type: Provincia Modat Abyss.; Hochstetter herb. Abyss. un. it. nr. 1047

Aristida vulgaris Trin. & Rupr. var. mongholica Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 133. 1842. Type: “In arenosis et plnitiebus deserti totius Mongholiae mediae.”

Aristida nana (Trin. & Rupr.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 137. 1854

Aristida dispersa Trin. & Rupr. var. nana Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 129. 1842. Type: Chile: Valparaiso, in declivibus apricis collium Quillota; Sepember, 1829; C.G. Bertero 994 (LE). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 542. 1924.

Aristida nigrescens J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 223. 1830. Type: “Hab. in Mexico” Mexico; 1836; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Aristida schaffneri E. Fourn., Mexic. Pl. 2: 78. 1886. Lectotype: Mexico: Veracruz, Orizaba; J.G. Schaffner 181(P). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 543. 1924.

Aristida teneriffae Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 420. 1854. Type: Canary Islands: Teneriffe; Boivin 222.

Aristida vulgaris Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 131. 1842. Type: Canary Islands, Teneriffe; Broussonet s.n. (B-W).

Lectotype. Herb. Linn. No. 98.1 (LINN). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 541. 1924.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pantropical, nearly worldwide in tropic, subtropic and warm temperate regions].

Habit. Annual.

563. Aristida cumingiana Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 141. 1842

Aristida delicatula Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 393. 1850–1851. Syntypes: “Crescit in locis arenosis et graminosis prope Kouaieta, in provincial Chire (Quartin Dillon et Schimper).” Ethiopia; Quartin Dillon s.n. (P). Ethiopia: Schire; October 16, 1840; Schimper 1830 (P).

Aristida trichodes (Nees ex Lindl.) Walpers, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 3: 753. 1853

Chaetaria trichodes Nees ex Lindl., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 101. 1850. Type: Insulae Philippinae; H. Cuming 671 (B).

Aristida capillacea sensu Cav., Icon. (Cavanilles) 5(1): 43. t. 468. f. 1. 1799, non Lam., 1791.

Type. Philippine Islands: Luzon; H. Cuming 671 (LE).

Distribution. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal.

Habit. Annual.

564. Aristida cyanantha Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 141. 1854

Type. Nepal; Royle 64 (LE).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

565. Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 159. 1842.

Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr. var. mallica (Edgew.) Henrard, Mon. Aristida 90. 1929

Aristida mallica Edgew., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 6: 209. 1862. Type: Multan, not cited.

Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr. var. royleana (Trin. & Rupr.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 227. 1896

Aristida royleana Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 160. 1842. Type: India orientalis; 1836; Royle s.n. [Royle herb. Ind. Mont. (Nees herb.)] (LE-TRIN-1341.01).

Aristida macrathera A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 393. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in locis arenosis provinciae montosae Chire, mense Octobre (Quartin Dillon).” Ethiopia: Schire; Quartin Dillon s.n. (P).

Aristida kotschyi Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 142. 1854, pro. syn. nom. nud. Type: Sudan: Kordofan, Abu-Gerad; September 21, 1839; Kotschy 31(WAG).

Aristida stipacea Ehrenb. & Hempr. ex Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 159. 1842, nom. nud., cited as synonym of Aristida funiculata

Aristida funicularis Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 1: 131. 1840, nom. nud.

Syntypes. Africa: Senegal, in sabulosis prope Walo; Leprieur s.n. Sudan: ad pagum Cordofanum Abu-Gerard locis demissis arenosis siccis; Kotschy 34 (LE). Sudan: in planitie arenosa Accabae; Kotschy 98 (LE). Arabia: prope Gidon; Ehrenberg s.n. (LE).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Myanmar, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

566. Aristida hystricula Edgew., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 6: 208. 1862

Type. India: Sindh and Multan; Stocks 187, p.p.

Distribution. Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

567. Aristida hystrix L.f., Suppl. Pl. 113. 1782 (“1781”)

Chaetaria hystrix (L.f.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 152, 158. 1812

Aristida rigescens Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 400. 1817. Type: India Orientalis; Heyne s.n.

Aristida rigida Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 42. 1821, non Cav., 1799. Type: “In collectione veneratiss, Benjamin Heyne innominata aderat.”

Type. “Habitat in Malabaria”; Koenig s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

568. Aristida mutabilis Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stipac. 150–151. 1842

Aristida articulata Edgew, J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 6: 209. 1862. Type: “The habit is that of rigescens (R.S., Steud. Gr. no. 100, p. 141).”

Aristida longeradiata Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 140. 1854. Type: Senegal; 1830; Leprieur 92 (P).

Type. Africa: Sudan, “Cordofan, in arenae saxis graniticis delitescantibus formata”; Kotschy 103 (LE).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

569. Aristida redacta Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1892: 85–86. 1892

Stipa aristoides Stapf ex Lisboa, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 7: 358. 1893. Type: India: Deccan, Burdwan; Lisboa s.n.?

Type. India: “Bombay Presidency, Western Ghats, Eastern Chuttanagpur”, Deccan; May 1880; G.M. Woodrow 19=124(K (photo, US-1447177)). LT designated by Henrard in Meded. Rijks-Herb. 54(B): 505. 1928.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.

Habit. Annual.

570. Aristida setacea Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 22. 1786–1787

Chaetaria setacea (Retz.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 152, 158. 1812

Aristida quinqueseta Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 420. 1855. Type: Insula Mauritii; Boivin s.n.

Aristida coerulescens sensu Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 370. 1864, non Desf., 1798

Type. “In aridis sterilioribus Malabaricae cel. Koenig, unde sub nomine aristidae arundinaceae misit.” India: Malabaricae; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

571. Aristida stocksii (Hook. f.) Domin., Biblioth. Bot. 20 (Heft. 85): 338. 1915

Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr. var. stocksii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 227. 1896. Type: India: Concan; J.E. Stocks s.n. (K).

Distribution. Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Stipagrostis Nees, Linnaea 7: 290. 1832

Type. Stipagrostis capensis Nees.

572. Stipagrostis hirtigluma (Steud. ex Trin. & Rupr.) De Winter, Kirkia 3: 134. 1963

Aristida hirtigluma Steud. ex Trin. & Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5: 171. 1842. Type: “In rupibus Wadi Hebran Arabiae petraeae m. April (Schimper Un. it. n. 165).” Lectotype: Schimper 165 (B). LT designated by Henrard in Meded. Rijks-Herb. 54: 232. 1927.

Distribution. Rajasthan [also in Saudi Arabia, Africa]. Native or naturalized?

Habit. Annual or perennial.

573. Stipagrostis paradisea (Edgew.) De Winter, Kirkia 3: 135. 1963

Aristida paradisea Edgew., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 16: 1219. 1847. Type: “Aden” Arabia.

Distribution. Rajasthan [also in the Middle East, Africa]. Native or naturalized?

Habit. Perennial.

574. Stipagrostis plumosa (L.) Munro ex T. Anderson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 5(Suppl.)1: 40. 1860

Aristida plumosa L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: App. 1666. 1763. Type: “Habitat in America. D. Schreber.” Lectotype: Schreber, Herb. Linn. No. 98.6 (LINN). LT designated by Henrard in Meded. Rijks-Herb. 54A: 451. 1927.

Distribution. Rajasthan [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

575. Stipagrostis pogonoptila (Jaub. & Spach) De Winter, Kirkia 3: 135. 1963

Arthratherum pogonoptilum Jaub. & Spach, Ill. Pl. Orient. 4: 56. 1851. Type: “Pentapotamide (collibus inter Jalalpur et Darapour).” India; April, 1831; Jacquemont s.n. (P).

Aristida pogonoptila (Jaub. & Spach) Boiss., Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 5: 496. 1884

Distribution. Haryana, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan [Pakistan].

Habit. Not reported.

Remarks. Records from Haryana and Punjab fide Naithani (1990).

576. Stipagrostis pungens (Desf.) De Winter, Kirkia 3: 135. 1963

Aristida pungens Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 109. t. 35. 1798. Type: “Habitat in arenas humidis prope Sfax et in deserto.”

Distribution. India [Africa]. Possibly naturalized; state localities not reported.

Habit. Perennial.

Subfamily Panicoideae A. Braun, 1864

Annuals or perennials, caespitose, rhizomatous, or stoloniferous, often with branched culms. Leaves, inflorescences, and spikelets variable. Lodicules 2, thick, fleshy. Caryopsis with a punctate hilum. Embryo with a scutellar cleft and with the embryonic leaf margins overlapping.

This large subfamily includes more than a quarter of the species in the family and in its current circumscription encompasses a broad range of variation. Much of this variability is due to the diverse morphology of the tribes Centotheceae, Chasmanthieae, and Tristachyideae, which have only recently been included as part of Panicoideae (Morrone et al. 2012; Sánchez-Ken and Clark 2010). In contrast, the core Panicoideae includes Paspaleae, Andropogoneae, and Paniceae; together this group has been recognized since the work of Robert Brown (1810; 1814). Members of the core all have two flowered spikelets which are dorsiventrally compressed. The distal flower is generally bisexual and the proximal one is either staminate or sterile. Disarticulation is below the glumes. All these spikelet characters appear to be synapomorphic for the clade comprising these three large tribes (Kellogg 2015b).

Taxonomic editor: Fernando Zuloaga for all except Andropogoneae

Incertae sedis

Dichaetaria Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 145. 1854

Type. Dichaetaria wightii Nees.

577. Dichaetaria wightii Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 145–146. 1854

Gymnopogon wightii (Nees) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 1: 152. 1911

Gymnopogon rigidus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 372. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Hotter and drier parts of the Island; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 914

Type. India; Wight Herb. no. 1035.

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Tribe Centotheceae Ridl., 1907

Plants annual or perennial. Spikelets laterally compressed, with few to many flowers, the reduced flowers either proximal or distal to the fertile ones.

Members of this tribe have no obvious morphological features in common (Kellogg 2015b), but the group is strongly supported as monophyletic in molecular phylogenies (Burke et al. 2016; Grass Phylogeny Working Group II 2012; Sánchez-Ken and Clark 2007).

Centotheca Desv., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 189. 1810 (“Centosteca”), nom. & orth. cons.

Type. Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv. (Cenchrus lappaceus L.).

578. Centotheca ganeshaiahiana M.V. Ramana, Chorghe, Prasanna, & Sanjappa, Nordic J. Bot. 32: 559. 2014.

Type. India, north Andaman Islands Saddle Peak National Park. Open scrub forest (13°9'35.4"N, 93°11'09.3"E), 250–400 m a.s.l., 19 Feb 2011, M.V. Ramana 0078 (holotype: CAL, isotypes: BSID, PBL).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Habit. Annual.

579. Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris. 2: 189. 1810 var. lappacea

Cenchrus lappaceus L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1488. 1763. Type: “Habitat in India.” Neotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1212.15 (LINN). LT designated by Monod de Froideville in Blumea 19: 59. 1971.

Melica lappacea (L.) Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 443. 1825

Uniola lappacea (L.) Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 1(4): 358. 1830

Centotheca latifolia Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 141. 1820, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Cenchrus lappaceus L.

Centotheca parviflora Andersson, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 560. 1864. Type: “Standort Auf feuchtem, sandigem und morastigem Wiesengrunde in Boror (und am Zambeze) in Marz.”

Festuca blepharophora Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 728. 1817. Type: India orientalis.

Holcus latifolius Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa 247. 1757. Type: China.

Torresia latifolia (Osbeck) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 515. 1817.

Melica diandra Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 329. 1820. Type: “A Native of Mountains on the Coromandel Coast.”

Melica refracta Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 329. 1820. Type: “Native of Moluccas and from thence introduced amongst other plants, into the Botanical Garden.”

Poa latifolia G. Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. 8. 1786. Type: Society Islands; 1773 or 1774; Forster s.n.

Torresia biflora Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 515. 1817, nom. nud., pro syn. as “Torresiam biflorum”.

Panicum festuciforme Hochst. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 332. 1896, nom. nud.

Festuca ciliaris Heyne ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 728. 1817, nom. nud., pro. syn.

Festuca latifolia Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 75. 1821, non DC., 1813

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

580. Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv. var. longilamina (Ohwi) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 459. 1960

Centotheca longilamina Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 10. 1947. Type: Indonesia: Java, Pasir Kiara Djongkang in Res. Batavia; June 8, 1924; Bakhuizen van der Brink 3312 (BO).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Naithani), Assam, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record from Andaman and Nicobar Islands fide Naithani (1990). Reports from Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are erroneous.

Thysanolaena Nees, Edinburgh New. Philos. J. 18: 180. 1835

Type. Thysanolaena agrostis Nees, nom. illeg. (Agrostis maxima Roxb., Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze).

581. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 3: 312. 1930

Melica latifolia Roxb. ex Hornem., Suppl. Hort. Bot. Hafn. 117. 1819. Type: Habitat in Ind, orient. C. intr. 1818. Neotype: J.O. Voigt - s.n. (C/BC:C-10017246) [vide tropicos].

Agrostis maxima Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 319. 1820. Type: A native of hedges, amongst the Mountains India, 1900–4000 ft.; W. Roxburgh s.n.

Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb. ex Hornem) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 794. 1891.

Melica latifolia Roxb. ex Hornem, Suppl. Hort. Bot. Hafn. 117. 1819; Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 330. 1820. Type: “A native of the Garrow Hills, from thence it was brought to the Botanic Garden, by Mr. Robert Kyd.”

Myriachaeta glauca Moritzi ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 404. 1854. Type: Malaysia: Ins. Sümbaura; Hrbo. Zolling. Nr. 1769.

Panicum acariferum Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 1: t. 87. 1827.

Thysanolaena assamensis Gdger., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 303. 1919. Type: Assam, Lashai Lungleh; Gage 281.

Thysanolaena birmanica Gdger., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 303. 1919. Type: Birmania, ad Makhaye; King 73.

Thysanolaena sikkimensis Gdger., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 303. 1919. Type: Himalaya: Sikkim, Labdah; Prian s.n., Ribu s.n.

Thysanolaena agrostis Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 18: 180. 1835, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Agrostis maxima Roxb.

Myriachaeta arundinacea Zoll. & Moritz, Syst. Verz. (Moritzi et al.) 101. 1846, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Myriachaeta glauca Moritzi ex Steud.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Tribe Chasmanthieae W.V. Br. & B.N. Smith ex Sánchez-Ken & L.G. Clark, 2010

Plants perennial, caespitose, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Leaf blades broad, pseudopetiolate in some species. Spikelets laterally compressed, with one to many flowers. Stamens 1, 2, or 3.

Members of this tribe share no obvious morphological characters (Kellogg 2015b) but are supported as forming a clade in molecular phylogenies (Burke et al. 2016; Sánchez-Ken and Clark 2007; 2010).

Lophatherum Brongn., Voy. Monde, Phan. 49. 1831 (“1829”)

Type. Lophatherum gracile Brongn.

582. Lophatherum gracile Brongn., Voy. Monde, Phan. 2(2): 50, t. 8. 1831 var. gracile

Acroelytrum japonicum Steud., Flora 29: 21. 1846. Type: “Ab omnibus Bambusaceis valvulis aristatis differt.”

Allelotheca urvillei Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 117. 1854. Type: “Ex herbario Urville sine addito loco natali. An. N. Holl.”

Lophatherum annulatum Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 605. 1879. Type: not given

Lophatherum dubium Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 300. 1854. Type: India; Wight Herb. no. 1090

Lophatherum geminatum Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 20: 300. 1883. Type: Central Madagascar; Baron 1061 (K).

Lophatherum gracile Brongn. var. zeylanicum (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India ad Pakistan 460. 1960

Lophatherum zeylanicum Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 303. 1900. Syntypes: Sri Lanka; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 920. Sri Lanka; Walker s.n. Pasdum Korale; Gardner s.n.

Lophatherum humile Miq., Prolus. Fl. Japon. 170. 1867. Type: Japan: Prope Nagasaki; 1862; R. Oldham 948 (L). (vide Tropicos)

Lophatherum lehmannii Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 300. 1854. Type: Nepal; Lehman s.n.

Lophatherum multiflorum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 300. 1854. Type: Java

Lophatherum pilosulum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 428. 1855. Type: Japan; I. Keiske s.n. (L).

Type. “Amboine, dans les Moluques.”

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Tribe Paspaleae J. Presl, 1830

Members of this tribe are morphologically disparate, with no obvious shared morphological character (Kellogg 2015b). Most species have a chromosome base number of = 10 (Giussani et al. 2001).

Axonopus P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 12, 154. 1812

Lectotype. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv. (Milium compressum Sw.). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 142. 1908; Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 129. 1911.

583. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 154, 167. 1812

Milium compressum Sw., Prodr. (Swartz). 24. 1788. Type: Jamaica; Swartz s.n. India orientalis

Paspalum compressum (Sw.) Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 301. 1825

Paspalum platyculmum Thouars ex Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 24. 1829. Type: “Habitat in insula S. Mauritii.”

Paspalum depressum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 20. 1853. Type: USA: Louisiana; F.X. von Hartmann 51(P).

Paspalum filostachyum A. Rich. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 20. 1853. Type: West Indies; F.W. Sieber 365 (P).

Paspalum guadaloupense Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 18. 1853. Type: Guadeloupe; Duchaissing s.n. (P).

Paspalum platicaulon Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 5: 34. 1804 [as “platycaule” in IPNI]

Type: “Cette espece a été recueillie a Porto Ricco, par le citoyen Ledru.” Puerto Rico; A.P. Ledrú s.n. (P-LAM).

Anastrophus platycaulis (Poir.) Nash, Fl. S.E. U.S. [Small]. 79, 1327. 1903

Digitaria platicaulis (Poir) Desv., Mém. Soc. Agric. Angers 62. 1831

Panicum platicaulon (Poir.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3: 363. 1898 (as “Platycaulon”)

Paspalum raunkiaerii Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 60. 1917. Type: Antillarum insula St. Jan; Raunkiaer 1313

Paspalum tristachyon Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 176. 1791. Type: “Ex America merid. Communic. D. Richard.” South America; L.C.M. Richard s.n. (P-LAM).

Paspalum laticulmum Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 245. 1824 (“1825”), nom. superfl. & illeg. for Paspalum tristachyon.

Agrostis compressa (Sw.) Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 1: 259. 1810, non Axonopus compressa Willd., 1790

Digitaria domingensis Desv. ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 49. 1833, non Roem. & Schult., 1817

Anastrophus compressus sensu Schltr. ex Döll., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 102. 1877, non Schltdl., 1850

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

584. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Comiss. Linhas Telegr. Estratég. Matto Grosso Amazonas 67(11): 87. 1922

Paspalum fissifolium Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. [Raddi] 26. 1823 (as ‘‘Paspalus fissifolius’’). Type: Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara, s.d., G. Raddi s.n. (holotype, PI; isotypes, BM 678791, FI, FI fragm. in BAA 313, G, PI fragm. in US 2766195).

Axonopus affinis A. Chase, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28: 180. f. 1–2. 1938. Type: USA: Mississippi: Waynesboro, in low moist ground, 2 Oct. 1896, T.H. Kearney 175.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh. Possibly naturalized; native to North America.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

Hildaea C. Silva & R.P. Oliveira, Molec. Phylog. Evol. 93: 229. 2015

Type. Hildaea pallens (Sw.) C. Silva & R.P. Oliveira (Panicum pallens Sw.).

585. Hildaea pallens (Sw.) C. Silva & R.P. Oliveira, Molec. Phylog. Evol. 93: 229. 2015.

Panicum pallens Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 23. 1788. Lectotype: O.P. Swartz s.n.; Jamaica, designated by Stieber, Syst. Bot. 12: 203 (1987)

Ichnanthus pallens (Sw.) Munro ex Benth., Fl. Hongk. 414. 1861

Panicum vicinum F.M. Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. Suppl. 3: 82. 1890. Type: Australia: Queensland, Harvey Creek, headwaters of Russell River; Bailey 22 (BRI). Australia, Queensland, Harveys’s Creek, Russell River, on rich scrubland; Bailey s.n. (BRI).

Ichnanthus vicinus (F.M. Bailey) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 20(4): 367–368. 1922

Panicum nitens Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 17: 8. 1904, non K. Schum., 1901. Type: Philippines: Province of Bataan, Luzon, Mount Mariveles; January 1, 1904; Merrill 3756

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Delhi, Kerala, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka], Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Pantropical.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Chorge et al. (2013) indicate that Hildaea. pallens var. majus (Nees) Stieber (as Ichnanthus pallens) is widely distributed in India and is synonymous with I. vicinus. Hildaea. pallens var. pallens is only recorded from the Andaman Islands; this variety is primarily neotropical with sporadic records from Southeast Asia.

Hymenachne P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 48, 165. 1812

Lectotype. Hymenachne myuros (Lam.) P. Beauv. (Panicum myuros Lam. (“myruos”)) LT designated by L. K. G. Pfeiffer, Nom. 1: 1702. 1873.

586. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 276. 1829

Panicum amplexicaule Rudge, Pl. Guian. 1: 21. t. 27. 1805. Type: Guianas; Rudge s.n. French Guiana; Martin s.n.

Hymenachne pseudointerrupta Müll. Hal., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 19(45): 333. 1861. Type: India orientalis, Bengalia et Malacca; Griffith s.n.

Panicum myuros sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 39. 1896, non Lam., 1791

Hymenachne acutigluma (Steud.) Gilliland, Gard. Bull. Singapore 20(4): 314. 1964

Panicum acutiglumum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 66. 1853. Type: Philippine Islands; Cuming 2287 (P).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar]. Pantropical, possibly native to the Americas.

Habit. Perennial.

587. Hymenachne assamica (Hook. f.) Hitchc., Lingnan Sci. J. 7: 222. 1931 (as “assamicum”)

Panicum assamicum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 40. 1896. Syntypes: India: Assam; Masters s.n., Griffith s.n. Dacca; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Assam [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Zuloaga questions whether this species actually occurs in India.

588. Hymenachne aurita (J. Presl. ex Nees) Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4: 144. 1890

Panicum auritum J. Presl. ex Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 176. 1829. Lectotype: Philippines: “Luzon”; Haenke s.n. (PR). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 187. 1996

Sacciolepis aurita (J. Presl. ex Nees) E.G. Camus & A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 459. 1922

Panicum insulicolum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 78. 1853 (as “insulicola”). Type: Indonesia: Java, Sri Lanka

Sacciolepis insulicola (Steud.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 3. 1947

Panicum javanum Nees ex Buse, Pl. Jungh. 376. 1854, non poir, 1816. Lectotype: Junghuhn s.n.(L-sh908.91-2190). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 187. 1996.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

589. Hymenachne panduranganii J. Remya & Geethakum., Nordic. J. Bot. 35(2): 201–204, f. 1–2. 2016.

Type. India, Kerala, Wayanad district, Thirunelli, at 900 m a.s.l., 11 November 2014, Remya J 83272 (holotype: TBGT, isotypes: MH, CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial

Paspalum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 855, 1359. 1759

Lectotype. Paspalum dimidiatum L., nom. illeg. (Panicum dissectum L., Paspalum dissectum (L.) L.). Designated by Nash in N. Amer. Fl. 17: 165. 1912; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 225. 1920.

590. Paspalum canarae (Steud.) Veldkamp, Blumea 21(1): 72. 1973 var. canarae

Panicum canarae Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 58. 1853. Type: India: Canara Province; R.F. Hohenacker 635

Panicum compactum auct. non Roth ex Roem. & Schult., 1817: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 12. 1896

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

591. Paspalum canarae (Steud.) Veldkamp var. fimbriatum (Bor) Veldkamp, Blumea 21(1): 72. 1973

Paspalum compactum Roth ex Roem. & Schult. var. fimbriatum Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 336. 1960. Type: India: Maharashtra, Bombay; Bole 305 (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

592. Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius, Acta Helv. Phys.-Math. 7: 129, t. 8. 1762

Paspalum ciliatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 175. 1791. Type: French Guiana; D. LeBlond s.n. (P-LAM).

Paspalum longissimum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 19. 1853. Type: Surinam: in districtu Surinamense Para; February-April, 1844; A. Kappler 1556 (P).

Paspalum renggeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 17. 1853. Type: Paraguay; J.R. Rengger s.n. (P).

Paspalum bicrurum Saltzm. ex Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 55. 1877, nom. nud. cited as synonym of Paspalum conjugatum.

Paspalum ciliatifolium sensu Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(2–3): 340. 1834, non Michx., 1803.

Paspalum hirsutum sensu Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 5: 28. 1804, non Retz. 1781.

Type. “Habitat in Surinamo.” France: Surinam; Rolander in Herb. Bergius 36(SBT). LT designated by de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30: 290. 1985

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

593. Paspalum dilatatum Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 5: 35. 1804

Type. “Cette plante a été recueillie a Buenos-Ayres par Commerson.” Argentina: Buenos Aires; P. Commerson s.n. (P-LAM).

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Sri Lanka]. Native to South America, introduced to North America, Europe and Aisa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

594. Paspalum distichum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759.

Paspalum paspalodes (Michx.) Scribn., Mem. Torrey. Bot. Club 5(3): 29. 1894 (as “paspaloides”)

Digitaria paspalodes Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 1: 46. 1803. Type: USA: “in pascuis aridis juxta Charslton”; Michaux s.n.(P-MICH).

Type. “Habitat [in Jamaica.]” LT: P. Browne s.n.; ; Jamaica (LINN-75.9, second fertile culm from the left) LT designated by Guedes, Taxon 25: 513 (1976), and earlier discussed by Jovet & Guedes, Taxon 21: 546 (1972); formally ruled on by Nom. Comm., Taxon 32: 281 (1983).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Pakistan]. Pantropical.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. This species is often confused with P. vaginatum. Taxonomic editor Zuloaga notes that “Bor (1960) cited P. distichum in India and Pakistan, and included in the species several synonyms. Also he correctly differentiated P. distichum from P. vaginatum by a hairy upper glume in the former species.” Zuloaga concludes that it is likely that P. distichum is present in India.

595. Paspalum longifolium Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 283. 1820 var. longifolium

Paspalum scrobiculatum var. longifolium (Roxb.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 85: 288. 1915

Type. “Of what country this is a native is uncertain. It appeared in the Botanic Garden in 1807.” India, Cult.; Roxburgh s.n. (BM).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records from Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh, and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

596. Paspalum longifolium Roxb. var. lorirhachis Bor, Fl. Assam 5: 253. 1940

Type. India: Assam, Bhomraguri, Darrang; N.L. Bor 78485 (DD).

Distribution. Assam.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Assam fide Naithani (1990).

597. Paspalum notatum Fluegge, Gram. Monogr., Paspalum 106. 1810 (as “Paspalus notatus”)

Paspalum taphrophyllum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 19. 1853. Type: Martinica; F.W. Sieber 365 (L).

Type. West Indies: Virgin Islands, St. Thomas; 1802; Ventenat s.n. (B).

Distribution. India. Native to North and South America.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

598. Paspalum plicatulum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 1: 45. 1803

Panicum plicatulum (Michx.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3: 363. 1898

Paspalum antillense Husn., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie ser. 2, 5: 260. 1870. Type: “Alt. 640–1300 ft.-Bords des chemins-Route de la Basse-Terre au camp Jacob (Gaud.)” Guadeloupe; P.T. Husnot 76 (US-2854152 (fragm. ex BR)).

Paspalum atrocarpum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 25. 1853. Type: “Ex. Hrbo. Urville sine loco natali.”

Paspalum montevidense Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 246. 1824 (“1825”). Type: Uruguay: Montevideo; F. Sellow 670

Paspalum multiflorum Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 58. 1831.Type: “Crescit in Brasilio.” (P).

Paspalum tenue Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 26. 1829

Paspalum undulatum Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 5: 29. 1804. Type: “Cette plante croit a Porto-Ricco per le citoyen Ledru.” Puerto Rico; A.P. Ledrú s.n. (P-LAM).

Paspalum campestre Schlecht., Linnaea 26: 131. 1853, non Trin., 1834

Paspalum gracile Leconte, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 91: 285. 1820, non Rudge, 1805. Type: America: Georgia

Paspalum plicatum sensu Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 86. 1805 Michx., 1803

Paspalum marginatum sensu Spreng. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 2: 272. 1841, non Trin., 1826

Type. USA: “Hab. in Georgia et Florida”; Michaux s.n. (P).

Distribution. India [China]. Naturalized. Native to tropical North and South America.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

599. Paspalum scrobiculatum L., Mant. Pl. 29. 1767 var. scrobiculatum

Paspalum cartilagineum J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 216. 1830. Type: “Habitat in insula Luzonia ad Sorzogon, in Marianis” Lectotype: Philippines: Luzon, Sorzogon; 1792; Haenke s.n. (PR). (vide de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30 305. 1985).

Paspalum commersonii Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 175. t. 43. f. 1. 1791 (as “commerson”). Type: “Lieu nat. I’Isle de France.” Mauritius; P. Commerson s.n. (P-LAM).

Paspalum orbiculare G. Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. 7. 1786. Type: Society Islands; Forster s.n.(GOET).

Paspalum kora Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 1: 332. 1797, nom. superfl. & illeg. for P. orbiculare

Paspalum scrobiculatum L. var. bispicatum Hack., Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 20:146. 1914.

Type. “Habitat in India orientali.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 79.4 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton in Kew Bull. 30: 101. 1975.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Assam and Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

600. Paspalum scrobiculatum L. var. auriculatum (J. Presl) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1(Suppl. 5): 345. 1906

Paspalum auriculatum J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 217. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Luzonia ad Sorzogon” Lectotype: Philippines: Luzon, Sorzogon; Haenke s.n. (the 3 right-hand side specimens) (PR). (vide de Koning & Sosef, Blumea 30: 304. 1985).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [also in the Philippines].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Zuloaga notes that this taxon is native in other parts of Asia but might be naturalized or only cultivated in parts of India.

601. Paspalum scrobiculatum L. var. horneri (Henrard) de Konnig & Sosef, Blumea 30(2): 307. f. 7B. 1985

Paspalum horneri Henrard, Blumea 1(2): 306. f. 2. 1935. Type: Sumatra: Prairien; Horner s.n. (L).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam [also in Indonesia].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Assam fide Naithani (1990).

602. Paspalum thunbergii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1(2): 25, no. 80. 1829

Paspalum scrobiculatum var. thunbergii (Kunth) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 10: 60. 1896

Paspalum dissectum sensu Thunb., Fl. Jap. (Thunberg) 45. 1784, non. (L.) L., 1762

Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 2(2): 273. 1841, isonym

Distribution. Sikkim, West Bengal [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

603. Paspalum urvillei Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 24. 1853

Paspalum dilatatum Poir. var. parviflorum Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 64. 1877. Syntypes: Brazil: Lagoa Santa; E. Warming s.n. (BR). Brazil: prope Pernambuco; Forsell s.n. Uruguay: Montevideo; Sello s.n. Rio de Janerio; Glaziou 477

Paspalum larranagae Arechav., Ann. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 1: 60 (reprint 68), t. 2. 1894 (as “larranagai”). Type: Uruguay: Salto, terrenos bajos humedos, viñedo de Harrigue, y en la Vitícola Saltena; March, 1894; Arechavaleta 207 (MVM)

Paspalum ovatum Nees ex Trin. var. parviflorum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 43. 1829 (as “parviflorus”). Type: Uruguay: Montevideo; Sellow s.n.

Paspalum velutinum Trin. ex Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 43. 1829, nom. nud., pro syn.

Type. Brazil; 1825; J.S.C. Dumont de Urville s.n. (P).

Distribution. India [China, Sri Lanka]. Native to South America; naturalized in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

604. Paspalum vaginatum Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 21. 1788 (as “Paspatum”)

Paspalum distichum L. var. vaginatum (Sw.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W.I. (Grisebach) 541. 1864

Sanguinaria vaginata (Sw.) Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 4: 258. 1901

Digitaria foliosa Lag., Gen. Sp. Pl. (Lagasca) 4. 1816. Type: Cuba: “Habitat in Havana, ubi legit D. Balth. Boldo” (MA).

Paspalum foliosum (Lag.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 25. 1829

Paspalum inflatum A. Rich. in Sagra, Hist. Fis. Cuba 11: 298. 1850. Type: Cuba: La Habana; R. de la Sagra s.n. (P).

Paspalum brachiatum Trin. ex Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 62. 1829, nom. nud. pro. syn.

Type. Jamaica; Swartz s.n. (S).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Sri Lanka]. Pantropical.

Habit. Perennial.

Tribe Paniceae R. Br., 1814

Members of this tribe are morphologically disparate, with no obvious shared morphological character (Kellogg 2015b; Zuloaga 1987; Zuloaga and Soderstom 1985). Most species have a chromosome base number of x=9 (Giussani et al. 2001).

Taxonomic editors for Paniceae: Fernando Zuloaga, P. (Parigi) Venkateswara Prasanna and Alok R. Chorghe.

Acroceras Stapf, Fl. Trop. Africa 9: 621. 1920

Lectotype. Acroceras oryzoides (Sw.) Stapf (Panicum oryzoides Sw. 1788, non Arduino 1764), = Acroceras zizanioides. LT designated by E. Phillips in Gen. S. Afr. Fl. Pl. ed. 2., 103. 1951.

605. Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 444–445. 1940

Panicum munroanum Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4(7): 140. 1890. Type: Sri Lanka; 1857; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3244

Panicum crassiapiculatum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1(Suppl. 5): 356. 1906. Type: Malaya Peninsula, Goping; King’s Collector s.n.

Acroceras crassiapiculatum (Merr.) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 324. 1931

Panicum ridleyi Hack. ex Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. Ser. 2. 3: 400. 1893, nom. nud.

Panicum latifolium sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 39. 1896, non L., 1753

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

606. Acroceras tonkinense (Balansa) C.E. Hubb. ex Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. n.s. 1(3): 78. 1938

Panicum tonkinense Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4(7): 140. 1890. Syntypes: Vietnam: Tu-Phap, Ouonbi; May, 1887; Balansa 1646. Vietnam; Sepember 12, 1885; Balansa 442

Neohusnotia tonkinensis (Balansa) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 26: 664. 1920

Panicum latifolium L. var. majus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 39. 1896. Type: Malay Peninsula: Goping; King’s Collector s.n.

Distribution. Assam [Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

607. Acroceras zizanioides (Kunth) Dandy, J. Bot. 69: 54. 1931

Panicum zizanioides Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 100 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: Colombia; Humboldt & Bonpland 1606 (B). “Crescit in calidissimis regni Novogranatensis, in ripa fluminis Magdalenae, inter Borjorque et Los Paxarales de Sogamozo, alt. 130 hexap.”

Acroceras oryzoides Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 622. 1920

Panicum balbisianum Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 254. 1824. Type: “In S. Domingo. D. Bertero, Panicum aturense Herb. Balbis n. 2578.”

Panicum lutetense K. Schum., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 24: 332. 1897. Type: Zaire: Congogebiet, Lutete, Gebusch, Bachufern, alt. 16000 ft.; Hens 194 (K).

Panicum ogowense Franch., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 8: 344–345. 1895. Syntypes: Congo Francais: “Region de l’Ogooué; Thollon 727, Thollon 832.” Congo belge: à Lutèté; Fr. Hens 194

Panicum pseudoryzoides Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 75. 1853. Type: Bahia

Panicum oryzoides Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 23. 1788, non Ard., 1764. Type: Jamaica; Swartz s.n.

Panicum latifolium sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 39. 1896, p.p., non L., 1753

Distribution. Assam [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. The taxonomic editors note that it is unclear if this species is naturalized (given the large number of New World species in the synonymy), cultivated, or native.

Alloteropsis J. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 343. 1830

Type. Alloteropsis distachya J. Presl.

608. Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 487. 1919

Milium cimicinum L., Mant. Pl. Altera 184. 1771. Type: “Habitat in Malabariae et oppidi Johannis plateis. Koenig. 55.” Neotype: Herb. Linn. No. 83.2 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 617. 1982.

Axonopus cimicinus (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 154. 1812.

Panicum cimicinum (L.) Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 9. 1783.

Urochloa cimicina (L.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 31. 1829

Coridochloa cimicina (L.) Nees ex A. Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24:129. 1911

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

609. Alloteropsis semialata (R. Br.) Hitchc., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 210. 1909 var. semialata

Panicum semialatum R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 192. 1810. Type: Australia: “Littora Novae Hollandiae intra tropicum”; R. Brown 6101(BM)

Oplismenus semialatus (R. Br.) Desv., Mém. Soc. Agric. Angers 1: 185. 1831.

Urochloa semialata (R. Br.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 31. 1829

Axonopus semialatus (R. Br.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 64. 1896, p.p.

Arundinella schultzii Benth., Fl. Austral. 7: 545. 1878. Type: Australia, North Australia, Port Darwin; Schultz 31

Holosetum philippicum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 118. 1854. Type: Philippines: Luzon, Cagayan, Cagayan; H. Cuming 1363 (L). Philippines: Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Nueva Ecija; H. Cuming 1414 (L).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

610. Alloteropsis semialata (R. Br.) Hitchc. var. eckloniana (Nees) C.E. Hubb. ex Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 277. 1960

Panicum semialatum R. Br. var. ecklonianum (Nees) Hack. ex T. Durand. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 764. 1894

Axonopus semialatus (R. Br.) Hook. f. var. ecklonii (Nees) Stapf, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 7: 418. 1899.

Bluffia eckloniana Nees, Del. Sem. Hort. Hamburg. 1834: 8. 1834. Type: “Semina ex America septentrionali sine nomine accepimus.”

Alloteropsis eckloniana (Nees) Hitchc., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 29: 128. 1916.

Distribution. Kerala, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. All records other than that for Kerala fide Naithani (1990).

611. Alloteropsis semialata (R. Br.) Hitchc. var. viatica (Griff.) Ellis & Karthik., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 13(3–4): 175. 1974 (“1971”)

Aira viatica Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 54. 1851. Type: India: Churra Punjee; October 18, 1835; It. ass. 178

Axonopus semialatus (R. Br.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 64. 1896, p.p., excluding type

Distribution. Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. All records for India fide Naithani (1990).

Cenchrus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1049. 1753

Lectotype. Cenchrus echinatus L. LT designated by Green in Prop. Brit. Bot. 193. 1929.

612. Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford), n.s. 106: 127. 2010

Panicum americanum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 56. 1753. Type: “Habitat in America.” Lectotype = “Panicum Americanum” in Clusius, Rar. Pl. Hist., 2: 215, 215, 1601. LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 672. 1982.

Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas B: 51. t. 4. 1895.

Alopecurus typhoides Burm. f., Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) 27. 1768. Type: “Gramen alopecuroides, spica maxima Indiae orientalis. Plukn. Almag. 174. t. 32. f. 4”

Pennisetum typhoides (Burm.f.) Stapf & C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 271. 1933.

Pennisetum typhoideum L.C. Rich., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 72. 1805, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Holcus spicatus.

Panicum glaucum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 56. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Indiis.” Lectotype: Herb. Hermann 3: 17, No. 44 (BM-000621854). LT designated by Rauschert in Feddes Repert. 83: 662. 1973.

Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 195. 1810

Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 169, 178. 1812.

Penicillaria cylindrica Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 498. 1817, p.p. Type: “In India orient., et promont. b. spei.”

Pennisetum americanum sensu (L.) Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 52. 1907, non (L.) K. Schum., 1895

Pennisetum spicatum (L.) Körn., Handb. Getreidebaus 1: 284. 1885, non Roem. & Schult., 1817

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China]. Widely cultivated.

Habit. Annual.

613. Cenchrus biflorus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 238–239. 1820

Cenchrus annularis Andersson, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 553. 1864. Type: “Standort auf sandigen trocknen und feuchten Feldern, auf Tertiarkalkformation, auf den Querimbainseln und dem gegenuberliegenden Festlande, 10–13 S.B. Im Mai und Juni Eingesammelt.”

Cenchrus barbatus Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 43. 1827. Type: Ghana: Guinea; P. Thonning s.n.

Cenchrus catharticus Delile, Index Seminum Hort. Reg. Bot. Monspel. 2. 1844, nom. nud.

Type. India: dry elevated parts of the Coromandel coast; Roxburgh s.n. (BM).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

614. Cenchrus ciliaris L., Mant. Pl. Altera 302. 1771

Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 213. 1827

Cenchrus longifolius Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 109. 1854. Type: Nubia: Ad montem Cordofanum Arasch-Cool inter frutices; October 16, 1839; Kotschy 190

Pennisetum cenchroides Rich., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 72. 1805.

Pennisetum incomptum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 105. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle herb. 55

Pennisetum petraeum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 106. 1854. Type: “Hochst. hrbr. un. it. arab. nr. 153.” “P. refescens Hochst. Kotschy hrb. nr. 170, Arb. petr. Persia.”

Setaria vulpina P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 171, 178. 1812

Panicum vulpinum Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 1: 1031. 1809, non L., 1753

Pennisetum rufescens Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 106. in syn., non (Desf.) Spreng., 1825

Cenchrus glaucus Mudaliar & Sundararaj, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 54: 926. 1958. Type: India: Coimbatore, Agricultural College; D.D. Sundararaj 93840a (MH).

Type. “Habitat ad. Cap. b. spei margines agrorum et in dunis. Koenig.” Lectotype: Koenig s.n., Herb. Linn. No. 1217.9 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 691. 1982.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See also DeLisle (1962).

615. Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 127. 2010

Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov., Annuario Reale Ist. Bot. Roma 8(1): 41, t. 5, f. 2. 1903. Type: “In Abyssinia legit W. Schimper no. 2084.” Ethiopia; Schimper 2084 (FI).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand [also in Ethiopia].

Habit. Perennial.

616. Cenchrus compressus (R. Br.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 127. 2010

Pennisetum compressum R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 195. 1810

Panicum alopecuroides L., Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753. Type: “Habitat in China.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.1 (LINN). LT designated by Veldkamp in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 253. 2000

Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 303. 1824 (“1825”)

Penicillaria alopecuroides (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. [Sweet] 440. 1826

Alopecurus indicus L., Syst. Veg. ed. 13: 92. 1774, nom.superfl. & illeg.

Pennisetum villosum R. Br. ex Fresen., Mus. Senckenberg. 2: 134. 1837. Type: Ethiopia; H. Salt s.n.

Cenchrus villosus (R. Br. ex Fresen.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 347. 1898, non Spreng., 1824

Pennisetum longistylum sensu E. Vilm., Fl. Pleine Terre ed. 1: 599. 1863, non Hochst., 1851

Distribution. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar]. Naturalized. Native to East Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Author Kailash notes that “According to the USDA-GRIN, Cenchrus purpurascens Thunb. (in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2:329. 1794) is the correct name for this species.”

617. Cenchrus divisus (Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel.) Verloove, Govaerts & Buttler, Phytotaxa 181(1): 59. 2014

Panicum divisum Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13[bis]. 2: 156. 1791. Type: Arabia; Forsskal s.n. (C).

Pennisetum divisum (Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel.) Henrard, Blumea 3(1): 162. 1938, in obs.

Panicum dichotomum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 20. 1775, non L., 1753. Type: “Abrab Tummdm. Ubique in campis Arabiae. Fimul cum Panico Bockar.”

Pennisetum dichotomum Delile, Descr. Egypte, Hist. Nat. 2: 15, t. 8, f.1. 1813–1814

Pennisetum elatum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 106. 1854. Type: Arabia; Herb. un.it. arab. 308

Gymnotrix longiglumis Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 85. 1896, nom. nud.

Cenchrus ramosissimus Poiret in Lam., Encycl. 6: 51. 1804. Type. “Cette plante croit in Egypte”, V.S. in herb. Lam.

Distribution. Gujarat [also in Saudi Arabia, Africa].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. See also Verloove (2012).

618. Cenchrus echinatus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1050. 1753

Cenchrus brevisetus E. Fourn., Mexic. Pl. 2: 50. 1886. Type: Mexico: Veracruz, Valle de Orizaba; no date; Schafn no. 198 in Bourgeau 3140 (US-978731 (fragm. ex LE)). Nicaragua; P. Levy 235

Cenchrus pungens Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 115 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit locis calidis, planis, subinundatis regni Peruviani prope Guayaquil.” Ecuador: Guayaquil; Humboldt & Bonpland s.n.(P).

Cenchrus viridis Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 301. 1824 (“1825”). Type: Guadeloupe; 1817–1819; Bertero s.n. (B).

Type. “Habitat in Jamaica, Curassao.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen, sheet no. 912.356-116 (L). LT designated by Veldkamp in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993.

Distribution. Kerala [China]. Naturalized. Native to North and South America.

Habit. Annual.

619. Cenchrus flaccidus (Griseb.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 86. 1868. Type: India: Kashmir, Ladak, Nubra, alt. 9000–13000 ft.; Thomson s.n.

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanisthan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

620. Cenchrus hohenackeri (Hochst. ex Steud.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Pennisetum hohenackeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 103. 1854. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgherry Mountains; 1851; R.F. Hohenacker 930

Pennisetum alopecuros Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 102. 1854, non J. Jacq., 1844. Type: India; Wight s.n. as Gymnotrix cenchroides. Rottler s.n. as Cenchrus hordeiformis.

Pennisetum aureum sensu Dalzell & A. Gibson., Bombay Fl. 294. 1861, non Link, 1827.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

621. Cenchrus hordeoides (Lam.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Panicum hordeoides Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1(1): 170. 1791. Type: “E. Siera Leona, Smeathm.”

Pennisetum hordeoides (Lam.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 103. 1854

Gymnotrix hordeoides (Lam.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 48. 1829 (as “Gumnothrix”)

Cenchrus parviflorus Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) 6: 52. 1804. Type: “Cette plante croit a Porto-Ricco. Elle a été communiquée a M. Lamarck par M. Ventenat.” Puerto Rico; M. Ventenat s.n. (P).

Pennisetum parviflorum (Poir.) Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 65. 1826

Pennisetum antillarum (Poir.) Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 76. 1831

Saccharum antillarum (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 877. 1817.

Setaria antillarum (Poir.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 46. 1829

Pennisetum imberbe Edgew., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 21: 181. 1852, isonym. Type: [India]: “Found at Gurhrampur, November.”

Distribution. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan. Naturalized.

Habit. Annual.

622. Cenchrus lanatus (Klotzsch) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Pennisetum lanatum Klotzsch, Bot. Ergebn. Reise Waldemar 65. t. 99. 1862. Type: “Beide Formen werden im Suden von Europa haufig angebaut.” “Prinzen Waldemar auf Ceylon, dem Himalaya und an den Grenzen von Tibet gesammelte Pflanzen.”

Pennisetum nepalense sensu Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 86. 1868, non Spreng., 1825

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

623. Cenchrus mezianus (Leeke) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Pennisetum mezianum Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 39. 1907. Type: “Ostafrika, Somaliland, Brit-Ostafrika, Deutsch-Ostafrika.”

Pennisetum brachystachyum Hack., Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 55: 233. 1910. Type: [Africa] “Britisch-Ostafricka”: Makindu River; April 14, 1902; Kassner 584 (US).

Pennisetum massaicum Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 82. 1906, p.p. Type: British East Africa: Kikumbuliu; Scott Elliot 6292. Makindu; Kassner 584, Linton 72. Baringo; 3400 ft.; Johnston s.n.

Distribution. India [also in Africa].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

624. Cenchrus orientalis (Rich.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Pennisetum orientale Rich., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 72. 1805. Type: “Hab. in Oriente.”

Panicum orientale (Rich.) Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 2: 1031. 1809. Type: “Habitat in Galatia.”

Pennisetum fasciculatum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(1–2): 181. 1834. Type: “V. ssp. Pers. et e monte Sinai.”

Pennisetum orientale Rich. var. triflorum (Nees ex Steud.) Stapf ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 86. 1896

Pennisetum triflorum Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 107. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle 59

Distribution. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Not recorded.

625. Cenchrus pedicellatus (Trin.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 128. 2010

Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(2–3): 184. 1834. Type: Cape Verde Islands, St. Iago; D. Peters s.n. (LE-TRIN-1101.01).

Eriochaeta densiflora Fig. & de Not., Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino ser. 2, 14: 376. t. 31. 1854. Type: Africa: “In Nubia superiore iisdem locis ac praecedens.”

Pennisetum densiflorum (Fig. & De Not.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 778. 1894.

Eriochaeta reversa Fig. & De Not., Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino ser. 2, 14: 378. t. 32. 1854. Type: Africa: “In nubia superiore cum praecedentibus.”

Eriochaeta secundiflora Fig. & De Not., Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino ser. 2, 14: 375. t. 30. 1854. Type: Africa: “In Nubiae superiois regione Kordofan.”

Pennisetum secundiflorum (Fig. & De Not.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 784. 1894

Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 386. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescti circa Aderbati, mense Septembre (Quartin Dillon, Schimper).” Ethiopia: crescit circa Aderbati; Schimper 641 (P). Ethiopia: crescit circa Aderbati; Quartin Dillon s.n. (P).

Pennisetum araneosum Edgew., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 21: 180. 1852.

Pennisetum implicatum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 107. 1854. Type: “Leprieur legit in Senegambria”; Leprieur s.n.

Pennisetum intertextum Schlecht., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 9: 878. 1851. Type: [Africa: Cape Verde Is.]: “An den Seiten der Thaler zwischen Steinen auf der Insel Mayo”; C. Pabst s.n.

Pennisetum notarisii T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 781. 1894

Pennisetum dillonii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 107. 1854, in obs., nom. nud. (as “dilloni”). Type: “Prov. Chire. Abyssin.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Annual.

626. Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 109. 1854

Pennisetum pennisetiforme (Hochst. & Steud.) Wipff, Sida 19(3): 527. 2001.

Cenchrus aequiglumis Chiov., Agron. Colon. 20: 108. 1926. Type: Africa “Flora Somala Transjuliense. racoolte dal Dr. Pompeo Gorini nel 1925.”

Pennisetum cenchroides Rich. var. echinoides Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 88–89. 1896

Cenchrus echinoides Wight ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 1: 317. 1840, nom. nud.

Cenchrus lappaceus Tausch, Flora 20: 97. 1837, nom. Later hom., non L., 1763

Type. Saudi Arabia: Jedda, in deserto prope oppid. Deschedda; January 28, 1836; G.H.W. Schimper 973 (P). LT designated by Wipff in Sida 19: 527. 2001.

Distribution. Bihar, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual or perennial.

627. Cenchrus polystachios (L.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 129. 2010

Panicum polystachion L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 870. 1759. Type: “Habitat [in India.] Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 82. 1762.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.4 (LINN). LT designated by van der Zon in Wageningen Agric. Univ. Pap. 92-1: 335. 1992.

Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 146. 1824 (as “polystachyum”).

Panicum barbatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 285. 1820, non Lam. 1791. Type: India: Collected from Sumatra and seed grown in Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta.

Panicum triticoides Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 274. 1816. Type: “J’ignore le lieu natal de cette plante. (Herb. Desfontaine).”

Pennisetum triticoides (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 877. 1817. Type: Herb. Desfontaine.

Panicum densispica Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 273. 1816, nom. superfl & illeg. for P. cenchroides A. Rich.

Pennisetum pedicellatum sensu Senaratna, Grasses of Ceylon (Perad. Man. No. 8) 155. 1956, non Trin., 1834

Panicum cauda-ratti Schumach., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 79. 1827. Type: Ghana; Thonning s.n.

Pennisetum cauda-ratti (Schumach.) Franch., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 8: 365. 1895

Pennisetum amethystinum P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 172 1812, nom. nud.

Pennisetum setosum (Sw.) Rich., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 72. 1805.

Cenchrus setosus Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 26. 1788. Type: India orientalis; Swartz s.n. (S).

Gymnotrix geniculata Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 284. 1824 (as “Gymnothrix”). Type: “In martinica, Hortul”; D. Sieber s.n.

Panicum cenchroides Rich., Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 106. 1792. Type: French Guiana: “E Cayenna missarum a Domino Le Blond”; LeBlond s.n. (P).

Setaria cenchroides (Rich.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 495. 1817.

Panicum erubescens Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 2: 1031. 1809. Type: “Habitat in insula St. Thomae Americes.”

Setaria erubescens (Willd.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 169, 178. 1812

Pennisetum flavescens J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 316. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Mexico.” Mexico; Haenke s.n. (PR)

Pennisetum hamiltonii Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 2: 297. 1841

Pennisetum hirsutum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 284. 1829

Pennisetum nicaraguense E. Fourn., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 27: 293. 1880. Type: Nicaragua: circa Granada; P. Levy 1304 (P).

Pennisetum pallidum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 285. 1829. Type: Brasilia: “Habitat in apricis praeruptis graminibus parcis obsitis ad latera montium de Mentanha et Itambé, districtus adamantini, provincae Minarum generalium”; Martius s.n. (M).

Pennisetum purpurascens Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 113 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit in aridis, devexis montis ignivomi Mexicani, Volcan de Jorullo, alt 420 hexapodarum.” Mexico: Volcán de Jorullo, alt. 420 ft.; Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (P).

Pennisetum richardii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 49. 1829 (as “richardi”)

Pennisetum uniflorum Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 114 (ed. qto.). t. 34. 1816. Type: “Crescit locis subtemperatis, planis Prov. Novae Andalusiae, juxta Cumanacoa”; Humboldt & Humboldt s.n.

Pennisetum alopecuroides Desv. ex Ham., Prodr. Pl. Ind. Occid. (Hamilton) 11. 1825, nom. later hom. & illeg., non (L.) Spreng., 1824.

Pennisetum erubescens (Willd.) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 215. 1827, non Desv. ex Ham., 1825

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Annual.

628. Cenchrus prieurii (Kunth) Maire, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat, ser. 2, 3: 523. 1931 var. prieurii (as “prieuri”)

Cenchrus macrostachyus Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 109. 1854. Type: Sudan: Kurdofan, Ad Pagum Cordofanum Abu-Gerad in Collobus Arenosis; September 18, 1839; K.G.T. Kotschy 4

Pennisetum breviflorum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 107. 1854. Type: “Leprieur legit in Senegambia”; Leprieur s.n.

Pennisetum prieurii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2: 411. t. 119. 1831. Type: “Crescit in senegambia, collibus arenosis”; Leprieur s.n.

Distribution. Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

629. Cenchrus prieurii (Kunth) Maire var. scabra Bhandari, Fl. Ind. Desert 395. 1978

Type. India: Rajasthan, Jodhpur, Massuria; December 6, 1960; M.M. Bhandari 793 (JAC).

Distribution. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Rajasthan fide Naithani (1990).

630. Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 196: 129. 2010

Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 44. 1827. Type: Ghana: Guinea; Thonning 355 (C).

Gymnotrix nitens Andersson, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 552. 1864 (as “Gymnothrix”). Type: “Standort, Auf trocknen sandigen oder in der Nahe sumpfiger Wiesen der Halbinsel Cabaceira 15 S.B. Eingesammelt in Mai, auch an anderen orten ahnlichen Bodens vokommend.”

Pennisetum nitens (Andersson) Hack., Bol. Soc. Brot. 6: 142. 1888

Pennisetum benthamii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 105. 1854 (as “benthami”). Type: “P. Macrostachyum Benth. in Hook. Nig. Fl. 563. (non Trin. 1834) Fernando Po, Guinea.”

Pennisetum flavicomum Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 45. 1907. Type: “Agyprischer Sudan: Kordofan.”

Pennisetum flexispica K. Schum., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 105. 1895. Type: “Si-Stuhlm. Coll. I, n. 1099”.

Pennisetum pallescens Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 47. 1907. Type: “Westafrika: Togo”.

Pennisetum pruinosum Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 46. 1907. Type: Ostafrika, Einheimischer Name, “Magugu”

Pennisetum macrostachyum Benth., Niger Fl. 563. 1849, nom. Later hom. & illeg., non Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.) Trin., 1834

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Perennial.

631. Cenchrus rajasthanensis Kanodia & P.C. Nanda, Geobios (Jodhpur) 5(4): 157. f. 1. 1978

Distribution. Rajasthan.

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

632. Cenchrus ramosus (Hochst.) Morrone, Ann. Bot. (Oxford) n.s., 106: 129. 2010

Gymnotrix ramosa Hochst., Flora 27: 252. 1844 (as “Gymnothrix”). Type: Aethiopica: Sennar Province; Kotschyi 199.

Pennisetum ramosum (Hochst.) Schweinf., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 301. 1867.

Pennisetum arvense Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 119. 1901. Type: Ethiopia: “auf trockenen Bergrucken in der sonst sumpfigen Ebene, Dembea, 5800 ft.”; October 1863; Schimper 1399. Ethiopia: “in Sumpfen bei Hamedo” 4500 ft.; September 1862; Schimper 1058.

Pennisetum ovale Rupr. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 104. 1854. Type: Ethiopia: Nubia; Ruprecht. (In Kotschy fl. ath. 199)

Distribution. India [also in Africa].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

633. Cenchrus setigerus Vahl, Enum. Pl. (Vahl) 2: 395. 1805

Cenchrus biflorus sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 89. 1896, non Roxb., 1820

Cenchrus bulbifer Hochst. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 448. 1884, nom. nud. pro. syn.

Cenchrus uniflorus Ehrenb. ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 448. 1884, nom. nud. pro. syn.

Pennisetum vahlii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 49. 1829, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Cenchrus setigerus Vahl

Type. “Habitat in Arabia. Forskal.” Saudi Arabia; Forsskal s.n. (C).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Cyrtococcum Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 15. 1917, 9: 745. 1920

Lectotype. Cyrtococcum setigerum (P. Beauv.) Stapf (Panicum setigerum P. Beauv.) LT designated by F. W. Gould in R. A. Howard, Fl. Lesser Antilles 3: 121. 1979.

634. Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin.) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 31: sub t. 3096. 1922

Panicum accrescens Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 1(8): t. 88. 1827. Type: “Figura ad specimen nepalense.”

Cyrtococcum patens (L.) A. Camus var. latifolium (Honda) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11(1): 47–48. 1942.

Panicum patens L. f. latifolium Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37: 25. 1923. Type: China: Taiwan, Liukiu, Onnah; 1899; K. Miyake s.n.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odish, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal].

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Distribution in Karnataka, Nagaland, and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

635. Cyrtococcum deccanense Bor, Kew Bull. 1956: 255–256. 1956

Panicum patens sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 57. 1896, non L., 1753

Type. Sri Lanka: Hakgala, gully near Botanical Garden; 6000 ft.; December 30, 1950; F. Ballard 1341 (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records from Karnataka and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

636. Cyrtococcum longipes (Wight & Arn. ex Hook. f.) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 118. 1921.

Panicum longipes Wight & Arn. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 58. 1896. Syntypes: India: Nilghiri and Pulney Hills; Heyne (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8741). Wight & Arn (Wight Cat. no. 1638). Karkun Ghar, alt. 2000 ft.; Lawson s.n.

Cyrtococcum patens sensu Senaratna, Grasses of Ceylon (Perad. Man. No. 8) 120. 1956, non (L.) A. Camus, 1921

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

637. Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 31: sub t. 3096. 1922.

Panicum oxyphyllum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 65. 1853. Type: India: Canara; R.F. Hohenacker 627

Panicum hermaphroditum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 67. 1853. Type: Philippines; Cuming no. 554

Panicum pilipes Nees & Arn. ex Buse, Pl. Jungh. 376. 1854. Type: “Habitat insulae Javae sylvas in sinu Wijnkoopsbaai, Junghuhn.” Indonesia: Java; Cuming 554

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

638. Cyrtococcum patens (L.) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 118. 1921

Panicum patens L., Sp. Pl. 1: 58. 1753. Type: “Habitat in India; similis e Lusitania.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.63 (LINN). LT designated by Mitra & Jain in Manilal (ed.), Bot. Hist. Hort. Malabaricus 151. 1980.

Panicum muricatum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 18. 1786–1787. Type: “Misit Cel. Koenig.”

Cyrtococcum muricatum (Retz.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan. 291. 1960.

Panicum radicans Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 18. 1786–1787. Type: “Ad Canton Lectum dadit Honor. Wennerberg.” Neotype: Philippines: Luzon, Rizal, Manila; December, 1914; F. Blanco 711(L).

Cyrtococcum radicans (Retz.) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 31: sub t. 3096. 1922 

Panicum schmidtii Hack., Bot. Tidsskr. 24: 99. 1901. Type: Thailand: Tratpron, Kohchang Island, plains near Klong Munsé; 1899; c.i. s.n.

Cyrtococcum schmidtii (Hack.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 436. 1940.

Panicum carinatum J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 309. 1830. Type: “Habitat in insula Luzonia ad Sorzogon.” Philippine Islands: Luzon, Sorzogon; Haenke s.n. (PR)

Panicum obliquum Roth ex Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 433. 1817

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

639. Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 118. 1921

Panicum trigonum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 9. 1783. Type: India; Koenig s.n. (LD). “Specimina javanica melius conceniunt cum Rumph. quam cum Rheed. figura cujus folia longiora.”

Panicum difforme Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 433. 1817. Type: India orientalis; “Roth, nov. plant. spec. mss” cited

Panicum patens sensu Burm. f., Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) 26. t. 10. f. 3. 1768, non L., 1753

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Digitaria Haller f., Hist. Stirp. Helv. 2: 244. 1768, nom. cons.

Type. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scopoli (Panicum sanguinale L.) (type cons.).

640. Digitaria abludens (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Blumea 21(1): 53–55 f. 11d. 12. 1973

Panicum abludens Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 457. 1817. Type: India; Heyne s.n. (B). “Pancium paradoxum Roth, nov. plant. Spec. Ms. ..”

Digitaria granularis (Trin.) Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 302. 1950

Paspalum granulare Trin. in Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 47. 1821. Type: “Hab. In India Orientali.” Koenig sub Milium setaceum in Herb. Trin ex Herb. Banks ex Herb. Jacquin (LE).

Digitaria pedicellaris Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 1182. 1903, nom. superfl.

Paspalum pedicellare Trin. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 19. 1896, nom. superfl. for Paspalum granulare Trin.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

641. Digitaria abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1907: 213. 1907

Panicum abyssinicum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 360. 1850–1851. Type: Ethiopia: “in fruticetis opacis ad radices septrionales montis scholoda”; September 22, 1837; W. Schimper U. I. 1840 Sect. primo 82 (P).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

642. Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 470. 1817

Paspalum bicorne Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 176. 1791. Type: “Lieu nat. I’Inde.” India; Sonnerat in Herb. Lamarck (P-LAM).

Panicum bicorne (Lam.) Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 83. 1833.

Digitaria barbata Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 1: 91. 1809. Type: “Habitat in India Orientali”; Herb. Desvaux s.n. (P).

Digitaria rottleri Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 471. 1817. Type: India; Rottler s.n.

Panicum heteranthum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 16. 1896, non Link, 1827, nom illeg., later hom.

Panicum barbatum (Willd.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 33. 1829, non Lam., 1791

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

643. Digitaria biformis Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 1: 92. 1809

Panicum biforme (Willd.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 33. 1829.

Panicum sanguinale L. var. biforme (Willd.) Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 762. 1894

Type. “Habitat in insula Mauritii et Borboniae”; Bory de St. Vincent 47 (B-W-1652).

Distribution. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. The taxonomic editors note that this species could be synonymous with D. bicornis or D. ciliaris.

644. Digitaria brownii (Roem. & Schult.) Hughes, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1923: 313. 1923

Panicum brownii Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes]. 2: 462. 1817, nom. nov. for Panicum villosum R. Br.

Panicum villosum R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 192. 1810, nom. illeg., non Lam., 1791. Type: Australia: Keppel Bay; R. Brown 6119, p.p. (BM).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [also in Australia, New Zealand].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. It is unclear if this species is naturalized in Tamil Nadu. Its native range is not recorded.

645. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler, Descr. Gram. (Koeler) 27. 1802

Panicum ciliare Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 16. 1786–1787. Type: “E Java et China adtulit honor. Wennerberg.” China: Guangdong, Guangzhou; Wennerberg s.n. (LD).

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. ciliare (Retz.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 15. 1896

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. rottleri Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 16. 1896. Type: India; Wight Herbarium no. 3032 and 3033

Panicum adscendens Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K] 1: 97 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit in Nova Andalusia prope Cumanacoa (100 hexap.), in Peruvia ad maris littora prope Guayaquil et Santa; in Nova Hispania juxta Zelaya et Queretaro, alt. 950 hexap.” Lectotype: Peru [Ecuador]: Guyaquil; Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (P). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 21(1): 32. 1973.

Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard, Blumea 1(1): 92. 1934.

Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard var. criniformis Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 999. 1950

Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard ssp. chrysoblephara (Fig. & De Not.) Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 998. 1950.

Digitaria chrysoblephara Fig. & De Not., Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino ser. 2, 14: 364. t. 27. 1854. Type: Africa: “In Nubia superiore ad Fazoge”; Figari s.n.(FI).

Digitaria marginata Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 102. 1821. Type: “Hab. in Brasilia.” Brazil; Herb. Link 67 (B (left side of sheet)).

Digitaria fimbriata Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 226. 1827. Type: “Hab. in Brasilia.” Brazil; Herb. Link 97 (B [right side of sheet]).

Digitaria marginata Link var. fimbriata (Link) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 440. 1919.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Not recorded.

646. Digitaria compacta (Roth) Veldkamp, Blumea 21(1): 71. 1973

Paspalum compactum Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 316. 1817. Type: India orientalis; Heyne s.n. (B).

Digitaria cruciata (Nees) A. Camus var. esculenta Bor, Webbia 11: 353. 1955. Type: India: Khasia, Pomrang; September 15, 1850; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n. (K).

Distribution. Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

647. Digitaria cruciata (Nees) E.G. Camus & A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 399. 1922 var. cruciata

Panicum cruciatum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 39. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle Herb. no. 28, 29.

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. cruciatum (Nees) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 14. 1896

Distribution. Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Mynamar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

648. Digitaria cruciata (Nees) A. Camus var. pectinata Veldkamp, Blumea 21(1): 72. 1973

Type. India; Griffith KD 6574 (W).

Distribution. Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Record for Meghalaya fide Naithani (1990).

649. Digitaria duthieana Henrard ex Bor, Kew Bull. 1953: 273. 1953

Type. India: Madhya Pradesh, Bandelkhand, Barwar Sagor, near Jhansi; December 9, 1886; J.F. Duthie s.n. (K).

Distribution. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Madhya Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

650. Digitaria eriantha Steud., Flora 12(2): 468–469. 1829.

Digitaria pentzii Stent, Bothalia 3(1): 147. 1930. Type: Cape Province, Vrijburg District, Vrijburg; Pentz N.H.P. 8510 (PRE).

Digitaria eriantha Steud. var. stolonifera Stapf, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 7: 375. 1898. Type: South Africa: Transvaal, Houtbosch; A. Rehmann 5712 (K, L). LT designated (as type) by Henrard in Monogr. Digitaria 232. 1950.

Type. South Africa: Cape: Cape of Good Hope, von Ludwig s.n.

Distribution. Maharashtra [also in Africa].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Possibly only in cultivation.

651. Digitaria fuscescens (J. Presl) Henrard, Meded. Rijks-Herb. 61: 8. 1930

Paspalum fuscescens J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 213. 1830. Type: “Hab. in regione montana Peruviae” (changed to Hab. ad Monte-Rey Californiae, in the Addendum on p. 351); Haenke s.n. (PR).

Syntherisma fuscescens (J. Presl) Scribn., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 10: 49, t. 10. 1899

Digitaria pseudoischaemum Buse, Pl. Jungh. 382. 1854 (as “pseudo-ischaemum”). Type: “Habitat in sumatrae littoralibus arenosis. Inter stirpes Ischaemi multici, cui Sterilis quodammodo similes est, offendi unicum specimen.” Junghuhn s.n.

Distribution. Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu [Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

652. Digitaria griffithii (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 1(1): 100. 1934

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. griffithii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 15. 1896. Type: Cited many syntypes.

Panicum corymbosum sensu Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 436. 1864, non Roxb., 1820

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

653. Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl., Cat. Pl. Amer. Sept. 9. 1813

Panicum ischaemum Schreb. in Schweigg., Spec. Fl. Erlang. 16. 1804. Type: Germany, Bavaria

Syntherisma ischaemum (Schreb.) Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17(2): 151. 1912

Digitaria humifusa Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 85. 1805. Type: “Hab. In arenosis circa Parisios.”

Panicum humifusum (Pers.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 33. 1829

Syntherisma humifusum (Pers.) Rydb., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 469. 1900

Paspalum ambiguum Lam. & DC., Fl. Franc. (DC. & Lamarck), ed. 3. 3: 16. 1805. Type: cited Paspalum dactylon Lam.

Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl., Descr. Gram. (Muhlenberg) 131. 1817, isonym

Distribution. India (Northwest Himalaya) [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

654. Digitaria jubata (Griseb.) Henrard, Blumea 1(1): 100. 1934

Paspalum jubatum Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 84. 1868. Type: India: Khasya Hills, 7000 ft.; J.D. Hooker Paspalum no. 9 (GOET).

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya [China].

Habit. Annual.

655. Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 85. 1805

Paspalum longiflorum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 15. 1786–1787. Type: “E Malabaria, ubi ad margines agrorum crescit, misit hon. Koenig.”

Panicum longiflorum (Retz.) J.F. Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed 13 [bis] 2: 158. 1791

Syntherisma longiflora (Retz.) Skeels, U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 261: 30. 1912

Digitaria caespitosa Ridl., Fl. Malay. Penin. 5: 215. 1925. Lectotype: Malay Peninsula: Singapore, Tanglin, grass plots in the gardens; Ridley s.n. (K). LT designated by Veldkamp, Blumea 21: 64. 1973.

Panicum propinquum R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 193. 1810. Type: Australia: “Littora Novae Hollandiae intra tropicum”; R. Brown 6122 (BM).

Digitaria propinqua (R. Br.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 160, 170. 1812

Digitaria roxburghii Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 270. 1824 (“1825”). Type: India orientalis

Paspalum brevifolium Fluegge, Gram. Monogr., Paspalum 150. 1810 (as “Paspalus brevifolius”), nom. superfl. & illeg. Syntypes: “In malabaria ad agrorum margines; Koenig s.n. Insula Mauritii; Dupetit Thouars s.n. Tranqubaria; Klein s.n.

Paspalum filiculme Nees in Herb. Wight ex Miq., Prolus. Fl. Jap. 162. 1867

Digitaria filiculmis (Nees) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11(1): 32. 1942, in obs.

Paspalum preslii Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 47. 1833. Type: Peruvia

Digitaria preslii (Kunth) Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 589. 1950

Panicum pseudodurva Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 1: 21. 1841 (as “pseudo-durva”)

Panicum parvulum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(2–3): 205. 1834, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Paspalum longiflorum Retz.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

656. Digitaria nodosa Parl., Pl. Nov. 39. 1842

Syntherisma nodosa (Parl.) Newbold, Torreya 24: 9. 1924

Panicum commutatum Nees var. nodosum (Parl.) Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz] 5: 744. 1894

Panicum pabulare Aitch. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 190. 1882. Type: Afghanistan: Kuram District, between Thal and Chapri, also on Tor-ghar Hill

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. pabulare (Aitch. & Hemsl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 15. 1896

Panicum parlatorei Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 40. 1854. Type: “Ins. Canar., Parlatore Pl. nov. 39

Type. “Habitat in arvis insulae Canariae.”

Distribution. Punjab [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Not recorded.

657. Digitaria pennata (Hochst.) T. Cooke, Fl. Bombay 2(5): 941. 1908 var. pennata

Panicum pennatum Hochst., Flora 38: 197. 1855. Type: Abyssinia[Ethiopia]: Gurrsarfa; 1853; Schimper [Hb. abyss. Buch.] 1497 (STR).

Paspalum pennatum (Hochst.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 16. 1896

Distribution. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

658. Digitaria pennata (Hochst.) T. Cooke var. shettyana R.P. Pandey, Parmar & B.L. Vyas, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 5(2): 475. 1984

Type. India: Rajasthan, Jalore, rocky habitat near Sareh Mandir; September 21, 1978; B.V. Shetty 6659A (CAL).

Distribution. Rajasthan.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

659. Digitaria radicosa (J. Presl) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3: 437. 1857

Panicum radicosum J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 297. 1830. Type: “Habitat ad Sorzogon Luzoniae.” Philippine Islands: Luzon, Sorsogon Province; Haenke s.n. (PR?).

Panicum timorense Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 83. 1833

Digitaria timorensis (Kunth) Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4: 138. 1890. (See Remarks below.)

Panicum debile Desf., Fl. Atlant. 1: 59–60. 1798. Type: Algeria: in pascuis prope La Calle; Desfontaines 127 (P).

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. debile (Desf.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 16. 1896

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Digitaria timorensis (Kunth) Balansa placed in synonymy here, but it is unclear where this name falls within Digitaria.

660. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2. 1: 52. 1771

Panicum sanguinale L., Sp. Pl. 1: 57. 1753. Type: “Habitat in America, Europa australi.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.31(LINN). LT designated by Henrard in Monogr. Digitaria 649. 1950.

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 176. 1791   

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. var. frumentacea Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 985. 1950. Type: Cultivated.

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. var. rottleriana Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 986. 1950. Type: South Africa: Cape Province, Cape town, in gardens Johannesburg and India.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan]. Naturalized. Native range not recorded.

Habit. Annual.

661. Digitaria setigera Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 474. 1817

Digitaria setigera Roth var. calliblepharata (Henrard) Veldkamp, Blumea 21(1): 40. 1973

Panicum corymbosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 295. 1820. Type: India: in the vallies amongst the Circar Mountains; Roxburgh s.n.

Axonopus corymbosus (Roxb.) Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 177. 1824

Digitaria corymbosa (Roxb.) Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 1: 53. 1923

Syntherisma corymbosa (Roxb.) Hosok., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24(130): 199. 1934

Panicum microbachne J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 298. 1830. Lectotype: Philippine Islands: Luzon; Haenke s.n. (right- and left-hand specimens) (PR) (vide Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 450. 1950).

Digitaria microbachne (J. Presl) Henrard, Meded. Rijks-Herb. 61: 13. 1930

Digitaria microbachne (J. Presl) Henrard ssp. calliblepharata Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 452. 1950. Syntypes: Indonesia: Kangean, Kajoe Waroe; 1920; Backer 27997 (L). Java: Soerabaja; September 30, 1928; Van Slooten 2047

Panicum dilatatum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 39. 1854. Type: India Courtallum; Wight 1045, 1047

Panicum pruriens Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 77. 1826. Lectoype: Hawaii: Nukahiwa Island; G.H. von Langsdorff s.n. LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 21(1): 38. 1973.

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. pruriens (Trin.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 15. 1896

Paspalum sanguinale (L.) Lam. var. extensum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 15. 1896. Type: Wight Cat. no. 2340

Digitaria extensa (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 1(1): 100. 1934

Type. India; Heyne s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

662. Digitaria stewartiana Bor, Kew Bull. 1951: 166–167. 1951

Type. India: Kashmir, Chunagund, near Kargil, Ladak, 10000 ft.; August 25, 1940; R.R. Stewart 21047 (K).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladak [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Report from Ladak fide Naithani (1990).

663. Digitaria stricta Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 474. 1817 var. stricta

Setaria stricta (Roth) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 47. 1829

Digitaria stricta Roth var. denudata (Link) Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 175. 1950

Digitaria stricta Roth var. glabrescens Bor, Webbia 11: 336. 1955. Syntypes: India: Khasia; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n. Tehri Garhwal, Jumma Valley, alt. 5800 ft.; September 3, 1883; J.F. Duthie 325. Dehra Dun, Ramgarh; September 1892; J.S. Gamble 23932.

Agrostis pilosa Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 6: 22. 1791. Type: “Ex India orientali mista.” India; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Digitaria denudata Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 222. 1827

Panicum denudatum (Link) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 32. 1829

Digitaria puberula Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 223. 1827

Panicum pseudosetaria Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 39. 1854 for Digitaria stricta Roth. Type: India

Syntherisma royleana Newbold, Torreya 24: 9. 1924, nom. superfl.

Digitaria royleana Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 1182. 1903, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Digitaria puberula

Paspalum royleanum Nees ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 18. 1896, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Digitaria puberula

Type. India; B. Heyne s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

664. Digitaria ternata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Cap. (Harvey) 7: 376–377. 1898

Cynodon ternatus Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 405. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in arvis Poae Abyssinicae cultis, prope Adoua (Quartin Dillon, Schimper)”; Ethiopia: Tigray; September 23, 1837; Schimper 76 (P). LT designated (as “type”) by Henrard, Monogr. Digitaria 738. 1950.

Panicum ternatum (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 40. 1853

Paspalum ternatum (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 17. 1896

Syntherisma ternata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Newbold, Torreya 24: 9. 1924

Panicum phaeocarpum Nees var. gracile Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 23. 1841. Type: “In graminosis vallis ad Gekau alt. 800–1000 ft.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

665. Digitaria tomentosa (J. Koenig ex Rottler) Henrard, Blumea 1(1): 100. 1934

Milium tomentosum J. Koenig ex Rottler, Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften 4: 220. 1803. Type: “Intra fissures rupium in monte Wandiwash.”

Panicum subeglume Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(2–3): 292. 1834

Milium capillare Roth ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 320. 1817, non Rottb., 1778. Type: India orientali; B. Heyne s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

666. Digitaria violascens Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 229. 1827

Paspalum fuscum J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 214. 1830. Type: Hab. in Luzonia? in Peruviae montanis huanoccensibus? Mexico? Mexico; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Syntherisma fusca (J. Presl) Scribn., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 10: 49, t. 11. 1899

Digitaria fusca (J. Presl) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 35: 4. 1928, non Chiov., 1919

Digitaria chinensis (Nees) A. Camus, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 4: 48. 1923, non Horneman, 1819

Type. “Hab. in Brasilia.” Brazil; Herb. Link 93 (B).

Distribution. Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

667. Digitaria wallichiana (Wight & Arn. ex Nees) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 436. 1919

Panicum wallichianum Wight & Arn. ex Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 41. 1853. Type: India; Wight Cat. 1607 (KD 3089) (P).

Panicum multibrachiatum Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 74. 1853. Type: India; Nilgiri Mountains; R.F. Hohenacker 916

Paspalum perrottetii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 20. 1896, non Panicum perrottetii Kunth, 1833 (vide Bor 1960).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Echinochloa P. Beauv., Essai Agrostogr. 53. 1812, nom. cons.

Type. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. (Panicum crus-galli L.)

668. Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 2: 209. 1833

Panicum colonum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 870. 1759. Type: “Habitat [in Indiae cultis.] Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 84. 1753.” Lectotype: Browne, Herb. Linn. No. 80.23 (LINN). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 12: 119. 1908.

Milium colonum (L.) Moench, Methodus (Moench) 202. 1794

Oplismenus colonus (L.) Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 108–109 (ed. qto.). 1816

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. ssp. colona (L.) Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37: 122. 1923

Panicum crus-galli L. ssp. colonum (L.) Makino & Nemoto, Fl. Japan (Makino & Nemoto) 1470. 1925

Panicum crus-galli L. var. minor Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 359. 1864. Type: Ceylon Plant 901

Panicum zonale Guss., Fl. Sic. Prodr. 1: 82. 1827. Type: “Habitus praecedentis sed gracilior, spiculae minus hispidae, antherae sordide purpureae, stigmata nigricantia.”

Echinochloa zonalis (Guss.) Parl., Fl. Panorm. 1: 119. 1839

Oplismenus repens J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 321. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Mexico.” Mexico; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Panicum prorepens Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 46. 1853

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu,Tripura, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

669. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 161, 169. 1812 var. crus-galli

Panicum crus-galli L., Sp. Pl. 1: 56. 1753 (as “crus galli”). Type: “Habitat in Europae, Virginiae cultis.” Lectotype: Kalm, Herb. Linn. No. 80.18 (LINN). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 12: 117. 1908.

Milium crus-galli (L.) Moench, Methodus (Moench) 202. 1794

Pennisetum crus-galli (L.) Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 277. 1817

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var. submutica Neilr., Fl. Nied.-Oesterr 2: 31. 1859 (as “submuticum”). Type: Echinochloa crus-galli Rchb. Icon. 9. f. 1411

Echinochloa glabrescens Munro ex Eggel., Ann. List. Gram. Uganda 16. 1947, non Murno ex Hook. f, 1896

Panicum hispidulum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 18. 1788 (“1789”). Type: “Ex India Orientali misit honor. Koenig.”

Echinochloa hispidula (Retz.) Nees, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 1: 416, 420. 1840

Panicum crus-galli L. var. stagninum Trimen ex Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 136. 1900, non Panicum stagninum Retz., 1788 [Trimen in Handb. Fl. Ceylon published it as com. nov.]

Panicum grossum Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 18. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

670. Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 269. 1824

Oplismenus crus-pavonis Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 108 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: “Crescit in apricis calidissimis Procinciae Cumanensis prope Bordones.”

Echinochloa composita J. Presl ex Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 259. 1829 [cited as synonym of E. crus-pavonis]. Type: “Habitat in sylvis ad Almada et Ferradas provinciae Bahiensis, aliisque in locis Brasiliae”; Haencker s.n. (B).

Oplismenus angustifolius E. Fourn., Mexic. Pl. 2: 40. 1886. Type: Mexico: Veracruz; August; Gouin 54 (P).

Oplismenus jamaicensis Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 147. 1833. Type: Jamaica

Panicum jamaicense (Kunth) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 2: 257. 1841

Panicum sabulicolum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 258. 1829. Type: “Habitat in arenosis Parae; Sieber s.n.” Uruguay: Montevideo; Sellow s.n.

Oplismenus sabulicolus (Nees) Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 145. 1833 (as “sabulicola”)

Panicum aristatum MacFad., Bot. Misc. 2: 115. 1831, non Retz., 1786–1787

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

671. Echinochloa frumentacea Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 204. 1827

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link var. frumentacea (Link) Ridl., Fl. Malay. Penin. 5: 223. 1925

Oplismenus frumentaceus (Link) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 45. 1829

Panicum crusgalli L. var. frumentacea (Link) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 104. 1885 (as “frumentaceum”)

Panicum frumentaceum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 307. 1820, non Salisb., 1796. Type: “This I have only found in a state of cultivation, ..”

Type. India; Cultivated.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [also in Asia, Africa, and introduced to America].

Habit. Annual.

672. Echinochloa glabrescens Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 31. 1896

Type. Western Himalaya, Khasia Hills; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8687.

Distribution. Karnataka, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan; Africa].

Habit. Not recorded.

673. Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch, Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 41: 742. 1891

Panicum oryzoides Ard., Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. 16. t. 5. 1764. Type: “Semina hujus Panici inventa a me fuere inter Oryzam.”

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

674. Echinochloa picta (J. Koenig) P.W. Michael, Philipp. Weed J. Sci. 5: 18. 1978

Panicum pictum J. Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23: 204. 1788. Type: India: Calcutta; J. Koenig s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [China].

Habit. Perennial.

675. Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 18: 345. 1917

Panicum pyramidale Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 171. 1791. Type: “Lieu nat. le Senegal. Bdles courtes, Blanchatres.” Senegal: E. Senegal; 1789; D. Roussillon s.n. (P-LAM).

Panicum atroviolaceum A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 368. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in Abyssinia sine locali indicatione; Antoine Petit s.n.” (P).

Panicum quadrifarium Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 367. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit ad marginem stagnorum et in locis paludosis prope Adoua, mensibus Novembre et Decembre.” Syntypes: Ethiopia: Tigre, Adoua; December 1, 1837; Schimper 206 (P). Ethiopia: Adoua, Quartin Dillon s.n. (P).

Distribution. Karnataka [also in Saudi Arabia, Africa, Australasia, North America, South America].

Habit. Perennial.

676. Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 161, 171. 1812

Panicum stagninum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 17. 1788 (“1789”). Type: ‘Habitat in stagnis Indiae Orientalis, D. Koenig.” India; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Panicum crus-galli sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(22): 30. 1896, non L. 1753

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura [Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Eriochloa Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 94 (ed. qto.). t. 30. 31. 1816

Lectotype. Eriochloa distachya Kunth. LT designated by G.V. Nash in N. Amer. Fl. 17: 157. 1912; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 220. 1920.

677. Eriochloa fatmensis (Hochst. & Steud.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 30(1): 108. 1975

Panicum fatmense Hochst. & Steud., Unio Itin. Schimper 806. 1837. Type: Arabia: Mecca; Schimper 806 (K).

Eriochloa decumbens F.M. Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 1: 234. 1897. Type: “Habitat on rocks, Hammond Island, Torres Strait. This grass differs from the other Australian species of the genus, principally in habit.”

Helopus nubicus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 100. 1854. Type: Sudan: Arashcool; Kotschy 382 (K).

Eriochloa nubica (Steud.) Hack. & Stapf ex Thell., Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 64: 697. 1919, in obs.

Helopus acrotrichus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 100. 1854, nom. superfl. & illeg. for P. fatamense

Eriochloa acrotricha Hack., Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 52: 435. 1907, non (Hook. f.) Schinz, 1906

Distribution. Maharashtra, Rajasthan [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

678. Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930: 256. 1930

Agrostis procera Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 19. 1786–1787. Type: “In graminosis subhumidis Malabariae frequens; Koenig.”

Milium ramosum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 6: 22. 1791. Type: “Ex India Orientali Habui.”

Agrostis ramosa (Retz.) Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 1: 257. 1810

Eriochloa ramosa (Retz.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Eriochloa polystachya sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 20. 1896, non H.B.K., 1816

Eriochloa annulata Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 30. 1829, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Paspalum annulatum Fluegge, Gram. Monogr., Paspalum 133. 1810 (as “Paspalus annulatus”), nom. superfl. & illeg. for Milium ramosum Retz.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Holcolemma Stapf & C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 244. 1929

Type. Holcolemma canaliculatum (Nees) Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (Panicum canaliculatum Nees ex Steud.).

679. Holcolemma canaliculatum (Nees) Stapf & C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 246. 1929

Panicum canaliculatum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 55. 1853. Type: India; Wright 1624 (P).

Hemigymnia canaliculata (Nees) Alston, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 324. 1931

Panicum stenostachyum Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 436. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Trincomalie; Rev S.O. Glemie Ceylon Plant 3845

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Megathyrsus (Pilg.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs, Austrobaileya 6(3):572. 2003

Panicum subgen. Megathyrsus Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 242. 1931

Lectotype. Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Designated by Zuloaga, Grass Syst. Evol. 296. 1987.

680. Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs, Austrobaileya 6(3): 572. 2003

Panicum maximum Jacq., Ic. Pl. Rar. 1: 2. t. 13. 1781. Type: West Indies: Lesser Antilles: Leeward Islands, Guadeloupe; Herb. Jacquin s.n. (W).

Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D. Webster, Austral. Paniceae (Poaceae) 241. 1987

Panicum giganteum Mez, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 34: 143. 1904, non Scheele, 1849

Panicum heynii Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes]. 2: 458. 1817. Type: India; Heyne s.n.

Panicum hirsutissimum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 72. 1853. Type: “In sylvis Krakakammae et ad flumen Zwartkopsrivier, alt. I (Uitenhage), (Ecklon), inter frutices ad flumen Zontagsrivier et Zoutpansnek alt. 1500–2000 et ad rivum ad Enon alt. 400, (Drege).”

Panicum maximum Jacq. var. hirsutissimum (Steud.) Oliv., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29(3): 171. 1875

Panicum jumentorum Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 83. 1805

Panicum laeve Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 172. 1791. Type: Dominican Republic: Hispaniola Island; 1780; E Domingo, ins. Franc. (P-LAM).

Panicum maximum Jacq. ssp. pubescens M. Sharma, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 7(1): 106. f. 1. 1985. Type: India: Punjab, Patiala District, Rakhra; alt. 700 ft.; September 1, 1971; M. Sharma 2288 (PUN).

Panicum pamplemoussense Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 71. 1853. Type: “Urville legit ad Pamplemousse Ins. Maurit.”

Panicum polygamum Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 24. 1788, non Forssk., 1775. Type: India Orientali; Brown 366

Panicum sparsum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 64. 1827

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Perennial herb.

Remarks. Record for Punjab fide Naithani (1990).

Melinis P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 54. 1812

Type. Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv.

681. Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 54. t. 11. f. 4. 1812

Panicum minutiflorum (P. Beauv.) Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 299. 1825

Muhlenbergia brasiliensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 177. 1854. Type: Brazil: Bahia; 1830; M. Salzmann 652 (US-87244).

Panicum melinis Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(2–3): 291. 1834

Suardia picta Schrank, Pl. Rar. Hort. Monac. t. 58. 1820. Type: “Colitur in Tepidario.”

Tristegis glutinosa Nees, Horae Phys. Berol. 47: 54. 1820. Type: Brasilia?

Type. Brazil: “Cette plante croit a Rio-Janerio. Elle m’a été communiquée par M. De Jussieu.”(G).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [China, Pakistan]. Naturalized.

Habit. Perennial.

682. Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka, Biblioth. Bot. 138: 55. 1988

Saccharum repens Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 1(1): 322. 1797. Type: “Habitat in Guinea.” Africa: Ghana; Isert s.n. [Thonning and other Danish Botanists] (B-W-1499).

Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1934: 110. 1934

Tricholaena repens (Willd.) Hitchc., Man. Grasses W. Ind. 331. 1936

Monachyron villosum Parl., Niger Fl. 191. 1849. Type: Cape Verde Islands: S. Jacobi; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K). “Hab. in insula S. Jacobi (J.D. Hooker).

Rhynchelytrum villosum (Parl.) Chiov., Ann. Bot. (Rome) 8(3): 310. 1908 (as “Rhynchelitrum”)

Melinis villosa (Parl.) Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 51: 464. 1901

Rhynchelytrum roseum (Nees) Stapf & C.E. Hubb. ex Bews, World’s Grass. 223. 1929 in obs. [reference to basionym is not given]

Tricholaena rosea Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 17. 1841. Type: Cited many synonyms.

Tricholaena wightii Nees & Arn. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 93. 1854, nom. nud., pro. syn.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual or perennial.

Moorochloa Veldkamp (2004), Reinwardtia 12(2): 138–139

Type. Moorochloa eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp (Panicum eruciforme Sm.).

683. Moorochloa eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp, Reinwardtia 12(2): 139. 2004 var. eruciformis

Panicum eruciforme Sm., Fl. Graec. (Sibthorp) 1: 44, t. 59. 1806. Type: Greece: Samos “in arvis circa Junonis templum”; Sibthorp s.n. (OXF).

Urochloa eruciformis (Sm.) C. Nelson & Fern. Casas, Fontqueria 51: 4. 1998

Brachiaria eruciformis (Sm.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 4: 469. 1853

Echinochloa eruciformis (Sm.) C. Koch, Linnaea 21: 437. 1848

Panicum caucasicum Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 3(22): t. 262. 1830. Type: “Figura ad specimen a Caucaso orientali.”

Panicum isachne Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 458. 1817. Type: India; Heyne in Herb. Roth s.n. = Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8693 (K).

Panicum isachne Roth var. mexicanum Beal, Grasses N. Amer. 2: 114. 1896 (as “mexicana”). Type: “Specimen seen was cultivated from seed obtained in Mexico, by U.S. Dept. Agricul 1887.”

Brachiaria isachne (Roth) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 552. 1919

Panicum pubinode Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 363. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in convalle fluvii Tacazze, Schimper, pl. Schimp. Abyss., sect. III, 1855.” Abyissinia: Tacazze River; December, 1841; Schimper 1855

Panicum wightii Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 29. 1841. Type: “In graminosis vallis ad Gekau alt. 500–1000.” South Africa; Drége s.n. LT designated by Chase in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 36. 1920.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [also in Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Africa, Australia, Europe, South America].

Habit. Annual.

684. Moorochloa eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp var. divaricata (Basappa & Muniy.) E. A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212058-1

Brachiaria eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp var. divaricata Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B, 49(4): 379. 1983. Type: India: Karnataka, Mysore, 3 km west of Mysore, along the edge of tank-bund; 12 Aug 1979

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka (Naithani), Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [also in Africa, Europe].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. The above combination is made here to transfer Brachiaria eruciformis (Sm.) Veldkamp var. divaricata Basappa & Muniy. to Moorochloa.

Oplismenus P. Beauv., Fl. Oware 2: 14. 1810 (“1807”), nom. cons.

Type. Oplismenus africanus P. Beauv.

685. Oplismenus burmanni (Retz.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 168, 169. 1812

Panicum burmanni Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 10. 1783 (as “Burmanni”). Type: India: Madras; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Oplismenus affinis J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 323. 1830, non Schult.,1824. Type: “Habitat in Panama.”

Panicum bromoides Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 170. 1791 (“bromoide”). Type: Lieu nat. les I’lle de France.” Commerson s.n. (P).

Oplismenus bromoides (Lam.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 168, 169. 1812

Oplismenus cristatus J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 323. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Mexico.” Mexico; Haenke s.n. (PR)

Oplismenus multisetus Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 377. 1850–1851. Type: Crescit in convalle fluvii Tacazzé prope Tchélatchéranne, sub arborum umbra, mense Septembre, Schimper, Pl. Schimp.Abyss., sect. III, 1469.” Ethiopia; Schimper 1469

Oplismenus preslei Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 141. 1833. Type: Panama

Panicum album Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 274. 1816. Type: “Cette plante croit a l’ile de Java (Herb. Desfontaine).”

Orthopogon albus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 44. 1853, pro syn. of Panicum album.

Panicum japonicum Steud., Flora 29: 18. 1846. Type: “Die japanischen Graser der Goringschen Sammlung”

Panicum multisetum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 377. 1850–1851 [cited as synonym of O. multisetus]

Panicum hirtellum sensu Burm. f., Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) 24. t. 12. f. 1. 1768, non L., 1763

Oplismenus humboldtianus Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 264. 1829, nom. superfl. & illeg. for O. burmanni

Oplismenus indicus Duthie, Grass.n. W. India 8. 1883, non Roem. & Schult., 1817

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Not recorded.

686. Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 168,169. 1812

Panicum compositum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 57. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Zeylona.” Lectotype: Herb. Hermann 3: 45, No. 42 (BM-000621970). LT designated by Davey & Clayton in Kew Bull. 33: 156. 1978.

Orthopogon compositus (L.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 194. 1810

Andropogon undatus Jacq., Collectanea [Jacquin] 3: 237. 1789. Type: “Crescit in insula Mauritii.”

Panicum undatum (Jacq.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 2: 264. 1841

Panicum lanceolatum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 17. 1788 (“1789”). Type: “Misit opt. Koenig.”

Echinochloa lanceolata (Retz.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 476. 1817

Oplismenus decompositus Nees, Prodr. Fl. Norfolk. 19. 1833. Type: India; Wight 62 (NY).

Oplismenus elatior (L. f.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 168, 169. 1812

Oplismenus jacquinii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 44. 1829

Orthopogon pratensis Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 306. 1824 (“1825”). Lectotype: Mauritius; St. Vincent 43(B-W). LT designated by H. Scholz in Phan. Monogr. 13: 100. 1981.

Oplismenus pratensis (Spreng.) Schult. & Schult. f., Mant. 3 (Schultes & Schultes f.) Add. I 597. 1827

Orthopogon junghuhnii Nees in Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 444. 1857 (“1855”). Type: Java; Junghuhn s.n.

Orthopogon longeracemosus (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 443. 1857(“1855”)

Orthopogon remotus Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 181. 1820

Orthopogon sylvaticus (Lam.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 443. 1857(“1857”)

Panicum sylvaticum Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 4(2): 733. 1798. Type: “Cette plante croit naturellement a I’llsle-de-france dans les bois, ou elle a été recueillie par Commerson.” Mauritius; P. Commerson s.n. (L).

Oplismenus sylvaticus (Lam.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 481. 1817

Panicum aristatum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 17. 1786–1787. Type: “E China adduxit plur. Rever. D. Wennerberg.” China; Wennerberg s.n. (LD).

Panicum bidentulum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 45. 1853. Lectotype: Rebo Running; Nees s.n. (B). LT designated by Scholz in Phan. Monogr. 13: 86. 1981. (vide TROPICOS)

Panicum certificandum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 44. 1853. Type: India: Bengal; Rottler 869 (M).

Panicum longeracemosum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 45. 1853. Type: Indonesia: Java; Zollinger 915 & 919

Panicum peninsulanum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 44. 1853. Type: India; Rottler s.n.

Oplismenus lanceolatus (Retz.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 45. 1829, nom. superfl. & illeg for Andropogon undatus

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Sri Lanka]. Pantropical.

Habit. Not recorded.

687. Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 171 1812

Panicum undulatifolium Ard., Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. 14, t. 4. 1764. Type: “invento in Jamaica a Clariss. Brown”; Arduino s.n. (M).

Orthopogon undulatifolius (Ard.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 306. 1824 (“1825”)

Panicum barbifultum Hochst. ex Schltdl., Linnaea 31(3): 307. 1861. Type: India: Orissa, “in silvis pr. Kaity mont. Nilagir”, E. Hohenacker 1279 (US-1445121).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Not recorded.

Ottochloa Dandy, J. Bot. 69: 54. 1931

Hemigymnia Stapf in D. Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9: 741. 1920, non Griff. (1842)

Type. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy (Panicum nodosum Kunth).

688. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy, J. Bot. 69: 55. 1931

Panicum nodosum Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 97. 1833

Panicum arnottianum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 59. 1853. Type: India orientalis; Wight s.n. Java, Sri Lanka

Hemigymnia arnottiana (Nees) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 742. 1920

Ottochloa arnottiana (Nees Dandy, J. Bot. 69: 55. 1931

Panicum multinode J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 303. 1830, non Lam., 1798. Type: “Habitat ad Sorzogon Luzoniae.” Philippine Islands: Luzon, Sorsogon Province; Haenke s.n. (US-80779)

Hemigymnia multinodis Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 742. 1920, in obs., nom. superfl. & illeg.

Distribution. Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Panicum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753

Lectotype. Panicum miliaceum L. LT designated by Nash in N. L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 1: 134. 1913; affirmed by Hitchcock, Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 229. 1920.

689. Panicum antidotale Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 17. 1786–1787

Type. “Colitur in hortis Malabarorum. Honor. Koening.” India; Koenig s.n. (LD)

Distribution. Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Afghanistan, China, Myanmar, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

690. Panicum atrosanguineum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 375. 1850–1851

Panicum hydaspicum Edgew., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 6: 207. 1862. Type: “Rechnab Bar.” [Flor. Mallica]

Type. “Crescit in locis humidis convallis fluvii Tacazze, prope Tchelatcheranne, mense Augusto, Schimper, in pl. Schimp. Abyss., sect. III 1709.” Ethiopia: Djeladjeranne; August 13, 1840; Schimper 1709 (P).

Distribution. Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

691. Panicum bisulcatum Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 7: 141. 1815

Panicum acroanthum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 87. 1854. Lectotype: Anonymous 2 (L). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 188. 1996. “Hrbr. Mus. Lugd. Batav. (sub Milium globosum Thunb. quod non est.). Japonia.”

Panicum melananthum F. Muell., Trans. & Proc. Victorian Inst. Advancem. Sci. 1: 47. 1855. Type: Australia: Victoria, Ovens River, “On wet, sandy, or gravelly banks of the Ovens and King River”; February, 1853; F. von Mueller s.n.(L).

Panicum coloratum sensu F. Muell., Fragm. (Mueller) 8: 192. 1872–1874, non L., 1767

Syntypes. Japan; 1808; Thunberg s.n., 1817, 1818 (UPS).

Distribution. Northeast India [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

692. Panicum brevifolium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 59. 1753

Isachne tricarinata Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 476. 1817. Type: India; Heyne s.n.

Panicum tricarinatum (Roth) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 94. 1854

Panicum arborescens L., Sp. Pl. 1: 59. 1753, p.p. Type: “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Hermann 1: 30, No. 43 (BM-000621336). LT designated by Renvoize in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 253. 2000.

Panicum biflorum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 174. 1791 (as “biflore”). Type: “Lieu nat. l’lsle de France. Tige ram. Panicule mediocre. Le cal. m’a paru univalve.”

Panicum dubium Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 4: 743. 1798, nom. superfl & illeg. for P. bilforum

Panicum gladiatum Wawra, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 12: 170. 1862. Type: “Brasilia; culta in c.r. hort. Schonbr.”

Panicum ovalifolium Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 279. 1816. Type: “Cette plante croit en Guinee.” Hb. Desvaux in Hb. Lamarck (P).

Panicum trichopiptum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 85. 1854. Type: Bahia, Senegamb. Guadaloupe.

Panicum guineense Desv. ex Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 279. 1816, nom. nud., pro. syn.

Type. “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.64 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 496. 1982.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura [China].

Habit. Annual.

693. Panicum coloratum L., Mant. Pl. 30. 1767

Panicum coloratum L. var. glaucum Jauhar, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 65:520. 1968

Type. “Habitat in Cairi. Forskohl.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.46 (LINN). LT designated by Zuloaga in Görts-van Rijn (ed.), Fl. Guianas, ser. A, 8: 384. 1990.

Distribution. Delhi, Rajasthan [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990). Native range not recorded.

694. Panicum curviflorum Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. 116. 1819 var. curviflorum

Panicum trypheron Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 244. 1824. Type: India; Roxburgh s.n.

Panicum roxburghii Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 320. 1824 (“1825”). Type: India orientalis

Panicum tenellum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 309. 1820, non Lam., 1791

Panicum miliaceum sensu Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 360. 1864, non L., 1753

Neotype. India: Herb. Roxburgh, cultivated in Copenhagen in 1818, from seed obtained from Wallich as Panicum tenellum Roxb. which in turn were collected from plants cultivated in the Calcutta Bot. Gardens (BM). NT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 34(1): 79. 1989.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

695. Panicum curviflorum Horenem var. suishaense (Hayata) Veldkamp, Blumea 34(1): 81–82. 1989

Panicum suishaense Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6, Suppl. 98. 1917. Type: Japan: Suisha; August, 1912; Hayata s.n. (TI).

Panicum elegantissimum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 52. 1896. Type: Malay Peninsula: Perak; Ridley 3116 (K).

Panicum papuanum Mez, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 56 (Beibl. 125): 6. 1921. Type: New Guinea: Waigiou; Lesson, A° 1825 in Hb. Kunth (B).

Distribution. Bihar [China, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

696. Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 48. 1803

Type. USA. “Hab. in occidentalibus montium Alleghanis”, Michaux s.n.

Distribution. India [China]. Naturalized; possibly native to North America.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

697. Panicum deccanense Naik & Patunkar, Reinwardtia 9(4): 405, f. 2. 1980

Type. India: Nanded, Degloor; September 24, 1974; Patunkar 2450a (Marathwada University Herbarium).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Not recorded.

698. Panicum fischeri Bor, Kew Bull. 1956: 257–258. 1956 

Type. India: Madras State, Nilgiris, Kullar, alt. 2500 ft.; October, 1889; J.S. Gamble 21338 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Kerala and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

699. Panicum flexuosum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 9. 1783

Panicum psilopodium Trin. var. coloratum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 46. 1896. Type: India: Simla and Garhwal, up to 6000 ft., Mt. Abu; Duthie s.n.

Type. “In Agris Oryzaceis passim obvenientem habui ab amiosiss”; Koenig s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Not recorded.

700. Panicum garadei Sundararagh. & Karthik., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 24(1–4): 146. 1983(“1982”)

Type. India: Karnataka, Dharwar; September 17, 1907; L.D. Garade s.n. (CAL).

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Not recorded.

701. Panicum gardneri Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 359. 1864

Isachne gardneri (Thwaites) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 26. 1896

Type. Sri Lanka: Central Province, alt. upto 4000 ft.; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 894 (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

702. Panicum hippothrix K. Schum., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 103. 1895

Isachne obscurans Woodrow, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 23: 161. 1898

Panicum obscurans (Woodrow) Stapf ex Woodrow, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 434. 1901

Type. Ghasal, Quellengebiet, Muva; Holst no. 3177?? (K).

Distribution. Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

703. Panicum humidorum Buch.-Ham. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 53–54. 1896

Panicum perakense (Hook. f.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C.11: 52. 1916.

Panicum humidorum Buch.-Ham. ex Hook. f. var. perakense Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 54. 1896. Type: Malaysia: Perak; King’s Collector 2546 (K).

Lectotype. India: Assam, Goalpara; Buchanan-Hamilton in Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8721 (K). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 193. 1996.

Distribution. Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Odisha. [China].

Habit. Perennial.

704. Panicum humile Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 84. 1854

Panicum watense Mez, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 34(1): 146–147. 1904. Type: “Senegambien, auf uberschwemmten Flachen bei Wato”; Leprieur s.n. (B).

Panicum austroasiaticum Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11(1): 45. 1942 (as “austro-asiaticum”), nom. illeg. superfl.

Panicum vescum R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 452. 1945, nom. illeg. & superfl.

Type. Sri Lanka; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3243 (P). B, K, US.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orisssa, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Not recorded.

705. Panicum incisum Munro ex C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 84. t. 33. 1889

Type. “Nambre Forest, ..”[India: Assam], “in Griffith Kew, n. 6505.” Naga Hills; C.B. Clarke no. 40799 (K).

Distribution. Assam, Nagaland.

Habit. Perennial.

706. Panicum johnii S.M. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83: 184. f. 3. 1986

Type. India: Maharashtra, Savantwadi, Sateli; September 5, 1980; S.M. Almeida 2597 (BLAT).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Not recorded.

707. Panicum khasianum Munro ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 54. 1896

Lectotype. India: Khasia Hills, in marshes, 4000–6000 ft.; Griffith 6498 (K). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 194. 1996.

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim [Bhutan, China].

Habit. Perennial.

708. Panicum laevifolium Hack., Bull. Herb. Boissier 3(8): 378. 1895

Syntypes. South Africa: Transvaal, Pretoria, Kuduspoort; Rehmann 4697 (W). South Africa: Transvaal, Boshveld inter Elandsriver et Klippan; Rehmann 5123 (W). South Africa: Transvaal, Hogge Veld inter Porter et Trigardsfont; Rehmann 6614 (W). South Africa: Transvaal, Donkershoek; Rehmann 6552 (W).

Distribution. India [also in Africa]. Native to South Africa.

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

709. Panicum luzonense J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 308. 1830

Panicum cambogiense Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4: 142. 1890. Lectotype: Cambodia; Godefroy 62. LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 195. 1996.

Panicum cruciabile Chase, J. Arnold Arbor. 20(3): 309. 1939

Panicum reticulatum Thwaites ex Trimen, J. Bot. 23: 271. 1885, non Torr., 1852. Type: “Habitat Broders of paddy-fields, Hewessee, Pasdun Korle; August, 1865; Thwaites s.n. (Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3890 in Herb. Perad.)

Panicum caesium sensu Hook. f., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 97. 1850, non Nees, 1836

Type. Philippine Islands: Luzon; Haenke s.n. (PR). ISOTYPE, US.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam [Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

710. Panicum miliaceum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 58. 1753

Milium panicum Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8, Milium no. 1. 1768.

Panicum asperrimum Fisch., Cat. Jard. Pl. Gorenki 3. 1812. Type: “Cultivated in the garden of the University at Vienna from seed received from Count Razoumovsky of Gorenki [near Moscow]”

Panicum densepilosum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 72. 1853. Type: Japan

Milium esculentum Moench, Methodus (Moench) 203. 1794, nom. superfl.

Panicum milium Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 83. 1805, nom. illeg. & superf. for Panicum miliaceum

Type. “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.49 (LINN). LT designated by Sherif & Siddiqi in El-Gadi (ed.), Fl. Libya 145: 282. 1988.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Widely cultivated in many parts of the world.

711. Panicum nehruense Jauhar & Joshi, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8(1): 97, f. A. 1966

Type. Plant obtained originally from Australia and grown in Jodhpur; P.P. Jauhar 9 (HCIO).

Distribution. Gujarat, Rajasthan [Australia].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Rajasthan fide Naithani (1990).

712. Panicum notatum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 18. 1786–1787

Panicum montanum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 315. 1820. Type: India: Circar Mountains; Roxburgh 813 (BM).

Type. “In Sumatra lectum dedit nuper nominatus D. Wennerberg.” Indonesia: Sumatra; Wennerberg (LD).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, MadhyaPradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

713. Panicum paianum Naik & Patunkar, Reinwardtia 9(4): 407. 1980 var. paianum

Type. India: Madhya Pradesh, Nanded, Rajgarh; October 26, 1974; Patunkar 2430a (Marathwada University Herbarium).

Distribution. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

714. Panicum paianum Naik & Patunkar var. minor Naik & Patunkar, Reinwardtia 9(4): 409. 1980

Type. India; Patunkar 2439a (Marathwada University Herbarium).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

715. Panicum paludosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 310. 1820

Panicum decompositum var. paludosum (Roxb.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 105. 1885

Panicum proliferum var. paludosum (Roxb.) Stapf, Fl. Cap. 7: 407. 1899

Panicum repens var. paludosum (Roxb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 363. 1898

Panicum proliferum sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 50. 1896, non Lam., 1797

Type. India: Circar Mountains; Roxburgh 806 (BM). CAL, K.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh [China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

716. Panicum phoiniclados Naik & Patunkar, Reinwardtia 9(4): 403, f. 1. 1980

Type. Nanded. Gamkgaon; November 17, 1974; Patunkar 2468a (Marathwada University Herbarium).

Distribution. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

717. Panicum repens L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 87. 1762

Panicum arenarium Brot., Fl. Lusit. 1: 82. 1804. Type: “Habitat in arenosis subhumidis, occurrit in Algarbiis, ultra Tagum, et Passim ad Mundam in agris Conimbricensibs.”

Panicum convolutum P. Beauv. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 319. 1824 (“1825”). Type: Guinea; A.M. Palisot de Beauvois Hb. Willdenow 18855 (B).

Panicum ischaemoides Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 17. 1786–1787. Type: “Vulgatissimum Malabariae in udis ad margines ftagnorum gramen, proceritate reliqua Panica excedens. Cel. Koenig.” India: Malabraiae; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Panicum leiogonum Delile, Descr. Egypte, Hist. Nat. 3: 51. 1812. Type: Africa: Damietta

Type. “Habitat in Hispania? inde missum a Claud. Alstroemer.” Lectotype: Alstroemer 2a, Herb. Linn. No. 80.47 (LINN). LT designated by Hitchcock & Chase in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 15: 85. 1910.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Perennial.

718. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 311. 1820

Panicum incomtum Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 200. 1826. Type: Philippine Islands: Manila; Chamisso in Hb. Trinius 0760.02 (LE).

Type. Indonesia: Sumatra, brought into Botanic Garden in 1804 by Dr. Charles Campbell; Roxburgh 1778 (HOLOTYPE, BM). ISOTYPES CAL, K.

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

719. Panicum sparsicomum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 83. 1854

Agrostis zeylanica Klein ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 83. 1854, nom. nud., pro. syn.

Cyrtococcum sparsicomum (Nees) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 118. 1921

Type. Sri Lanka; Klein s.n., Wight s.n.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual or perennial.

720. Panicum sumatrense Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 434. 1817

Panicum psilopodium Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 217. 1826. Lectotype: Lindley sub P. ramosum Koem (LE). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 206. 1996.

Panicum sumatrense Roth ssp. psilopodium (Trin.) de Wet., J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 30(2): 162. 1983

Panicum miliare Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 173. 1791 (as “miliaire”). Type: “Lieu nat. Inde” India; Sonnerat s.n. (P-LAM).

Type. Indonesia: Sumatra; Heyne in Hb. Roth s.n. (B). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(1): 205. 1996.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

721. Panicum turgidum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 18–19. 1775

Type. “In desertis Kahirinis Arab. Bockar.” Egypt: Cairo, Kahirini desert; 1761–1762; Forsskal s.n. (C).

Distribution. Gujarat, Rajasthan [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

722. Panicum virgatum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 59. 1753

Milium virgatum (L.) Lunell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 212. 1915

Eatonia purpurascens Rafin., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 104. 1819. Type: USA: New York, Long Island; Coll. Ukn. s.n.

Panicum coloratum Walter, Fl. Carol. 73. 1788, non L., 1767

Panicum giganteum Scheele, Linnaea 22: 340–341. 1849. Type: “In trockenen felsigen Flusebett des Cibolo zwischen San Antonio und Neubraunfels”; Lindheimer s.n.

Panicum glaberrimum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 94. 1854. Type: “Cultum ex H. Berol. sem. 1840. sub. Ichnantus glaber. Link. Am. sptr.”

Panicum kunthii E. Fourn. ex Hemsl., Biol. Centr.- Amer., Bot. 3: 490. 1885, non Steud., 1841

Chasea virgata (L.) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 2: 64. 1911 [Generic name invalidly published.]

Panicum pruinosum Bernh. ex Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 191. 1826 (as “pruinosi”), nom. nud.

Type. “Habitat in Virginia.” Lectotype: Clayton 578, Herb. Linn. No. 80.61 (LINN). LT designated by Hitchcock in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 12: 118. 1908.

Distribution. India [North America, South America]. Native to North America.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. It is unclear if this species is naturalized in India or only cultivated.

Pseudechinolaena Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 494. 1919

Type. Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf (Echinolaena polystachya Kunth).

723. Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 495. 1919

Echinolaena polystachya Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 1: 119 (ed. qto.). 1816. Type: Colombia; Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (P). “Crescit in ripa fluminis Magdalenae inter Tenerife et Zambrano.”

Echinolaena trinii Zoll. & Moritz, Syst. Verz. (Zollinger) 102. 1846. Type: “Panicum uncinatum Trin, V.3. non Brown”

Lappago aliena Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 3: 15. 1822. Type: “Hab. in Brasilia”; Zeyher s.n.

Panicum uncinatum Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. [Raddi] 41–42. 1823. Lectoype: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro “Invenitur cum precedenti, in sylvaticis prope Catumby, non procul ab Urbe Rio de Janeiro”; Raddi s.n. (PI). LT designated by Baldini & Longhi-Wagner Taxon 55(2): 477. 2006

Panicum heteranthum Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 212. 1827. Type: “Habitat in Brasilia.”

Panicum nemorosum sensu Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 173. 1826, non Sw., 1788

Panicum glandulosum Nees ex Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 174. 1826, nom. nud.

Panicum polystachyum (Kunth) K. Schum., Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 103. 1895, non A. Rich ex Kunth, 1833, nec J. Presl & C. Presl, 1828.

Distribution. Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Pseudoraphis Griff. ex Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10(93): 210. 1928

Lectotype. Pseudoraphis brunoniana (Wall. & Griff.) Griff. ex Pilg. (Panicum brunonianum Wall. & Griff.) LT Designated by Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 10: 272. 1941.

724. Pseudoraphis brunoniana (Wall. & Griff.) Griff. ex Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10(93): 210. 1928

Panicum brunonianum Wall. & Griff., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5: 574. 1836. Type: Bangladesh (“Bengal”): Sylhet District, near Goalnuyar; September 28, 1835 (locality uncertain); W. Griffith 6559 (L). “Hab. In aquis leniter currentibus profundis plagarum Bheels dictarum prope Goalna.” (vide Tropicos).

Chamaeraphis spinescens (R. Br.) Poir. var. brunoniana (Wall. & Griff.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 62. 1896

Panicum intermedium Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 29. 1851, nom. invalid.

Holcus natans Roxb. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 62. 1896, nom. nud.

Distribution. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Odisha, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

725. Pseudoraphis minuta (Mez) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10(93): 210. 1928

Chamaeraphis minuta Mez, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 7(63): 48. 1917. Syntypes: Vietnam: Bengalia inferior prope Daccar; C.B. Clarke 17040 (B). Vietnam: Tonkin, prope Hanoi ad paludum margines; B. Balansa 1593, 1592, 4779 (P). Burma; Kurz s.n. Cachar; Keenan s.n.

Chamaeraphis gracilis sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 62. 1896, non Hack., 1885

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal [Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

726. Pseudoraphis sordida (Thwaites) S.M. Phillips & S.L. Chen. Novon 13: 469. 2003

Panicum sordidum Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 443. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Columbo, G. Thwaites C. P. 3857 (K)

Pseudoraphis spinescens (R. Br.) Vickery var. depauperata (Nees ex Hook.f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 354. 1960.

Distribution. West Bengal.

Habit. Perennial.

727. Pseudoraphis squarrosa (L.f.) Chase, J. Arnold Arbor. 20(3): 313. 1939

Andropogon squarrosus L. f., Suppl. Pl. 433. 1782 (“1781”) (as “squarrosum”). Type: “Habitat circa Zeylonam natans supra stagna profundiora rarior.” Koenig s.n.

Anatherum squarrosum (L.f.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 151. 1812

Echinochloa squarrosa (L.f.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 479. 1817.

Orthopogon squarrosus (L.f.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 307. 1824 (“1825”)

Chamaeraphis squarrosa (L.f.) Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24: 203. 1925

Panicum spinescens R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 193. 1810. Type: Australia: New South Wales, near Port Jackson; R. Brown s.n. (BM).

Chamaeraphis spinescens (R. Br.) Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 2: 189. 1811

Pseudoraphis spinescens (R. Br.) Vickery, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 62: 69. 1952 (“1950”)

Panicum abortivum R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 193. 1810. Type: “Littora Novae Hollandiae intra tropicum.”

Chamaeraphis abortiva (R. Br.) Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 2: 189. 1811

Orthopogon abortivus (R. Br.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel]1: 306. 1824 (“1825”)

Pseudoraphis abortiva (R. Br.) Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10(93): 210. 1928

Pseudoraphis aspera Pilg., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10(93): 210. 1928

Chamaeraphis aspera Nees, Numer. List. (Wallich). no. 8679. 1849

Panicum squarrosum (L.f.) Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 4: 733. 1798, non Retz., 1786

Panicum asperum J. Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23: 209. 1788, non Lam., 1778. Type: India: Calcutta; January, 1785; J. Koenig s.n.

Chamaeraphis spinosa P. Beauv. ex Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 253. 1824, nom. nud. pro. syn.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. It is unclear whether the name for this species should be Pseudoraphis squarrosa, based on Andropogon squarrosus as noted here, or P. spinescens. Bor (1960) suggests that A. squarrosus may be a nom. confusum. If so, then the basionym Panicum spinescens R. Br. would take priority.

Sacciolepis Nash, Man. Fl. N. States (Britton) 89. 1901

Type. Sacciolepis gibba (Elliott) Nash (Panicum gibbum Elliott).

728. Sacciolepis curvata (L.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21: 8. 1908

Panicum curvatum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 2: 732. 1767. Type: “Habitat in Suratte.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.60 (LINN). LT designated by Simon in Kew Bull. 27: 390. 1972.

Panicum coryophorum Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 387. t. 107. 1831. Type: “Crescit in Madagascaria”; A. Petit-Thours s.n. (P).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

729. Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21: 8. 1908 var. indica

Aira indica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 63 (“spicata”), Errata (“indicum”). 1753. Type: “Habitat ad villas et plateas Indiae orientalis. Koenig.” Neotype: Sri Lanka. Sabaragamuwa Province, Ratnagsura District; October 22, 1974; Davidse 7871 (K). NT designated by Renvoize in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 244. 2000.

Hymenachne indica (L.) Buese, Pl. Jungh. 377. 1854

Panicum angustum Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 3: t. 334. 1835. Type: “Figura ad specimen Nepalense”

Panicum indicum Mill. var. angustum (Trin.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 42. 1896

Panicum arcuatum R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 189. 1810. Type: “littoral tropical New Holland”; Banks s.n.

Panicum conglomeratum L., Mant. Pl. Altera 324. 1771. Type: “Habitat [in India.] Sp. Pl. 1: 63 (1753)” Neotype: Sri Lanka: Sabaragamuwa Province, Ratnagsura District; October 22, 1974; Davidse 7871 (K). Neotype designated by Renvoize in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 244. 2000.

Panicum contractum Wight. & Arn. ex Nees, Linnaea 10 (Litt.-Ber.): 117. 1836. Type: “Hab. in Penins. Ind. ord. Seminiferum exemplum e China retulit co. Meyen.”

Panicum indicum Mill. var. brachiatum Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 148. 1900. Type: Abundant throughout the hotter parts of the Island; Peradeniya; Thwaites s.n.

Panicum microstachyum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 170. 1791, nom superfl. & illeg.? Type: “Ex India. Sonner An P. curvatum L.”

Panicum phalarioides Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes]. 2: 452. 1817 [as “phalaroides” in IPNI and Tropicos]. Type: “Specimen nostrum nominee Phalarides insignitum Lahaye attulit e Java.”

Sacciolepis spicata Honda, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 3(1): 261. 1930, invalid

Panicum myuros Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 172. 1791 (as “myruos”). Type: “Ex America merid. Comm. A D. Richard.” French Guiana; D. LeBlond s.n. (P-LA).

Panicum indicum (L.) L., Mant. Pl. Altera 184. 1771, nom. later hom. & illeg., non Mill., 1768

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

730. Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase var. intermedia Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83(1): 184–185. 1986

Type. India: Maharashtra, Savantwadi, Charatha; December 31, 1977; S.M. Almeida 1393.

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

731. Sacciolepis interrupta (Willd.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9(4): 757. 1920

Hymenachne interrupta (Willd.) Buese, Pl. Jungh. 377. 1854

Panicum interruptum Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 1(1): 341. 1797. Type: “Habitat in Indiae stagnis.”

Panicum inundatum Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 34. 1829, nom. illeg. superfl.

Panicum uliginosum Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 50. 1821. Type: “Heyne ex India Orientali.”

Panicum indicum sensu Hack. in Bol. Soc. Brot. 5: 210. 1887, non L., 1771

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

732. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R. Br.) Chase ex E.G. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 460. 1922

Hymenachne myosuroides (R. Br.) Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4: 143. 1890

Panicum myosuroides R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 189. 1810. Type: “Littora novae Hollandiae intra tropicum.”

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

Setaria P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51, 178. 1812, nom. cons.

Type. Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. (Panicum viride L.), type cons.

733. Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 47. 1829

Panicum barbatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 171. 1791. Type: “Ex Insula Franciae.” Mauritius; P. Commerson s.n. (P).

Chaetochloa barbata (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 348. 1917

Panicum costatum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 314. 1820. Type: “Introduced into the Botanical Garden from the Mauritius, by Captain Tennant, in 1802.”

Chamaeraphis costata (Roxb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 771. 1891

Chamaeraphis viatica Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 770. 1891

Panicum basisetum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 52. 1853. Type: “Jardin legit in Guinea.”

Setaria basiseta (Steud.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afric. [T.A. Durand & H. Schinz]. 5: 772. 1894

Panicum rarisetum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 52. 1853. Type: “Ins. Borbonia et var. minor Ins. Maurit. Siber hrbr. Mixt. Nr. 144.”

Panicum rhachitrichum Hochst., Flora 27: 254. 1844. Type: “Habitat agros in Nubiae provincia Cordofan.” Sudan; Kotschyi, in pll. exsicc. Un. it. ex Kotschyi itin. Nubico s.n.

Setaria rachitricha (Hochst.) Rendle, Cat. Afr. Pl. 2(1): 188. 1899. Type: Sudan. Nubia, Prov. Cordofan, C.G.T. Kotschy s.n. (isotypes, BR!, M!, P!, TUB)

Setaria costata Stapf, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 10: 250. 1919, nom. nud.

Panicum flavescens sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 56. 1896, non Sw., 1788

Panicum viaticum Salzm. ex Doell, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 155. 1877, non Griff. (1851), nom. superfl. & illeg.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

734. Setaria flavida (Retz.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39(1–2): 376. 1994

Panicum flavidum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 15. 1786–1787. Type: “E Zeylona misit honor Koenig.” Sri Lanka; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 419. 1922

Panicum granulare Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 170. 1791. Type: “Ex ins. Francis”; Commerson s.n.

Panicum distans Trinius, Sp. Gram. 2(15): tab. 172. 1829

Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus var. distans (Trin.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 7: 29. 1896

Paspalidium distans (Trin.) Hughes, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1923: 317. 1923

Setaria distans (Trin.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39: 376. 1994

Panicum floridum Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 1: 420. 1840, nom. nud,

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

735. Setaria forbesiana (Nees) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 81. 1896

Panicum forbesianum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 98. 1854. Type: Nepal: up to 5000 ft.; Royle 31

Setaria dubia B.J. Keng & Y.K. Ma, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 2 (4): 421. 1980

Distribution. Bihar, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha. [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

736. Setaria geminata (Forssk.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39(1–2): 377. 1994

Panicum geminatum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 18. 1775. Type: “Rofettae in pratis ad littoral Nili.” Egypt: Rashid; November 2–6, 1761; Forrskal s.n. (C).

Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 583. 1920      

Digitaria affinis Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 470. 1817. Type: “In Santa Fe de Bogota Ab amiciss. Zea nobiscum communicate.”

Panicum affine (Roem. & Schult.) Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 113. 1829

Paspalum appressum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 176. 1791. Syntypes: Isle de France (Mauritius), Commerson s.n. (syntype, P-LA, isosyntype, US-2941981, fragment ex P-LA).

Digitaria appressa (Lam.) Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 85. 1805

Panicum appressum (Lam.) Döll, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(2): 184. 1877, non Forssk., 1775

Panicum beckmanniiforme J. C. Mikan ex Trin., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 83. 1821 (as “beckmanniaeforme”). Type: “Hab. in Brasilia.” (LE).

Panicum briziforme J. Presl in C.B. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 302. 1830 (as “brizaeforme”). Type: “Habitat in Luzonia.” Lectotype: Philippines: Luzon; Haenke s.n. (MO, US-80492 (fragm.)). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 39: 377. 1994.

Panicum fluitans Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 8. 1783. Type: “Misit Claris Koenig.” India; Koenig s.n. in Herb. Retzius (LD). holotype, LD neg. 7008 K; isotypes, BM, K, fragment).

Panicum paspaloides Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 81. 1805. Type: “Hab. in India.”

Panicum truncatum Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 130. 1826. Syntypes: India orientalis; Lindley s.n. Egypt; Sieber 28. Brazil; Nees ab Esenbeck s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

737. Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 26: 78. 1919 var. homonyma

Panicum homonymum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 48. 1853. Type: “herb. Royle nr. 47” Nepal; Royle 47(P). holotype, P; isotype, K!, photo SI!)

Panicum chamaeraphis Nees ex A. Braun., Index Sem. (Berlin) 1855 App. p. 20, non Trin., 1835

Panicum thollonii Franchet, Contr. Fl. Congo Franç.: 43. 1895

Setaria thollonii (Franchet) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1927: 267. 1927. Lectotype: Democratic Republic of the Congo. “Congo Français: dans les sables de Brazzaville”, 1887, M. Thollon 826 (P!, photo SI!; duplicates, K!, photo SI!)

Panicum bongaense Pilger, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 33 : 44. 1902

Setaria bongaensis (Pilger) Mez, Wiss. Erg. Zweit. Deut. Zentr.-Afr. Exped., Bot. 2: 20. 1922. Lectotype: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bonga, Jul 1899, A. Schlechter 12647 (BR!; isolectotypes, G!, L!, US-1445616).

Setaria aequalis Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1927: 267. 1927. Type: Tanzania. Kilimanjaro: Marangu, 1500 m, Sep 1893, G. Volkens 914 (holotype, K!, photo SI!; isotype, E)

Setaria kialaensis Vanderyst, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 16: 682. 1925. Lectotype (designated here): Democratic Republic of the Congo. Boko-Nzadi, 1916, H. Vanderyst 6105 (BR!, photo SI!; duplicate BR, photo SI!)

Setaria lancea Stapf ex Massey, Sudan Grasses: 34. 1926. Type: Sudan. Mongalla, 7 Apr 1907, Brown 1114 (K!).

Setaria microprolepis Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 849. 1930. Type: Angola. Cungulungulo, F. Welwitsch 7176 (BM, K!, fragment).

Distribution. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

738. Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov. var. depauperata Babu, Herb. Fl. Dehra Dun 642. 1977

Type. India: Uttarakhand, Dehra Dun, Robber’s cave; C.R. Babu 33485 (BSD).

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

739. Setaria intermedia Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 489. 1817

Panicum intermedium (Roem. & Schult.) Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 47–48. 1821, non Vahl, 1813

Panicum tomentosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 303. 1820. Type: “This is a delicate, rare species, found growing in tufts, or dry pasture ground over various parts of India.” Type: India. Herb. Roxburgh s.n. (holotype, BM!, isotypes, CAL!, K, Icon. Ined. 789!; K, Icon. Ined. 787!).

Setaria tomentosa (Roxb.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 47. 1829

Type. “In India orientali; B. Heyne s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

740. Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51, 170, 178. 1812

Panicum italicum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 56. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Indiis.” Lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 912.356-242 (L). LT designated by Veldkamp in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 253. 2000.

Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scribn., Bull. Div. Agrostol. U.S.D.A. 4: 39. 1897

Chamaeraphis italica (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 767. 1891

Ixophorus italicus (L.) Nash, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 423. 1895

Pennisetum italicum (L.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 195. 1810

Panicum germanicum Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Panicum no. 1. 1768. Type: German Panic C.B. P. 27

Chaetochloa germanica (Mill.) Smyth, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 25: 89. 1913

Pennisetum germanicum (Mill.) Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 277. 1816

Setaria germanica (Mill.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51. t. 13. 169, 178. 1812

Panicum italicum L. var. californicum Körn. & H. Werner, Handb. Getreidebaus 1: 273. 1885. Type: “Als Kalifornische Kolbenhirse.”

Setaria californica Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 2, 1: 26. 1873. Type: USA: from the head Valley of the Sacramento River; Dosh s.n.

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. var. germanica (Mill.) Schrad., Linnaea 12: 430. 1838

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. subvar. condensa F.T. Hubb., Amer. J. Bot. 2: 195. 1915. Type: South Asia: Assam, Hathegaon, May 1902, Chatterjee s.n. (holotype, GH!).

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. var. purpureoseta F.T. Hubb., Amer. J. Bot. 2: 194. 1915. Type: India. Almona, Kumaon, elevation above the sea 5500 feet, Strachey & Winterbottom 3 (holotype, GH!).

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. fo. brachychaeta F.T. Hubb., Amer. J. Bot. 2: 192. 1915. Type: India. Mont. Khasia,. Hooker & Thompson s.n. (holotype, GH!).

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. var. bruneoseta F.T. Hubb., Amer. J. Bot. 2 192. 1915. Type: Philippines, Mendez Nuñez, Prov. Of Cavite, Luzon, Aug. 1906, Bureau of Science 1344 (L. Mangubat) (holotype, GH!).

Panicum comosum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 53. 1853

Setaria comosa (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 468. 1857. Type: Cuming 489 (holotype, P!; isotype, K!).

Setaria itieri Delile, Ind. Sem. Hort. Monap. Sci. Nat., ser. 3,12: 366. 1849. Type: Egypt. “Setaria italica major. Ex aegypto semina secum attulit et communicavit clarissimus Itier, qui uborrimum opus scripsit “Voyage in la Chine,” 2 vol. in -8 Paris, 1848.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Annual.

741. Setaria palmifolia (J. Koenig) Stapf, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 42: 186. 1914

Panicum palmifolium J. Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23: 208. 1788. Type: Thailand; J. Koenig s.n. (US-978043 (fragm. ex FI)). (as” palmaefolium”) holotype, K!; isotypes, C?, FI, US-978043! fragment ex FI).

Chamaeraphis palmifolia (J. Koenig) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 771. 1891.

Panicum palmifolium Willd. ex Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 4: 282. 1816, non J. Koenig (1788). Type: “Le lieu natal de cette plante n’est pas connu. (V.S. in herb. Desfont.)”.

Chaetochloa palmifolia (Willd. ex Poir.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 18: 348. 1917

Panicum plicatum Willd., Enum. Pl.: 1033. 1809, non Lam. (1791).

Panicum neurodes Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 228. 1824. Type: Nepal: Buchanan s.n.

Panicum neurodes Schult. var. roxburghianum A. Braun, Index Sem. (Berol.), App.: 20. 1855. Type: ‘In Nepalia (Wallich No. 8702 in herb. Nees ab E.), prope Courtallum (No. 1014) et in Bengalia prope Sillet (No. 8702 in herb. Kunth).’

Panicum sulcatum Aubl. var. roxburghianum (A. Braun) A. Braun ex K. Schuman & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee: 178. 1900

Chamaeraphis neurodes (Schult.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 771. 1891.

Panicum plicatum Willd., Enum. Pl. (Willdenow) 1033. 1809, non Lam., 1791. Type: “Habitat in India orientali.”

Panicum nervosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 314. 1820, non Lam., 1791. Type: “From Nepal Dr. Buchanan sent the seed to the Botanical Garden, where the plants blossomed in October, just one year from the time the seed was sown.”

Panicum lene Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 54. 1853. Type: Java: Zollinger 815.

Setaria lenis (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 468. 1857

Panicum neurodes Schult. var. lene (Steud.) A. Braun, Index Sem. (Berol.), App.: 20. 1855

Chamaeraphis setosa (Sw.) Kuntze var. lenis (Steud.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 769. 1891. Type: Java. Tjikoja, Zollinger 815 (holotype, P; isotype, G).

Panicum sulcatum Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 50. 1775. Type: “Croît su bord des rivieres.” Drawing by Plumier (P).

Chaetochloa sulcata (Aubl.) Hitchc., Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 17: 260. 1913

Chamaeraphis sulcata (Aubl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 770. 1891

Setaria sulcata (Aubl.) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 30: 108. 1924, non Raddi, 1823

Chaetochloa palmifolia (Kuntze) Hitchcock & Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 348, nom. superfl. 1917.

Panicum nepalense Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16 [Sprengel] 1: 321. 1824 (“1825”), nom. superfl.

Chamaeraphis nepalensis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 771. 1891, nom. superfl.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Taxonomic editor Zuloaga notes that citations of Setaria paniculifera (Steud.) E. Fourn. ex Hemsley from India are erroneous, because that species is not present in the Old World. Material listed under this name should correspond to S. palmifolia (J. Koenig) Stapf. See also Morrone et al. (2014). Record for Nagaland fide Naithani (1990).

742. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Lejeunia, n.s. 120: 161. 1987

Cenchrus parviflorus Poir., Encycl. 6: 52. 1804

Pennisetum parviflorum (Poir.) Trin., Gram. Panic.: 65. 1826

Chaetochloa corrugata var. parviflora (Poir.) Scribn. & Merr., U.S.D.A. Div. Agrostol. Rep. Agrostol. 21: 24, t. 12. 1900

Chaetochloa parviflora (Poir.) Scribn., Field Columbian Mus. Publ. 2: 26. 1900

Pennisetum indicum subvar. parviflora (Poir.) Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 19. 1907. Type: Puerto Rico. Without locality, without collector (holotype, P-LA, photo US-3049717!).

Setaria geniculata P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51, 169, 178. 1812

Panicum geniculatum Lam., Encycl. 4: 727 [737]. 1798, non Setaria P. Beauv. 1812. Type: Leeward Islands: Guadeloupe (type not located).

Pennisetum geniculatum (Lam.) Jacq., Ecl. Gram. Rar. 2: 37. t. 26. 1820

Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. fo. ictura Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh. 3: 29 (preprint: Feb 1854); 369 (Aug 1854)

Setaria pallide-fusca (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E. Hubb. var. ictura Jansen, Reinwardtia 2: 340. 1953. Lectotype: Junghuhn s.n. (designated by Veldkamp in sched., L-908.94-1139!).

Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. ssp. subtessellata Buse in Miq., Pl. Jungh. 3: 29 (preprint: Feb 1854); 369 (Aug 1854). Lectotype: Indonesia. Without locality, Junghuhn s.n. (designated by Veldkamp, Blumea 39: 380.1994, L-903.342-138!).

Setaria fieldingii Müll. Hal, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 19: 323. 1861. Type: J.F. Fielding s.n. (isotype, SING!).

Setaria laeta de Wit, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, ser. 3, 17: 64. 1941. Type: South Africa. Cape, Amanzi, Jan 1939, J.M. Hector-de Wit s.n. in Herb H.C.D. de Wit 601 (PRE, photo SI, L, photo SI).

Setaria roemeri Jansen, Reinwardtia 2: 340, f. 18. 1953. Type: Indonesia. New Guinea, without locality, L.S.A.M. von Römer 611 (L).

Setaria montana Reeder, J. Arn. Arbor. 29: 304, t. 3. 1948. Type: Indonesia. New Guinea, 18 km NE of Lake Habbema, Bele River, 2000 m, very abundant on old garden lands, habit ascending, Nov 1938, L.J. Brass 11488 (holotype, A; isotype, US-1761769!).

Setaria pallide-fusca (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E. Hubb. var. hirtipes Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 23: 109. 1968. Type: Thailand. Lamphun: en route from Ban Khun Tan to Doi Khun Tan, ca. 700 m alt., 4 Sept. 1967, Tagawa, Iwatsuki, Koyama, Fukuoka, Nalampoon & Chintayungkun 9188 (holotype, KYO; isotype, A).

Panicum berteronianum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 50. 1854

Panicum flavum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 238. 1829. Type: “Campis graminosis provinciae Piauhiensis, tum in campis ad Joazeiro provinciae Pernambucensis et Bahiensis.” Lectotype: Brazil: Bahia; K.F.P. von Martius s.n. (M). LT designated by Pensiero in Darwiniana 37: 89. 1999.

Panicum imberbe Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 272. 1816. Type: “In America septentrionali & Brasilia.”

Setaria imberbis (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes]. 2: 891. 1817

Distribution. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [also in North America, South America]. Naturalized.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Probably native to the New World, but possibly Africa; see Kellogg et al. (2009). Widespread and weedy.

743. Setaria plicata (Lam.) T. Cooke, Fl. Bombay 2: 919. 1908

Panicum plicatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 171. no. 892. 1791. Type: “Cette espece est cultivee au Jardin du Museum on la dit originaire de I’lsle-de-france; d’autres pensent qu’elle a été envoyée de saint Domingue.” Cultivated in Paris, origin uncertain; Anonymous s.n. (P). Type: Anon. in Herb. Lamarck (‘cult. in horto Reg. parisiensis’) (holotype, P, IDC microfiche 6207, fiche 689/19; isotype, B, Herb. Willdenow 18734/3, IDC microfiche 7440; US, fragm.).

Panicum excurrens Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 1: t. 89. 1827. Type: Nepal. Without locality, Wallich s.n. (holotype, LE; isotype, G, W).

Setaria excurrens (Trin.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 2: 275. 1867.

Setaria mauritiana Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16 [Sprengel] 1: 305. 1824 (“1825”). Type: Mauritius. Without locality, Bory de Saint-Vincent s.n. (holotype, B-W-18814!).

Panicum neurodes Schult. var. blepharoneuron A. Braun, App. Gen. & Sp. Nov. Hort. Reg. Berol. 20. 1856 (“1855”). Type: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8703(B). holotype, B; isotypes, K, L!).

Setaria palmifolia Stapf var. blepharoneuron (A. Braun) Veldkamp, Floribunda 1(6): 22. 1988

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

744. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes]. 2: 891. 1817

Panicum pumilum Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 273. 1816. Type: “J’ignore le lieu natal de cette plante. (V.s. in herb. Desfont).” locality unknown but probably France or North Africa; Desfontaines s.n. (FI, P).

Panicum pallide-fuscum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 78. 1827. Type: Ghana; Thonning s.n.

Setaria glauca var. pallide-fusca (Schumacher) T. Koyama, J. Jap. Bot. 37: 237. 1962

Setaria pumila var. pallide-fusca (Schumacher) B.K. Simon, Austrobaileya 2: 22. 1984. Type: Ghana. Withouth locality, P. Thonning s.n. (C, photo BM; isotype and drawing, K!).

Setaria pallide-fusca (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930: 259. 1930

Setaria glauca sensu Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6(Suppl.): 326. 1931, non (L.) P. Beauv., 1812 

Panicum rubiginosum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 50. 1853

Setaria rubiginosa (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 467. 1857

Setaria aurea var. rubiginosa (Steud.) Peter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 40: 233. 1931. Type: Philippines. Without locality, H. Cuming 551 (holotype, P; isotypes, G, K, L, MO).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Burma, China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

745. Setaria punctata (Burm. f.) Veldkamp, Blumea 39(1–2): 381. 1994

Panicum punctatum Burm. f., Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) 26. 1768. Lectotype: India; Plukenet s.n. (BM). LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 672. 1982.

Paspalidium punctatum (Burm. f.) E.G. Camus & A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 419. 1922

Panicum mucronatum Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 425. 1817. Type: India; Benj. Heyne s.n. (B). “Roth Nov. Plant Spec. Mss” cited.

Paspalum aquaticum Masamune & Syozi, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 34: 303. 1944. Type: Taiwan, without collector s.n. (holotype, TAI).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

746. Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E. Hubb in D. Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 795. 1930

Panicum sphacelatum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 78–79. 1827. Type: Ghana; Thonning s.n. (C, K, photo SI).

Chaetochloa aurea (Schumach.) Hitchc., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 29: 128. 1916

Panicum chrysanthum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 50. 1853. Type: “Hochst hrbr. Un. It. 409.”

Panicum rudimentosum Steud. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 51. 1853. Type: “Leprieur legit in Senegalia.”

Setaria aurea Hochst. ex A.Braun, Flora 24: 276. 1841. Type: Cultivated at Karlruhe from seed collected by Schimper in Ethiopia; Schimper 409 (MO-IT).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

747. Setaria sulcata Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. [Raddi] 50. 1823

Panicum poiretianum Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 229. 1824

Setaria poiretiana (Schult.) Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 47. 1829

Chaetochloa poiretiana (Schult.) Hitchc., Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 22: 159. 1920

Panicum sulcatum Bertol., Opusc. Sci. 14: 230. 1820, non Aubl., 1775. Type: “Habitat in Brasilia.” Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Raddi 17 (FI) (FI, K, US fragment & photo ex FI).

Panicum elongatum Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 278. 1816, non Salisb., 1796, nec Pursh 1813. Type: “Cette plante croit au Bresil”; Desfontaines s.n. (FI, K, P, fragment, US-80632).

Panicum phyllomacrum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 53. 1853. Type: Gabon. Without locality, E. Jardin s.n. (holotype, P, photo SI).

Setaria phyllomacra (Steud.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 773. 1895.

Panicum prolisetum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 52. 1853. Type: São Tomé and Príncipe. Without locality and collector (type, P, fragment and photo SI).

Setaria proliseta (Steud.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 774. 1894.

Panicum megaphyllum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 53. 1853. Type: Gabon. Without locality, 1846, E. Jardin 26 (holotype, P, photo SI; isotype, G, photo SI, US-80795, fragment ex P).

Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 773. 1894.

Setaria macrophylla Andersson, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 2: 550. 1854. Type: Mozambique. “An den lichten Randern hoher Walder, in Marschboden... in der Nahe von Boror, 18’ S.B.”, A. Peter 1842-48 (holotype, B, destroyed).

Panicum plicatile Hochst., Flora 38: 198. 1855. Type: Ethiopia. Without locality, 1853, G.W. Schimper in Herb. Buchinger 1456 (BR, photo SI, G, photo SI, K, photo SI, P, photo SI, STR).

Setaria plicatilis (Hochst.) Hack. ex Engler, Abh. Konigl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2: 121. 1891.

Setaria oligochaete Schum. in Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 105. 1895. Type: Tanzania. Kilimandscharo, 1000 m, 26 Dec 1893, G. Volkens 1605 (B, photo SI, E, photo SI, G, photo SI, K).

Panicum oligochaete (Schum.) Kneucker, Allg. Bot. Z. Syst 21: 28. 1915.

Panicum sulcatum var. stenophyllum Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 33: 46. 1902. Syntypes: Togo. Bismarckburg, 1889, Kling 225 (B); Angola. Huilla, May 1895, Antunes 31 (B).

Panicum plicatile var. glabrescens Chiov., Ann. Bot. (Rome) 8: 31. 1903. Lectotype (designated here): Eritrea. Amasen, Asmara, 2400 m, Aug- Sep 1892, V. Ragazzi 43 (FT, photo SI).

Panicum plicatile var. pilosum Chiov., Annuario Reale Ist. Bot. Roma 8: 31. 1903. Type: Eritrea. Mensa, Rora Ualicaué (Ovest), 1900 m, 8 Jan 1893, A. Terracciano & A. Pappi 670 (FI, photo SI).

Setaria caudula Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 845. 1930. Type: Uganda. Kipayo, 4000 ft., Mar 1915, R.A. Dümmer 2416 (BR, fragment, photo SI, K, photo SI, WAG).

Setaria chevalieri Stapf & C.E. Hubb., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 842. 1930. Lectotype (designated here): Gabon. Mayumba, Jan 1904, A.J.B. Chevalier 11282 (P, photo SI).

Setaria megaphylla var. chevalieri (Stapf & C.E. Hubb.) Berhaut, Fl. Senegal 2: 401. 1954.

Setaria acuta Stapf & C.E. Hubb., Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 846. 1930. Type: Ethiopia. Amba Sea, 2300 m, 12 Mar 1863, Schimper 789 (K, photo SI, PRE, photo SI).

Setaria insignis de Wit, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, ser. 3, 17: 13, 15. 1941. Type: South Africa. Cape Province, Port St. Johns, S.E. Cape, Eagle´s Nest, slope of Western Gate, 7 Feb 1924, C. Howlett 35 (holotype, PRE, photo SI, isotype, L, fragment, photo SI).

Setaria natalensis de Wit, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, ser. 3, 17: 19. 1941. Type: South Africa. Natal, Kwazulu-Natal, J. Buchanan 268 (holotype, NH; isotype, L, fragment, photo SI).

Type. “In marginibus fossarum udarum prope Catumby, non procul ad urbe Rio de Janeiro.” Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Raddi 17 (FI).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand [also in Africa, North America, South America].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Probably native to the Americas.

748. Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51, 171, 178. 1812

Panicum verticillatum L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1: 82. 1762. Type: “Habitat in Europa australi & Oriente.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.7 (LINN). LT designated by Sherif & Siddiqi in El-Gadi (ed.), Fl. Libya 145: 296. 1988.

Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) Scribn., Bull. Div. Agrostol. U.S.D.A. 4: 39. 1897

Ixophorus verticillatus (L.) Nash, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 422. 1895

Pennisetum verticillatum (L.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes]. 2: 488. 1817 in syn.

Panicum adhaerens Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 20. 1775. Type: “Hadie” Lectotype: Yemen, Al Hadiyah; 1763; Forsskål s.n. (LD). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 39: 383. 1994.

Setaria adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 26: 77. 1919

Panicum aparine Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 52. 1853. Type: “Jardin legit in Senegambia, Despreaux in Ins. Canar.”

Pennisetum respiciens A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 379. 1850–1851. Type: Ethiopia: “Crescit in convalle fluvii Tacazze prope Tchelatchekanne, mensibus Augusto ad Octobrem (Quartin Dillon et Schimper).”

Panicum rottleri (Spreng.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 53. 1841, non Kunth 1829

Panicum asperum Lam., Fl. Franc. (Lamarck). 3: 577. 1779 (“1778”), nom. superfl. & illeg. for Panicum verticillatum

Setaria teysmannii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 468. 1857. (‘teysmanni’). Type: Java., Besuki, Sumberwaru, Teysmann s.n. (holotype, U!).

Panicum adhaerens Forssk. var. miquelii A. Braun, Append. Gen. Sp. Hort. Berol. 1871: 7. 1872

Setaria verticillata P. Beauv. fo. miquelii (A. Braun) A. Braun ex Backer in Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. 1: 205. 1922

Panicum verticillatum L. fo. miquelii (A. Braun) A. Braun ex Backer in Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind., ed. 2, 1: 204. 1927. Type: Java, 25 Nov 1843, Zollinger 2729 (isotypes, G, P).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

749. Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 51, 171, 178. 1812

Panicum viride L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 870. 1759. Type: “Habitat [in Europa australi.] Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 1: 83. 1762” Lectotype: Browne, Herb. Linn. No. 80.12 (LINN). LT designated by Meikle in Fl. Cyprus 2: 1861. 1985.

Distribution. Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Spinifex L., Mant. Pl. Altera 163, 300. 1771

Type. Spinifex squarrosus L.

750. Spinifex littoreus (Burm. f.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C 7: 229. 1912

Stipa littorea Burm. f., Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) 29. 1768. Type: “Rompot laut Javanis” Rheed. Hort. Malab. 12. P. 143. t. 75.

Spinifex squarrosus L., Mant. Pl. Altera 300. 1771. Type: “Habitat in Indiae orientalis arenosis maritimis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1216.2 (LINN). LT designated by Heyligers in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 257. 2000.

Stipa spinifex L., Mant. Pl. 34. 1767. Type: “Habitat in Indiae arenosis maritimis.” Lectotype = “Cyperus littoreus echinato capite” in Rumphius, Herb. Amboin., 6: 6, t. 2, f. 2, 1750. LT designated by Heyligers in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 257. 2000.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Not recorded.

Stenotaphrum Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 175. 1820

Type. Stenotaphrum glabrum Trin., nom. superfl. (Panicum dimidiatum L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn.).

751. Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn., Voy. Monde, Phan. 2(2): 127. 1831

Panicum dimidiatum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 57. 1753. Type: “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.25 (LINN). LT designated by Renvoize in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 253. 2000.

Stenotaphrum glabrum Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 176. 1820

Stenotaphrum koenigii Schrank, Flora 7(2), Beil. 1: 28. 1824. Type: India; 1784; Koenig s.n.

Stenotaphrum secundatum sensu Alston, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6(Suppl.): 327. 1931, non S. secundatum (Walter) Kuntze, 1891

Distribution. Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Trachys Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 85. 1805

Type. Trachys mucronata Pers., nom. illeg. (Cenchrus muricatus L., Trachys muricata (L.) Trin.

752. Trachys copeana Kabeer & V.J. Nair, Kew Bull. 62(3): 503–505. f. 1. 2007

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Kanyakumari District, between Kollengode and Chinnathurai, near Marthandam; September 18, 2003; K.A.A. Kabeer 117134 (CAL).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual or perennial.

753. Trachys deccanensis M. Anil Kumar & B.R.P. Rao. Rheedea 27(2): 79. 2017

Type. India, Andhra Pradesh, Kurnool district, Kadivella near Yemmiganur, 16 November 2016, B. Ravi Prasad Rao, K. V. Subbaiah & M. Anil Kumar 52099 (holotype: SKU; isotype: CAL)

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

754. Trachys muricata (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 85. 1805 (as “mucronata”)

Cenchrus muricatus L., Mant. Pl. Altera 302. 1771. Type: “Habitat in India orientali. Koenig.” Neotype: India: Tamil Nadu, Madras, South Arcot, Chidambarum, Kille, Anuvampattu; Venugopal in RHT No. 21360 (K). Neotype designated by Renvoize in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 249. 2000.

Trachyozus muricata (L.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 112. 1854

Panicum squarrosum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 15. 1786–1787. Type: “In arenosis Malabariae tempore pluvioso frequens”; Koenig s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Persoon misspelled the Linnaean epithet “muricata” as “mucronata” and used the latter in his comb. nov. (a correctable error).

755. Trachys narasimhanii Ravich., Rheedea 23(1): 22. 2013.

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Ennore, VGP Wonderland, 15 – 22 m, 28 November 1992, P. Ravichandran & D. Narasimhan 408 (holotype: MH; isotype: K, MCCH, SPKCESH).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Tricholaena Schrad., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 8, 163. 1824

Lectotype. Tricholaena micrantha Schrad. (Saccharum teneriffae L. f., Tricholaena teneriffae (L. f.) Link.) LT designated by Hitchcock in Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 241. 1920.

756. Tricholaena teneriffae (L.f.) Link, Handbuch [Link] 1: 91. 1829

Saccharum teneriffae L.f., Suppl. Pl. 106. 1782 (“1781”). Type: “Habitat in Teneriffa”; Fr. Masson s.n. (LINN).

Melinis teneriffae (L.f.) Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 51: 464. 1901

Panicum plumosum Presl, Fl. Sicul. (Presl) 1: 43(XLIII). 1826

Panicum saccharoides Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 245. 1826

Agrostis plumosa Ten., Fl. Napol. Suppl. 1: 49. 1811. Type: Italy: Naples, presumably

Tricholaena micrantha Schrad., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 163. 1824, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Saccharum teneriffae

Distribution. Karnataka, Punjab [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Urochloa P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 52. 1812

Type. Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv.

757. Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) R.D. Webster, The Australian Paniceae (Poaceae) 223. 1987 var. brizantha

Panicum brizanthum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 363. 1850–1851. Type: Ethiopia: Tigre: “In declivibus meridionalis partis mediae et superioris monte Sellenda prope Adouba.” October 3, 1837; Schimper 89 (P). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(2): 417. 1996.

Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 531. 1919

Distribution. Kerala [Papua New Guinea, Africa, North America, South America].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990). It is unclear if this taxon actually occurs in India or if this is a misapplication based on Brachiaria decumbens sensu Senaratna.

758. Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) R.D. Webster var. ciliata (Basappa & Muniy.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 35(1–4): 29. 1993

Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf var. ciliata Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 379. 1983

Distribution. Karnataka [Sri Lanka]. Native to Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

759. Urochloa chenaveeraiana (Basappa & Muniy.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 35(1–4): 28. 1993

Brachiaria chennaveeraiana Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 378. 1983

Distribution. Rajasthan.

Habit. Not recorded.

760. Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D. Webster, Austral. Paniceae (Poaceae) 234. 1987

Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 528. 1919. Syntypes: Uganda: Mengo District; Dummer 1070 (K). Tanzania, Bukoba District; Grant 488 (K).

Brachiaria brizantha sensu Senaratna, Grasses of Ceylon (Perad. Man. No. 8) 145. 1956, non Hochst. ex A. Rich., 1851

Distribution. Kerala, Rajasthan. Native to Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Rajasthan fide Naithani (1990).

761. Urochloa deflexa (Schumach.) H. Scholz, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia Sér. 4, 11(4): 443. 1990

Panicum deflexum Schumach., Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Naturvidensk. Math. Afh. 3: 83–84. 1827

Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb. ex Robyns Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat 9: 181. 1932 (“1931”)

Pseudobrachiaria deflexa (Schumach.) Launert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 8: 158. 1970

Brachiaria regularis (Nees) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 544. 1919

Panicum regulare Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 41. 1841, in obs. Type: “Patria Guinea. Vidi in Herbario Lehmanniano.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [also in Saudi Arabia, Africa].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

762. Urochloa distachyos (L.) T.Q. Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1966: 13. 1966 (as “distachya”)

Panicum distachyon L., Mant. Pl. Altera 183–184. 1771. Type: “Habitat in India orientali. Koenig.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.41 (LINN). LT designated by Henrard in Monogr. Digitaria 191. 1950

Brachiaria distachyos (L.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 565. 1919 in obs. (as “distachya”)

Digitaria distachyos (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 41. 1853 (as “distachya”), cited as synonym of Panicum bicorne Sieber ex Steud.

Panicum miliiforme J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 300. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Luzonia.” Philippine Islands: Luzon; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Brachiaria miliiformis (J. Presl) A. Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(1): 35. 1920

Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc. var. miliiformis (J. Presl) S.L. Chen & Y.X. Jin, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22(6): 472. 1984

Brachiaria miliiformis (J. Presl) Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(1): 35. 1920

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

763. Urochloa hybrida (Basappa & Muniy.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 28. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria hybrida Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B, 49(4): 379. 1983

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Not recorded.

764. Urochloa kurzii (Hook. f.) T.Q. Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1966: 13. 1966

Panicum kurzii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 38. 1896. Type: Seebpore; Kurz s.n.(K). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(2): 422. 1996.

Brachiaria kurzii (Hook. f.) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 438. 1922

Brachiaria lanceata Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 4. 1947. Type: Indonesia: Java, Jawa Timur, Kangean; 1920; Backer 27829 (BO).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [also in Indonesia, Australia].

Habit. Annual.

765. Urochloa lata (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1934: 112. 1934 var. lata

Panicum latum Schumach., Beskr. Guin. pl. 61. 1827. Type: Ghana; Thonning 353

Brachiaria lata (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: sub. t. 3363. 1938

Panicum insculptum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 49. 1853. Type: Guinea; Jardin s.n.

Urochloa insculpta (Steud.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 599. 1920

Distribution. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh. Native to Africa.

Habit. Annual.

766. Urochloa lata (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb. var. pubescens (C.E. Hubb.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212129-1

Brachiaria lata (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb. var. pubescens C.E. Hubb., Kew Bull. 4: 125. 1949. Type. Nigeria: Sokoto Province, Sokoto; July 30, 1910; Dalziel 477

Distribution. Rajasthan [also in Africa].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990). The above combination is made here to transfer Brachiaria lata (Schumach.) C.E. Hubb. var. pubescens C.E. Hubb. to Urochloa as a variety of U. lata (Schumach.) C. E. Hubb.

767. Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy, J. Bot. 69(2): 54. 1931

Panicum mosambicense Hack., Bol. Soc. Brot. 6: 140. 1888. Type: “Prope Moçambique.” Mozambique; 1886; M.R. de Carvalho 19 (W).

Echinochloa notabilis (Hook. f.) Rhind, Grasses of Burma 50. 1945 (as “notabile”)

Panicum notabile Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 32. 1896. Type: Burma, Petroleum wells of the Irawaddi; Wallich s.n.

Distribution. Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar]. Native to Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Rajasthan fide Naithani (1990).

768. Urochloa munae (Basappa) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 29. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria munae Basappa, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Pl. Sci. 93(1): 53. f. 1. 1984. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Madurai Kamaraj University Campus; December 20, 1979; Basappa 3001 (CAL).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

769. Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q. Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3: 13. 1966

Panicum muticum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 20. 1775. Type: Egypt: “Rosettae” (Rashid); November 2–6, 1761; Forsskal 86 (C).

Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf, Prain, Fl. Trop. Afri. 9: 526. 1919

Brachiaria purpurascens (Raddi) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 434. 1940

Panicum amphibium Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 61. 1853. Type: Java; Zollinger no. 416 (P).

Panicum barbinode Trin., Sp. Gram. [Trinius] 3(27): t. 318. 1831. Type: “Figura ad specimen Bahiense.” Brazil: Bahia; 1831; Riedel in Herb. Trinus 0601.01 (LE).

Panicum punctulatum Arn. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 62. 1853. Type: Sri Lanka; Wight Herb. no. 2039

Panicum purpurascens Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. [Raddi] 47–48. 1823. Lectotype: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro “ Multum habet affinitatem cum precedenti cum quo mixtum invenitur, licet etiam sponte oriatur”; G. Raddi s.n. (PI). LT designated by Baldini & Longhi-Wagner Taxon 55(2): 479. 2006

Panicum pictigluma Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 73. 1853, nom superfl. & illeg. for P. purpurascens Raddi

Panicum molle sensu Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. I. (Grisebach) 547. 1864, non Sw., 17

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [also in Indonesia, Africa, Australia, North America, South America].

Habit. Annual.

770. Urochloa nilagirica (Bor) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 29. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria nilagirica Bor, Bot. Tidsskr. 67(4): 325. 1973. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills; Perrottet 1357 (K).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Not recorded.

771. Urochloa oligotricha (Fig. & De Not.) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 502. 1941

Panicum oligotrichum Fig. & de Not., Agrost. Aegypt. 17, t. 10. 1853. Type: “ad amnem coeruleum in Nubia superiore.” Sudan: Nubia; Figari s.n.

Helopus bolbodes Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 100. 1854. Type: Ethiopia; Schimper 2021 (P) “Abyssin; Hochst Hrbr. Abyss. nr. 2021”

Urochloa bolbodes (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9(4): 593. 1920

Eriochloa bolbodes (Hochst. ex Steud.) Schweinf., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2 (App. 2): 17. 1894

Panicum bolbodes (Hochst. ex Steud.) Aschers., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 300. 1867

Panicum numidianum sensu Hack., Bull. Herb. Boissier 4(App. 3): 14. 1896, non Lam., 1791

Distribution. India [Africa].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

772. Urochloa ovalis (Stapf) Zon, Blumea 64(3): 215. 2019

Brachiaria ovalis Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 546. 1919. Syntypes: Somalia: Bohotle; Appleton s.n. (K). Somalia: Haud; Thompson s.n. (K). Ethiopia: Habab; Hildebrandt 337 (K). Ethiopia; Salt s.n. (BM).

Distribution. Punjab [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. The above combination is made here to transfer Brachiaria ovalis Stapf to Urochloa.

773. Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 53. t. 11. f. 1. 1812

Panicum javanicum Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 274. 1816. Type: “Cette plante croit a l’ile de Java (V.s. in herb. Desfont.)”; Desfontaines s.n.

Urochloa marathensis Henrard, Meded. Rijks-Herb. 43: 2. 1922. Type: “Hab. India orient: Southern Maratha Country and North Canara, Bombay Presidency, collected and presented by A.P. Young, Esq. I.N. Anno 1884 ex Herbario Musie Britannici in Herb. Lugd. Batav. Sub no. 90.92-2300.”

Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv. var. marathensis (Henrard) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 373. 1960

Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv. var. velutina (Henrard) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 373. 1960

Urochloa marathensis Henrard var. velutina Henrard, Meded. Rijks-Herb. 43: 2. 1922. Type: “Hab. cum praecedente Young legit in Herb. Lugd. Bat. Sub no. 908.83-143.”

Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv. var. pubescens (Kunth) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 372. 1960

Urochloa pubescens Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 31. 1829. Type: “Insulae Mascarenae, Nova Hollandia.”

Type. Mauritius: Isle de France, to about 4800 ft., mainly in cultivated land; Jussieu s.n. (P-type is lost). Neotype: P. Beauv., Ess. Agrost. pl. 11. f. 1. 1812. NT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41: 433. 1996.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

774. Urochloa paspaloides J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 318. 1830

Brachiaria paspaloides (J. Presl) C.E. Hubb., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: sub. t. 3363. 1938

Panicum ambiguum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 3, 1(2–3): 243. 1834, non (DC.) Lapeyr. ex Le Turq., 1816

Type. “Habitat in Luzonia ad Sorzogon.” Philippine: Luzon Islands, Sorzogon; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Distribution. Assam, Uttar Pradesh [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

775. Urochloa pullulans Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9(4): 590. 1920

Panicum geminatum sensu Schweinf., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2App. 2): 19. 1894, non Forssk., 1775

Distribution. India [also in Africa].

Habit. Not recorded.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

776. Urochloa ramosa (L.) T.Q. Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1966: 13. 1966

Panicum ramosum L., Mant. Pl. 29. 1767. Type: “Habitat in Indiis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 80.44 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Nasir and Ali (ed.), Fl. Pakistan 143: 207. 1982.

Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf., Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 542. 1919

Urochloa ramosa (L.) R.D. Webster, Austral. Paniceae (Poaceae) 251. 1987, isonym.

Panicum arvense Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2: 391. t. 109. 1831. Type: “Crescit ubique in arvis Senegaliae.” Leprieur s.n.

Panicum brachylachnum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 62. 1853. Type: Senegalia; Leprieur s.n.

Panicum canescens Roth, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 457. 1817. Type: India orientalis

Panicum cognatissimum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 69. 1853. Type: Segegambia; Leprieur s.n.

Urochloa supervacua (C.B. Clarke) Noltie, Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 394. 1999

Panicum supervacuum C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24: 407–408. f. A-E. 1888. Lectotype: India: West Bengal, Baladum, alt. 400 ft.; May 28, 1884; C.B. Clarke 35103 (K). LT designated by Noltie in Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 394. 1999.

Brachiaria marselinii Gawade & Gavade, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 101(2): 291 -293. f. 1. 2004 (as “marselini”). Type: India: Maharashtra, Masure, Malvan, Sindhudurg; September 27, 2000; N.D. Gawade 1442 (BLAT).

Panicum patens sensu Bojer, Hortus Maurit. 365. 1837, non L., 1753

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

777. Urochloa ramosa (L.) T.Q. Nguyen var. pubescens (Basappa & Muniy.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212130-1

Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf. var. pubescens Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B, 49(4): 380. 1983

Distribution. Karnataka, Rajasthan.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990). The above combination is made here to transfer Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf var. pubescens to Urochloa, as a variety of U. ramosa.

778. Urochloa remota (Retz.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 29. 1997 (“1993”)

Panicum remotum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 17. 1786–1787. Type: “E Tranquebaria misit Opt. Koenig.”

Brachiaria remota (Retz.) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1005. 1924

Panicum petiveri Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 144. 1826 (as “petiverii”). Type: India orientalis; Lindley s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

779. Urochloa reptans (L.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 601. 1920 var. reptans

Panicum reptans L., Syst. Nat., ed 10. 2: 870. 1759. Lectotype: Browne, Herb. Linn. No. 80.52, upper specimen (LINN). LT designated by Veldkamp. Blumea 41(2): 427. 1996.

Brachiaria reptans (L.) C.A. Gardner. & C.E. Hubb., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: sub t. 3363. 1938

Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. var. hispida Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 380. 1983

Panicum prostratum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 171. 1791. Type: Hispaniola: Dominican Republic, St. Dominique; Anonymous in Herb. Lamarck (P-LAM).

Brachiaria prostrata (Lam.) Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 7: 263. 1857

Panicum procumbens Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 109. 1829. Type: “Panicum prostratum β Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck). 4:740.”

Panicum umbrosum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 16. 1786–1787. Type: “Habitat in graminosis umbrosis Indiae Orientalis. Misit Cel. Koenig.” India; Koenig s.n. in herb. Retz (LD).

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Malaysia, Oceanic Islands, Africa, Australia, China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. The taxonomic editors question whether Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. var. hispida should be recognized as distinct; it is placed in synonymy here.

780. Urochloa semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 30. 1997 (“1993”) var. semiundulata

Panicum semiundulatum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 364. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in pratis et locis graminosis prope Adoua, nec non in planitie montana provinciae Chiré, mensibus Septembre et Octobre (Schimper).” Syntypes: Ethiopia: Schire; October 10, 1840; Schimper 1833. Ethiopia: Adoam; September 25, 1837; Schimper 289

Brachiaria semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 556. 1919

Panicum nilagiricum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 62. 1853. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Mountains; R.F. Hohenacker 919

Panicum villosum sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 34. 1896, non Lam., 1791

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

781. Urochloa semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair var. intermedia (Basappa & Muniy.) E. A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212131-1

Brachiaria semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf var. intermedia Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 380. 1983

Distribution. Karnataka (Naithani), Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. The above combination is made here to transfer Brachiaria semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf var. intermedia Basappa & Muniy. to Urochloa as a variety of U. semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Ashalatha & V.J.Nair.

782. Urochloa semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair var. lanata (Basappa & Muniy.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 30. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf var. lanata Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 380. 1983

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Karnataka fide Naithani (1990).

783. Urochloa semiverticillata (Rottler ex Steud.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 30. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria semiverticillata (Rottler ex Steud.) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6(suppl.): 318. 1931

Panicum semiverticillatum Rottler ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 62, 1853. Type: India; Nees s.n.

Panicum semiverticillatum Rottler in Ainslie, Mat. Med. Hindoostan ed. 1, 219. 1813, nom. nud.?

Panicum firmiculme Mez, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 7(63): 65. 1917. Type: Sri Lanka; Thwaites 595 (as “895”)

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

784. Urochloa setigera (Retz.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 598. 1920 var. setigera

Panicum setigerum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 4: 15. 1786–1787. Type: “E China misit Cel. Bladh.” China: Guangdong, Guangzhou; Bladh s.n. (LD).

Brachiaria setigera (Retz.) C.E. Hubb., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: sub. t. 3363. f. 2. 1938

Panicum affine Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 273. 1816. Type: “Cette espece croit dans les Indes orientales.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

785. Urochloa setigera (Retz.) Stapf var. albistyla (Basappa & Muniy.) S. Karthikeyan, Fl. Ind. ser. 4, 1 (Monocotyledon): 273. 1989

Brachiaria setigera (Retz.) C.E. Hubb. var. albistyla Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B. 49: 380. 1983. Type: India

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

786. Urochloa stapfiana (Basappa & Muniy.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 30. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria stapfiana Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 379. 1983

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Perennial.

787. Urochloa subquadripara (Trin.) R.D. Webster, Austral. Paniceae (Poaceae) 252. 1987

Panicum subquadriparum Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 145. 1826. Lectotype: Mariana Islands; Chamisso s.n. in Herb. Trinius 0947.01 (LE). LT designated by Veldkamp in Blumea 41(2): 429. 1996.

Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc., Lingnan Sci. J. 7: 214. 1931

Panicum distachyum sensu Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 359. 1864, non L., 1767

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

788. Urochloa trichopus (Hochst.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9(4): 589. 1920

Panicum trichopus Hochst., Flora 27: 254. 1844. Type: “Habitat in cultis provinciae Cordofan”; Kotschy 74

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh [also in Africa].

Habit. Annual.

789. Urochloa villosa (Lam.) T.Q. Nguyen, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1966: 14. 1966 var. villosa

Panicum villosum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1(1): 173. 1791. Type: India; Sonnerat s.n. (P-LAM).

Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 433. 1922

Panicum coccospermum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 62. 1853. Type: India orientalis; Royle Herb. no. 43. 44

Panicum nanum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 62. 1853. Type: Nepal; Royle Herb. no. 45

Panicum grossarium sensu Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 300. 1820, non L., 1759

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

790. Urochloa villosa (Lam.) T.Q. Nguyen var. barbata (Bor) Noltie, Edinburgh J. Bot. 56(3): 395–396. 1999

Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) A. Camus var. barbata Bor, Grass. Bur. Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 386. 1960.

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

791. Urochloa villosa (Lam.) T.Q. Nguyen var. glaberrima (Basappa & Muniy.) Ashalatha & V.J. Nair, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 35(1–4): 30. 1997 (“1993”)

Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) A. Camus var. glaberrima Basappa & Muniy., Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., B 49(4): 381. 1983

Distribution. Meghalaya, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Punjab fide Naithani (1990).

Tribe Jansenelleae Voronts., 2020

Plant annual. Ligue membranous. Inflorescence dense, capitate, with short branches. Spikelets laterally compressed. Glumes acuminate or awned, lemmas awned. Hilum punctate. Leaf anatomy C3.

The two genera of Jansenelleae were provisionally placed in Tristachyideae by Kellogg (2015b), pending further data. However, recent molecular phylogenetic work (Bianconi et al. 2020) has shown that they are sisters, and form a clade that itself is sister to Andropogoneae s.l. Species of Jansenelleae appear to be C3 and thus help illuminate the origin and development of the C4 pathway in their sister tribe Andropogoneae (Bianconi et al. 2020).

Chandrasekharania V.J. Nair, V.S. Ramach. & Sreek., Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Pl. Sci. 91(2): 79. 1982

Type. Chandrasekharania keralensis V.J. Nair, V.S. Ramach. & Sreek.

792. Chandrasekharania keralensis V.J. Nair, V.S. Ramach. & Sreek., Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Pl. Sci. 91(2): 80. 1982

Type. India: Kerala, Cannanore District, Kannoth, alt. 500 ft.; February 18, 1978; V.S. Ramachandran 54064 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution records fide Naithani (1990).

Jansenella Bor, Kew Bull. 1955: 96. 1955

Type. Jansenella griffithiana (Müll. Hal.) Bor (Danthonia griffithiana Müll. Hal.).

793. Jansenella griffithiana (Müll. Hal.) Bor, Kew Bull. 1955: 98. 1955

Danthonia griffithiana Müll. Hal., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 14(20): 347. 1856. Type: India: Assam, Khasiya; Griffith 36 (B).

Arundinella griffithiana (Müll. Hal.) Bor, Indian Forester Rec., Bot. n.s. 1(3): 73. 1938

Danthoniopsis griffithiana (Müll. Hal.) Bor, Fl. Assam 5: 187. 1940

Arundinella avenacea Munro ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 362. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Saffragam District, at no great elevation; Munro Ceylon Plant 3471

Arundinella campbelliana Lisboa, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 5: 346. 1890. Type: India: Mahableshwar; 1889; Lisboa s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

Tribe Andropogoneae Dumort., 1824

Plants with complex inflorescences, often highly branched and/or bracteate. Spikelets borne in pairs, one sessile and the other pedicellate, the two often differentiated in structure and function. Branches sometimes ending a spikelet morphologically identical to the pedicellate one so that the spikelets appear to be in triplets. Glumes firm to indurate, the lemma and palea generally hyaline. In most species other than those in Arundinella and Garnotia the rachis disarticulates between the spikelet pairs. Photosynthetic pathway C4, NADP-ME subtype.

Taxonomic editor: Elizabeth A. Kellogg

Andropogon L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1045. 1753, nom. cons.

Type. Andropogon distachyos L. (as “distachyon”) (typ. cons.)

794. Andropogon chinensis (Nees) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C. 12(2): 101. 1917

Homoeatherum chinense Nees, Nat. Syst. Bot. 448. 1836

Andropogon apricus var. chinensis (Nees) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 457. 1889

Andropogon ascinodis C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 87. t. 36. 1889. Type: India: Assam, Jakpho, alt. 7500 ft.; C.B. Clarke no. 41890

Andropogon apricus sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 169. 1896, non Trin., 1836

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

795. Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Enum. Pl. (Kunth) 1: 491. 1833

Andropogon reconditus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 386. 1854. Type: Africa: “Leprieur legit in Senegalia”; Leprieur s.n.

Andropogon tomentellus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 371. 1854. Type: Africa: “Leprieur legit in Senegalia”; Leprieur s.n.

Andropogon guineensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 371. 1854, nom. Later hom., non Schumach., 1828

Type. Senegalia.

Distribution. India [also in Africa]. Naturalized; native to Africa.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not recorded.

796. Andropogon hallii Hack., Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 89: 127. 1884

Sorghum hallii (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 791. 1891

Andropogon chrysocomus Nash, Man. Fl. N. States (Britton) 70. 1901. Lectotype: USA: Kansas, Stevens County; July 24, 1891; M.A. Carleton 343 (NY-69769). LT designated by Nash in N. Amer. Fl. 17(2): 120. 1912.

Andropogon geminatus Hack. ex Beal, Grasses N. Amer. 2: 55. 1896. Type: USA: Texas; 1889; Nealley s.n. (US-728855).

Andropogon paucipilus Nash, Man. Fl. N. States (Britton) 70. 1901. Lectotype: USA: Nebraska, Grant County, 3 miles NE of Whitman; 31 Jul 1893; P.A. Rydberg 1607 (NY-69766). LT designated by Nash in North Amer. Fl. 17(2): 121. 1912.

Type. USA: Nebraska; 1862; E. A. Hall & J.P. Harbour 651 (W).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu. Naturalized; native to North America.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. This species may not be distinct from A. gerardi (Estep et al. 2014).

797. Andropogon lividus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 367. 1864

Cymbopogon lividus (Thwaites) Willis, Revis. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 110. 1911

Type. Sri Lanka: Central Province, Newera Ellia and other of more elevated parts; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 953.

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

798. Andropogon longipes Hack., Flora 68: 138. 1885

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgerries; Perrotet 1315.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

799. Andropogon munroi C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 87–88. t. 37. 1889

Andropogon hookeri Munro ex Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 614. 1889. Type: Bhutan; W. Griffith 6767 (W).

Cymbopogon hookeri (Munro ex Hack.) Stapf ex Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. n.s. 1(3): 92. 1938

Andropogon tristis Nees ex Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 439. 1889. Syntypes: Nepal; Royle 227. India: Kamaon alt. 10000 ft.; Duthie s.n. Himalaya; J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n. Massuri; Hugel s.n. (C). Chini; Stoliczka s.n. (C).

Type. India: North Muneypore, alt. 3500 ft.; C.B. Clarke 41961.

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

800. Andropogon polyptychos Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 380. 1854

Dichanthium polyptychon (Steud.) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 549. 1921

Andropogon polyptychos Steud. var. deccanensis Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 91. 1960, nom. inval.? Type: India: Madras; Bourne 1622, 1337

Dichanthium polyptychon (Steud.) A. Camus var. deccanensis Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 91. 1960

Type. Sri Lanka.

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Kerala and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

801. Andropogon pumilus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 277. 1820

Andropogon demissus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 388. 1854. Syntypes: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8799. India; Numer. List [Wallich] no 8798 A.B.

Andropogon pachyarthrus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 449. 1889, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. India: “A native of Coromandel.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

Apluda L., Sp. Pl. 1: 82. 1753

Type. Apluda mutica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 82. 1753.

802. Apluda mutica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 82. 1753

Calamina mutica (L.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 151 1812

Andropogon glaucus Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 20. 1788 (“1789”) (as “glaucum”). Type: “Misit opt. Koenig, qui Anthistiriae speciem credidit.”

Apluda aristata L., Cent. Pl. II 7. 1756. Type: “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1213.4 (LINN). LT designated by Renvoize in Cafferty et al. (ed.), Taxon 49: 246. 2000.

Apluda aristata L. var. jainii R.K. Jain, Ind J. For. 9:345. 1986.

Apluda geniculata Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 327. 1820. Type: India: “found in the banks of the Gangas.”

Apluda varia Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 196. 1889. Type: Cited many syntypes

Apluda varia Hack. ssp. aristata Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 196. 1889. Type: Cited many syntypes

Apluda varia Hack. var. ciliata (Andersson) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 151. 1896

Apluda varia Hack. var. rostrata (Nees ex Arn.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 151. 1896

Apluda varia Hack. var. villosula Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 151. 1896. Type: India: Wight Cat. no. 1713

Apluda varia Hack. var. humilis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 151. 1896

Apluda ciliata Andersson, Ofvers. Forh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 12: 177. 1855. Type: India Orientali, Carnar; Hugel 1639

Apluda rostrata Nees ex Arn., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., Suppl. 19 (1): 194–195. 1843. Type: Sri Lanka; Walker s.n.

Anthistiria gigantea Cav., Icon. (Cavanilles) 5(1): 36. t. 458. 1799. Type: “Habitat in Luzon philippica insula tribus leucis ab oppido Guaz. Floret Martio et Aprili. Vidi siccam in eodem herbario.”

Apluda gigantea (Cav.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 290. 1824 (“1825”)

Calamina gigantea (Cav.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 157 1812

Apluda mutica L. var. major (Hack.) R.K. Jain, Ind. J. For. 9:347. 1986

Apluda blatteri Sur, Bull. Bot. Surv. Ind. 26: 193. 1986

Calamina humilis J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 344. 1830, non Roem. & Schult., 1817

Apluda mutica L. var. aristata (L.) Pilg., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl] 14e: 130. 1940, nom. illeg. & hom., non Apluda mutica var. aristata (L.) Hack. ex Backer, 1928

Type. “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1213.1 (LINN). LT designated by Cope in Jarvis et al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 20. 1993.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

Apocopis Nees, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 93. 1841

Type. Apocopis royleanus Nees.

803. Apocopis cochinchinensis A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 25: 286. 1919

Type. “Cochinchine (Pierre).” Vietnam; J.B.L. Pierre s.n. (US-1062404).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala [China].

Habit. Annual.

804. Apocopis courtallumensis (Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 524. 1941

Andropogon courtallumensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 377. 1854. Type: India: Courtallum; Wight s.n.

Apocopis wightii Nees ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 365. 1864, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Andropogon courtallumensis

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

805. Apocopis mangalorensis (Hochst. ex. Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 523. 1941

Amblyachyrum mangalorense Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 413. 1854. Type: India; 1847; R.F. Hohenacker 231 (P).

Apocopis wightii Nees ex Thwaites. ssp. mangalurensis (Hochst. ex Steud.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 259. 1889

Apocopis wightii Nees ex Thwaites. var. zeylanica Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 259. 1889. Type: Sri Lanka; Thwaites 401

Apocopis courtallumensis sensu Senaratna, Grasses of Ceylon (Perad. Man. No. 8) 171. 1956, non (Steud.) Henrard., 1941

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

806. Apocopis paleaceus (Trin.) Hochr., Bull. New York Bot. Gard 6: 262. 1910 (as “paleacea”)

Ischaemum paleaceum Trin. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 293. 1833. Type: Nepal

Andropogon paleaceus (Trin.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 376. 1854

Apocopis royleanus Nees, Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 94. 1841. Type: Not given

Apocopis himalayensis Will.Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N.W. Prov. 392. 1882, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Andropogon himalayensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 377. 1854, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Apocopis royleanus Nees.

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

807. Apocopis vaginatus Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 8. 1891

Apocopis wightii Nees ex Thwaites var. vaginata (Hack.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 143. 1896

Type. India: Hazaribagh; C.B. Clarke 33849 (W).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

Arthraxon P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 111. 1812

Type. Arthraxon ciliare P. Beauv.

808. Arthraxon castratus (Griff.) V. Naray. ex Bor, Fl. Assam 5: 376. 1940

Andropogon castratus Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 89. 1851. Type: “Suddah in Campis graminosis; January 2, 1836; It. Ass. 292.”(K).

Andropogon rudis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 383. 1854. Type: [Bangladesh] India: Silhet; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8837

Arthraxon rudis (Steud.) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856 [basionym reference not given]

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

809. Arthraxon depressus Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 349–350. 1933

Type. India: “Peninsula, precise locality not indicated”; Wight 3372 (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution in India fide Naithani (1990).

810. Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 214. 1912 var. hispidus

Phalaris hispida Thunb. in J.A. Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 104. 1784. Type: Japan; C.P. Thunberg 1776 (UPS).

Alectoridia quartiniana A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 448. t. 102. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit ad marginem stagnorum juxta Adoua, mense Novembre (Quartin Dillon).” Ethiopia: Adoua; Quartin Dillon s.n. (P).

Arthraxon quartinianus (A. Rich.) Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17(2): 99. 1912

Arthraxon breviaristatus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 350. 1889. Syntypes: China: Yunnan, prope Ki-mi-se, ad rivulos montium; Delavay 1811(P). India: Khasia, alt. 4000–6000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n. (K, L, W).

Arthraxon ciliaris P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 111. t. 11. f. 6. 1812 (as “ciliare”). Type: “Cultivé par son oncle a Trianon”; Richard s.n. (P).

Arthraxon ciliaris P. Beauv. var. hookeri Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 357. 1889. Type: India: Sikkim; J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n.

Arthraxon inermis Hook. f. var. tzvelevii Jain, Sci. & Cult. 37(1): 55. 1971. Type: India: Purandhar, vazirghad Fort; Santapau 11361 (CAL)

Batratherum micans Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 18: 182–183. 1835. Type: “In Benghala boreli; Royle.”

Arthraxon micans (Nees) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856

Arthraxon nitidulus Stapf ex Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 101, 688. 1960. Type: India: Bombay, Belgaum; Ritchie 796a (K).

Arthraxon satarensis M. R. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 66: 515. 1970, emend. Deshp. & Hemadri, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 12: 274. 1970. Type: India: Maharashtra, 8-Satara-Keshyaturda; McCann 8 (BLAT).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnatata, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

811. Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino var. junnarensis (S.K. Jain & Hemadri) Welzen, Blumea 27(1): 277. 1981

Arthraxon junnarensis S.K. Jain & Hemadri, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 68: 300–301. f. a–f. 1971. Type: India: Maharashtra, Poona District, Warsubai plateau, 16km west of Junnar; Hemadri 106849 (CAL).

Distribution. Maharashtra [China].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for India fide Naithani (1990).

812. Arthraxon inermis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 145. 1896

Type. India: Concan; Woodrow 189 (K).

Distribution. Goa, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

813. Arthraxon jubatus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 358. 1889

Type. India: Kerala, Concan, Malabar; J.E. Stocks s.n. (W).

Distribution. Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

814. Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856 var. lanceolatus

Andropogon lanceolatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 262. 1820. Type: India: “A native of Coromendel.” Lectotype: India; Roxburgh Icon. Ined. 2019 (K, copy in L). LT designated by van P.C. van Welzen in Blumea 27(1): 283. 1981.

Arthraxon deccanensis S.K. Jain, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 68: 298. 1971. Type: India: Maharashtra, Poona District, Sinhagad; Patil 7825 (CAL).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Gujarat, Jharkhad, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu [China, Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

815. Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. var. echinatus (Nees) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 348. 1889

Batratherum echinatum Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 18: 181. 1835. Lectotype: India; Wight KD 1684 (K). LT designated by P.C. van Welzen in Blumea 27(1): 285. 1981.

Arthraxon echinatus (Nees) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856.

Arthraxon spathaceus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 145. 1896. Type: India: Deccan Peninsula, Gunda Cottah Hill fort, Cuddapah; Wight Herb. 337 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

816. Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856

Andropogon lancifolius Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(4): 271. 1832. Type: Nepal; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8828B (LE).

Pleuroplitis lancifolia (Trin.) Regel, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg. 10(3): 375. 1866

Arthraxon lancifolius (Trin.) Hochst. var. hindustanicus S.K. Jain & Deshp., J. Indian Bot. Soc. 51: 176. 1972. Type: India: Goa, near Chopora, Kaisuva Fort; September 5, 1965; Cherian 88557A (CAL).

Andropogon multicaulis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 383. 1854. Type: Abyssin; Hochstetter s.n.

Arthraxon microphyllus (Trin.) Hochst. var. hindustanicus (S.K. Jain & Deshp.) S.M. Almeida & M. R. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 82: 445. 1985

Batratherum molle Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 18: 181–182. 1835. Type: Type information given for varieties only

Arthraxon molle (Nees) Balf. f., Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 31: 315. 1888

Psilopogon schimperi Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 447. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in Planitie montosa Beless, provinciae Chire, mense Octobre (Quartin Dillon) et in locis umbrosis ad declivia rivulorum juxta Adoua, mense Septembre (Schimper).” Syntypes: Ethiopia: Adoua; September 18, 1837; Schimper 96 (TUB?). ST: Ethiopia: Schire; Quartin Dillon s.n. (P). Ethiopia: Tigray, Adua; September 18, 1837; Schimper 46 (WAG).

Batratherum schimperi (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Nees ex Hochst., Flora 39: 179. 1856 (as “Bathratherum”)

Arthraxon schimperi (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hochst., Flora 39: 189. 1856, p.p.

Lucaea schimperi (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 414. 1855.

Pleuroplitis schimperi (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Regel, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg. 10(3): 369. 1866

Arthraxon microphyllus sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 147. 1896, p.p., non (Trin.) Hochst. 1856

Pleuroplitis microphylla (Trin.) Regel, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg. 10(3): 370. 1866

Arthraxon minor Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856, nom. illeg. & superfl.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

817. Arthraxon meeboldii Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1908: 449. 1908

Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. var. meeboldii (Stapf) Welzen, Blumea 27(1): 285, f. 10. 1981

Arthraxon purandharensis Bharucha & Y. Satyan., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 481. 1954. Type: India: Bombay, Purandhar, 4000 ft.; Bharucha 501 (Herb. Inst. Sc. Bombay).

Type. India: Concan, in open grassland on a hillside near Khandale, alt. 2000 ft.; Meebold 9132.

Distribution. Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. All records except for Madhya Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

818. Arthraxon microphyllus (Trin.) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856

Andropogon microphyllus Trin. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 275. 1832. Type: Nepal; Wallich s.n. (LE).

Arthraxon sikkimensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1951: 447. 1952. Type: India: Sikkim, Lachung, alt. 9000 ft.; August 31, 1892; Gammie 1079 (K).

Distribution. Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

819. Arthraxon nudus (Steud.) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856

Andropogon nudus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 383. 1854. Type: India: Tavoy; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8834A

Arthraxon ciliaris P. Beauv. ssp. nudus (Steud.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. 6: 356. 1889.

Distribution. Assam, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

820. Arthraxon prionodes (Steud.) Dandy in F. W. Andrews, Fl. Pl. Sudan 3: 399. 1956

Andropogon prionodes Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 383. 1854. Type: Ethiopia; Schimper 1117(P). LT designated by P.C. van Welzen in Blumea 27: 283. 1981.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

821. Arthraxon raizadae S.K. Jain, Hemadri & Deshp., J. Indian Bot. Soc. 51: 103. 1972

Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. var. raizadae (S.K. Jain, Hemadri & Deshp.) Welzen, Blumea 27: 287. 1981

Type. India: Maharashtra State, Satara District, Mahabaleshwar; December 25, 1969; Hemadri 98585A (CAL).

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Karnataka fide Naithani (1990).

822. Arthraxon santapaui Bor, Kew Bull. 1951: 446. 1952

Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino var. santapaui (Bor) Welzen, Blumea 27(1): 280. f. 6. 1981

Type. India: Bombay, Purandhar Fort; October 10, 1950; H. Santapau 11450a (K).

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand [also in Oman].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

823. Arthraxon submuticus (Nees ex Steud.) Hochst., Flora 39: 188. 1856

Andropogon submuticus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 382. 1854. Type: Nepal; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8836

Distribution. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

824. Arthraxon villosus C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 350. 1933

Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. var. villosus (C.E.C. Fisch.) Welzen, Blumea 27(1): 288. 1981

Type. India: Western Ghats, Bababudans; April; Bourne & Bourne s.n. (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

Arundinella Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. [Raddi] 36. t. 1. f. 3. 1823

Type. Arundinella brasiliensis Raddi.

825. Arundinella bengalensis (Spreng.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Soc. Brit. Isles 4: 605. 1917

Panicum bengalense Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 311. 1824 (“1825”). Type: A native of Bengal, where it is found, though rarely, on dry barren spots.

Arundinella wallichii Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 114. 1854. Type: Nepal; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8669

Oplismenus strictus Schult., Mant. 2: 272. 1824.

Arundinella stricta (Schult.) Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 84. 1921, non Nees, 1850

Panicum strictum Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 306. 1820, non R. Br., 1810

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

826. Arundinella cannanorica V.J. Nair, Sreek. & N.C. Nair, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 80(2): 396–398. f. 11. 1984

Type. India: Kerala, Cannanore District, Bela, alt. 320 ft.; November 23, 1981; P.V. Shreekumar 71822 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

827. Arundinella ciliata (Roxb.) Nees ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam 4: 30. 1851

Holcus ciliatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 321. 1820. Type: India: “A native of Coromendel.”

Arundinella agrostoides Hook. f. var. ciliata (Roxb.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 71. 1896

Arundinella pilosa Hochst. ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam. 3, Pt. 4: 30. 1851, nom. invalid as syn of Arundinella ciliata. Type: India: “Mercara Ind. Or. Hochst. Hbrb. Hohenack. 647 in Sched.”

Arundinella agrostoides sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 71. 1896, non Trin., 1836

Syntypes. India; Wight s.n. Prope Mercara; Metz s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

828. Arundinella decempedalis (Kuntze) Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 84. 1921

Panicum decempedale Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 783. 1891. Type: Sikkim Himalaya, Terai; January 15, 1875; Kuntze 6581

Arundinella clarkei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 75–76. 1896. Type: India: Sikkim, Terai; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

829. Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Tanaka, Bult. Sci. Fak. Terk. Kjusu Imp. Univ. 1: 196, 208. 1925

Poa hirta Thunb., in J.A. Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 104. 1784. Type: Japonia.

Arundinella anomala Steud., Syn. Pl. Gl. 1:116. 1854. Type: Japan; Anonymous s.n. [Siebold].

Distribution. Assam.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Assam fide Naithani (1990).

830. Arundinella holcoides (Kunth) Trin., Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 1: 71. 1836.

Brandtia holcoides Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 2: 511. 1831. Type: Burma. Crescit in Pegu, M. Reynaud s.n.

Arundinella pubescens Merr. & Hack., Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 419. 1907. Philippine Islands: Palawan: May 1906, F.W. Foxworthy BS 856

Arundinella birmanica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 7: 73. 1896.

Arundinella hirsuta Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 115. 1854 Type: Himalaya: Coutrallum; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8671

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Himalaya.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. The circumscription and synonymy of this species are unclear and need to be carefully re-evaluated.

831. Arundinella hookeri Munro ex Keng, Sci. Rep. Natl. Centr. Univ., Ser. B 2(3): 50. 1936

Arundinella villosa Arn. ex Steud. var. himalaica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 73. 1896. Syntypes: Bhutan, East Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 6000–11000 ft.; Griffith s.n., J.D. Hooker & C.B. Clarke s.n.

Type. India: South of Yonsum, Sikkim Himalaya; 1888; King’s collector s.n. Pulney Hills; Madras Herb 16526.

Distribution. Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

832. Arundinella intricata Hughes, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1920: 112. 1920

Syntypes. India: Khasia Hills, Maosmai, alt. 4000 ft.; C.B. Clarke 16588 (K). Mahadeo, alt. 3000 ft.; Clarke 155622 (K). India: Khasia Hills, Amwé, 4000–4700 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K). Boga-Panee, 4000–6000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n. (K). India: Arbor Country, Dihang River, bank near Ritung; I. J. Burkill 373 (K).

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Meghalaya [Bhutan, China]

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Meghalaya fide Naithani (1990).

833. Arundinella khaseana Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 115. 1854

Type. India: Jugum Khasea; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8672.

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

834. Arundinella leptochloa (Nees) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 76. 1896

Panicum leptochloa Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 62. 1853. Type: India orientalis; Wight Herb. no. 125

Arundinella gigantea Dalzell in Dalzell & A. Gibson, Bombay Fl. 293. 1861. Type: India: Ghauts, Kineshwur; Dalzell s.n.

Arundinella lawsonii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 76. 1896 (as “lawsoni”). Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilghiri Hills, Goodaloor, alt. 3000 ft.; Lawson s.n.

Distribution. Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

835. Arundinella mesophylla Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 115. 1854

Type. India: Courtallum; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8663.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

836. Arundinella metzii Hochst. ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam ser. 3, 4: 31. 1851

Arundinella decomposita Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 84. 1921. Type: India; Meebold 10760

Arundinella lawii Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 180. 1900. Syntypes: Sri Lanka: without precise locality; Ferguson in Herb. Peraden. India: Concan, Malabar; J.E. Stocks s.n.

Arundinella pygmaea Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 72. 1896. Type: India: North Canara; Lisboa s.n.

Type. India: Karnataka, Mangalore; Metz Herb. no. 297.

Distribution. Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

837. Arundinella muthikulamensis Sunil, K.M.P. Kumar, & V.P. Thomas, Webbia 72(1): 101. 2017.

Type. India: Kerala, Palghat District, Muthikulam, Elivalmala, 2100 m, 11 November 2016, Sunil & K. M. Prabhukumar 4565 (holotype: CMPR; isotypes: MH, SNMH, CATH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

838. Arundinella nepalensis Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 62. 1826

Acratherum miliaceum Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 230. 1827. Type: “Habitat in Nepalia.”

Arundinella miliacea (Link) Nees, Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 102. 1890

Arundinella glabra Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 5: 237. 1837. Type: “Hab. Prope Macao”; G.H. Vachell s.n. (E?).

Arundinella ritchei Munro ex Lisboa, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 5: 343. 1890. Type: India: Maharashtra, Common in Thana, Salsette and Lanowli; Munro s.n. (Herbarium of Poona College of Science).

Arundinella virgata Janowski, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 84–85. 1921. Type: China: South China; 1865; W. Hillebrand s.n. (B).

Type. Nepal; Wallich s.n. in Herb. Lindley (LE).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

839. Arundinella nervosa (Roxb.) Nees ex Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 5: 237. 1837

Holcus nervosus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 320. 1820. Type: India: A native of Coromandel.

Distribution. Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

840. Arundinella pradeepiana Sunil & Naveen Kum., Webbia 69(2): 249. 2014.

Type. India: Kerala, Eranakulam district, Edamalayar forest range, Variyam, 800 m, 16 November 2013, Sunil & Naveen Kumar 6228 (holotype: CAL; isotype: MH, CALI).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

841. Arundinella pumila (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 114. 1854

Acratherum pumilum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 414. t. 100. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in pratis circa Aderbati in regno Tigre, mense Septembre (Quartin Dillon). Lectotype: Ethiopia: “in vallibus prope Adde Arbati”; October, 1839; Schimper 642 (B). LT cited by van der Zon, Gram. Cameroun 2: 361. 1992.

Arundinella tenella Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 115. 1854. Type: India; Wight herb. no.76, Royle herb. no. 268

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

842. Arundinella purpurea Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 115. 1854 var. purpurea

Arundinella fuscata sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 74. 1896, non Nees ex Buese, 1854

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Nilagiri Mountain; Hohenacker 928 (P).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

843. Arundinella purpurea Hochst. ex Steud. var. laxa Bor, Kew Bull. 1955: 407. 1955

Type. India: Madras, Sispara, alt. 6700 ft.; J.S. Gamble 13365.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Kerala fide Naithani (1990).

844. Arundinella ravii Shaju & N. Mohanan, Rheedea 14(1–2): 47–50. f. 1. 2004

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki District, Eravikulam National Park, 6000 ft.; November 8, 2000; Shaju 43700 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

845. Arundinella setosa Trin., Gram. Panic. [Trinius] 63. 1826 var. setosa

Arundinella bidentata Keng, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21(8): 159. 1931. Type: China: Fujian, Kuliang, moist hillsides and open lands, alt. 2500 ft.; July 30, 1919; J.B. Norton 1154 (US-1270758).

Arundinella capillaris Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 74. 1896. Type: India: Deccan; Heyne s.n. Pulney Hills; Herb. Wight no. 3338 Amsterdam. 3, Pt. 4: 30. 1851]. Type: Himalaya: Coutrallum; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8671

Arundinella mutica Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 116. 1854. Type: India; Heyne s.n. (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8665)

Arundinella setifera Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 115. 1854. Type: India: Nilagherry Mountains; Hohenacker 920

Arundinella sinensis Rendle, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 342. 1904. Type: China: Kwangtung; C. Ford 212, C. Ford 201 (BM). China: Guangdong, Lofaushan; Ford 125

Arundinella stricta Nees, Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 102. 1850

Arundinella zollingeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 115. 1854. Type: Java; Zollinger 2034

Miquelia barbulata Nees, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., Suppl. 19(1): 178. 1843. Type: “In Promontorio Syng-moon.”Hong Kong; Julio; F.J.F. Meyen s.n.

Berghausia barbulata (Nees) Endl. ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam ser. 3, 4: 32. 1851

Danthonia luzoniensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 245. 1854. Type: Philippines: Luzon; Cuming herb. no. 1415

Danthonia neuroelytrum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 245. 1854. Type: China; Fortune Herb. No. 5 (P).

Milium cimicinoides Roxb. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 70. 1896, nom. nud.

Type. Nepal; Lindley s.n. (LE).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

846. Arundinella setosa Trin. var. esetosa Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 425. 1960

Syntypes. India: Bihar; T. Thomson s.n. Nepal: Western part; Stainton, Sykes & Williams 4255, 4461.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Bihar and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

847. Arundinella setosa Trin. var. lanifera C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1801. 1934

Type. India: Cuddapa District, Mogili Kuppa, alt. 6000 ft.; Meebold s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

848. Arundinella setosa Trin. var. nilagiriana Subba Rao & Kumari, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 72: 827. 1976

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District, Koilbetta; September 11, 1970; G.V. Subba Rao & G.R. Kumari 19795A (CAL).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

849. Arundinella spicata Dalzell in Dalzell & A. Gibson, Bombay Fl. 293. 1861

Type. India: Maharashtra, Mahableshwur Hills; Dalzell s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan.

Habit. Annual.

850. Arundinella thirunelliensis Sunil, Ratheesh, & Sivad., Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 21(2): 153. 2014.

Type. India: Kerala, Wayanad District, Thirunelli, Kalindi riverbed, 900 m, 8 December 2012, Sunil & Ratheesh Narayanan 4854 (Holotype: CAL; Isotypes: MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

851. Arundinella tuberculata Munro ex Lisboa, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 5: 344. 1890

Type. India: Poona and Konkan; Munro s.n. (Herbarium of Poona College of Science).

Distribution. Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

852. Arundinella vaginata Bor, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 27: 66. 1948

Arundinella villosa Arn. ex Steud. var. heynei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 73. 1896 (as “heyne”). Type: India; Heyne s.n. (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8663A). Courtallam; Wight s.n.

Type. India: Madras, Palni Hills; Rev. A. Sauliere 817 (K).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

853. Arundinella villosa Arn. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 115. 1854

Type. Sri Lanka; Wight 2037.

Distribution. Karnataka, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Bhidea Stapf ex Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 445. 1949

Type. Bhidea burnsiana Bor.

854. Bhidea borii Deshp., V. Prakash & N.P. Singh, Curr. Sci. 58(19): 1094. 1989

Distribution. India.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Distribution within India not recorded.

855. Bhidea burnsiana Bor, Kew Bull. 1948: 445. 1949

Type. India: Bombay Lonavla; August, 1918; R.K. Bhide s.n. (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Karnataka and Maharashtra fide Naithani (1990).

856. Bhidea fischeri Sreek. & B. V. Shetty, Kew Bull. 42(3): 683. 1987

Type. India: Kerala, Cannanore District, Mukkarikandam, alt. 160 ft.; October 18, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71754 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Bothriochloa Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 762. 1891

Type. Bothriochloa anamitica Kuntze.

857. Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 80: 62. 1969

Andropogon bladhii Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 2: 27. 1781. Type: “In China lectum cum aliis mislit bonorat, D. Bladh.” China; Bladh s.n. (LD).

Dichanthium bladhii (Retz.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 32(1): 3. 1977

Andropogon intermedius R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 202. 1810. Type: Australia: “Keppel Bay” (North West end of Curtis Island); Brown 6184 (BM).

Amphilophis intermedia (R. Br.) Stapf, Agric. News (Barbados) 15(368): 179. 1916

Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 76: 164. var. Intermedia

Andropogon caucasicus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(3): 286. 1832. Type: “V. spp. e Cauc. orient.”

Dichanthium caucasicum (Trin.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 133. 1979 (“1978”)

Sorghum caucasicum (Trin.) Griseb., Fl. Ross. [Ledebour] 4: 476. 1853

Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C.E. Hubb. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1939: 101. 1939

Andropogon intermedius R. Br. var. caucasicus (Trin.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 486. 1889

Andropogon glaber Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 271. 1820. Type: “A native of Mountainous countries.” India: Bengal; Roxburgh s.n. (BM).

Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 76: 164. 1931

Dichanthium glabrum (Roxb.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”)

Amphilophis glabra (Roxb.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 172. 1917

Andropogon haenkei J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 340. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Marianis, in Luzonia.” Philippines: Luzone; Haenke s.n. (PR).

Andropogon leptanthus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 391. 1854. Type: India; Cuming 1400

Andropogon punctatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 268. 1820. Type: India; “a Mountain grass.”

Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.) A. Camus var. punctata (Roxb.) Keng, Clav. Gen. Sp. Gram. Prim. Sin. 244. 1957

Andropogon vachellii Nees ex Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 6: 243. 1838. Type: “Hab. in vicinia urbis macao Imperii Chinensis et in insulis adjacentibus. Millet, G.H. Vachell, n. 50” China: Macao and adjacent islands; Millett; G.H. Vachell 50 (E).

Andropogon odoratus Lisboa, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 4: 118, 123. 1889. Syntypes: India: Bombay Presidency, Thana District; Dymock s.n. Lanowli; October, 1890; Lisboa s.n. (K).

Bothriochloa odorata (Lisboa) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 76: 165. 1931

Amphilophis odorata (Lisboa) A. Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 1: 305. 1921

Dichanthium odoratum (Lisboa) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”)

Andropogon perfossus Nees & Meyen, ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot. [Steudel], ed. 2. 1: 92. 1840, nom. inval., cited as synonym of A. punctatus Roxb.

Distribution. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

Habit. Perennial.

858. Bothriochloa compressa (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 456. 1940

Andropogon compressus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 172. 1896. Syntypes: India: Deccan; Lisboa (no 6. A. odoratus) (K). Deccan; Woodrow s.n. (K).

Dichanthium compressum (Hook. f.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 133. 1979 (“1978”)

Distribution. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

859. Bothriochloa ensiformis (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 457. 1940

Andropogon ensiformis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 175. 1896. Type: India: the Concan; Dalzell s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Perennial.

860. Bothriochloa grahamii (Haines) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 107. 1960

Andropogon grahamii Haines, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1914: 189. 1914. Type: India: Central Provinces, Amakantak Hills, often gregarious in old jhumed lands (bewars); Haines 3646 (K).

Dichanthium grahamii (Haines) Deshp., Fasc. Fl. India 15: 14. 1984

Type. India: Madhya Pradesh; H.H. Haines 3646 (K).

Distribution. Madhya Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

861. Bothriochloa insculpta (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 76: 165. 1931

Andropogon insculptus Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 458. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in montosis provincial Chire (Quartin Dillon), et in terra sicca ad radices montis Selleuda, prope Adoua, mense Septembre (Schimper).” Lectotype: Ethiopia: Tigray, Scholoda; September 22, 1837; Schimper 80 (US-76201 (fragm)). LT designated (as “holotype”) by Marchi & Longhi-Wagner in Bol. Inst. Bioci. Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul 57: 38. 1998.

Amphilophis insculpta (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 176. 1917

Andropogon pertusus (L.) Willd. var. insculptus (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 174. 1896

Dichanthium insculptum (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 32(1): 3. 1977

Andropogon subunifoveolatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 380. 1854, in nota. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilagiri Mountains; R.F. Honenacker no. 918

Distribution. Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [also in Africa, South America].

Habit. Perennial.

862. Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng, Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China, Bot. Ser. 10: 201. 1936

Andropogon ischaemum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1047. 1753. Type: “Habitat in Europae australioris aridis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1211.26 (LINN). LT designated by Marchi & Longhi-Wagner in Bol. Inst. Bioci. Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul 57: 41. 1998.

Dichanthium ischaemum (L.) Roberty, Boissiera 9: 160. 1960

Distribution. Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Afghanistan, China, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

863. Bothriochloa kuntzeana (Hack.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 456. 1940

Andropogon kuntzeanus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 478. 1889. Type: Peninsular Indiae orientalis: Assirgar; Kuntze s.n. (NY).

Amphilophis kuntzeana (Hack.) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1031. 1924

Dichanthium kuntzeana (Hack.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”)

Eulalia clarkei Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1017. 1924. Type: India: Singbhum, alt. 2500 ft.; C.B. Clarke 20551

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

864. Bothriochloa longifolia (Hack.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 108. 1960

Andropogon pertusus (L.) Willd. var. longifolius Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 482. 1889. Type: India: Madras; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8803

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

865. Bothriochloa parameswaranii Sreek., Malathi, & V.J. Nair, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 85(1): 163–165. 1988

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki District, Eravikulam National Park, alt. 6800 ft.; February 14, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71858 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Not recognized by Clayton et al. (2006 onwards).

866. Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 76: 164. 1931

Holcus pertusus L., Mant. Pl. Altera 301–302. 1771. Type: “Habitat in India orientali.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1212.16 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton in Kew Bull. 32: 4. 1977.

Amphilophis pertusa (L.) Nash ex Stapf, Agric. News (Barbados) 15(368): 179. 1916

Andropogon pertusus (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4: 922. 1806

Dichanthium pertusum (L.) Clayton, Kew Bull. 32(1): 4. 1977

Lepeocercis pertusa (L.) Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (Hasskarl) 52. 1848

Andropogon angustifolius sensu Parl., Fl. Palerm. 1: 269. 1845, non Sibth. & Sm., 1806

Elionurus pertusus Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 364. 1854, nom. inval., pro. syn.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Afghanistan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

867. Bothriochloa pseudoischaemum (Nees) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 457. 1940

Andropogon pseudoischaemum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 380. 1854. Type: India orientalis; Heyne s.n. (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8815)

Dichanthium pseudoischaemum (Nees) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”)

Amphilophis pseudoischaemum (Nees) Alston in H. Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 331. 1931 (as “pseudischaemum”)

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

868. Bothriochloa woodrovii (Hook. f.) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 76: 165. 1931

Amphilophis woodrovii (Hook. f.) A. Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 1: 305. 1921

Andropogon woodrovii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 173. 1896. Type: India: Bombay, Mawal; December, 1894; Woodrow 27 (K).

Dichanthium woodrovii (Hook. f.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”) (as “woodrowii”)

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Perennial.

Capillipedium Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 11, 169. 1917

Lectotype. Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf (Holcus parviflorus R. Br.). LT probably designated by G. Roberty, Boissiera 9: 1–455. 1960).

869. Capillipedium assimile (Steud.) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 314. 1922

Andropogon assimilis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Java; Zollinger Herb. 859 (P).

Dichanthium assimile (Steud.) Deshp., Fasc. Fl. India 15: 6. 1984

Andropogon glaucopsis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Nepal, China; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8786

Capillipedium glaucopsis (Steud.) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 31: t. 3085. 1922

Andropogon subrepens Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Nepal, China; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8790, 8789

Capillipedium subrepens (Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 463. 1940

Andropogon montanus sensu Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 490. 1889, non Roxb., 1820

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

870. Capillipedium filiculme (Hook. f.) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 31: sub t. 3085. 1922

Andropogon filiculmis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 181. 1896. Syntypes: India: the Deccan, Poonah, in rocky places; Jacquemont 310. Mawar, Dhomsha; Woodrow 26 (K).

Dichanthium filiculme (Hook. f.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”)

Distribution. Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

871. Capillipedium huegelii (Hack.) A. Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 1(4): 306. 1921

Andropogon huegelii Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 492. 1889 (as “hügelii). Type: Asia; Hügel 2243 “in h. Vind. verisimiliter, ut ex num. cit. patet in India ad pedes Himalayae lectus.”

Dichanthium huegelii (Hack.) S.K.Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 135 1979 (“1978”)

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Annual.

872. Capillipedium magdalenae M.R. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 72: 813. 1976 (as “magdaleni”)

Dichanthium magdalenae (M.R. Almeida) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 135. 1979 (“1978”) (as “magdaleni”)

Type. India: Karnataka, Agumbe; November, 1972; M.R. Almeida 2566 (BLAT).

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Annual.

873. Capillipedium nagense Bor, Brittonia 16: 228. 1964

Dichanthium nagense (Bor) Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 21(1–4): 198. 1981 (“1979”)

Type. India: Assam, Naga Hills, Dzulake Valley alt. 8500 ft.; September, 1993; N.L. Bor’s collector 353 (K).

Distribution. Assam, Nagaland.

Habit. Perennial.

874. Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 169. 1917

Holcus parviflorus R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 199. 1810. Type: Australia; R. Brown s.n. (BM).

Anatherum parviflorum (R. Br.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 290. 1824 (“1825”)

Dichanthium parviflorum (R. Br.) De Wet & J. R. Harlan, Amer. J. Bot. 54(3): 384. 1967

Sorghum parviflorum (R. Br.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 165. 1812

Andropogon alternans J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1(4–5): 342. 1830. Type: “Habitat in Peruvia.” Philippines: Luzon island; Haenke s.n. (US-76233 (fragm.)).

Andropogon micranthus Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 165. 1829

Andropogon quartinianus A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 469. 1850–1851. Type: “Crescit in planitie montosa Beless, provinciae Chire, mense Octobre (Quartin Dillon).”

Sorghum quartinianum (A. Rich.) Schweinf., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 306. 1867

Andropogon parvispica Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle 283

Chrysopogon parvispicus (Steud.) Will. Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 392. 1882 (as “parvispica”)

Andropogon capilliflorus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Java, Japonica

Chrysopogon violascens Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 319. 1832. Type: “Andropogon violascens N. Ab Es. In Sieb. Agrostoth. no. 65”. “V. ssp. nov. Holl.”

Andropogon violascens (Trin.) Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 396. 1854

Holcus caerulescens Gaudich., Voy. Monde, Phan. 10: 411, t. 27. 1829. Type: “Habitat in Novae-Hollandiae ora orientali; Port-Jackson.”

Rhaphis caerulescens (Gaudich.) Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 69. 1831

Andropogon serratus sensu Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 290. 1866, non Thunb., 1784

Rhaphis microstachya Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854, nom. inval., cited as synonym of A. parvispica

Rhaphis villosula Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854, nom. inval., cited as synonym of A. villosulus

Chrysopogon parviflorus (R. Br.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 7: 537. 1878, isonym, non (R. Br.) Nees, 1843

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Sikkim, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

875. Capillipedium planipedicellatum Bor, Kew Bull. 1949: 222. 1949

Dichanthium planipedicellatum (Bor) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 135. 1979 (“1978”)

Filipedium planipedicellatum (Bor) Raizada & S.K. Jain, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 49: 683. 1951

Type. India: Manipure State, Palel, alt. 2500 ft.; October 10, 1942; N.L. Bor 17059 (K).

Distribution. Manipur.

Habit. Perennial.

876. Capillipedium pteropechys (C.B. Clarke) Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 31: sub t. 3085. 1922

Andropogon pteropechys C.B. Clarke, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 88. t. 38. 1899. Syntypes: India: Kohima, alt. 5500 ft.; C.B. Clarke 41187 (K). Jakpho, alt. 7500 ft.; C.B. Clarke 41896 (K).

Dichanthium pteropechys (C.B. Clarke) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 135. 1979 (“1978”). Type: India: Naga Hills, Kohima edge; C.B. Clarke 61896A (CAL).

Distribution. Manipur, Nagaland.

Habit. Perennial.

Chionachne R. Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. (Bennett) 15, 18. 1838

Type. Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) R. Br. ex Aitch (Coix barbata Roxb.).

877. Chionachne digitata (L.f.) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212132-1

Apluda digitata L.f., Suppl. Pl. 434. 1782 (“1781”). Type: “Habitat in India”; Thunberg s.n.

Polytoca digitata (L.f.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Soc. Brit. Isles 1916, Suppl. 2: 641. 1917

Coix heteroclita Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 3: 572. 1832. Type: India: Bengal; Kyd s.n. Å1810 in herb. Roxburgh (BM, Icon. Ined. 2550= Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8627A, IDC microfiche 7394).

Polytoca heteroclita (Roxb.) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 1: 99. 1911

Polytoca bracteata R. Br., Pl. Rar. Jav. 20. t. 5. 1838. Type: Indonesia: Java, Prowoto Hills, 20 miles south of Semarang; 1809; Horsfield 113 (BM).

Distribution. Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Sikkim, West Bengal [Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. The above combination is made here to transfer Polytoca digitata (L.f.) Druce to Chionachne.

878. Chionachne gigantea (J. Koenig) Veldkamp, Blumea 47(3): 559. 2002

Coix gigantea J. Koenig, Naturforscher (Halle) 23: 211. 1788. Type: India: Andhra Pradesh, Circars; Koenig s.n. (BM, K, UPS, Herb. Thunberg 21727, IDC microfiche 1036).

Coix koenigii Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) [Sprengel] 1: 239. 1824 (“1825”), nom. nov. for Coix arundinacea J.Konig ex Willd.

Chionachne koenigii (Spreng.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 357. 1864

Polytoca barbata (Roxb.) Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 102. 1896

Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. gigantea (J. Koenig) Stapf, Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 100. 1896

Coix lingulata Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 5. 1891. Type: Burma: Shan Hills, Fort Stedmens, alt. 3000 ft.; H. Collett. s.n.

Coix barbata Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 3: 569. 1832. Type: India: Andhra Pradesh, Northern Circars, Moist rice field; Roxburgh s.n. (BM, sh. 47254, Icon. Ined. 871=Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8626-A:K, IDC microfiche 7394).

Chionachne barbata (Roxb.) R. Br. ex Aitch., Cat. Pl. Punjab Sindh 157. 1869

Coix crypsoides C. Mull., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 19(45): 334. 1861. Type: Bengalia Indiae orientalis; Griffith s.n. (B (destroyed); IT: K).

Coix arundinacea J. Koenig ex Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4: 203. 1805, non Lam., 1791. Type: India: Transchaur, Rarissime; De Friedland s.n. (B-W-17908-b (IDC microfiche 7440)).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal [Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Some authors maintain Chionachne as distinct from Polytoca (Jannink and Veldkamp 2002), but Kellogg (2015b) combines them, pointing out that they are sister genera in molecular phylogenies and are morphologically similar.

879. Chionachne punctata (R. Br.) Jannink, Blumea 47(3): 566–567, f. 8. 2002

Sclerachne punctata R. Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. (Bennett) 15. t. 4. 1838. Type: Indonesia: Java, near Surakarta, Jebus village; Horsfield s.n. (BM).

Polytoca punctata (R. Br.) Stapf ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 102. 1896

Chionachne massii Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4: 78. 1890. Type: “Cette espece a été trouvée par M. Massie, pharmacien de la marine, dans les environs de Sontay. Elle a été recueillie aussi a Bac-ninh par M. Brousemiche.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra [Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

880. Chionachne semiteres (Benth. ex Hook. f.) Henrard, Meded. Rijks-Herb. 67: 16. 1931

Polytoca semiteres Benth. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 101. 1896. Type: Deccan Peninsula, Palamcotta; Wight s.n. Burma: Taong-dong Hills; Wallich s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

881. Chionachne wallichiana (Nees) E.A. Kellogg, comb. nov.

urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77212133-1

Cyathorhachis wallichiana Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 403. 1854. Type: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8629

Polytoca wallichiana (Nees) Benth., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 52. 1881

Distribution. Assam, Mizoram, Sikkim [Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Mizoram and Sikkim fide Naithani (1990). The above combination is made here to transfer Polytoca wallichiana (Nees) Benth. to Chionachne.

Chrysopogon Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 187. 1820, nom. cons.

Type. Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. (Andropogon gryllus L.) (typ. cons.).

882. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 188. 1820

Andropogon aciculatus Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 22. 1788 (“1789”) (as “aciculatum”). Type: “Habitat in Indiae Orientalis sterilibus et ruderatis. Gramen aciculatum Rumph. Amb. VI. p. 14. pl. 5. f.1.” Lectotype: India; Koenig s.n. in herb. Retzius (LD). LT designated by Veldkamp in Austrobaileya 5(3): 509. 1999.

Rhaphis aciculatus (Retz.) Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 69. 1831 (as “aciculare”)

Andropogon javanicus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 396. 1854. Lectotype: Indonesia: Java; Junghuhn s.n. (P). LT designated by Veldkamp in Austrobaileya 5(3): 510. 1999.

Centrophorum chinense Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 106. t. 5. 1820. Type: “Vidi ramum hujus Graminis singularis in Herbario ditissimo Gorenkensi.”

Rhaphis trivialis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 553. 1790. Type: “Habitat ubique prope vias, hominibus valde incommode in Cochinchina & China, quia vestibus adhaerens taediose avellitur, cum ex cuti nequeat.”

Chrysopogon trivialis Arn. & Nees, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur., Suppl. 19(1): 171. 1843, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

Rhaphis javanica Nees ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 396. 1854, nom. invalid. cited as synonym of Andropogon javanicus.

Andropogon acicularis Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 812. 1817, orth. var.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

883. Chrysopogon asper Heyne ex Blatter & McCann, Sci. Monogr. Imp. Council Agric. Res. India (Bombay Grasses) 5: 68. 1935

Andropogon asper Heyne ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 189. 1896, non (Thunb.) Kunth, 1829, nom. later hom. illeg. Type: India: Madras, Pulicat Hills; Heyne s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

884. Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1907: 211. 1907

Andropogon aucheri Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 1(5): 77. 1844. Type: “Hab. in desertis Persiae australis; Aucher no. 5465.”

Chrysopogon ciliolatus (Nees ex Steud.) Boiss. var. aucheri Boiss. (Boiss), Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 458. 1884

Distribution. Gujarat, Rajasthan [Afghanistan, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

885. Chrysopogon castaneus Veldkamp & Salunkhe, Rheedea 10(1): 59. 2000

Type. India: Maharashtra, Sindhudurg District, Amboli-Choukul, alt. 2320 ft.; September 18, 1993; S.R. Yadav 8678 (L).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Perennial.

886. Chrysopogon copei N. Mohanan & Ravi, Rheedea 11(2): 87. 2001.

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Tirunelveli district, Shengelteri, 700 m, 22 December 2000, Mohanan 45125 (hototype: TBGT; isotype: CAL, CALI, K, MH).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

887. Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov., Fl. Somala 1: 327. 1929

Pollinia fulva Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 10. 1815. Type: “Habitat in Bengalia”; Roxburgh s.n.

Andropogon sprengelii Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 166. 1829

Chrysopogon montanus Trin. in Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 93. 1821. Type: “Hab. in India Orientali”; Koenig s.n. ex herb. Banks in herb. Jacquin (W).

Chrysopogon monticola Haines, Indian Forester 40(10): 495. 1914, nom. superfl. & illegit.

Andropogon montanus J. Koenig ex Trin. in Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 93. 1821, pro. syn., nom. nud.

Andropogon monticola Schult. & Schult. f., Mant. 3 (Schultes & Schultes f.) Add. I665. 1827, nom. superfl. for Chrysopogon montanus

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

888. Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 188. 1820 ssp. gryllus

Andropogon gryllus L., Cent. Pl. II 33. 1756. Type: “Habitat in Rhaetia, Helvetia, Veronae, Sauvages, Seguier.” Lectotype: Seguier, Herb. Linn. No. 1211.2 (LINN). LT designated by Meikle in Fl. Cyprus 2: 1863. 1985.

Holcus gryllus (L.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 1: 199. 1810

Pollinia gryllus (L.) Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 10. 1815

Andropogon royleanus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Nepal.

Chrysopogon glabratus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(4): 318. 1832. Type: “V. spp. Nepal.” Nepal; Wallich s.n.

Andropogon glabratus (Trin.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 1: 91. 1840

Apluda gryllus sensu (L.) C. Presl, Cyper. Gramin. Sicul. 55. 1820, non P. Beauv., 1812

Distribution. Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

889. Chrysopogon gryllus L. ssp. echinulatus (Steud.) Cope, Kew Bull. 35(3): 701. 1980

Andropogon echinulatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Nepal; Royle 226.

Chrysopogon echinulata (Steud.) Will. Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 10: 392. 1882

Andropogon gryllus L. ssp. echinulatus (Steud.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 552. 1889

Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. var. echinulatus (Steud.) S.K. Jain, Phytotaxonomy 3: 136. 2004

Rhaphis echinulata Nees, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 1: 417. 1840, nom invalid., nom. nud. Type: Northwest India; Royle 226 (LIV).

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

890. Chrysopogon hackelii (Hook. f.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1739. 1934

Andropogon hackelii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 194. 1896. Type: India: Travancore, Nilghiri Hills; Wight 1030 (K). Gondaloo Ghat, alt. 4500 ft.; Lawson s.n. Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8783

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

891. Chrysopogon hamiltonii (Hook. f.) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1036. 1924

Andropogon hamiltonii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 190. 1896 (as “hamiltoni”). Type: India: Behar, Monghir; Buchanan-Hamilton s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.

Habit. Perennial.

892. Chrysopogon lancearius (Hook. f.) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1036. 1924

Andropogon lancearius Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 190. 1896. Syntypes: India: Sikkim Himalaya, Punkabaree; Kurz s.n. Chota Nagpore; Ramghur, Ghat, 1750 ft.; C.B. Clarke s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, Sikkim, West Bengal.

Habit. Perennial.

893. Chrysopogon lawsonii (Hook. f.) Veldkamp, Austrobaileya 5(3): 515. 1999

Vetiveria lawsonii (Hook. f.) Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 409. 1928 (as “lawsoni”)

Andropogon lawsonii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 187. 1896. Type: India: Mysore, Bandypore, in moist ground, alt. 3000 ft.; Lawson s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Not recorded.

894. Chrysopogon narayanii Sunil, Ratheesh, & Sivadasan, Phytotaxa 307 (4): 249. 2017.

Type. India: Kerala, Kannur district, Madayippara, 40 m, 5 December 2014, Sunil, R. Narayanam 7187 (holotype: CAL; isotype: MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

895. Chrysopogon nodulibarbis (Hochst ex Steud.) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 534. 1941

Andropogon nodulibarbis Hochst ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 396. 1854. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Mountains; R.F. Hohencaker 934

Andropogon zeylanicus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 397. 1854. Type: Sri Lanka.

Chrysopogon zeylanicus (Steud.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites) 366. 1864

Andropogon peninsulae Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 396. 1854. Type: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8785 as “Chrysopogon”

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

896. Chrysopogon orientalis (Desv.) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 332. 1922

Rhaphis orientalis Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 69. 1831. Type: “India orientalis.” India; Klein 392 (B-W-18636 (sheet 4)).

Andropogon aristulatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 372. 1854. Type: “Ins. Borbon”

Andropogon breviaristatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 396. 1854. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Nilgiri Hills, prope Kaity; October 18; R. F. Hohenacker 1285 (P).

Andropogon wightianus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 395. 1854. Lectotype: India; Wight 1676 (P). LT designated by Veldkamp, Austrobaileya 5(3): 518. 1999.

Chrysopogon wightianus (Steud.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 366. 1864

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

897. Chrysopogon polyphyllus (Hack. ex Hook. f.) Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 416. 1928

Andropogon polyphyllus Hack. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 194–195. 1896. Type: India: Madhya Pradesh, Khandua, Chanda and Jubbulpore Districts, by the Nerbudda and Indravati rivers; J.C. Duthie 8491 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [also in Malaysia, North America].

Habit. Perennial.

898. Chrysopogon pseudozeylanicus K.G. Bhat & Nagendran, Reinwardtia 10(2): 128, f. 2. 1985

Type. India: Karnataka State, South Kanara District, Charmadi ghat, about 15 km from Kotigehar on the way to Dharmasthala; November, 1977; K.G. Bhat 550A (CAL).

Distribution. Karnataka.

Habit. Perennial.

899. Chrysopogon purushothamanii Ravi, N. Mohanan & Kiran Raj, Rheedea 10(2): 94. f. 2. 2000

Type. India: Kerala State, Pathanamthitta District. Kozhanchery Taluk, Kokkathode, Kattathipara, alt. 500 ft.; November 25, 2000; Ravi 44811 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

900. Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(3): 318. 1832

Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov. var. serrulatus (Trin.) R.R. Stewart, Brittonia 5(4): 466. 1945

Chrysopogon montanus Trin. var. serrulatus (Trin.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 160. 1917, in obs.

Andropogon coeruleus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 395. 1854. Type: India; Royle Herb. no. 254, 255

Andropogon ciliolatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 396. 1854. Type: India; Royle Herb. no. 318. India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8788

Chrysopogon ciliolatus (Steud.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. (Boissier) 5: 458. 1884

Andropogon monticola Schultes var. trinii (Steud.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 193. 1896

Andropogon trinii Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 395. 1854. Type: Nepal

Andropogon trinii Steud. var. increscens Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 558–559. 1889. Syntypes: India: Coutrallum; Wight 1030. Sri Lanka; Thwaites 2954

Chrysopogon wightianus (Steud.) Thwaites var. leucanthus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 366. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Doombera District; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3248

Type. Nepal; 1821; Wallich (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8791).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

901. Chrysopogon tadulingamii Sreek., V.J. Nair & N.C. Nair, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 80: 198. f. 15. 1983

Type. India: Kerala, Cannanore District, Periye, alt. 200 ft.; October 18, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71758 (CAL).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

902. Chrysopogon velutinus (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 119. 1960

Andropogon velutinus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 194. 1896. Type: India: Mysore, Chuddapah; Wight 2314

Chrysopogon velutinus Arn. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 194. 1896, nom. nud. pro. syn.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

903. Chrysopogon verticillatus (Roxb.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 1: 360. 1840

Andropogon verticillatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 267. 1820. Type: India: “A native of Mountains, flowering about the end of the wet season.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

904. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afrique Noire 22: 106. 1960

Phalaris zizanioides L., Mant. Pl. Altera 183. 1771. Type: “Habitat in India orientali. Koenig.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 78.12 (LINN). LT designated by van der Zon in Wageningen Agric. Univ. Pap. 92-1: 409. 1992.

Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, Fl. S.E. U.S. [Small]. 67, 1326. 1903

Anatherum zizanioides (L.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 285. 1917

Andropogon zizanioides (L.) Urban, Symb. Antill. (Urban). 4: 79. 1903

Holcus zizanioides (L.) Kuntze ex Stuck., Anales Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 11: 48. 1904

Sorghum zizanioides (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 791. 1891

Andropogon festucoides J. Presl in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 340. 1830. Type: “Hab. in Luzonia.” Philippines: Luzon Island; T. Haenke s.n. (PR).

Andropogon muricatus Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 43. 1783 (as “muricatum”). Type: “Dedit Honoratiss Koenig.” India; Koenig s.n.

Anatherum muricatum (Retz.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 150. t. 22. f. 10. 1812

Vetiveria muricata (Retz.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W.I. [Grisebach] 560. 1864

Vetiveria arundinacea Griseb., Fl. Brit. W.I. [Grisebach] 559. 1864. Type: “P.B. Agrost. t. 22. f. 10 anal.”

Vetiveria odorata Virey, J. Pharm. 13: 501. 1827. Type: “East Indies. Ref. is made to Bull. Soc. Philom. 1822: 44.”

Vetiveria odoratissima Lem.-Lisanc., Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris 43. 1822. Type: Sri Lanka: “à Bourbon à l’lile de France oú elle a été apportée, sous l’ intendance de M. Poivre’, M. Poivre”( P?). (vide Tropicos)

Andropogon squarrosus sensu Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 233. 1900, non L. f., 1781

Agrostis verticillata Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 1: 59. 1783, non Vill., 1779. Type: “Cette plante croit dans I’Inde, & m’a été communiqué par M. Sonnerat.”

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Widely cultivated.

Cleistachne Benth., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 14: 60, t. 1379. 1882

Type. Cleistachne sorghoides Benth.

905. Cleistachne sorghoides Benth., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 14: 60, t. 1379. 1882

Cleistachne stocksii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 162–163. 1896. Type: India: Malabar, Bababoodan Hills; J.E. Stocks s.n., Ritchie s.n.

Type. Mozambique: Shubanga, on the Zambesi; J. Kirk s.n. (K).

Distribution. Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [also in Saudi Arabia, Africa].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Bihar and Gujarat fide Naithani (1990).

Coix L., Sp. Pl. 2: 972. 1753

Lectotype. Coix lacryma-jobi L. LT designated by G. V. Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17: 82. 1909; affirmed by Hitchcock, Amer. J. Bot. 5: 250. 1918.

906. Coix aquatica Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Roxburgh) 3: 571–572. 1832

Type. India: Lower parts of Bengal, generally found floating on lakes; Roxburgh s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

907. Coix lacryma-jobi L., Sp. Pl. 2: 972. 1753

Lithagrostis lacryma-jobi (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 7. t. 1. f. 10. 1788

Coix agrestis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 551. 1790. Type: “Habitat agrestis in locis humidis.”

Coix arundinacea Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 3(2): 422. 1792. Type: “Cette plante croit dans les pays chauds de l’Amerique.”

Coix exaltata J. Jacq., Ecl. Gram. Rar. 60. t. 40. 1820. Type: China

Coix lacryma L., Syst. Nat., ed 10. 2: 1261. 1759, nom. superfl. & illegit. for C. lacryma-jobi.

Coix ovata Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 4: 343. 1812, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Coix pendula Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 28. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg.

Type. “Habitat in Indiis.” Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 1098.1 (LINN). LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 857. 1982.

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

908. Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. stenocarpa Oliv., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 18: t. 1764. 1888

Coix stenocarpa (Oliv.) Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4(4): 77–78. 1890

Coix tubulosa Hack. ex Warbg. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 13(2): 260. 1890. Type: “Sattelberg bei Finschhafen.” Papua New Guinea; E.F. Warburg 20946 (B).

Syntypes. Burma; G. Watt s.n. India: Mergui; Griffith s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoran, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

909. Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 100. 1896

Coix ma-yuen Rom. Caill., Bull. Soc. Natl. Acclim. France ser. 2, 8: 442. 1881. Type: India: Sikkim, up to 5000 ft.; Watt?

Distribution. Assam, Sikkim [Bhutan, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

910. Coix puellarum Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4(4): 77. 1890

Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. puellarum (Balansa) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 220. 1922

Type. Vietnam: Tonkin; Balansa s.n.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Annual.

Cymbopogon Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 14. 1815

Lectotype. Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. (Andropogon schoenanthus L.). LT designated by N.L. Britton & P. Wilson in Bot. Porto Rico 1: 27. 1923.

911. Cymbopogon caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 360–361. 1906

Andropogon caesius Nees ex Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 6: 244. 1838. Syntypes: India; Wight 1700b (K). “N. ab E. in Wight Cat. n. 1700”. [China]: “Hab. a et b, in vicinia urbis Macao, et in insulis adjectis; Millett; G.H. Vachell, n. 41. a.”

Andropogon schoenanthus L. var. caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 610. 1889

Andropogon schoenanthus L. var. gracillimus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 205. 1896. Type: Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8796

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

912. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 322, 357. 1906

Andropogon citratus DC., Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp. 78. 1813 (as “citratum”). Type: “Cult. at Montpellier, France, from seed collected in Asia” Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 5. p. 181. under Schoenanthum amboinicum, Specimen from Lambert’s Garden (BM).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra,Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Widely cultivated.

913. Cymbopogon coloratus (Hook. f.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 321, 356. 1906

Andropogon nardus L. var. coloratus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 206–207. 1896. Syntypes: India; Heyne s.n., Wight s.n.

Andropogon nardus L. ssp. glomeratus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 604. 1889. Type: Peninsular India Orientalis; Wight 3087

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

914. Cymbopogon commutatus (Steud.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1907: 211. 1907 var. commutatus

Andropogon commutatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 387. 1854. Type: Ethiopia; Schimper 685 (P).

Cymbopogon parkeri Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929(1): 10–11. 1929. Type: India: United Provinces, very common in the Ettawah afforestation area; August, 1923; R.S. Pearson s.n.

Andropogon laniger sensu Duthie, Fodder Grasses North. India 35. t. 23. 1888, non Desf., 1799

Distribution. Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India, except for Goa and Jammu and Kashmir, all fide Naithani (1990).

915. Cymbopogon commutatus (Steud.) Stapf var. jammuensis (Gupta) Naithani, Fl. Pl. India, Nepal & Bhutan 483. 1990

Cymbopogon parkeri Stapf var. jammuensis Gupta, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. Sec. B, 71:96. 1970

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Perennial.

916. Cymbopogon distans (Nees) Wats., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 392. 1882

Andropogon distans Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 387. 1854. Lectotype: Nepal; Royle 236 (LIV). LT designated by Soenarko, Reiwardtia 9: 356. 1977.

Cymbopogon distans (Nees) Wats. var. mundensis Gupta, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. Sec. B, 71:97. 1970

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand [China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Jammu and Kashmir fide Naithani (1990).

917. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Will. Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N.W. Prov. 392. 1982 var. flexuosus

Andropogon flexuosus Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac.(Steudel) 1: 388. 1854. Type: India; Wight 1704 (P). “A. nardus Klein herb. Ind. or.”

Andropogon nardus L. ssp. flexuosus (Nees) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 603. 1889. Type: Peninsular India; Wight 171

Cymbopogon travancorensis Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 174–176. f. 24. 1954. Type: India: Courtallum, Tinnevelly; November 11, 1908; Bourne 5309 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

918. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Will. Watson var. coimbatore B.K. Gupta, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B. 71: 94. 1970

Type. India; B.K. Gupta 32 (DD).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

919. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Will. Watson var. sikkimensis Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 162. 1954

Syntypes. India: Sikkim, Kynanooka, Terai; November, 1878; J.S. Gamble 7363. Tuckvar; September 19, 1874; Treutler 792. Rungpo, alt.; November 3, 1909; I.H. Burkill 34063. West Bengal, Darjeeling District, Badamtam, Ranjit; November 1, 1909; I.H. Burkill 34012.

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Sikkim fide Naithani (1990).

920. Cymbopogon gidarba (Buch.- Ham. ex Steud.) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1048. 1924 var. gidarba

Andropogon gidarba Buch.- Ham. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 387. 1854. Type: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8797

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China].

Habit. Perennial.

921. Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 458. 1824 ssp. jwarancusa (“iwarancusa”)

Andropogon jwarancusa Jones, Asiat. Res. 4: 109. 1795. Type: India: Lucnow; Blane s.n.

Andropogon himalayensis Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 46: 421. 1899, non Steud., 1854. Type: India: Jihri Garhwal, Tous Valley, alt. 3000–4000 ft.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

922. Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult. var. assamensis Gupta, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. Sec. B, 71:95. 1970.

Distribution. Assam.

Habit. Perennial.

923. Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult. ssp. olivieri (Boiss.) Soenarko, Reinwardtia 9(3): 307. 1977

Andropogon olivieri Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 1(5): 76. 1844. Type: Iraq: Baghdad (“Mesopotamia”); 1834; Archer Eloy 2955 (G).

Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss.) Bor, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 25(1): 62. 1963

Andropogon iwarancusa Jones ssp. laniger (Desf.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 203. 1896

Andropogon laniger Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 379. 1800. Type: “Habitat in montibus prope Cafsam” (as “lanigerum”)

Cymbopogon ladakhensis B.K. Gupta, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B. 71: 10. 1970. Type: India: Kashmir; B.K. Gupta 37 (DD).

Cymbopogon schoenanthus sensu Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 131. 1960, non (L.) Spreng., 1815

Andropogon schoenanthus sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 204. 1896, non L., 1753

Distribution. Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh [Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal fide Naithani (1990).

924. Cymbopogon khasianus (Hack.) Stapf ex Bor, Indian Forest Rec., Bot. n.s. 1(3): 92. 1938

Andropogon nardus L. ssp. khasianus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 603. 1889. Type: [Bangladesh] India: Silhet; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8794-H; Griffith 6764, 6765 (K).

Andropogon khasianus Munro ex Duthie, Fodder Grasses North. India 88. 1888, nom. nud.

Distribution. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland [Bhutan, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

925. Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Will. Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 392. 1882

Andropogon martini Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 280–281. 1820. Type: “A native of the high lands of Balla-ghat, General Martin collected the seeds while there with the army, during the last war with Tippoo Sultan, and has reared abundance of it at Lucknow.”

Andropogon schoenanthus L. var. martini (Roxb.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 204. 1896

Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Will. Watson var. sofia B.K. Gupta, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B 71: 97. 1970

Andropogon pachnodes Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(3): 284. 1832. Type: Nepal; Wallich s.n.

Cymbopogon pachnodes (Trin.) Will. Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N.W. Prov. 392. 1882

Cymbopogon motia B.K. Gupta, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B 71: 92. 1970. Type: India; B.K. Gupta 25 (DD).

Cymbopogon martinianus Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 459. 1824, nom. superfl. & illegit. for Andropogon martini Roxb.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu [China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan]. Native to India; also cultivated.

Habit. Perennial.

926. Cymbopogon microstachys (Hook. f.) Soenarko, Reinwardtia 9(3): 364. 1977

Andropogon nardus L. var. microstachys Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 207. 1896. Lectoype: India: Garo Hills; Mann s.n. (vide Soenarko, Reinwardtia 9(3): 364. 1977)

Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Will.Watson var. microstachys (Hook. f.) Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 162. 1954

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

927. Cymbopogon microthecus (Hook. f.) A. Camus, Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 1: 284. 1921

Andropogon microtheca Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 208. 1896. Type: Nepal: East Nepal, hot Valleys, alt. 3000–4000 ft.; J.D. Hooker s.n.

Distribution. Bihar, Sikkim [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

928. Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, Cat. Afr. Pl. 2(1): 155. 1899 var. nardus

Andropogon nardus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1046. 1753. Type: “Habitat in India.” Lectotype: Herb. Hermann 2: 66, No. 45 (BM-000594628). LT designated by Clayton & Renvoize in Polhill (ed.), Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Gramineae 3: 764. 1982.

Andropogon ampliflorus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 388. 1854. Type: Indonesia: Java; Zollinger 849 (P).

Andropogon thwaitesii Hook. f., Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 243. 1900. Type: Sri Lanka: Nuwara Eliya; August, 1864; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3784 (K).

Cymbopogon thwaitesii (Hook. f.) Willis, Revis. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 110. 1911

Andropogon distans Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites) 367. 1864, non Nees ex Steud., 1854

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Tripura [Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

929. Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Stapf ex Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 51: 905. 1953

Andropogon confertiflorus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 385. 1854. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilagiri Mountains; 1851; R.F. Hohenacker 932 (K).

Cymbopogon confertiflorus (Steud.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 318, 355. 1906 

Andropogon nardus L. var. nilagiricus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 206. 1896. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilagiri Mountains; 1851; R.F. Hohenacker 932 (S-G402).

Andropogon nardus L. var. luridus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 206. 1896. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilghiri Hills; Schmid s.n. Sri Lanka; Gardner s.n., Maxwell s.n.

Andropogon nardus L. ssp. nilagiricus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 604. 1889. Type: cited many syntypes

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

930. Cymbopogon osmastonii R. Parker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 31: 126. 1932

Type. India: Assam, Kheri District; Osmaston 1430 (K).

Distribution. Assam, Uttar Pradesh.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Uttar Pradesh fide Naithani (1990).

931. Cymbopogon pendulus (Nees) Will.Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 392. 1882

Andropogon pendulus Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 388. 1854. Type: Nepal

Distribution. Assam [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

932. Cymbopogon polyneuros (Steud.) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 345, 361. 1906

Andropogon polyneuros Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 385. 1854. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Nilgiri Hills; R.F. Hohenacker 933 (L).

Andropogon schoenanthus L. var. versicolor (Steud.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 610. 1889

Andropogon versicolor Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 388. 1854. Type: East Indies.

Cymbopogon versicolor (Steud.) J.F. Watson in Atkins., Bot. Himalayan Distr. N. W. Prov. 392. 1882

Distribution. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

933. Cymbopogon pospischilii (K. Schum.) C.E. Hubb., Kew Bull. 1949: 175. 1949

Andropogon pospischilii K. Schum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 24: 328. 1897. Type: Mozambique: Muani; February; Pospischil s.n.(B).

Andropogon nardus L. var. stracheyi Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 207. 1896. Syntypes: India: Kumaon; R. Strechey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n. as A. martini. Kalenath, alt. 6000 ft.; R. Strechey & J.E. Winterbottom s.n. Pangi; Stolizka s.n.

Cymbopogon stracheyi (Hook. f.) Raizada & S.K. Jain, Indian Forester 80(1): 44. 1954

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Nepal, Pakistan].

Habit. Perennial.

934. Cymbopogon ramnagarensis Gupta, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. Sec. B, 71:86. 1970

Type. B. K. Gupta 30; India (Dehra Dun).

Distribution. Jammu and Kashmir.

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Soenarko (1977) suggests that this species is a hybrid and should be known as C. x stracheyi (Hook.f.) Raizada & S.K. Jain.

935. Cymbopogon traninhensis (A. Camus) Soenarko, Reinwardtia 9(3): 347. 1977

Cymbopogon confertiflorus (Steud.) Stapf var. traninhensis A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 26: 565. 1920. Type: Laos: Traninh “Spontane sur les hauts plateaux de Tra ninh”; Mieville s.n. (P).

Cymbopogon khasianus (Hack.) Stapf ex Bor var. nagensis Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 169. 1954. Type: India: Assam, Naga Hills, Shiloi Jopi, alt. 8000 ft.; November, 1935; N.L. Bor 10 (K).

Distribution. Assam, Nagaland [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

936. Cymbopogon travancorensis Bor, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 174. 1954

Type. India: Travancore: Courtallam, Tennevelly District; November 11, 1908; Bourne 5309 (K).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

937. Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 4: 188. 1908

Type. Sri Lanka: Pillagoda Valley, Buddegama S. P.; February 11, 1908; A.W. Winter s.n. (K).

Distribution. Maharashtra [China, Sri Lanka]. Native to India, but also cultivated.

Habit. Perennial.

Dichanthium Willemet, Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 18: 11. 1796

Type. Dichanthium nodosum Willemet, nom. illeg. (Andropogon annulatus Forssk. (as “annulatum”), Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf.

938. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 178. 1917

Andropogon annulatus Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 173. 1775 (as “annulatum”). Type: “Passim ad ripas Nili.” Egypt: Rashid, banks of Nile River; June, 1762; Forsskal 127 (C).

Lepeocercis annulata (Forssk.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill. 98. 1841

Andropogon garipensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 379. 1854. Type: “Ad fluv. Garip. Afr. austr.” India; Buchanan-Hamilton s.n. (Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8810C)

Andropogon obtusus Nees ex Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 6: 243. 1838 (as “obtuso”). Type: Not given.

Andropogon scandens Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 262. 1820. Type: India: “Grows commonly in hedges.”

Andropogon comosus sensu Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 239. 1827, non Spreng., 1819

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

939. Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E. Hubb., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1939: 654. 1939

Andropogon aristatus Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 1: 585. 1811 (as “aristatum”). Type: “Cette plante a été observée a l’lle de-France par Commerson. (Herb. Desfont.)”

Andropogon mollicomus Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 365 t. 96. 1830. Type: “Crescit in insulis Franciae et Timor.”

Lepeocercis mollicoma (Kunth) Nees, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 18: 185. 1835

Andropogon caricosus L. var. mollicomus (Kunth) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 569. 1889

Diplasanthum lanosum Desv., Opusc. Sci. Phys. Nat. 67. t. 5. f. 1. 1831. Type: “Habitat in India orientali.”

Andropogon nodosus Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17(2): 122. 1912, nom. superfl. & illeg.?

Dichanthium nodosum Willemet, Ann. Bot. (Usteri). 18: 11. 1796, nom. superfl. & illeg. for Andropogon annulatum Forssk.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [China].

Habit. Perennial.

940. Dichanthium armatum (Hook. f.) Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32(2): 357. 1927 (as “Dicanthio armato”)

Andropogon armatus Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 197. 1896. Type: India: Concan; J.E. Stocks s.n.

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

941. Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 549. 1921, nom. cons.

Andropogon caricosus L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1480. 1763 (as “caricosum”), nom. cons. Type: “Habitat in India.”

Andropogon filiformis Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 103. 1805 (as “filiforme”)

Heteropogon concinnus Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 368. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Badulla District, Bibili, at no great elevation; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3556

Andropogon serratus Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 5: 21. 1788 (“1789”), (as “serratum”) non Thunb., 1784. Type: “Crescit ad oras fluminis in Bengalia, Cel Koening.”

Distribution. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

942. Dichanthium concanense (Hook. f.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”) (as “concanensis”)

Andropogon concanensis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 174. 1896. Type: India: Maharashtra, Bombay; Woodrow 28 (K).

Bothriochloa concanensis (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 457. 1940

Amphilophis concanensis (Hook. f.) Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 422. 1928

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Perennial.

943. Dichanthium foulkesii (Hook. f.) S.K. Jain & Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 20(1–4): 134. 1979 (“1978”)

Andropogon foulkesii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 174. 1896. Syntypes: India: Nilghiri Hills; Wight s.n. Kaity; Foulkes s.n.(K).

Bothriochloa foulkesii (Hook. f.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 457. 1940

Amphilophis foulkesii (Hook. f.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1732. 1934

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

944. Dichanthium jainii (Deshp. & Hemadri) Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 21(1–4): 198. 1981 (“1979”)

Bothriochloa jainii Deshp. & Hemadri, Indian Forester 97(10): 593. 1971. Type: India: Maharashtra, Poona District, Junnar, Dhak Khilla; October 29, 1964; K. Hemadri 104241A (CAL).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Perennial.

945. Dichanthium mccannii Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 357. 1927

Type. India: Bombay Presidency, Satara District, Panchgani; October, 1925; C. McCann s.n. (BLAT).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

946. Dichanthium oliganthum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Cope, Kew Bull. 35(3): 703. 1980

Andropogon oliganthus Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 368. 1854. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Mountains; Metz, ed R.F. Hohenacker Herb. Ind. no. 1288 (K).

Heteropogon oliganthus (Hochst. ex Steud.) Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 623. 1928

Indochloa oligantha (Hochst. ex Steud.) Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 79. 1954

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

947. Dichanthium pallidum (Hook. f.) Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1741. 1934

Apocopis pallida Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 143. 1896. Type: India: Tamil Nadu, Nilghiri Hills; Foulkes s.n.

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

948. Dichanthium panchganiense Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 357. t. 1. 1927

Type. India: Bombay Presidency, Satara District, Panchgani; November, 1925; C. McCann s.n. (BLAT).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

949. Dichanthium paranjpyeanum (Bhide) Clayton, Kew Bull. 32(3): 579. 1978

Andropogon paranjpyeanus Bhide, J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, n.s. 7: 514. 1911. Type: India: Bombay, Castle Rock; Bhide s.n. (K, isotype).

Eremopogon paranjpyeanus (Bhide) Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 427. 1928 (as “paranjpyeanum”)

Schizachyrium paranjpyeanum (Bhide) Raizada & Jain, Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. 3: 130. 1953

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Karnataka fide Naithani (1990).

950. Dichanthium tuberculatum (Hack.) Cope, Kew Bull. 35(3): 703. 1980

Andropogon tuberculatus Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 404. 1889. Type: India: Assirgar; O. Kuntze s.n. (W).

Eremopogon tuberculatus (Hack.) A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 68: 208. 1921

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.

Habit. Perennial.

Diectomis Kunth, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2: 69. 1815, nom. cons.

Type. Diectomis fastigiata (Sw.) P. Beauv. (Andropogon fastigiatus Sw. (as “fastigiatum”)).

951. Diectomis fastigiata (Sw.) P. Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr. 132, 150, 160. 1812

Andropogon fastigiatus Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 26. 1788 (as “fastigiatum”). Type: Jamaica; Swatrz s.n.

Pollinia fastigiata (Sw.) Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 13. 1815

Andropogon diatherus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 378–379. 1854. Type: Oaxaca

Andropogon hochstetteri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 384. 1854. Type: Abyssinia; Schimper 2013 (P).

Heteropogon hochstetteri (Steud.) Andersson ex Schweinf., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 306. 1867

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal [Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

Dimeria R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 204. 1810

Type. Dimeria acinaciformis R. Br.

952. Dimeria agasthyamalayana Kiran Raj & Ravi, Rheedea 11(2): 93. 2001

Type. India: Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram District, Agasthyamala Hills, Bonaccord, alt. 2500 ft.; February 1, 2000; Kiran Raj 41939 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

953. Dimeria andamanica Gosavi, M.Y. Kamble, Chandore & S.R. Yadav, Phytotaxa 270(4): 296. 2016.

Type. India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Chidiya Tapu, 28 m, 12 December 2014, M. Y. Kamble 32185 (holotype: CAL, isotype: PBL, SUK).

Distribution. Andaman Islands.

Habit. Annual.

954. Dimeria aristata (Hack.) Senaratna, Grasses Ceylon (Perad. Man., No. 8) 163. 1956

Dimeria lehmannii Hack. var. aristata Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 83. 1889

Distribution. Orisssa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

955. Dimeria avenacea (Retz.) C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1932: 72. 1932

Anthoxanthum avenaceum Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 8. 1783 (as “auenaceum”). Type: “E. Tranquebaria misit cel. Koenig.”

Dimeria avenacea (Retz.) C.E.C. Fisch. var. elatior (Hook. f.) Bor, Kew Bull.1952: 562. 1952

Dimeria elatior (Hook. f.) Senaratna, Grasses of Ceylon 162. 1956

Dimeria pusilla Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 369. 1864. Type: Sri Lanka: Kokotodua; Gardner Ceylon Plant 954.

Dimeria pusilla Thwaites var. elatior Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 103. 1896. Type: Sri Lanka: Trincomalee; Glennie Ceylon Plant 957.

Dimeria acutipes Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 560. 1952. Type: India: Madras State; September, 1898; Bourne 35 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

956. Dimeria balakrishnaniana K. Ravik., Sreek. & Lakshm., Kew Bull. 45(3): 573. 1990

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Madurai District, High Wavy’s Mountains, Nursery Valley, 4500 ft.; January 22, 1988; Lakshmanan 87543 (CAL).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

957. Dimeria bialata C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 351. 1933

Type. India: Kanara District, Siradi; November; A. Meebold 10548.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Karnataka and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

958. Dimeria blatteri Bor, Kew Bull. 1949: 70. 1949

Type. India: Bombay, Khandala, Echo Point; October, 1918; Blatter & McCann s.n. (BLAT).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

959. Dimeria chelariensis Ravi, Rheedea 5(1): 37. f. 1. 1995

Type. India: Kerala, Malappuram District, Chelari; November 28, 1992; N. Ravi 3606 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

960. Dimeria connivens Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 689. (add.) 1889

Type. India orientalis, loco speciali collectoreque ignoto; T. Anderson s.n.

Distribution. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan.

Habit. Annual.

961. Dimeria copeana Sreek., V.J. Nair & N.C. Nair, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 78: 577. f. 9. 1981

Type. India: Kerala, Alleppey District, Thrikkunna Puzha; March 13, 1980; P.V. Sreekumar 66736 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

962. Dimeria copei Ravi, Blumea 41(1): 251. 1996

Type. India: Kerala, Alappuzha District, Kalavoor; December 3, 1992; Ravi 3655 (TGBT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

963. Dimeria deccanensis Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 578. 1952

Type. India: Madras State, Pilicode, S. Kanara; November 11, 1917; 15340 ex Madras Herb. (K).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Kerala and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

964. Dimeria eradii Ravi, Rheedea 5(1): 39. f. 2. 1995

Type. India: Kerala, Malppuram Distrrict, Tenhipa’am; November 29, 1992; N. Ravi 3641 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

965. Dimeria falcata Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 85. 1889

Distribution. North East India [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Distribution in India not reported.

966. Dimeria fasciculata P. Kumari & R. Lakra, Int. J. Adv. Res. 6(7): 484–490. 2018.

Type. India: Andaman Islands, Middle Andaman, Panchvati, 08 February 2017, Reshma Lakra 32835 (holotype: CAL; isotype: PBL).

Distribution. Andaman Islands.

Habit. Annual.

967. Dimeria fischeri Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 564. 1952

Type. India: Madras State, Mahendragiri; C.E.C. Fischer 133 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

968. Dimeria fuscescens Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 335. 1832

Type. Nepal; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8841.

Distribution. Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

969. Dimeria gracilis Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 413. 1855

Dimeria laxiuscula Thwaites & Trimen, J. Bot. 23: 272. 1885. Type: Sri Lanka: Pasdun Korle; September, 1864; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3863 in Herb. Perad.; Kulutara; December, 1882

Dimeria leptorhachis Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 89. 1889. Type: Sri Lanka; Thwaites 3261

Dimeria pilosissima (J. Presl) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 369. 1864, non Trin., 1832, isonym

Type. Sri Lanka; Lindley s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

970. Dimeria hohenackeri Hochst. ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam ser. 3, 4: 35. 1851

Psilostachys hohenackeri Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 413. 1855. Type: India; R.F. Hohenacker 231

Arthraxon hohenackeri Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 413. 1855, pro syn., nom. inval.

Type. India: Manglore; Metz 231b.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

971. Dimeria idukkiensis Ravi & N. Anilkumar, Rheedea 2(2): 104. 1992

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki District, Peermedu, Kuttikkanam; October 19, 1991; Anil Kumar 3190 (MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

972. Dimeria jainii Sreek., V.J. Nair & N.C. Nair, Curr. Sci. 52(6): 259. f. 1. 1983

Type. India: Kerala, Calicut District, Pokkunnamalai, Nanminda, alt. 2700 ft.; October 29, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71814 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

973. Dimeria jayachandranii Arisdason & P. Daniel, Kew Bull. 64(2): 345, f. 1. 2009.

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Anamalais hills, Karian Shola, 800–1000 m, 5 December 2002, Arisdason 115578 (holotype: CAL; isotype: MH).

Distribution. Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

974. Dimeria josephii Ravi & N. Mohanan, Rheedea 11(2): 90–92. f. 2. 2001

Type. India: Kerala, Palakkad District, Nenmara, 250 ft.; November 24, 1998; Ravi 39542 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

975. Dimeria kalavoorensis Ravi, Blumea 41(1): 251. 1996

Type. India: Kerala, Alappuzha District, Kalavoor; December 3, 1992; Ravi 3654 (TGBT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

976. Dimeria kaleri P. Biju, Josekutty & Augustine, Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. 25(1): 14. 2018.

Type. India, Kerala, Kasaragod district, Karakkode lateritic plateau, 75 m, 12 December, Biju & Jomy 1166 (holotype: CAL; isotype: MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Not mentioned.

977. Dimeria kalliyadense Biju, Josekutty & Augustine, Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(11): 705–711. 2017.

Type. India: Kerala, Kannur district, Kalliyad lateritic plateau, 190 m, 14 September 2013, Biju & Jomy 2468 (holotype: CAL, isotype: MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

978. Dimeria kanjirapallilana Jacob, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 47: 48. 1947 (as “kanijirapallilana”)

Type. South India, Travancore, Peermade, alt. 3200 ft.; December, 1941; K.C. Jacob s.n. (MH-86320).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Kerala fide Naithani (1990).

979. Dimeria keralae N.C. Nair, Sreek. & V.J. Nair, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 80: 626. f. 1–16. 1984

Type. India: Kerala, Cannanore District, Paramba, Bandudka, alt. 500 ft.; October 16, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71717 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

980. Dimeria kollimalayana M. Mohanan & A.V.N. Rao, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 80: 617. f. 1–10. 1984

Type. India: Tamil Nadu, Salem District, Kollimalai, alt. 3900; February 19, 1982; M. Mohanan 56802 (CAL).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

981. Dimeria kurzii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 7: 103. 1896

Type. Myanmar: Pegu, 27 December 1870, S. Kurz 2741 (K).

Distribution. Kerala, Nagaland.

Habit. Annual.

982. Dimeria lawsonii (Hook. f.) C.E.C. Fisch., Fl. Madras 3(10): 1713. 1934

Dimeria pusilla Thwaites var. lawsonii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 103. 1896. Type: India: Malabar, Wynaad; Lawson s.n.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

983. Dimeria lehmannii (Nees) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 82. 1889 (as “lehmanni”)

Pterygostachyum lehmannii Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 413. 1855 (as “lehmanni”). Type: India

Dimeria lehmanii (Nees) Hack. var. mutica Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 83. 1889. Type: Sri Lanka; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 955

Dimeria alata Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 105. 1896. Type: Sri Lanka; 1864; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 955 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

984. Dimeria mahendragiriensis Ravi, H.O. Saxena & Brahmam, Rheedea 5(2): 142. 1995

Type. India: Odisha, Gajapati District, Mahendragiri hill, 1350 m, 22 November 1979, H. O Saxena & M. Brahmam 3880 (holotype: RRLB).

Distribution. Odisha.

Habit. Perennial

985. Dimeria mooneyi Raizada ex Mooney, Suppl. Bot. Bihar Orissa 263. 1950

Dimeria borii Sreek., V.J. Nair & N.C. Nair, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 3(2): 657. f. 1. 1982. Type: India: Kerala, Calicut District, Kanjeerakkadavu, near Kakkayam, alt. 3000 ft.; November 26, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71855 (CAL).

Type. India: Orissa, Sambalpur District, close to Sonabera Village, alt. 2300 ft.; Mooney 3652 & 3657 (K, DD).

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual or perennial.

Remarks. Records for Karnataka and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

986. Dimeria namboodiriana Ravi & N. Mohanan, Rheedea 7(1): 1. 1997.

Type. India: Kerala, Pathanamthitta District, Ponnambalamedu, 5 January 1996, Ravi 24050 (holotype: TBGT, iso: K, KFRI, L, MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

987. Dimeria orissae Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 579. 1952

Type. India: Orissa, Pipokhuri, Keonjhar State, alt. 3200 ft.; October 1, 1946; H.F. Mooney 2758 (K).

Distribution. Odisha, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

988. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin., Fund. Agrost. (Trinius) 167. t. 14. 1820 var. ornithopoda

Andropogon roxburghianus Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 451. 1824. Type: India: Calcutta; Roxburgh s.n.

Andropogon stipiformis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1(4–5): 377. 1854. Japon. ex Hrbo. Mus. Lug. Batav.

Dimeria stipiformis Miq., Prolus. Fl. Japon. 176. 1866 (as “stipaeformis”)

Dimeria filiformis Hochst. ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam ser. 3, 4: 35. 1851, nom. superfl. for Andropogon roxburghianus Schult.

Psilostachys filiformis Dalzell in Dalzell & A. Gibson, Bombay Fl. 305. 1861 nom. superfl. for Andropogon roxburghianus Schult.

Andropogon filiformis Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 1: 260. 1820, non Pers., 1805

Type. India orientali.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

989. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. var. gracillima Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 576. 1952

Syntypes. India: Bihar, Parasnath, alt. 4000 ft.; October 1, 1873; C.B. Clarke 21084B. Ibidem, alt. 4500 ft.; October 1, 1833; C.B. Clarke 33719A &C.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

990. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. var. khasiana Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 576. 1952

Syntypes. India: Assam, Khasia Hills, Cherra, alt. 4000 ft.; October 6, 1867; C.B. Clarke 5625. Ibidem, Mamloo, 4000 ft.; September 24, 1886; C.B. Clarke 45095A. Ibidem; Griffith s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Records for Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Meghalaya fide Naithani (1990).

991. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. var. megalantha Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 576. 1952

Type. India: Maharashtra, Bombay, Belgaum; May 25, 1914; Anonymous no. 14.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka (Naithani), Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Karnataka fide Naithani (1990).

992. Dimeria pubescens Hack., Monogr Phan. 6: 83. 1889

Dimeria ceylanica Bor, Kew Bull. 1952: 562. 1952. Type: Sri Lanka; Gardner 1008, Thwaites 956 p.p. (K, DD).

Dimeria kurumthotticalana Jacob, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 47: 49. 1947. Type: India: Travancore, Peermade, alt. 3200; December, 1941; K.C. Jacob s.n. (MH- 86320A).

Dimeria trimenii Hook. f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 198. 1900. Syntypes: Sri Lanka: Elpiliya Patana; Pearson s.n., Unknown locality; Trimen s.n

Type. C. P. Thwaites 956 ex p., “in insula Ceylon”.

Distribution. Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for Karnataka, Odisha and Tamil Nadu fide Naithani (1990).

993. Dimeria raizadae V.J. Nair, Sreek. & N.C. Nair, Indian J. Forest. 6(2): 163. f. 1–8. 1983

Type. India: Kerala, Calicut District, Pokkunnamalai, near Nanminda, alt. 2700 ft.; October 29, 1981; P.V. Sreekumar 71812 (CAL).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

994. Dimeria raviana Kiran Raj & Sivad., Phytotaxa 195(2): 193. 2015

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki district, Periyar Tiger Reserve, 950 m, Jomy s.n. (holotype: CAL, isotype: KFRI).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Perennial.

995. Dimeria santapaui M. R. Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 66: 510. f. A–I. 1970

Type. India: North Kanara, Mirjan flats; October, 1919; Sedgwick & Bell 6875 (BLAT).

Distribution. Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

996. Dimeria sivarajanii N. Mohanan & Ravi, Rheedea 6(2): 47. f. 1. 1996

Type. India: Kerala, Pathanamthitta District, Kochu Pampa Hills; January 4, 1996; Ravi TBG & RI 24041 (TBGT).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

997. Dimeria sreenarayanae Ravi & N. Anilkumar, Rheedea 2: 101. 1992 (as “sreenarayanii”)

Type. India: Kerala, Idukki District, Peermudu, Kuttikkanam; December 30, 1991; Anil Kumar 3297 (MH).

Distribution. Kerala.

Habit. Annual.

998. Dimeria stapfiana C.E. Hubb. ex Pilg., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl] 14e: 109. 1940

Woodrowia diandra Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 25: t. 2447. 1896. Type: India: Poona District, Mawal; Woodrow s.n.

Dimeria diandra (Stapf) Stapf ex Bhide, J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n.s.) 7(8): 516. 1912 (“1911”), non Griff., 1851

Type. “Zierliche, meist einjahrige Graser, Blatter nach oben zu am Halm an Grosse abnehmend.”

Distribution. Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

999. Dimeria thwaitesii Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 78. 1889

Dimeria pusilla Thwaites var. pallida Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 103. 1896. Type: Sri Lanka: Damboul; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 957 (p.p.).

Type. Sri Lanka: Dambool; Thwaites Ceylon Plant 3965.

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Annual.

1000. Dimeria veldkampii Kiran Raj & Sivad., Novon 18(2): 183, f. 1. 2008.

Type. India: Goa, North Goa district, Taleigao, 50 m, 27 October 2002, M. S. Kiran Raj 81073 (holotype: CALI, isotype: MH, MO).

Distribution. Goa.

Habit. Annual.

1001. Dimeria woodrowii Stapf, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 24: t. 2312. 1894

Type. India: Rutnagherry District, Bombay, near Goa; Woodrow s.n.

Distribution. Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

Elionurus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(2): 941. 1806 (as “Elyonurus”), nom. & orth. cons.

Type. Elionurus tripsacoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

1002. Elionurus royleanus Nees ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 471. 1850–1851

Type. “Crescit in declivitatibus ad fluvii Tacazze ripam sinistram (Schimper).” Ethiopia: Tacazze; Schimper 795 (P?).

Distribution. Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh [Pakistan].

Habit. Annual.

Eremochloa Buse, Gram. (Buse) 17. 1854

Type. Eremochloa horneri Buse,

1003. Eremochloa muricata (Retz.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 262. 1889

Aegilops muricata Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 2: 27. 1781. Type: “Ex India Orientali diu habui pro exaltata, donec illam benevoletia Cl. D. Konig accepi.” India; Koenig s.n. (LD).

Rottboellia muricata (Retz.) Retz., Observ. Bot. (Retzius) 3: 12. 1783

Ischaemum pectinatum Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 296. 1832. Lectotype: Burma; 1826–1827; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 015 in herb. Trinius 95.3(LE). LT designated by Buitenhuis & Veldkamp in Blumea 46(2): 410. 2001.

Andropogon pectinatus (Trin.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 369. 1854

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

1004. Eremochloa zeylanica Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 263. 1889

Andropogon falcatus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 369. 1854

Ischaemum falcatum (Steud.) Nees ex Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (Thwaites). 436. 1864

Ischaemum zeylanicum (Hack.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon 107. 1885. Type: Sri Lanka: Kornegala, Hill slopes, 3000–5000 ft.; September, 1862; Ceylon Plant Thwaites 3322

Type. Sri Lanka; Thwaites 3322 (K).

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra [Myanmar, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Eremopogon Stapf (1917), Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 182–183. 1917

Lectotype. Eremopogon foveolatus (Delile) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 183. 1917 (Andropogon foveolatus Delile). LT designated by Maire, Fl. Afrique Nord 1: 275. 1952).

1005. Eremopogon foveolatus (Delile) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 183. 1917

Andropogon foveolatus Delile, Descr. Egypte, Hist. Nat. 2: 16, t. 8, f. 2. 1813, (“1812”) (as “foveolatum”). Type: “Fleurit en hiver dans les vallees sablonneuses de l’isthme de Soneys.” Egypt: l’isthe de Soneys; no date; A.R. Delile s.n.(P).

Dichanthium foveolatum (Delile) Roberty, Boissiera 9: 170. 1960

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal [Pakistan, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Eriochrysis P. Beauv., Essai Agrostogr. 8. 1812

Type. Eriochrysis cayanensis P. Beauv.

1006. Eriochrysis rangacharii C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1932: 246. 1932

Type. India: Nilgiri Hills, Pykara; June, 1900; Sir A. G. & Lady Bourne s.n. (K).

Distribution. Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

Habit. Perennial.

Euclasta Franch., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 8: 335. 1895

Type. Euclasta glumaceus Franch.

1007. Euclasta clarkei (Hack.) Cope, Kew Bull. 35(3): 704. 1980

Andropogon clarkei Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 49. 1891. Type: India: Chota Nagpur, Parasnath, alt. 4200 ft., Hazaribagh; October 7, 1883; C.B.Clarke 33780 (K).

Dichanthium clarkei (Hack.) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1040. 1924

Indochloa clarkei (Hack.) Bor, Kew Bull. 1954: 76. 1954

Distribution. Bihar, Maharashtra, Rajasthan.

Habit. Annual.

1008. Euclasta condylotricha (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf, Fl. Trop. Afr. [Oliver et al.] 9: 181. 1917

Andropogon condylotrichus Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 377. 1854. Type: Ethiopia: Dscheladscheranne; Schimper 2011(P).

Andropogon piptatherus Hack., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 2(3): 293. 1883. Type: “Habitat in prov. Goyaz ad Porto Imperial et ad fl. Tocantins inter Porto Imperial et Funil; Burchell 8780.” Brazil: Goiás; Burchell 8761-7 (W).

Amphilophis piptatherus (Hack.) Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17(2): 127. 1912

Sorghum piptatherum (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 792. 1891

Euclasta glumacea Franch., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 8: 336. t. 8. 1895. Type: Congo Francais: “Comba, entre Londina et Brazzaville; Thollon 1040.” Congo Francais: “Lope, dans l’Ogooue”; Thollon 787

Euclasta graminea sensu T. Durand & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol. 649. 1909 (as “Euclaste”), non Franch, 1895.

Distribution. Madhya Pradesh [also in Africa, North America, South America].

Habit. Annual.

Remarks. Record for Madhya Pradesh fide Naithani (1990). Possibly introduced.

Eulalia Kunth, Rév. Gram. 1: 160. 1829

Type. Eulalia aurea (Bory) Kunth (Andropogon aureus Bory (“aureum”)).

1009. Eulalia contorta (Brongn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Pogonatherum contortum Brongn., Voy. Monde, Phan. 2(2): 90, t. 17. 1831. Type: “Bourou, dans les iles Moluques.”

Pseudopogonatherum contortum (Brongn.) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 255. 1922

Andropogon asthenostachys Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 381. 1854. Type: Philippine Islands; H. Cuming 1101.

Andropogon koretrostachys Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 273. 1832. Type: Philippine Islands: Manila.

Pseudopogonatherum koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 521. 1941

Eulalia koretrostachys (Trin.) Henrard, Blumea 4(3): 521. 1941

Pollinia articulata Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 4:90. 1836. Type: “Inss. Molucc.”

Erianthus articulatus (Trin.) F. Muell., Fragm. (Mueller) 8: 118. 1872–1874

Puliculum articulatum (Trin.) Stapf ex Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1018. 1924 (as “articulata”)

Pollinia articulata Trin. var. pedicellata Hack. ex Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 110. 1896. Type: India: Kumaon; Duthei s.n.

Eulalia concinna Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel) 1: 412. 1854. Type: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8814

Pollinia collina Balansa, J. Bot. (Morot) 4(4): 81. 1890. Type: Vietnam: Valleys of Tu-Phap; Balansa 1771

Pseudopogonatherum collinum (Balansa) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 256. 1922

Pollinia setifolia Nees, Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 101. 1850. Type: Philippines Island; H. Cuming 1101

Pseudopogonatherum setifolium (Nees) E.G. Camus & A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 256. 1922

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Annual.

1010. Eulalia fastigiata (Nees) Haines, Bot. Bihar Orissa 5: 1014. 1924

Saccharum fastigiatum Nees, Syn. Pl. Glumac. (Steudel)1: 409. 1855. Type: India; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8847

Erianthus fastigiatus (Nees) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker). 7(21): 125. 1896

Distribution. Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal.

Habit. Perennial.

1011. Eulalia fimbriata (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Pollinia fimbriata Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 164. 1889. Type: India: Malabar & Concan; J.E. Stocks s.n.

Distribution. Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan [China].

Habit. Annual.

1012. Eulalia hirtifolia (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891 (as “hirtiflora); A. Camus, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon ser. 2, 68: 202. 1921

Pollinia hirtifolia Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 165. 1889. Type: India: Simla; Hugel 758 (CAL).

Eulalia quadrinervis (Hack.) Kuntze var. hirtifolia (Hack.) Sur, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 6(1): 185. 1985

Distribution. Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Author K. Gandhi notes that “Kuntze cited Hackel as the parenthetical author, but perhaps due to confusion, misspelled Hackel’s epithet hirtifolia as “hirtiflora” … The typographical error is correctable (vide Shenzhen Code Arts. 60.1, 61.4).”

1013. Eulalia leschenaultiana (Decne.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 2. 1947

Andropogon leschenaultianus Decne., Herb. Timor. Descr. 29. 1835. Type: Timor

Pollinia cumingii Nees, Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 98. 1850. Type: Philippine Islands: Mindoro; H. Cuming 1538

Eulalia cumingii (Nees) A. Camus, Fl. Indo-Chine [P.H. Lecomte et al.] 7: 250. 1922

Andropogon aureofulvus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 373. 1854 (as “aureo-fulvus”). Type: China: Fortune Herb. 4. Philippine Islands; Cuming Herb. no. 1538

Distribution. Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [China].

Habit. Perennial.

1014. Eulalia madkotiensis Kandwal, B.K. Gupta & S.K. Srivast., Kew Bull. 62(3): 519–521. f. 1. 2007

Type. India: Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District. Madkot, towards Jauljibi; August 2, 2004; Manish K. Kandwal 3363 (BSD).

Distribution. Uttarakhand.

Habit. Perennial.

1015. Eulalia manipurensis Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 156. 1960

Type. Burma: Manipur State, Palel, in wet grassland, alt. 2300 ft.; N.L. Bor 17736 (K).

Distribution. Manipur [Bangladesh, China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

1016. Eulalia mollis (Griseb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Erianthus mollis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 92. 1868. Type: Himalaya occidentalis, 5000–6000 ft.; Thomson Erianthus no. 3. India: Kumaon, Almora; R. Strachey s.n.

Pollinia mollis (Griseb.) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 161. 1889

Distribution. Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand [Bhutan, China, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

1017. Eulalia pallens (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Pollinia pallens Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 156. 1889. Type: India; J.D. Hooker Erianthus no. 17 (B).

Distribution. Assam, Meghalaya [China].

Habit. Perennial.

1018. Eulalia phaeothrix (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Pollinia phaeothrix Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 168. 1889. Type: Sri Lanka: Newara Ellia; Thwaites 959. India; Wight s.n. Nilgiri Mountains; Perrotet 1317, 1333. Kunur; Gamble s.n.

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu [China, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

1019. Eulalia quadrinervis (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Pollinia quadrinervis Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 158–159. 1889. Type: China: Canton, Sampson s.n. Macao; Vachell s.n. Cap Syng Moon; Meyen s.n. Nepal; Numer. List [Wallich] no. 8808. India: Sikkim, Rinchingpong; Anderson 1365.

Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve (Hack.) Ohwi, Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 18: 3. 1947

Pollinia villosa Munro ex Benth., Fl. Hongk. 420. 1861, nom. later hom. & illeg., non Spreng., 1824

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagpur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand [China, Myanmar, Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

1020. Eulalia shrirangii Salunkhe & Potdar, Kew Bull. 59(4): 625–627. f. 1. 2005

Type. India: Maharashtra, Satara District, Kas Plateau, alt. 4200 ft.; Salunkhe 8170 (CAL).

Distribution. Maharashtra.

Habit. Annual.

1021. Eulalia speciosa (Debeaux) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891 var. speciosa

Erianthus speciosus Debeaux, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 32: 53. 1878. Type: “Les hautes montagnes du Tché-foû, de 1000–1100 metres d’alt. dans les fissures des rochers, 1860”; Debeaux s.n.

Pollinia speciosa (Debeaux) Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 159. 1889

Distribution. Meghalaya [China, Myanmar].

Habit. Perennial.

1022. Eulalia speciosa (Debeaux) Kuntze var. velutina (Hack.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 157. 1960

Pollinia velutina Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 169. 1889. Type: India: Khasia, alt. 5000–6000 ft.; J.D. Hooker & Thomson s.n.

Eulalia velutina (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Distribution. Meghalaya.

Habit. Perennial.

1023. Eulalia staintonii Bor, Kew Bull. 1957: 411–412. 1958

Type. Nepal: Kali Gandaki, alt. 9000 ft.; September 18, 1954; Stainton, Sykes & Williams 7919 (BM).

Distribution. Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh [Nepal].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Records for India fide Naithani (1990).

1024. Eulalia thwaitesii (Hack.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Pollinia thwaitesii Hack., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 6: 163. 1889. Type: Sri Lanka: Newara Ellia; Thwaites 949.

Distribution. Kerala [Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

Remarks. Record for Kerala fide Naithani (1990).

1025. Eulalia trispicata (Schult.) Henrard, Blumea 3(3): 453. 1940

Andropogon trispicatus Schult., Mant. 2 (Schultes) 452. 1824, replaced synonym Andropogon tristachyos Roxb., 1820

Andropogon tristachyos Roxb., Fl. Ind. (Carey and Wallich ed.) 1: 261. 1820, nom. illeg. hom., non Kunth, 1816. Type: India: “found on newly laid down pasture ground in the vicinity of Calcutta.”

Erianthus hexastachyus Hochst., Verh. Nederl. Inst. III 4: 35. 1851. Type: India: “Prope Castellum Mulki in terra Canara detexit Metz.”

Andropogon hexastachyus (Hochst.) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 380. 1854

Eulalia argentea Brongn., Voy. Monde, Phan. 2(2): 92. 1827. Type: “Amboine et Bourou, dans les Moluques.”

Pollinia argentea (Brongn.) Trin., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 2(1): 90. 1836. Type: “Amboina Molucc.”

Eulalia tristachya Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 775. 1891

Distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka].

Habit. Perennial.

1026. Eulalia villosa (Spreng.) Nees, Fl. Afr. Austral. III. 91. 1841

Pollinia villosa Spreng., Syst. Veg. [Sprengel] 1: 288. 1824 (“1825”). Replaced name.

Andropogon villosus Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 20. 1794, nom. illeg. hom., non Lam. (1779). Type: South Africa: Hab. Bonae Spei Africaes, Thunberg s.n.

Eulalia wightii (Hook. f.) Bor, Grasses Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan 158. 1960

Pollinia quadrinervis Hack. var. wightii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J.D. Hooker).