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Recircumscription of Bredia and resurrection of Tashiroea (Sonerileae, Melastomataceae) with description of a new species T. villosa
expand article infoQiu-Jie Zhou, Jin-Hong Dai, Che-Wei Lin§, Tetsuo Denda|, Ren-Chao Zhou, Ying Liu
‡ Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
§ Herbarium of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, China
| University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
Open Access

Abstract

Bredia (Melastomataceae) is an Asian genus that extends from central and southern mainland China to Taiwan and the Ryukyu islands. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal that the type of Bredia is nested in a clade of 20 species, while Tashiroea, a genus previously synonymized in Bredia, falls in another distantly related clade of 10 species. Our morphological survey shows that the two clades can be distinguished by several diagnostic features including leaf indumentum, texture, leaf surface sculpture under SEM, presence/absence of yellowish uniseriate trichomes, and capsule morphology. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, Bredia is recircumscribed and Tashiroea is resurrected. Description and a list of species are provided for the two genera with the description of a new species, T. villosa.

Keywords

Bredia, Tashiroea, Sonerileae, Melastomataceae, morphology, taxonomy

Introduction

Bredia Blume (Sonerileae, Melastomataceae) was originally described based on B. hirsuta Blume (Blume 1849), a species in Taiwan and the Ryukyu islands. Later, Ito and Matsumura (1899) established another genus, Tashiroea Matsumura, to accommodate two new species, T. yaeyamensis Matsum. and T. okinawensis Matsum., also discovered in the Ryukyus. Diels (1924, 1932) recognized both genera. He added one Chinese species to Tashiroea and expanded Bredia by describing new species and transferring species from Blastus Lour., Otanthera Blume and Fordiophyton Stapf into Bredia. Li (1944) followed Diels’s concept of Bredia but considered Tashiroea to be included within the limits of Bredia. He therefore synonymized Tashiroea, accommodating its three species within Bredia section Tashiroea (Li 1944). With additional descriptions of new species and transfers of other species (Hooker 1871; Cogniaux 1891; Diels 1924, 1932; Ohwi 1936; Li 1944, 1945; Lauener 1972; Chen 1984a; Yeh et al. 2008; Zhao et al. 2017; Zhou et al. 2018), Bredia as currently circumscribed comprises 18–22 species according to different species delimitations (e.g. Chen 1984b; Chen and Renner 2007), and occurs from northern Vietnam and southern mainland China to Taiwan and the Ryukyu islands.

The generic circumscription of Bredia has long been problematic. Bredia is morphologically closely related to Phyllagathis Blume (Blume 1849; Ito and Matsumura 1899; Li 1944; Chen 1984a; Hansen 1992; Chen and Renner 2007), another Asian genus with overlapping geographical range. Delimitation of the two genera was traditionally based on staminal morphology (equal or only slightly unequal, isomorphic vs. dimorphic, subequal, or distinctly unequal stamens), which is rather obscure when species with subequal stamens are concerned. The vague generic boundary is reflected in the taxonomic history of some species that have been moved back and forth between the two genera by different authors (Diels 1932; Merrill and Chun 1940; Li 1944; Chen 1979, 1984b; Hansen 1992; Chen and Renner 2007) and also in two phylogenetic studies based on very limited taxon sampling (Zeng et al. 2016; Zhou et al. 2018).

A recent molecular phylogenetic study, with extensive sampling of Bredia (19 species) and Phyllagathis (35 species), has shed new light on their generic delimitation (Zhou et al. 2019). Staminal characters traditionally used to separate Bredia and Phyllagathis were shown to be highly homoplasious (Zhou et al. 2019). Both genera as currently defined are not monophyletic. To facilitate discussion, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree using the combined dataset (nrITS and chloroplast trnV-trnM) published in Zhou et al. (2019) plus eight newly sequenced species (see methods). As shown in Fig. 1. Bredia hirsuta, the type of Bredia is clustered within a clade of 20 species, viz. 13 of Bredia and seven of Phyllagathis, (hereafter referred to as the Bredia clade), whereas the two species originally published in Tashiroea, B. yaeyamensis (Matsum.) H.L. Li (=T. yaeyamensis) and B. okinawensis (Matsum.) H.L. Li (= T. okinawensis), fall in another clade comprising the new species, seven species of Bredia and two of Phyllagathis (hereafter referred to as the Tashiroea clade). The Bredia clade is close to Blastus, Fordiophyton and Plagiopetalum Rehder, while the Tashiroea clade is most closely related to Scorpiothyrsus H.L. Li and Driessenia axantha Korth. (Fig. 1). These findings are strongly corroborated by our chloroplast phylogenomic analyses (unpublished), indicating that the Tashiroea clade is an independent lineage distantly related to the Bredia clade. The same conclusion is also reached in a recently published study, although based on limited sampling of species (Kokubugata et al. 2019). Continued use of the non-monophyletic Bredia may hinder further study of this group and cause problems in describing new species, which has led us to update its circumscription.

In this paper, we revisited the morphological characters of the Bredia and Tashiroea clades in search of possible diagnostic characters. The results are presented below. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, Bredia is recircumscribed and Tashiroea is resurrected. Descriptions and a list of species are provided for the two genera with the description of a new species T. villosa. Thirteen new combinations are made.

Methods

Molecular experiments and phylogenetic analysis

Eight newly sequenced species were added to the combined dataset (nrITS and chloroplast trnV-trnM) published in Zhou et al. (2019), including Driessenia glanduligera Stapf, D. phasmolacuna C.W. Lin, Phyllagathis hispidissima (C. Chen) C. Chen, P. tentaculifera C. Hansen, Scorpiothyrsus shangszeensis C. Chen, Bredia okinawensis (= Tashiroea okinawensis), B. yunnanensis (H. Lév.) Diels, and a new species T. villosa. All molecular experiments and phylogenetic analysis using bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods followed Zhou et al. (2019). A complete list of the taxa sampled in this study, their collection localities, voucher information, and GenBank accession numbers are provided in Suppl. material 1: Table S1.

Morphological comparison

All species of the Bredia clade (20 species) and the Tashiroea clade (10 species) were examined, including B. changii W.Y. Zhao, X.H. Zhan & W.B. Liao, B. dulanica C.L. Yeh, S.W. Chung & T.C. Hsu, B. esquirolii (H. Lév.) Lauener, B. gibba Ohwi, B. hirsuta, B. longiloba (Hand.-Mazz.) Diels, B. microphylla H.L. Li, B. oldhamii Hook. f., B. repens R.C. Zhou, Q.J. Zhou & Ying Liu, B. rotundifolia Yan Liu & C.H. Ou, B. tuberculata (Guillaumin) Diels, B. yunnanensis, P. fordii (Hance) C.Chen, P. gracilis (Hand.-Mazz.) C. Chen, P. guidongensis K.M. Liu & J. Tian, P. latisepala C. Chen, P. longearistata C. Chen, P. longiradiosa C. Chen, P. plagiopetala C. Chen and P. velutina (Diels) C. Chen from the former clade, and B. amoena Diels, B. biglandularis C. Chen, B. okinawensis (= T. okinawensis), B. quadrangularis Cogn., B. sessilifolia H.L. Li, B. sinensis (Diels) H.L. Li (= T. sinensis Diels), B. yaeyamensis (= T. yaeyamensis), P. nudipes C. Chen, P. oligotricha Merr. and the new species T. villosa from the latter clade. Their habit, indumentum, shape and texture of the leaves, leaf surface sculpture under scanning electronic microscope (SEM), inflorescence type, stamen morphology, capsule morphology, habitat preference and geographical distribution were recorded. Data were obtained via field, herbarium and literature surveys as well as by observing living plants in the facilities of Sun Yat-sen University. Specimens of the two clades (GXMG, GXMI, HNNU, IBG, IBK, IBSC, JJF, KUN, NAS, PE, SYS) or their high-resolution photos (A, BM, CSFI, E, HAST, K, KYO, MO, NTUF, NY, PH, TAI, TAIF, TI, UC, WU) were examined. Habit, shape and texture of the leaves, and inflorescence type were obtained via visual observation. Stamen morphology and capsule morphology were determined by stereomicroscopic (Leica S8APO) examination, leaf epidermal features by desktop SEM (Phenom Pro), and indumentum by both equipment. During observation using Phenom Pro, fresh or dried tissues were directly mounted on stubs and examined without further processing. We failed to obtain the materials of two species recorded in Bredia, namely B. laisherana C.L. Yeh & C.R. Yeh and B. violacea H.L. Li, which were therefore not included in our molecular phylogenetic study. For the two species, we examined their protologue, images of herbarium specimens and color photos from the author of B. laisherana. Species circumscriptions basically follow Chen (1984b). Description of the capsule morphology mainly follows Hansen (1992), while the description of one type of trichomes (sessile glands with thin-walled heads) was taken from Wurdack (1986).

Taxonomy

Diels published several names in Melastomataceae in 1924 and 1932. Although he designated type specimens, he did not specify the place of deposition for them in the protologue. Even if we assume the holotypes existed in the Berlin herbarium (where Diels worked), they were probably destroyed during the Second World War. Therefore, we follow McNeill (2014) and designate lectotypes for those taxa according to the stipulations of Art. 9.12, 9.22 and 9.23 of the Code (Turland et al. 2018). Diels (1932) also lectotypified two names, Barthea cavaleriei H. Lév. and Fordiophyton tuberculatum Guillaumin, without citing the herbaria where they were housed. For Barthea cavaleriei, only one specimen of the gathering designated by Diels is known and is in the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh herbarium (E). We accept it as the lectotype of this name and cite the page number of Diels’s lectotypification. For Fordiophyton tuberculatum, multiple specimens of the gathering designated by Diels (1932) are mixtures of more than one taxon. Based on Art. 9.17 (Turland et al. 2018), a lectotype corresponding most closely with the original description is designated for this name. Tashiroea, T. yaeyamensis and T. okinawensis were described simultaneously without designation of a type (Ito and Matsumura 1899). We also lectotypify these names here according to Art. 8.1, 8.2, 10.1, and 10.2 (Turland et al. 2018). In general, we select the herbarium sheet with the best-preserved leaves and flowers for lectotypification. Detailed reasoning where the choice may not be obvious is provided at the end of the taxon being discussed.

Results

The combined dataset contained 1768 characters. The phylogenetic tree resulted from ML analysis is shown in Fig. 1 with PP and ML bootstrap support values (BS) indicated at nodes. Phylogenetic relationships within Sonerileae/Dissochaeteae are nearly identical to those reported in Zhou et al. (2019). Both Tashiroea clade (PP=1.00; BS=100%) and Bredia clade (PP=1.00; BS=98%) are well resolved. Among the newly sequenced species, B. okinawensis (= T. okinawensis) and the new species T. villosa are nested in the Tashiroea clade, while B. yunnanensis is grouped in the Bredia clade.

Figure 1. 

Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of Sonerileae/Dissochateae based on combined dataset of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast trnV-trnM sequences, showing the phylogenetic position of Tashiroea clade and Bredia clade. Numbers on the branches are bootstrap values obtained from maximum likelihood analyses (left) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (right) resulting from Bayesian inference. Boxes denote the types of the genera sampled.

Characters of the Tashiroea clade (10 species) and the Bredia clade (20 species) are summarized in Table 1. Species of the two clades are shrubs or shrublets, except that the latter clade includes some herbs. The mature leaves of species in Tashiroea clade are usually glabrous, stiffly papery to leathery and exhibit furrowed surface sculpture under SEM (Figs 2, 4 A–B, D), except that those of the new species T. villosa are densely pubescent and villous and without furrowed surface sculpture (Fig. 4C). The mature leaves of species in the Bredia clade are usually puberulous and papery and without furrowed surface sculpture (Figs 3, 4 E–L). Species in both clades have sessile glands and uniseriate/multiseriate trichomes with or without glandular heads (Fig. 5A–C, E–H). Yellowish uniseriate trichomes (branched or unbranched) (Fig. 5D), are present only in the Tashiroea clade, where they occur on apical and axillary buds and sometimes on young leaves and branches (Fig. 5M–P). Both clades are quite variable in terms of leaf shape (lanceolate to suborbicular), leaf base (cuneate to cordate), inflorescence type (cymose to cymose paniculate), stamen morphology (dimorphic to isomorphic), and staminal appendages (gibbose, tuberculate, or spurred) (Figs 23, 67). An ovary crown is present in most species of the Tashiroea clade at anthesis (Fig. 8A–D), but is usually evanescent, resulting in uncrowned capsules (Fig. 8I–K). Exceptions are two species traditionally placed in Phyllagathis. Their crowns are persistent and enlarged, forming crowned capsules with an obpyramidal depression at the top (Fig. 8L). In species of the Bredia clade, an ovary crown is present at anthesis (Fig. 8E–H), and persistent and enlarged in old capsule, enclosing an inverted frustum-shaped depression (Fig. 8M–P).

Comparison of the Tashiroea clade and the Bredia clade. Potential diagnostic characteristics are indicted in bold.

Tashiroea clade Bredia clade
Habit Shrubs or shrublets Shrubs, shrublets or herbs
Indumentum of mature leaf Glabrous, rarely pubescent and villous (T. villosa) Sparsely to densely puberulous or strigose
Leaf texture Stiffly papery to leathery Papery, rarely submembranous
Leaf surface sculpture Furrowed, rarely not (T. villosa) Not furrowed
Leaf shape Lanceolate, ovate, elliptic or suborbicular Lanceolate, ovate, cordate, oblong, elliptic, ovate-orbicular
Leaf base Cuneate, obtuse, rounded, or subcordate Cuneate, obtuse, rounded, often cordate
Leaf veins 3–5 5–11, rarely 3 (B. guidongensis)
Leaf margin Entire to serrulate Entire to serrulate
Indumentum Sessile gland with thin-walled head; multiseriate trichomes with glandular head or not; appressed uniseriate trichomes with glandular head; yellowish uniseriate trichomes Sessile gland with thin-walled head; multiseriate trichomes with glandular head or not; appressed or spreading uniseriate trichomes with glandular head or not
Inflorescence Cymose, cymose panicle Cymose, umbellate, or cymose panicle
Stamens Dimorphic and isomorphic Dimorphic and isomorphic
Staminal appendage of dimorphic stamens Gibbose, tuberculate or spurred at the base of anthers in shorter stamens; connectives decurrent and prolonged, gibbose or tuberculate dorsally in longer stamens Gibbose, tuberculate or spurred at the base of anthers in shorter stamens; connectives decurrent and prolonged, gibbose, tuberculate, or spurred ventrally in longer stamens
Staminal appendage of isomorphic stamens Slightly gibbose ventrally at the base of the anthers, spurred dorsally Gibbose or tuberculate at the base of the anthers, sometimes short spurred dorsally
Ovary top at anthesis Slightly crowned or uncrowned Crowned
Capsule Ovary crown usually evanescent, capsule uncrowned with rounded or 4-humped top; or ovary crown persistent and enlarged, enclosing an obpyramidal space (in T. nudipes and T. oligotricha) Ovary crown persistent and enlarged, enclosing an inverted frustum-shaped depression at capsule top
Habitat Open or dense forests, slopes, stream banks, alt. 50–2300 m In forest or along forest margin, stream banks, damp places, alt. 100–2500 m
Distribution South eastern mainland China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands Central and south mainland China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands
Figure 2. 

Leaf morphology of the Tashiroea clade. A T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) B T. biglandularis (Y. Liu 553) C T. nudipes (Y. Liu 435) D T. oligotricha (Y. Liu 468) E T. okinawensis (Y. Liu 636) F T. quadrangularis (Y. Liu 585) G T. sessilifolia (Y. Liu 540) H T. yaeyamensis (Y. Liu 631).

Figure 3. 

Leaf morphology of the Bredia clade. A B. changii (Y. Liu 548) B B. guidongensis (Y. Liu 472) C B. hirsuta (Y. Liu 634) D B. longiradiosa var. pulchella (Y. Liu 485) E B. microphylla (Y. Liu 551) F B. plagiopetala (Y. Liu 460) G B. tuberculata (Y. Liu 629) H B. yunnanensis (Y. Liu 627).

Figure 4. 

Scanning electron micrographs of lower epidermis. A–D Tashiroea clade, showing presence of furrowed surface sculpture: A T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) B T. nudipes (Y. Liu 435) C T. villosa (Y. Liu 568) D T. yaeyamensis (Y. Liu 631) E–L Bredia clade, showing absence of furrowed surface sculpture E B. dulanica (Y. Liu 565) F B. gibba (Y. Liu 566) G B. gracilis (Y. Liu 457) H B. hirsuta (Y. Liu 563) I B. longiradiosa var. pulchella (Y. Liu 485) J B. repens (Y. Liu 558) K B. tuberculata (Y. Liu 629) L B. yunnanensis (Y. Liu 627). Scale bars: 100 μm.

Figure 5. 

Trichomes in the Tashiroea clade and the Bredia clade. A–D Micrographs of trichomes in the Tashiroea clade: A sessile gland with thin-walled head in T. nudipes (Y. Liu 435) B multiseriate trichomes in T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) C appressed uniseriate trichomes with glandular heads in T. nudipes (Y. Liu 435) D yellowish uniseriate trichomes (branched or unbranched) in T. quadrangularis (Y. Liu 585). E–H Micrographs of trichomes in the Bredia clade: E sessile gland with thin-walled head in B. longiradiosa var. pulchella (Y. Liu 485) F multiseriate trichomes in B. repens (Y. Liu 558) G appressed uniseriate trichomes with glandular heads in B. gibba (Y. Liu 566) H spreading uniseriate trichomes in B. hirsuta (Y. Liu 563). I–L Stereoscopic images of the Tashiroea clade, showing buds covered in yellowish uniseriate trichomes I T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) J T. nudipes (Y. Liu 435) K T. quadrangularis (Y. Liu 585) L T. yaeyamensis (Y. Liu 631). M–P Stereoscopic images of the Bredia clade, showing buds without yellowish uniseriate trichomes: M B. dulanica (Y. Liu 565) N B. gibba (Y. Liu 566) O B. gracilis (Y. Liu 457) P B. yunnanensis (Y. Liu 627). Scale bars: 100 μm (A–H); 1 mm (I–P).

Figure 6. 

Stamen morphology in the Tashiroea clade. A–D Dimorphic stamens: A T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) B T. quadrangularis (Y. Liu 585) C T. biglandularis (Y. Liu 553) D T. sinensis (Y. Liu 569). E–F Isomorphic stamens: E T. nudipes (Y. Liu 435) F T. oligotricha (Y. Liu 468). Scale bar: 5 mm.

Figure 7. 

Stamen morphology in the Bredia clade. A–E Dimorphic stamens: A B. esquirolii (Y. Liu 587) B B. hirsuta (Y. Liu 563) C B. hirsuta var. scandens (Y. Liu 539) D B. rotundifolia (Y. Liu 538) E B. tuberculata (Y. Liu 629). F–O Isomorphic stamens: F B. fordii (Y. Liu 444) G B. fordii var. micrantha (Y. Liu 580) H B. gracilis (Y. Liu 457) I B. guidongensis (Y. Liu 472) J B. longearistata (Y. Liu 496) K B. longiradiosa var. pulchella (Y. Liu 485) L B. microphylla (Y. Liu 551) M B. plagiopetala (Y. Liu 460) N B. repens (Y. Liu 558) O B. yunnanensis (Y. Liu 627). Scale bar: 5 mm.

Figure 8. 

Longitudinal section of ovary (A–H) and old fruit (I–P). A–D Tashiroea clade, crowned or uncrowned ovaries at anthesis: A T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) B T. quadrangularis (Y. Liu 585) C T. biglandularis (Y. Liu 553) D T. sinensis (Y. Liu 569). E–H Bredia clade, crowned ovaries at anthesis: E B. hirsuta (Y. Liu 563) F B. fordii var. micrantha (Y. Liu 580) G B. plagiopetala (Y. Liu 459) H B. longiradiosa var. pulchella (Y. Liu 485). I–L Tashiroea clade, uncrowned, rarely crowned capsules: I T. amoena (Y. Liu 571) J T. biglandularis (Y. Liu 553) K T. sinensis (Y. Liu 569) L T. oligotricha (Y. Liu 468). M–P Bredia clade, crowned capsules: M B. dulanica (Y. Liu 565) N B. fordii (Y. Liu 444) O B. latisepala (Y. Liu 557) P B. repens (Y. Liu 558). Scale bars: 2 mm.

Field and literature surveys revealed that species of both Tashiroea clade and Bredia clade prefer shaded or moist habitats in forests or along forest margin, often along stream banks, from 50 m to 2500 m alt. The Tashiroea clade occurs in southeastern mainland China and the Ryukyu islands, while the Bredia clade, aside from the above areas, also extends to the central and southwestern Chinese provinces of Guizhou, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan and Yunnan.

Of the two species without molecular data, B. laisherana is endemic to Taiwan and B. violacea occurs in northern Vietnam. The former species has glabrous stems and leaves, and uncrowned ovaries and capsules (Yeh et al. 2008), occurring in dense forests, while the latter has puberulous stems, leaves and inflorescences but no habitat record is available.

Discussion

Morphological comparison

Species of the Tashiroea clade and Bredia clade are similar in habit, habitat preference, most indumentum types, and in having lanceolate, ovate to suborbicular leaves, a cuneate to cordate leaf base, cymose to cymose panicles, dimorphic or isomorphic stamens, and gibbose, tuberculate, or spurred staminal appendages (Figs 23, 57). Additionally, their range of distribution partly overlaps in southeastern mainland China, and the Ryukyu islands. Therefore, it is quite understandable that Li (1944) considered Tashiroea to be congeneric with Bredia, where he placed it in synonymy.

However, our survey of morphological characters has shown that the two clades can be distinguished by several diagnostic features, including leaf indumentum, texture, leaf surface sculpture under SEM, presence/absence of yellowish uniseriate trichomes, and capsule morphology. Species of the Tashiroea clade differ from those of the Bredia clade by the glabrous, stiffly papery to leathery mature leaves with furrowed surface sculpture under SEM (vs. puberulous and papery, without furrowed sculpture) (Figs 24), the presence of yellowish uniseriate trichomes on buds (vs. absence) (Fig. 5), and usually uncrowned capsules with a rounded or 4-humped apex, or rarely crowned with an obpyramidal apical depression (vs. capsules crowned, with an inverted frustum-shaped depression) (Fig. 8). Tashiroea villosa, the only exception in the Tashiroea clade with densely hairy leaves and without furrowed surface sculpture, nevertheless has yellowish uniseriate trichomes on buds and uncrowned capsules with a 4-humped apex characteristic of this clade. At least some of the above differences, such as indumentum and capsule morphology, had long been noticed by previous authors. Li (1944) established section Tashiroea in Bredia, whereas Hansen (1992) divided Bredia into four groups of species, placing Tashiroea in a separate group.

The two clades are also morphologically distinguishable from their close relatives. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Tashiroea clade is most closely related to Scorpiothyrsus and Driessenia axantha while Bredia clade is closest to Blastus, Fordiophyton, and Plagiopetalum (Fig. 1). Species in the Tashiroea clade differ from Scorpiothyrsus in the 3–5-veined leaves (vs. 7–9-veined), from Driessenia axantha in inflorescence terminal (vs. axillary), and from both in inflorescence cymose to cymose panicles (vs. often scorpioid cymose panicles), and ventrally gibbose or tuberculate anthers (vs. 2-setose or 2 band-shaped ventral appendages). The Bredia clade is easily distinguished from Blastus by having two whorls of stamens (vs. one), from Fordiophyton by ventrally appendaged anthers (vs. unappendaged) and the capsule crown usually exserted from the calyx (vs. not exserted), and from Plagiopetalum by appendaged anthers and crowned capsules (vs. unappendaged and uncrowned).

Species without molecular data

Two species previously placed in Bredia were not sampled in the molecular phylogenetic studies: B. laisherana from Taiwan and B. violacea from north Vietnam. Bredia laisherana was initially identified as B. quadrangularis by Yeh and Yeh (2006) and was later published as a new species (Yeh et al. 2008). It has glabrous stems and leaves, and uncrowned ovaries and capsules (Yeh et al. 2008), which are characteristic of the Tashiroea clade. Bredia violacea has puberulous stems, leaves and inflorescences (Li 1945). Li (1945) noted that the general appearance and inflorescence characters of B. violacea closely resembled those of B. hirsuta (type of Bredia). Morphological characters therefore suggest that B. laisherana belongs to the Tashiroea clade, and B. violacea to the Bredia clade.

Conclusion

Morphological evidence and molecular phylogenetic data confirmed that the Tashiroea clade and the Bredia clade represent two distantly related lineages morphologically well differentiated from each other and from their possible relatives. We therefore resurrect the generic name Tashiroea Matsum for the former clade and redefine Bredia Blume to include the latter. For the species lack of molecular data, we place B. laisherana and B. violacea in Tashiroea and Bredia respectively based on morphology. Species circumscriptions basically follow Chen (1984b). A revision at the species level will be dealt with in another study.

Taxonomy

Tashiroea Matsum., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 12: 489. 1899, emend. R.C. Zhou & Ying Liu

Lectotype

Tashiroea yaeyamensis Matsum., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 12: 489. 1899. (Designated here)

Description

Shrubs or shrublets, erect, rarely creeping in the lower parts. Stems terete or slightly 4-sided, glabrous or glabrescent, rarely densely hairy (in T. villosa), terminal and axillary buds pubescent with yellowish uniseriate branched trichomes. Leaves petiolate; leaf blade lanceolate, ovate, elliptic, rarely suborbicular, stiffly papery to leathery, glabrescent when mature, rarely hairy (in T. villosa), secondary veins 1 or 2 on each side of midvein, margin remotely serrulate, or almost entire. Inflorescences terminal, few-flowered cymes to cymose panicles; bract minute, rarely to 1–2 cm long (in T. villosa), usually caducous. Flowers 4-merous. Hypanthium campanulate, rarely funnel shaped. Calyx lobes repand, crenate or triangular. Petals pink or purplish red, ovate, oblong to suborbicular, more or less oblique, apex acute or acuminate. Stamens 8, unequal or subequal; filaments filiform; anthers dimorphic or isomorphic, subulate to oblong-linear, gibbose, tuberculate or spurred at base, sometime unappendaged adaxially. Ovary half inferior, slightly crowned or uncrowned, ovoid-globular or turbinate, 4-celled. Style filiform; stigma apiculate. Capsule cup-shaped or subglobular, more or less 4-sided, woody, uncrowned, apex rounded or 4-humped, or crown persistent and enlarged, enclosing an obpyramidal space (in T. nudipes and T. oligotricha). Seeds numerous, minute, cuneate, densely granulate. (Figs 2, 6, 5A–D, I–L, 8A–D, I–L)

Distribution

Eleven species, eight in southeastern mainland China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang), one in Taiwan, and two in the Ryukyus (Fig. 9).

Figure 9. 

Distribution of Tashiroea. Hollow triangles indicate the locations of Tashiroea villosa.

Ito and Matsumura (1899) established Tashiroea based on T. yaeyamensis and T. okinawensis without designating a type. The original materials of both species conform to the protologue of Tashiroea. We designate T. yaeyamensis as the type of Tashiroea because this species bears much larger leaves and more flowers than T. okinawensis, which may facilitate future molecular and/or morphological analysis of the type materials.

Species included in Tashiroea

Tashiroea amoena (Diels) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Bredia amoena Diels, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9(83): 197–198. 1924 (Basionym). Type: China. Zhejiang: Yentang, 16 Aug 1920, H.H. Hu 30 (lectotype, designated here: A! [A00071979]; isolectotype: UC! [UC231837]).

Bredia chinensis Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 8(1): 11–12. 1927. Type: China. Zhejiang: Yentang, 16 Aug 1920, H.H. Hu 30 (holotype: UC! [UC231837]; isotype: A! [A00071979]).

Bredia pricei F.P. Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 12: 153–154. 1933. Type: China. W.R. Price 1200A (K! [K001325176]).

Tashiroea biglandularis (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Bredia biglandularis C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 39. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Guangxi: Dongxing, Lu-bao-shan, 2 Oct 1976, T. Fang 1519 (holotype: GXMI! [GXMI050232]).

Tashiroea laisherana (C.L. Yeh & C.R. Yeh) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Bredia laisherana C.L. Yeh & C.R. Yeh, Edinburgh J. Bot. 65(3): 400 (–403; figs 3, 4C–D). 2008 (Basionym). Type: Taiwan, Pingtung, Mt Laisher, on the ridge of a mountain and steep valley and in a dense cloudy forest, 1600–1800 m, 15 Sept 2005, C.L. Yeh & C.R. Yeh 33 (holotype: PPI 065514).

Tashiroea nudipes (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis nudipes C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 47. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Guangdong: Ruyuan, Wuzhi Shan, 21 May 1973, Guangdong73-101 (holotype: IBSC! [IBSC0003997]).

Tashiroea okinawensis Matsum., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 12: 490. 1899.

Bredia okinawensis (Matsum.) H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 21. 1944.

Type

Japan. Okinawa: in montosis tractus Kunchan, Apr 1887, Y. Tashiro (5) (lectotype, designated here: TI! [TI00002346]). Additional syntypes: Japan. Okinawa: S. Tanaka 216 (TI! [TI00002347]), Matsumura (TI! [TI00002348]).

Tashiroea oligotricha (Merr.) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis oligotricha Merr. Sunyatsenia 1: 74. 1930 (Basionym). Type: China. Guangdong: Lok Chang, 8 Jun 1929, Tso 21016 (holotype: NY! [NY00273007]; isotypes: IBSC! [IBSC0003939, IBSC0003940]).

Phyllagathis anisophylla Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 115. 1932. Type: China. Hunan, no precise location, 1926, Hunan Museum 60 (lectotype, designated here: IBSC! [IBSC0003938]; isolectotypes: IBSC! [IBSC0003936, IBSC0003937]).

Tashiroea quadrangularis (Cogn.) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Bredia quadrangularis Cogn. Monogr. Phan. 7: 473–474. 1891 (Basionym). Type: South China. Seemann s.n. (LE).

Tashiroea sessilifolia (H.L. Li) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Bredia sessilifolia H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 22. 1944 (Basionym). Type: China. Guangxi: Shang-sze District, Shih Wan Tai Shan, Tang Lung Village, 25 Sept 1934, W. T. Tsang 24346 (holotype: A! [A00071991]; isotype: IBSC! [IBSC0003956]).

Tashiroea sinensis Diels, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 198. 1924.

Bredia sinensis (Diels) H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 22. 1944.

Bredia glabra Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 8: 12. 1927. Type: China. Zhejiang: Pinyong Xian, 11 Jul 1924, Ling Kan 7333 (holotype UC! [UC252284]).

Type

China. Fujian: Chung-an District, 27 Jul 1921, H.H. Hu 1343 (lectotype, designated here: A! [A00073233]).

Tashiroea yaeyamensis Matsum., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 12: 489. 1899.

Bredia yaeyamensis (Matsum.) H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 21. 1944.

Tashiroea yaeyamensis var. tanakaea Matsum., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 12: 490. 1899. Type: Okinawa: Yaeyama archipelago, Jul 1890, S. Tanaka 344 (holotype: TI! [TI00002345]).

Type

Japan. Okinawa: Iriomote 1890, S. Tanaka 345 (lectotype, designated here: TI! [TI00002344]). Additional syntype: Japan. Okinawa: in Yaeyama, Aug 1887, Tashiro (TI! [TI00002343]).

Tashiroea villosa X.X.Su, sp. nov.

Figures 10, 11, 12A–B

Type

China. Fujian: Pingnan County, Lingxia Town, 1000 m, 16 Jul 2017, Y. Liu 568 (holotype: A!; isotype: SYS!).

Diagnosis

Resembles T. amoena in height, leaf size and shape, inflorescence and stamen morphology, while differing from the latter in the dense indumentum covering the whole plant and much larger bracts.

Description

Shrubs or shrublets, 20–60 (–90) cm tall. Stem, leaves, peduncles, bracts, pedicels and hypanthium densely pubescent and villous with multiseriate or sometimes uniseriate glandular or non-glandular trichomes. Stems cylindrical, branchlets slightly 4-sided, sometimes rubescent. Leaves opposite; petiole 1.2–4.5 cm long; leaf blade ovate to ovate-elliptic, 4.2–12 × 1.8–6 cm, papery, abaxial surface pale green, adaxial surface green, secondary veins 3 on each side of midvein, base cordate to rounded, margin ciliate and inconspicuously serrulate, apex acuminate or short acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, cymose, 7–14 × 3.5–6.5 cm, bracts 9–19 × 5–8 mm, deciduous or sometimes persist till anthesis. Pedicels 1–3 mm. Hypanthium short campanulate, 4-sided, 3–5 mm long, calyx lobes broadly triangular, 1 mm long, apex acute. Petals purplish pink or pink, ovate to ovate-oblong, 7–10 × 3.5–5 mm, slightly oblique, apex acute. Stamens 8, dimorphic, unequal. Longer stamens antesepalous, ca. 15 mm long; anthers lanceolate, ca. 8 mm long, geniculate; connective decurrent, slightly prolonged, forming a short spur dorsally. Shorter stamens antepetalous, ca. 8 mm long, anthers lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long, base gibbose ventrally and forming a short spur dorsally. Ovary half inferior, locules 4, apex slightly 4-lobed, margin ciliate with glandular trichomes. Style ca. 0.6 cm long, puberulous with glandular trichomes basally. Capsule cup-shaped; hypanthium ca. 4 × 3.5 mm long; placental column distally entire, placentas non-thready. Seeds numerous, minute, cuneate, granulate. Flowering July-August, fruiting August-October.

Figure 10. 

Line illustration of Tashiroea villosa (A–G), all from Y. Liu 568. A Habit B Flower (side view) C Longitudinal section of flower, showing slightly crowned ovary D Dimorphic stamens E Capsule (side view) F Capsule (longitudinal section) G Capsule (top view). Scale bar: 1 cm (A).

Figure 11. 

Y. Liu 568 (A) collected from Lingxia, Pingnan County, Fujian, China, holotype of Tashiroea villosa.

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to the dense pubescent and villous indumentum.

Distribution and ecology

Tashiroea villosa is currently known from Pingnan, Jianou and Jianyang, northern Fujian, China (Fig. 9). It often grows in grasses and bushes along streamside at elevations of 900–1400 m.

Notes

Tashiroea villosa is discovered by Mr. Xiang-xiu Su. He is an amateur collector in Fujian who had made an important contribution to the description of this new species. We therefore include him as the author of this name. Tashiroea villosa is the sole species currently known in Tashiroea with densely puberulous and villous leaves (vs. glabrous) and smooth leaf surface sculpture (vs. furrowed). It is morphologically and phylogenetically closest to T. amoena. The two species are similar in height, leaf size and shape, inflorescence and stamen morphology. Tashiroea villosa is distinct from T. amoena in the dense indumentum covering the whole plant (vs. petioles and inflorescences pubescent or sometimes glabrescent) and much larger bracts (9–19 × 5–8 mm vs. 1–2 × 1 mm) in the florescence (Fig. 12). Geographically, T. amoena is widely distributed in southeastern China (Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangxi), whereas T. villosa occurs in northern Fujian where both species occur. Nevertheless, they have not been found to co-occur within the same habitat.

Figure 12. 

Tashiroea villosa (A–B) and T. amoena (C–D). A Habit B Inflorescence showing large bracts C Habit D Inflorescence showing minute bracts. Photographed by Xiang-xiu Su (A, C) and Ying Liu (B, D).

Bredia Blume, Mus. Bot. 1: 25. 1849, emend. R.C. Zhou & Ying Liu

Type

Bredia hirsuta Blume, Mus. Bot. 1(2): 25. f. 4. 1849.

Description

Shrubs, shrublets or herbs, erect, ascending or creeping. Stems terete or more or less 4-sided, sparsely to densely puberulous, rarely glabrescent. Leaves petiolate; leaf blade ovate, cordate, oblong, elliptic, ovate-orbicular, rarely lanceolate, papery, rarely submembranous, sparsely to densely puberulous or strigose, secondary veins 2–5 on each side of midvein, margin serrulate or entire. Inflorescences terminal, umbellate, cymes or cymose panicles. Flowers 4-merous. Hypanthium funnel shaped to campanulate. Calyx lobes conspicuous, linear-lanceolate to triangular. Petals pink or purplish red, ovate to oblong, more or less oblique, apex acute or acuminate. Stamens 8, unequal or subequal; filaments filiform; anthers dimorphic or isomorphic, subulate to oblong-linear, gibbose, tuberculate or spurred at base, rarely unappendaged abaxially. Ovary half inferior, crowned, ovoid, 4-celled. Style filiform; stigma apiculate. Capsule turbinate to cup-shaped, more or less 4-sided, crown persistent and enlarged, enclosing an inverted frustum-shaped depression at capsule apex. Seed numerous, minute, cuneate, densely granulate. (Figs 3, 7, 5E–H, M–P, 8E–H, M–P)

Distribution

Twenty-one species: 15 in central and southern mainland China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Zhejiang), one in north Vietnam, five in Taiwan and one extending to the Ryukyu islands (Fig. 13).

Figure 13. 

Distribution of Bredia.

Species included in Bredia

Bredia changii W.Y. Zhao, X.H. Zhan & W.B. Liao, Phytotaxa 307(1): 36–42.

Type

China. Jiangxi: Chongyi County, Niedu Town, 579 m, 1 Aug 2016, W. Y. Zhao et al. LXP-13-22114 (holotype: SYS!; isotype: IBSC!).

Bredia dulanica C.L. Yeh, S.W. Chung & T.C. Hsu, Edinburgh J. Bot. 65(3): 395, 399 (figs 2, 4A–B). 2008.

Type

Taiwan, Taitung, Mt Dulan, on the ridge of a mountain, 1000–1200 m, 14 Oct 2007, S.W. Chung, T.C. Hsu & C.R. Yeh 16 (holotype: TAIF! [TAIF348619]; isotypes: TAIF! [TAIF348620, TAIF348621, TAIF348622]).

Bredia esquirolii (H. Lév.) Lauener, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31(3): 398–399. 1972.

Barthea esquirolii H. Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11(301–303): 494. 1913 (Basionym). Type: China. Guizhou: Tchai-choui-ho, July 1909, Esquirol 1581 (holotype: E! [E00090793]).

Bredia cordata H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25(1): 24–25. 1944. Type: China. Sichuan: Ya-an, dense forest shade, 686 m, 30 Jul 1939. C. Y. Chiao 1205 (holotype: A! [A00071982]).

Bredia esquirolii var. cordata (H.L. Li) C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 40. 1984.

Bredia fordii (Hance) Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 110. 1932.

Otanthera fordii Hance, J. Bot. 19: 47. 1881 (Basionym). Type: China. Hong Kong, Jul 1880, C. Ford. herb no. 21099 (lectotype, designated here: BM! [BM000629024]; isolectotype BM! [BM000629025]).

Phyllagathis fordii (Hance) C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 50. 1984.

Bredia sepalosa Diels, 65(2–3): 109–110. 1932. Type: China. Guangxi: Yao shan, 1928, S.S. Sin & K.K. Whang 648 (lectotype, designated here: IBSC! [IBSC0003942]).

Bredia fordii var. micrantha (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis fordii var. micrantha C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 50–51. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Guizhou: Dushan, in convallibus montanis, 600 m, 22 Aug 1930, Y. Tsiang 6563 (holotype: IBSC! [IBSC0003995]; isotypes: NAS! [NAS00052126] PE! [PE00782806, PE00782810]).

Bredia gibba Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 12(6): 385–386. 1936.

Bredia penduliflora S.S. Ying, Quart. J. Chin. Forest. 6(1): 167. 1972. Type: Taiwan, Sakanyalan-Tawu, 10 Oct 1972, S.S. Ying 1517 (lectotype, designated here: NTUF! [F00004987]; isolectotypes: NTUF! [F00004986, F00004989, F00004990, F00004991, F00004992, F00004993]).

Type

Taiwan. Pingtung, Sungshan, J. Ohwi s.n. (holotype: KYO! [KYO00022400]).

Bredia gracilis (Hand.-Mazz.) Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 110. 1932.

Fordiophyton gracile Hand.-Mazz., Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Anz. 63: 3, 10. 1926 (Basionym). Type: China. Hunan: Heng Shan, Wukang, 1150–1300 m, 4–8 Aug 1918, Hand.-Mazz. 12380 (holotype: WU! [WU0059491]; isotypes: A! [A00055337] E! [E00090795]).

Phyllagathis gracilis (Hand.-Mazz.) C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 51. 1984.

Bredia guidongensis (K.M. Liu & J. Tian) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis guidongensis K.M. Liu & J. Tian, Phytotaxa 263(1): 58–62 (Basionym). Type: China. Hunan: Guidong County, Pule Town, 970 m, 3 Jul 2013, K.M. Liu, R.Y. Yi & L. Peng 24147 (holotype: HNNU; isotypes: HNNU CSFI).

Bredia hirsuta Blume, Mus. Bot. 1(2): 25. f. 4. 1849.

Type

Japan. K. Ito s.n. (lectotype, designated here: L! [L0170980]).

In the protologue, Blume (1849) cited no specimen but the name “Rhexia fasikan” (should be Rhexia hasikan, see below) attached to a specimen from Von Siebold’s herbarium. Ohba and Akiyama (pers. comm.) discovered one sheet with the name “Rhexia hasikan” in the herbarium in Leiden (L0170980). The sheet contains two collections, a smaller one covered by paper on the upper part and a larger one with four branches on the middle and lower part. According to Ohba (pers. comm.), the epithet “hasikan” comes from the Japanese name of B. hirsuta, viz. “Hashikan-boku”. This sheet is regarded as the type material of B. hirsuta. We here designate the larger collection on the sheet as the lectotype of B. hirsuta.

Bredia hirsuta var. scandens Ito & Matsum., J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 12: 487. 1898.

Bredia scandens (Ito & Matsum.) Hayata. J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 114. 1911.

Type

Taiwan, inter Suiteiryō et Niki, C. Owatari, Jan 1898 (the date “1896” cited in the protologue is probably erroneous) (lectotype, designated here: TI! [TI00002337]; isolectotype: TI!, [TI00002339]).

Bredia latisepala (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis latisepala C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 53–54. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Hubei: Hefeng, ad pedes montis calcareo, 18 Sept 1958, H.J. Li 6451 (holotype: IBSC! [IBSC0003996]; isotype: PE! [PE00025692]).

Bredia longearistata (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis longearistata C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 52–53. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Guangxi: Hechi, prope rivulos in convallibus montanis, 19 May 1928, L.H. Chun 91861 (holotype: IBK! [IBK00190677]; isotype: IBK! [IBK00190678]).

Bredia longiloba (Hand.-Mazz.) Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 111. 1933.

Fordiophyton gracile var. longilobum Hand.-Mazz., Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Anz. 63: 3, 10. 1926 (Basionym). Type: China. Jiangxi: between Ningdu and Ki-an, T.H. Wang 493 (holotype: WU! [WU0059490]).

Bredia longiradiosa C. Chen ex Govaerts, World Checkl. Seed Pl. 2(1): 13. 1996.

Phyllagathis longiradiosa C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 51. 1984 (Basionym). Type: Based on Barthea cavaleriei H. Lév.

Barthea cavaleriei H. Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8(160–162): 61. 1910. Type: China. Guizhou: near Mou-you-sé, J. Cavalerie 1552 (lectotype, designated by Diels 1932, pg. 110: E! [E00090789]).

Fordiophyton cavaleriei (H. Lév.) Guillaumin, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 275. 1913.

Bredia cavaleriei (H. Lév.) Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 110. 1932.

Bredia longiradiosa C. Chen, Fl. Yunnan 2: 105, f. 27, 1–5. 1979. nom. inval. (reference to place of publication of basionym not provided).

Bredia longiradiosa var. pulchella (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis longiradiosa var. pulchella C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 52. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Guangxi: Daxin, Longjin, 4 May 1959, F.F. Huang 3596 (holotype: GXMI! [GXMI050237]).

Notes

Three gatherings were cited in the protologue of Barthea cavaleriei, viz. Cavalerie 1552, Esquirol 1581 and Esquirol 215, without designation of a type. Two of the syntypes, Esquirol 1581 and 215 were later cited as the types of Barthea esquirolii H. Lév. (1913) and Barthea blinii H. Lév. (1913), respectively. Guillaumin (1913) transferred Barthea cavaleriei to Fordiophyton citing only Cavalerie 1552 under the new combination F. cavaleriei (H. Lév.) Guillaumin. Diels (1932) formally designated Cavalerie 1552 as the lectotype and published a new combination Bredia cavaleriei (H. Lév.) Diels. However, this name is an illegitimate later homonym of B. cavaleriei H. Lév. & Vaniot (see Art. 53.1). Chen (1979) published the replacement name B. longiradiosa C. Chen for this species, but he did not provide a full reference of the basionym, which makes the name invalid (see Art. 41.1). Chen (1984b) subsequently transferred the species to Phyllagathis. As the epithet cavaleriei is also not available in Phyllagathis, a new name P. longiradiosa C. Chen was published together with the description of a new variety, P. longiradiosa var. pulchella C. Chen. There are three effectively published names for this species in Bredia. With B. cavaleriei (H. Lév.) Diels illegitimate and B. longiradiosa C. Chen invalid, the only legitimate name, B. longiradiosa C. Chen ex Govaerts is adopted as the correct name for this species.

Bredia microphylla H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25(1): 23. 1944.

Type

China. Guangxi: Guilin District, Chi-fen Shan, Xichang Cun and vicinity, W.T. Tsang 28432 (holotype: A! [A00071988]; isotype: IBSC! [IBSC0003950]).

Bredia oldhamii Hook. f., Icon. Pl. 11: 68, pl. 1085. 1871.

Bredia oldhamii var. ovata Ohwi, J. Jap. Bot. 12(9): 661–662. 1936. Type: Taiwan, Taitung, in open forest, forest margin, 100–1200 m, J. Ohwi 425 (holotype: KYO).

Type

Taiwan, near Tamsuy, Jan 1864, R. Oldham 118 (holotype: K! [K000978944]; isotype: GH! [GH00071989] P! [P02274733] US! [US00120439]).

Bredia plagiopetala (C. Chen) R.C.Zhou & Ying Liu, comb. nov.

Phyllagathis plagiopetala C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 44–45. 1984 (Basionym). Type: China. Hunan: Xinning, Ziyun Shan, in dense silvis apice montium, 800 m, 11 Jul 1959, P.C. Tam 63423 (holotype: IBK! [IBK00127587]).

Bredia repens R.C. Zhou, Q.J. Zhou & Ying Liu, Syst. Bot. 43(2): 549. 2018.

Type

China. Hunan: Sangzhi County, from Shayuan to Nanmuping village, 430–470 m, 11 Nov 2016, Y. Liu 558 (holotype: SYS!; isotypes: A! SYS!).

Bredia rotundifolia Yan Liu & C.H. Ou, Quart. J. Chin. Forest. 9(2): 118, f. 1. 1976.

Type

Taiwan, Chiayi, Juili, Ou 2869 (holotype: NCUF).

Bredia tuberculata (Guillaumin) Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 111. 1932.

Fordiophyton tuberculatum Guillaumin, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 2(11): 326. 1913 (Basionym). Type: China. Yunnan: Tchen fong chan, Delavay 5053 (lectotype, designated here: E! [E00285959]; isolectotypes: P! [P02274731], P! [P02274729] individual on the right side of the sheet).

Bredia omeiensis H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25(1): 24. 1944.Type: China. Sichuan: Emei Shan, 1100 m, 21 Aug 1937, Y.S. Liu 1080 (holotype: A! [A00071990]; isotype: LBG! [LBG00089612]).

Notes

Three gatherings were cited in the protologue of Fordiophyton tuberculatum, viz. Delavay 5053, Ducloux 2192 and Wilson 4906. Diels (1932) designated Delavay 5053 as the type without citing a specific herbarium. We located four duplicates of Delavay 5053 (E00285959, P02274729, P02274730, P02274731). Close examination of the specimens revealed that this gathering is a mixture of B. tuberculata and B. yunnanensis. Individuals on E00285959, P02274731 and the one on the right side of P02274729 conform to the protologue of B. tuberculata in the adaxially white punctate leaves and unequal and dimorphic stamens. The remaining four individuals (three on P02274730 and one on the left side of P02274729) conform to the holotype of B. yunnanensis in the absence of white spots on their leaves and the subequal and isomorphic stamens. According to Art. 9.11, 9.12, 9.14, and 9.17 (Turland et al. 2018), the lectotypification by Diels should be accepted and further narrowed to a single specimen that corresponds most closely with the original description. We therefore designate E00285959 as the lectotype as it conforms to the description and contains many well-preserved leaves and flowers.

Bredia violacea H.L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 26(1): 120. 1945.

Type

Vietnam. Tonkin: Tian-yen, Ho Yung Shan & vicinity, 13 Oct–22 Nov 1940, W.T. Tsang 30751 (holotype: A! [A00071992]).

Bredia velutina Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 109. 1932.

Phyllagathis velutina (Diels) C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 51. 1984.

Type

China. Yunnan: Mengzi, 1000–2300 m, A. Henry 13479 (lectotype, designated here: K! [K000867582]; isolectotypes: A! [A00055334] NY! [NY00221472]).

Bredia yunnanensis (H. Lév.) Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65(2–3): 111. 1932.

Blastus yunnanensis H. Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11(286–290): 300–301. 1912 (Basionym). Type: China. Yunnan: Vallée de Long-Ky, pied des rochers humides, 700 m, Aug 1911, Maire s.n. (holotype: E! [E00285956]).

Blastus mairei H. Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11(286–290): 300. 1912. Type: China. Yunnan: Bord des eaux, Vallée de Long-Ky, 700 m, Jul 1911, Maire s.n. (holotype: E! [00285957]).

Acknowledgements

We thank curators and staff of herbaria cited in the text for permission to examine the specimens or high-resolution photos of them, especially Akiko Shimizu (TI) who kindly searched for original material to facilitate lectotypification. We are deeply grateful to Dr. Hideaki Ohba and Dr. Shinobu Akiyama for providing important information regarding the type materials of B. hirsuta; Dr. David E. Boufford, Dr. Fabian A. Michelangeli and Dr. Susanne S. Renner for their valuable comments on the manuscript; Dr. Bing-lan Zhang for her help with leaf surface scanning using Phenom Pro. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31770214) and the Science, Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (2015A030302011) and Chang Hungda Science Foundation of Sun Yat-sen University.

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