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Nomenclatural changes in Coleus and Plectranthus (Lamiaceae): a tale of more than two genera
expand article infoAlan J. Paton, Montfort Mwanyambo§, Rafaël H.A. Govaerts, Kokkaraniyil Smitha|, Somran Suddee, Peter B. Phillipson#, Trevor C. Wilson¤, Paul I. Forster«, Alastair Culham»
‡ Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom
§ National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi
| University of Calicut, Kerala, India
¶ The Forest Herbarium, Bangkok, Thailand
# Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France
¤ University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
« Queensland Herbarium, Toowong, Australia
» University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

A synopsis of the genera Coleus Lour, Equilabium A.J.Paton, Mwany. & Culham and Plectranthus L’Hér. (Lamiaceae, Tribe Ocimeae, Subtribe Plecranthinae) is presented. Generic delimitation follows a recently published molecular phylogeny which identified Coleus as the sister of the remaining genera of Subtribe Plectranthinae; Plectranthus as sister to Tetradenia Benth. and Thorncroftia N.E.Br., and a separate phylogenetically distinct genus Equilabium comprising species previously placed in Plectranthus. In this treatment, 294 species of Coleus, 42 of Equilabium, and 72 of Plectranthus are recognized. All but one of the combinations in Equilabium are new as only the genus and type species have been previously published. Two-hundred and twelve names are changed to combinations in Coleus from Plectranthus, Pycnostachys Hook. and Anisochilus Benth.

Keywords

Anisochilus, Equilabium, generic delimitation, nomenclature, Ocimeae, Plectranthinae, Pycnostachys, Solenostemon

Introduction

Plectranthus L’Hér. is a widely used horticultural and medicinal plant genus (van Jaarsveld 2007, Lukhoba et al. 2006, Rice et al. 2011). It belongs in tribe Ocimeae, subtribe Plectranthinae, an Old World tropical group of around 450 species. Current taxonomic treatments generally follow Harley et al. (2004) by including the formerly recognized Coleus Lour. and Solenostemon Thonn. within Plectranthus. However, within horticultural literature, Solenostemon is still frequently recognized (e.g. RHS (2017), Shepherd and Maybry (2016)). The commonly cultivated plant shown in Fig. 1 is thus variously known as Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R.Br or Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd., but “coleus” is frequently used as a common name for this species, increasing the confusion.

Figure 1. 

A Display of cultivated Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. in the Real Jardin Botánico, Madrid. B Close up of the cultivar ‘Campfire’, winner of the Royal Horticultural Society’s peoples choice award at Wisley 2017 (Photo: A.Paton).

Recent phylogenetic work has shown that the circumscription of Plectranthus needs to be viewed in the context of related genera in Tribe Ocimeae, subtribe Plectranthinae. Paton et al. (2018) demonstrate that a clade containing the type of Coleus (C. amboinicus Lour. ≡ P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.) is sister to the other genera of the Plectranthinae, and the type species of Plectranthus, P. fruticosus L’Hér., belongs in a clade which is sister to Thorncroftia N.E.Br and Tetradenia Benth. A further clade containing species that were previously placed in Plectranthus was recognized by Paton et al. (2018) as Equilabium Mwany., A.J.Paton & Culham (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. 

Summarised phylogeny of the Plectranthinae showing relationships of recognised genera following Paton et al. (2018): the numbers in triangles represent species numbers though the numbers of species in the two subclades of Coleus cannot be estimated (see discussion); dates of branching are given in black.

The aim of this paper is to provide the necessary nomenclatural changes consistent with the recognition of Plectranthus, Coleus and Equilabium as distinct genera following phylogenetic results provided by Paton et al. (2018).

Taxonomic history

Plectranthus was described by L’Héritier in 1788 (L’Héritier 1788) and Coleus by Loureiro in 1790 (de Loureiro 1790). In previous global reviews of the Lamiaceae, e.g. Bentham (1832, 1848, 1876) and Briquet (1897), Coleus was treated as distinct from Plectranthus by having the 4 stamens fused together rather than free to their base. Morton (1962) recognized that the character of the fused stamens was more plastic than previously thought and merged Coleus into Plectranthus, as first suggested by Brown (1810). However, Morton also placed weight on calyx characteristics leading him to recognize several genera based on calyx morphology including Solenostemon, Isodictyophorus A.Chev, Leocus A.Chev., Englerastrum Briq. and Neohyptis J.K.Morton. The merging of Coleus into Plectranthus has been followed by most authors since Morton’s account, for example, Keng (1978), covering Malesian species, Blake (1971, Australia), Codd (1985, southern Africa), Hedge et al. (1998, Madagascar), Suddee et al. (2004, Indochina), Forster (2011, Australia) and Paton et al. (2009, 2013, eastern and southern tropical Africa). Furthermore, although Codd (1985) and Morton (2006) also maintained Solenostemon, Keng (1978), Hedge et al. (1998) and subsequent authors recognised Solenostemon as synonymous with Plectranthus.

Despite the agreed taxonomic status by the above authors, Cramer (1978) maintained that Coleus is a separate genus from Plectranthus, as did Wu and Huang (1977) and Li and Hedge (1994) for Chinese species. Cramer’s decisions were in part based upon Sri Lankan Coleus that have imbricate bracts (“floral leaves”) and a decurrent upper calyx lip in addition to fused stamens. Cramer also suggested Plectranthus could have a 3-lobed upper calyx lip, but that is misleading since he was considering species of Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach as part of Plectranthus: Isodon is now recognized in a separate subtribe and is very distinct from the Plectranthinae (Ryding 1993, Harley et al. 2004, Zhong et al. 2010).

A common theme in the treatments listed above is that, since Briquet (1897), all have been based on regional accounts of relatively small numbers of species. Morton (1962) considered 28 species of the Coleus/Plectranthus complex and Cramer (1978), 11 species. Morton recognized the problems in this narrow regional approach noting, “hence the genus Plectranthus must for the moment be a repository for Coleus or Plectranthus-like species which cannot satisfactorily be placed in other genera” and Cramer considered his account to be “ by no means conclusive, least of all authoritative”. Paton in Harley et al. (2004) thus took a broader approach, considering characters used to delimit allied genera in the context of the Plectranthinae as a whole. In Paton’s treatment, Coleus and the small segregate genera recognized by Morton were merged into Plectranthus, making Plectranthus s.l. morphologically recognizable from other genera and an easily communicable concept. However, this was a conservative, morphologically based account and did not tackle how best to circumscribe taxa within the large Plectranthus s.l.

Paton et al. (2004) provided a preliminary test of the broad concept of Plectranthus by presenting a phylogeny of tribe Ocimeae, demonstrating that the Plectranthinae was a monophyletic group which could be generally diagnosed by having stamens adnate and contiguous at the base of the anterior corolla lip. The presence of fused stamens, the original defining character of Coleus, was shown to be homoplasious by mapping it onto this phylogeny. However, the study identified two main clades within the Plectranthinae: one containing the type of Coleus and members of Solenostemon, Leocus A.Chev., Pycnostachys Hook. and Anisochilus Benth.; and the other containing the type species of Plectranthus and members of Alvesia Welw., Aeollanthus C. Mart. ex Spreng, Capitanopsis S.Moore, Tetradenia and Thorncroftia.

The phylogenetic study by Paton et al. (2018) increased the sampling of the Plectranthinae and added another plastid marker to increase tree resolution, and similarly found that Plectranthus s. l. was polyphyletic (see summary of analysis in Fig. 2). As a result of this work, Paton et al. (2018) suggested recognition of Coleus for the clade containing the Coleus type, Plectranthus s.s. for the clade sister to Thorncroftia and Tetradenia, and a new genus, Equilabium, for the clade formerly containing Plectranthus species mainly from tropical Africa, but with one in India. Paton et al. (2018) pointed out that these clades were morphologically diagnosable by characters that had been used to define informal morphological groups by Paton et al. (2009, 2013). These characters are the position of attachment of the pedicel to the calyx, the relative lengths of the corolla lobes and the shape of the corolla tube (Fig. 3). The phylogenetic results indicate that three genera recognized by Harley et al. (2004), (Pycnostachys, Anisochilus and Leocus) are nested within Coleus, and this close relationship is corroborated by species of intermediate morphology between Coleus and the former taxa Pycnostachys (Paton et al. 2009, 2013), Anisochilus (Suddee et al. 2014), and Leocus (Pollard and Paton 2009). Paton et al. (2018) also showed that Solenostemon is not monophyletic, and that recognition of Solenostemon would render Coleus paraphyletic by its exclusion, therefore we argue that Solenostemon should not be recognised.

Figure 3. 

Calyx and corolla morphology. Calyces in Coleus with pedicel attached excentrically above midline of calyx: 1 C. betonicifolius 2 C. platyphyllus showing the rounded lateral calyx lobe in some species of the formally recognized Solenostemon. Calyx in Equilabium with pedicel attached ± at centre of calyx base with the lateral lobe held midway between the anterior and posterior lobes: 3 E. megafolium 4 E. masukensis. Calyces in Plectranthus with pedicel attached ± at centre of calyx base with the lateral lobe closer to the anterior than the posterior lobes: 5 P. alboviolaceus. Corolla shape in Coleus showing unequal anterior and posterior corolla lips: 6 C. schizophyllus 7 C. hockii. Corolla shape of Equilabium showing equal anterior and posterior corolla lips: 8 P. parvus 10 P. laxiflorus. Corolla shape of Plectranthus showing equal anterior and posterior corolla lips and gibbous-based corolla: 9 P. strangulatus;. Drawn by Emmanuel Papadopoulos. Reproduced from Flora of Tropical East Africa (Paton et al. 2009).

Methods

The phylogenetic study presented by Paton et al. (2018) was based on a representative sample of species of the Plectranthinae. Recent floristic accounts and the World Checklist Of Selected Plant Families were consulted (Govaerts et al. 2019, Paton et al. 2009, 2013, Suddee et al. 2004, Codd 1985, Hedge et al. 1998, Forster 1992, 1994, 2011 and references within). IPNI (www.ipni.org) was consulted to trace any recently described species of Coleus or Plectranthus and the protologues of these were examined. A survey of herbarium collections (AAU, BK, BKF, BM, BOL; BR, C, CALI, COI, EA, ETH, FT, G, HBG, K, L, LE, LMA, LISC, LMU, MEL, MH, MO, NHT, P, PRE, RNG, S, STU, TCD, UPS, W, WAG; Abbreviations following Thiers (2017)), was undertaken also using JSTOR Global Plants (https://plants.jstor.org/) to access type specimens not otherwise seen. Cited types have been seen unless otherwise stated. The attribution of species to the genera Coleus, Plectranthus and Equilabium was guided by the characters given in Paton et al. (2018) and in the key at the beginning of the taxonomic account below.

Results and discussion

The changes in generic delimitation proposed by Paton et al. (2018) have a large impact on nomenclature. An alternative nomenclatural treatment would be to consider the monophyletic Plectranthinae to be components of a single genus, Plectranthus. Most recent taxonomic papers have included Coleus within Plectranthus. However, taking 2005 as a starting point, following publication of Harley et al. (2004) as the most comprehensive baseline taxonomy for the Lamiaceae, 15,700 papers cite Coleus in the title, but only 9320 cite Plectranthus (source Google Scholar). This suggests that Coleus is still a broadly used concept. Tetradenia with mainly dioecious, ± actinomorphic flowers is part of the sister group of the Plectranthus in the strict sense. Thus there are no easily observed morphological apomorphies that could be used to easily diagnose an enlarged Plectranthus; whereas the generic delimitation proposed in Paton et al. (2018), results in monophyletic genera which are relatively easy to diagnose morphologically.

In this treatment, 294 species of Coleus, 42 of Equilabium, and 72 Plectranthus are recognized. All the combinations in Equilabium are new as only the genus and type species E. laxiflorum have been previously published (Paton et al. 2018). 212 names need to be changed to combinations in Coleus from combinations in Plectranthus, Pycnostachys and Anisochilus. However, 82 of these combinations in Coleus already exist, reflecting previous confusion. No new names are necessary for species in Plectranthus.

Of the characters cited by Cramer (1978) as supporting the delimitation of Coleus and Plectranthus, the presence of a decurrent calyx tube is variable and found in Coleus, Plectranthus and Equilabium. Imbricate bracts do only occur in Coleus, but this character is only obvious in some species. Generally the species are very easy to attribute to Coleus, Plectranthus or Equilabium using the pedicel attachment, corolla lobe length and tube shape characters described in the key below. The presence of persistent bracts and slightly flattened nutlets also supports the division of Coleus (often cauducus bracts and slightly flattened nutlets), from Plectranthus and Equilabium (usually persistent bracts and ovoid nutlets), though those characters have more exceptions than those characters used in the key. Both Equilabium and Plectranthus have rarely more than 3-flowered cymes, whereas Coleus can have one to very many flowers per cyme. Although species can be misplaced in some instances due to atypical corolla structure, the asymetrical pedicel attachment at the base of the calyx gives the most clear indication of the species’ placement in Coleus. Generic identification can be harder with small-flowered Coleus species that show asymetrical pedicel attachment but have more or less equal corolla lips; however, the number of these cases is small. In Equilabium the upper lip can be slightly shorter than the lower lip in some cases but at the extreme it is about 0.8 of the length of the lower lip, whereas in Coleus the upper lip is usually much shorter. The southern African Coleus zombensis (Baker) A.J.Paton, C. gibbosus A.J.Paton (Plectranthus rehmannii Gürke) and Coleus sessilifolius (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton can also provide confusion as the corolla is basally gibbous, similar to that of many species of Plectranthus; however, they have a Coleus-like calyx and the corolla tube is sigmoid rather than straight as in true Plectranthus.

We present the list of species in alphabetical order, rather than according to the previously proposed infrageneric classification by Codd (1975), which is unworkable. Although the smaller infrageneric groups he recognized in the infrageneric classification of Plectranthus s.l. of Southern Africa are natural groups of related Southern African species, Codd’s classification does not cover the extent of character variation and combinations seen outside the Flora of Southern Africa area, making it difficult to apply globally. As pointed out by Paton et al. (2018), groups previously thought to be easily delimited by morphological characters can be paraphyletic. For example, subgenus Calceolanthus Codd was delimited by Codd by having a dense ring of hairs in the calyx throat, but the phylogeny presented by Paton et al. (2018) suggests that the clade containing these species also contains species which lack this character. Larger infrageneric groupings recognized by Codd contain a mixture of lineages, for example, Codd’s section Plectranthus while containing mostly species placed in Plectranthus here, also includes P. dolichopodus Briq. (here placed in Coleus) and P. laxiflorus Benth. and P. petiolaris Benth. (here both are placed in Equilabium).

Further study is required to provide a more robust formal infrageneric classification of Coleus and Plectranthus, although within Coleus there seems to be a continuity of form making further morphological diagnoses of clades difficult. There are two well supported clades within Coleus (clades A and B sensu Paton et al. (2018)), but no clear morphological apomorphies to diagnose these clades have been identified. Further phylogenetic work is underway by the authors: fifty species are now described for Australia and a current phylogenetic analysis focusing on these species is being prepared from a comprehensively sampled data set (T.C. Wilson, unpubl.); and an analysis of species in India is also being prepared (K. Smitha, unpubl.).

Taxonomic account

A key to the genera of the Plectranthinae is provided and followed by treaments of the three genera now containing species of Plectranthus s.l. sensu Harley et al. (2004): Coleus, Equilabium and Plectranthus. New combinations of Capitanopsis and the generic protologue of Equilabium can be found in Paton et al. (2018). No changes to other genera of the Plectranthinae are proposed. The generic descriptions are followed by a listing of the species in alphabetical order with details of synonymy, types and distribution. The account ends with a list of unplaced names, followed by a list of excluded names now placed in other genera. Readers should also consult the online treatment in the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Govaerts et al. 2019, www.kew.org/wcsp) as this is continually updated and includes TDWG level 3 distributions and Raunkiaer life form descriptors. A short description of the Plectranthinae and key to the genera recognized is provided below.

Subtribe Plectranthinae Endlicher, Gen. Pl.: 609. 1838

Herbs or shrubs. Inflorescence an indeterminate thyrse with cymes sessile or pedunculate, ebracteolate, rarely with minute persistent or deciduous bracteoles; bracts persistent or deciduous, rarely coloured. Calyx usually with a single-lobed posterior lip and a 4-lobed anterior lip, sometimes actinomorphic and regularly 5-lobed. Corolla strongly 2-lipped, rarely actinmorphic or subactinomorphic (Tetradenia), anterior lip concave to cucullate, more rarely flat. Stamens declinate, rarely spreading (Tetradenia), exserted, anterior and posterior attached adjacently at corolla throat (separated in Tetradenia). Disc usually 4-lobed, lobes alternating with nutlets. Nutlets with small inconspicuous areole.

Key to the genera of the Plectranthinae

1 Corolla actinomorphic, or almost so, stamens spreading not declinate Tetradenia
Corolla strongly zygomorphic, stamens declinate 2
2 Lateral lobes of the corolla deflexed towards the anterior lobe Thorncroftia
Lateral lobes of the corolla ascending towards the median lobes of the posterior lip or horizontal and held between the anterior lobe and median lobes of the posterior lip 3
3 Posterior lip of corolla truncate, lateral lobes usually horizontal, short, held between the anterior lobe and median lobes of the posterior lip Capitanopsis
Posterior lip of corolla not truncate, diverging from anterior lip of the corolla, with lateral lobes usually ascending and close to median lobes of posterior lip 4
4 Calyx basally circumscissile; tube distally dorsiventrally flattened Aeollanthus
Calyx very rarely circumscissile; tube not dorsiventrally flattened 5
5 Calyx 3-lobed (1 upper, 2 lower), expanded and membranous in fruit Alvesia
Calyx 5-lobed (1 upper, 4 lower, or actinomorphic), rarely expanded and membranous in fruit 6
6 Calyx with pedicel attached asymmetrically to the base of the calyx tube, opposite the posterior lip; corolla with upper (posterior) lip shorter than lower (anterior), rarely subequally lobed (Fig. 3) Coleus
Calyx with pedicel attached symmetrically to the base of the calyx tube, not opposite the upper lip, corolla lobes more or less equal in length (Fig. 3) 7
7 Calyx throat truncate with lateral lobes of the calyx held midway between the uppermost and lowermost lobes; corolla tube usually sigmoid, parallel-sided at base, dilating towards throat (Fig. 3) Equilabium
Calyx throat oblique with lateral lobes of the calyx held closer to the lowermost pair of lobes than the upper lobe; corolla tube straight or curved downwards, usually gibbous, saccate or shortly spurred at base (Fig. 3) Plectranthus

Synopsis of genera and species of Coleus, Equilabium and Plectranthus

Genus Coleus

Coleus Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 372. 1790

Figs 4, 5

Pycnostachys Hook., Exot. Fl. 3: t. 202. 1826. synon. nov. Type: P. coerulea W.J.Hooker (here recognized under Coleus stenostachys (Baker) A.J.Paton, non Coleus coeruleus Gürke).

Solenostemon Thonn. in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 271. 1827. Type: Solenostemon ocymoides Schumach. & Thonn (here recognized under Coleus monostachyus (P. Beauv.) A.J.Paton).

Anisochilus Wall. ex Benth., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 15: t. 1300. 1830. synon. nov. Type: Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) Wall. ex Benth. (here recognized under Coleus strobilifer (Roxb.) A.J.Paton, non Coleus carnosus Hassk.).

Mitsa Chapel. ex Benth. nom. inval, Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52. 1832.

Echinostachys E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 243. 1838. synon. nov. Type: Echinostachys reticulata E.Mey. (here recognized under Coleus kirkii (Baker) A.J.Paton, non Coleus reticulatus A.Chev.).

Saccostoma Wall. ex Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 449. 1845. Type: S. urticifolius Voigt. (See unplaced names).

Majana Rumph. ex Kuntze, nom. superfl. Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 523. 1891.

Englerastrum Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 178. 1894. Type: E. schweinfurthii Briq. (here recognized under Coleus rhodesianum (N.E.Br.) A.J.Paton).

Neomuellera Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 180. 1894. Type: N. welwitschii Briquet (here recognized under Coleus fredericii G.Taylor).

Capitanya Schweinf. ex Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21: 105. 1895. Type: Capitanya ostostegioides Gürke (here recognized as Coleus otostegioides (Gürke) A.J.Paton).

Burnatastrum Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4. 3A: 358. 1897. Type: Burnatastrum lanceolatum (Bojer ex Benth.) Briq. (here recognized as Coleus lanceolatus (Bojer ex Benth.) A.J.Paton).

Stiptanthus Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4. 3A: 352. 1897., synon. nov. Type: Stiptanthus polystachyus (Benth.) Briq. (here recognized as Coleus polystachys (Benth.) A.J.Paton).

Symphostemon Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 867. 1900. Type: S. insolitus (C. H. Wright) Hiern (here recognized as Coleus insolitus (C.H.Wright) Robyns & Lebrun).

Leocus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 125. 1909. Type: L. lyratus Chevalier (here recognized as Coleus lyratus (A.Chev.) Roberty).

Isodictyophorus Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 285. 1917. Type: I. chevalieri Briquet (here recognized as Coleus reticulatus A.Chev.).

Briquetastrum Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 102. 1929. Type: B. africanum (Baker) W. Robyns et Lebrun (here recognized under Coleus engleri (Briq.) A.J.Paton, non C. africanum Benth.).

Holostylon Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 103. 1929. Type designated here: Holostylon gracilipedicellatum Robyns & Lebrun (here recognized as Coleus gracilipedicellatum (Robyns & Lebrun) A.J.Paton).

Ascocarydion G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (suppl. 2): 162. 1931. Type: Ascocarydion mirabile (Briq.) G.Taylor (here recognized as Coleus mirabilis Briquet).

Neohyptis J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 258. 1962. Type: Neohyptis paniculata (Baker) J.K.Morton (here recognized under Coleus guerkei (Briq.) A.J.Paton, non Coleus paniculatus Benth.).

Rabdosiella Codd, Bothalia 15: 9. 1984. Type: R. calycina (Bentham) Codd (here recognized as Coleus calycinus (Benth.) A.J.Paton).

Coleus sect Solenostemonoides Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3A): 359. 1897. Type as below.

Calchas P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Type: Solenostemon latifolius (Hochst. ex Benth) J.K.Morton, designated by Codd (1975), here recognized under Coleus bojeri Benth.

Type species

C. amboinicus Lour.

Description

Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, sometimes succulent, sometimes with a fleshy or tuberous rootstock. Leaves opposite, sometimes whorled. Inflorescence thyrsoid, strongly condensed to lax, with cymes sessile or pedunculate, sometimes with long cincinnate branches, 1– many-flowered; bracts subtending cymes usually not persistent beyond flowering, sometimes erect forming a coma at apex of flowering stem. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, sometimes spirally arranged on inflorescence axis. Calyx funnel-shaped to tubular, straight or curved, often ventrally gibbous, with pedicel attaching asymmetrically at calyx base opposite the posterior lip, two lipped to regularly 5-lobed, rarely circumscissile at base (C. coeruleus); throat glabrous, pubescent or bearded, open or closed by scales or converging lips; if regularly lobed the lobes triangular, lanceolate or spinescent; if two lipped, posterior lip 1-lobed, larger or similar size to other lobes, decurrent or not; anterior lip 4-lobed with lobes variously shaped; lateral lobes lanceolate, triangular to oblong or rounded; held midway between the posterior lobe and median lobes of the anterior lip; median lobes lanceolate to triangular, sometimes separated by a sinus or sometimes fused at base for a longer distance than the lateral and median lobes. Corolla two-lipped with posterior lip shorter than anterior lip, rarely subequal; tube sigmoid to almost straight, narrow and parallel-sided at base, expanding towards throat, very rarely gibbous, rarely annulate; posterior lip 4-lobed, erect or ascending; anterior lip horizontal cucullate to concave. Stamens 4; filaments fused together or free, held within the anterior lip or exserted. Style bifid with subulate lobes, rarely entire. Nutlets ovoid, often dorso-ventrally flattened.

Figure 4. 

Species of Coleus 1. A Coleus anamudianus (Photo: K. Smitha) B C. amboinicus (Photo: Neil Crouch) C C. barbatus (Photo: Neil Crouch) D C. bracteatus (Photo: Witawat Keiwbang) E C. harmandii (Photo: Thamarat Phutthai).

Figure 5. 

Species of Coleus 2. A Coleus maculosus subsp. lanatus (Photo: Vincent Droissart) B C. mirabilis (Photo: David Goyder) C C. porphyranthus (Photo: Neil Crouch) D C. orthodontus (Photo: Bart Wursten) E C. tenuicaulis (Photo: Ernst van Jaarsveld) F C. strobilifer (Photo: Naiyana Tetsana).

294 species in the Old World tropics and subtropics; often cultivated elsewhere.

Coleus abyssinicus (Fresen.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys abyssinica Fresen., Flora 21: 608. 1838. Type: Ethiopia, Sidamo, Rüppell s.n. (holotype: FR? Possibly lost, see Ryding 2006).

Distribution

Ethiopia.

Coleus acariformis (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus acariformis P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 9: 279. 2014. Type: Australia, Queensland, Moreton District, Noosa National Park, Mt Emu, 5 Feb. 2014, P.I.Forster & G.Leiper PIF40678 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: K, MEL, NSW, US).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus achankoviliensis Smitha & A.J. Paton, nom. nov.

Anisochilus petraeus J.Mathew & Yohannan, Taiwania 62(2): 144. 2017, non Coleus petraeus (Backer ex Adelb.) A.J.Paton. Type: India, Kollam district, 1.5 km from Achankovil town, Achankovil, J.Mathew 4527 (holotype TBGT; isotype MSSRF).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus actites (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus actites P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 163. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Leichhardt District, Anvil Peak, Hodgson Range, NE of Clermont, 28 Aug. 1990, P.I.Forster PIF7255 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus adenanthus (Dalzell & A.Gibson) A.J.Paton , comb. nov.

Anisochilus adenanthus Dalzell & A.Gibson, Bombay Fl.: 206. 1861. Type: India, the Concan, near Dharwar, Bababoodan hills, Bombay Herbarium of the late N. A. Dalzell. Presented by Mrs Dalzell, April 1878, Dalzell s.n. (holotype: K).

Anisochilus verticillatus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 629. 1885. Type: India, the Concan, near Dharwar, Bababoodan hills, Bombay Herbarium of the late N. A. Dalzell. Presented by Mrs Dalzell, April 1878, Dalzell s.n. (lectotype: K, designated by Suddee and Paton 2009).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus adenophorus (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus adenophorus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 398. 1901.

Englerastrum adenophorum (Gürke) T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 75. 1924. Type: Tanzania, Njombe District: Kipengere, Goetze 960 (holotype: B destroyed).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania.

Coleus aegyptiacus (Forssk.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Ocimum aegyptiacum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: cxv, 109. 1775.

Plectranthus aegyptiacus (Forssk.) C.Chr., Dansk Bot. Ark. 4(3): 21. 1922.

Plectranthus crassifolius Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1: 44. 1790., nom. illeg.

Germanea crassifolia Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl., suppl. 2: 764. 1812., nom. superfl.

Coleus zatarhendi Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 50. 1832., nom. superfl.

Plectranthus zatarhendi E.A.Bruce, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1935: 590. 1935., nom. superfl.

Ocimum zatarhendi Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 109. 1775., nom. inval.

Majana zatarhendi (Forssk.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891, nom. inval. Type: Yemen, Beit el Fakih (Bayt al Faqih), Forsskål s.n. (type: not seen, believed destroyed); “Arabia”, Herb. Forsskål s.n. (neotype: KIEL; C, K (photos), designated by Ryding and Paton (2001)).

Coleus tenuiflorus Vatke, Linnaea 43: 92. 1881.

Plectranthus tenuiflorus (Vatke) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 636. 1974. Type: Kenya, Kitui, Hildebrandt 2742 (lectotype: CORD, designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Coleus camporum Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 214. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Pangani District: Pangani R. ford, Volkens 485 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: BM, G).

Coleus ghindanus Schweinf. ex Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 435. 1900. Type. Eritrea, Ghinda valley, Schweinfurth & Riva 2149 (holotype: K; isotypes: BR, FT, P).

Distribution

Eritrea to Tanzania, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

Coleus affinis (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys affinis Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345. 1895.Type: Tanzania, Mwanza, Stuhlmann 4693 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys speciosa Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345. 1895., non Coleus speciosus Baker f. Type: Kenya/Tanzania, east shore of Lake Victoria, Fischer 499 (lectotype: B, destroyed, designated by Bruce 1940).

Pycnostachys dawei N.E.Br., Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 41: 18. 1907. Type: cultivated from seed sent from Uganda, Dawe s.n. 1906 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Rwanda to E. Trop. Africa.

Coleus albicalyx (Suddee) Suddee, comb. nov.

Plectranthus albicalyx Suddee, Kew Bull. 59: 401. 2004. Type: Thailand, Kanchanaburi, Salak Phrae W.S., Khao Tab Tao, 480 m, 29 Sept. 1998, Suddee et al. 868 (holotype: BKF; isotypes: K, TCD).

Distribution

Thailand.

Coleus aliciae (Codd) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus madagascariensis var. aliciae Codd, Bothalia 11: 404. 1975.

Plectranthus aliciae (Codd) van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 5. 1997. Type: South Africa, Transkei, Butterworth, Kentani, Pegler 909 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: E. Cape Prov. to S. KwaZulu-Natal.

Coleus alloplectus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus alloplectus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 29. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Mt Greville, 21 Apr. 1962, S.T.Blake 21703 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: New South Wales, Queensland.

Coleus alpinus Vatke, Linnaea 37: 322. 1872

Plectranthus alpinus (Vatke) Ryding, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121: 147. 1999. Type: Ethiopia, Edda Jesus near Dawra Tabor (Debra Tabor), 25 Sept. 1863, Schimper s.n. (lectotype: BM, designated by Ryding (1999); isolectotype JE).

Coleus assurgens Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 428. 1900.

Plectranthus assurgens (Baker) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 267. 1962. Type: Ethiopia, Begemder, 1863- 8, Schimper s.n. (holotype: K, (K000431867)).

Coleus schoensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 170. 1906. Type: Ethiopia, Addis Abeba Highlands, Sept. 1900, Ellenbeck 1576 (holotype: B destroyed).

Coleus gracilentus S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 38: 273. 1908. Type: Uganda, E Ruwenzori, Wollaston s.n. (holotype: BM).

Coleus microtrichus Chiov., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 36: 368. 1929. Type: Ethiopia, Arussi, Lake Zuai basin, Abruzzi 37 (holotype: TO; isotype: C).

Coleus lebrunii Robyns, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 73. 1943. Type: DRC, Ruwenzori, Butagu valley, Robyns 4579 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Coleus wittei Robyns, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 74. 1943. Type: DRC, Kamatembe, R. Bishkishaki, de Witte 1551 (holotype: BR).

Distribution

Nigeria to Ethiopia and south to Malawi.

Coleus altanmouiensis (T.C.Wilson, P.I.Forst., & M.A.M.Renner) T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus altanmouiensis T.C.Wilson, P.I.Forst., & M.A.M.Renner, Telopea 21: 84. 2018. Type: Cape Melville National Park, Cape York, Cook District, Queensland, 14 Aug 2015, T.C. Wilson 610 and M.A.M. Renner (holotype: NSW 985152; isotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus amboinicus Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 372. 1790

Fig. 4B

Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690. 1825.

Majana amboinica (Lour.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Rumphius plate in Herb. Amb. 5, t. 102/2. 1750 (lectotype: illustration, designated by Cramer (1978); epitype, designated by Suddee et al. (2004) and based on the choice of a representative specimen selected by Launert (1968): Thailand, Pai District: Mae Hong Son, 25 May 1921, Kerr s.n. (epitype: BM).

Ocimum vaalae Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 111. 1775., nom. rej.

Coleus vaalae (Forssk.) Deflers, Rev. Egypt: 423. 1894.

Coleus aromaticus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830. Type: India, Patna, Buchanan-Hamilton Wall. Cat. 2730B (syntypes: K-W (K001116968, K001116969).

Coleus crassifolius Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15. 1830. Type: India, Dindygul, Herb. Wight s.n. in Wall. Cat. 2731 (syntypes: BM, K (K000820149, K (K000820151); K-W (K001116970).

Coleus suganda Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 483. 1837.

Majana suganda (Blanco) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Philippines, Luzon, Maragondong, Cavite Province, Merrill: Species Blancoanae No. 129 (neotype, designated by Suddee et al. (2004): K). Blanco’s specimens have not been traced and are believed destroyed.

Coleus carnosus Hassk., Flora 25(2 Beibl.): 25. 1842.

Majana carnosa (Hassk.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Coleus suborbicularis Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz.: 4. 1846., nom. illeg. Type: Indonesia, Zollinger 1950 (holotype: G-DC; isotypes: A, P, S).

Coleus amboinicus var. violaceus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 210. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Moshi District: Lake Chala, Volkens 321 (syntypes: B destroyed, BM, K) & Pangani R. ford, Volkens 487 (syntypes: B, destroyed, BM, K).

Coleus subfrutectosus Summerh., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 392. 1928. Type: Seychelles, Mahé, Botanical Station, Dupont 204 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Kenya to South Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India.

Coleus amicorum (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus amicorum S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 26. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Tinaroo Range, 21 Aug. 1963, S.T.Blake 22094 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus amiculatus (T.C.Wilson, P.I.Forst. & M.A.M.Renner) T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus amiculatus T.C.Wilson, P.I.Forst. & M.A.M.Renner, Telopea 21: 81. 2018. Type: Along Pajinka Road, Cook District, Queensland, 8 Aug 2015, T.C. Wilson 595 & M.A.M. Renner (holotype: NSW (NSW985146); isotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus amoenus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst. , comb. nov.

Plectranthus amoenus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 656. 1997. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Baldy Mt., Atherton, Jun. 1991, P.I.Forster PIF8488 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus anamudianus (Smitha & Sunojk.) Smitha, comb. nov.

Fig. 4A

Plectranthus anamudianus Smitha & Sunojk., Phytotaxa 284(1): 52. 2016. Type: India, Kerala, Idukki district, in valley, wet rocky surfaces, Rajamala, Smitha & Sunojkumar 135412 (holotype: CALI; isotype MH).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus angolensis (G.Taylor) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys angolensis G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (suppl. 2): 164. 1931. Type: Angola, Casima, Anha, Gossweiler 1734 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus angulatus (Hedge) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus angulatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 211. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Bekopaka, May 1964, Bosser 19616 (holotype: P; isotypes: E, MO, TAN).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus apoensis Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7: 2694. 1915

Plectranthus apoensis (Elmer) H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 147. 1969. Type: Phillipines, Mindanao, Davao distr., Todaya, Mount Apo, Sept. 1909, A.D.E. Elmer 11601 (holotype PNH (not seen); isotypes: GH, K).

Distribution

Philippines (Mindanao).

Coleus apreptus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus apreptus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 47. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Freshwater Creek, near Cairns, 17 May 1962, S.T.Blake 21730 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus apricus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus apricus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 165. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District. Turtle Rock Area, 22 Jan. 1991, P.I. Forster PIF12831 & A.R.Bean (holotype: BRI, isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Queensland.

Coleus arabicus Benth. in A.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 79. 1848

Majana arabica (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Arabia, Botta s.n. (holotype: P).

Plectranthus asirensis J.R.I.Wood, Kew Bull. 37: 601. 1983. Type: Saudi Arabia, Taif, Botta s.n. (holotype: P; isotype K).

Teucrium mazziarii Heldr. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 567. 1881, nom. inval.

Distribution

Arabian Peninsula.

Coleus arenicola (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus arenicola P.I.Forst., Muelleria 7: 375. 1991. Type: Australia, Queensland, Plant cultivated at St Lucia, Brisbane from material the same collection as P.I.Forster 5456 from Moreton Telegraph Station, near Kennedy Hill, 22 Oct. 1989, P.I.Forster PIF5835 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus argentatus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus argentatus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 27. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Mt Roberts, McPherson Range, 5 May 1955, S.T.Blake 19803 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland to NE. New South Wales. Widely cultivated (or hybrids from it).

Coleus argenteus (Gamble) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus argenteus Gamble, Fl. Madras: 1127. 1924. Type: India, Madras, Pulney Hills, Kodaikanal Ghat new road, 29 Dec. 1898, Bourne 1441C (lectotype: K; isolectotype: K, designated by Suddee & Paton (2009).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus argentifolius (Ryding) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus argentifolius Ryding, Kew Bull. 54: 122. 1999. Type: Solalia, Sanaag Region, Erigavo Escarpment, Popov 1218 (holotype: K; isotype: ETH).

Distribution

N. Somalia, Yemen.

Coleus articulatus (I.M.Johnst.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Symphostemon articulatus I.M.Johnst., Contr. Gray Herb., n.s., 73: 38. 1924. Type: Angola, east of Cuanza (Coanza) R., Curtis 309 (holotype: GH).

Plectranthus hockii De Wild., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 542. 1913.

Plectranthus katangensis De Wild., Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., sér. 4, 2: 135. 1913., nom. superfl.

Holostylon katangense (De Wild.) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 105. 1929., nom. superfl.

Ocimum hockii (De Wild.) Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 368. 1928., non Coleus hockii De Wild. Type: DRC, Upper Katanga, Dilemba, Hock s.n. (syntype: BR, K) & Plateau de Shinkwari (Manika), Hock s.n. (syntype: BR).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania, DRC, Malawi, Zambia, Angola.

Coleus ater A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Anisochilus wightii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 628. 1885., non Coleus wightii Benth. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Anamallay Mts, July 1851, Herb. Wight 2132/1 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, L).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus auriglandulosus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus auriglandulosus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 307. 2009. Type: Kenya, Tana R. District: Tana River National Primate Reserve, near Makere, Luke et al. TPR 605 (holotype, K; isotype: EA).

Distribution

SE. Kenya.

Coleus australis (R.Br.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus australis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 506. 1810.

Moschosma australe (R.Br.) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 708. 1835.

Moschosma brownii Heynh., Alph. Aufz. Gew.: 421. 1847.

Plectranthus parviflorus var. australis (R.Br.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 357. 1895.

Germanea australis (R.Br.) Britten, Bot. Cook Voy. 3: 75. 1905. Type: New South Wales, Port Jackson, 17 May, 1802, R. Brown (lectotype: BM; isolectotypes: BRI, K, designated by Blake (1971)).

Plectranthus australis var. vulgaris Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 564. 1928., nom. inval.

Plectranthus parviflorus Willd., Hort. Berol.: t. 65. 1806., non Coleus parviflorus Benth. Type: cultivated in Berlin, unknown origin, Wildenow Herbarium 11078 (holotype: B).

Plectranthus paniculatus Jacq., Fragm. Bot.: 62.tab 91. 1806., non Coleus paniculatus Benth. Type: Cultivated in Vienna. Illustration cited above.(lectotype: illustration designated here).

Plectranthus parviflorus Spreng. in L.V.F.Henckel von Donnersmarck, Adumbr. Pl. Hort. Hal.: 17. 1806., nom. illeg.

Germanea parviflora Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl., suppl. 2: 764. 1811.

Majana parviflora (Poir.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Plectranthus sieberi Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 710. 1835. Type: Australia, “In Nova Hollandia tropica Sieber” (holotype: K).

Plectranthus parviflorus var. elatior Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 67. 1848. Type: Northern Territory, Port Essington, Armstrong (holotype: K).

Plectranthus parviflorus var. major F.M.Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 28: 199. 1912., nom. nud.

Plectranthus parviflorus var. minor F.M.Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 28: 199. 1912., nom. nud.

Plectranthus australis f. densiflora Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 564. 1928. Type: Queensland, Tamborin Mtn., Domin s.n. (holotype: PR).

Distribution

Australia, Lesser Sunda Is. to Pacific.

Coleus autranii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 129. 1894

Solenostemon autranii (Briq.) J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 266. 1998.

Plectranthus autranii (Briq.) Erhardt, Götz & Seybold, Grosse Zander 2: 1825. 2008.

Calchas autranii (Briq.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1996. Type: Ethiopia, no precise locality, 1853, Schimper 693 (holotype: G; isotype: K).

Coleus silvaticus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 219. 1894.

Solenostemon silvaticus (Gürke) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 640. 1974. Types: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambara, Holst 3704 & 3708 (syntypes: B, destroyed); neotype: Tanzania, W Usambara Mts, Shagai Forest, near Sunga, Drummond & Hemsley 2593 (neotype: K, designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Plectranthus tysonii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 77. 1898. Type: South Africa, Umzimkulu, Clydesdale, Tyson 1295 (isotypes: K, SAM (numberered 1295 SAM herbarium number and cited by Gürke), PRE (PRE numbered Hb. Tyson 2769 and cross referenced to 1295 as cited in Codd (1985)).

Coleus odoratus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 167. 1906. Type: Tanzania, W Usambara Mts, Sakare, Engler 939 (syntype: B, destroyed; photo K); & Engler 1006 (syntype: B destroyed).

Coleus latidens S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 38: 273. 1908.

Calchas latidens (S.Moore) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: Uganda, E Ruwenzori, Wollaston s.n. (holotype: BM).

Coleus ostinii Chiov., Ann. Bot. (Rome) 9: 125. 1911. Type: Ethiopia, Dembia, Angareb to Gondar and Fenter, Chiovenda 1450 (syntype: FT); Cococc above Gondar, Chiovenda 1854 (syntype: FT).

Coleus darfurensis R.D.Good, J. Bot. 62: 138. 1924.

Solenostemon darfurensis (R.D.Good) B.Mathew, Kew Bull. 25: 258. 1971. Type: Sudan, Jebel Mara, Lynes 4c (holotype: BM; fragment K).

Coleus uliginosus T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 29. 1930. Type: Kenya, Meru, R.E. & T.C.E. Fries 1762 (syntype: B destroyed; isosyntype: K).

Coleus ascendens Gilli, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 32. 1973. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: Uluguru Mts, Chenzema (Tchenzema), Gilli 456 (holotype: W).

Distribution

Ethiopia, Central Africa, East Africa to South Africa.

Coleus barbatus (Andrews) Benth. ex G.Don in J.C.Loudon, Hort. Brit.: 483. 1830

Fig. 4C

Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Bot. Repos. 10: t. 594. 1810. Type: Illustration of cultivated material in Bot. Rep. 9, t. 594. 1809., (lectotype: illustration cited above; Eritrea, Dekemehare, Colville 47 (epitype: K, designated by Ryding (1999)).

Coleus forskalaei auct., non Briq.

Distribution

Eritrea to East and Central Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent to SC. China. Widely cultivated.

Notes

The name Coleus forskalaei or forskohlii has been often used incorrectly for this species.

Coleus barbatus var. barbatus

Ocimum asperum Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 268. 1821.

Plectranthus asper (Roth) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690. 1825.

Orthosiphon asperus (Roth) Benth. ex Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 2: 413. 1830. Type: India, Mysore, Nundidroog, Heyne s.n. in Wall. Cat. 2728C (holotype: B destroyed; isotype: K-W).

Plectranthus comosus Sims, Bot. Mag. 49: t. 2318. 1822. Type: illustration of plant originally from Nepal, (lectotype: illustration cited above).

Coleus huberi Regel syn. nov., Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 7: 543. 1881. Type: Russia, cultivated in St Petersburg from seed collected in Ethiopia, (type not found in LE).

Coleus penzigii Dammann ex Baker, Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 14: 616. 1893. Type: cultivated at Kew, received from Hort. Dammann, probably originating from material collected by Penzig in “the mountains of Abyssinia” (holotype: K).

Coleus vestitus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 224. 1895. Type: Somalia, Golis Range, E. Cole s.n. (syntype: K); Lort-Phillips (syntype: K).

Plectranthus pseudobarbatus J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 265. 1998. Type: Somalia, Togdheer Region, Golis Range, Cole s.n. (lectotype: K; designated by Ryding (1999)).

Coleus forskohlii var. adoensis Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 235. 1898. Type: Ethiopia, Adua, 1 Oct. 1837, Schimper 333 (holotype: not seen in G; isotypes: BR, K, MPU, WAG).

Coleus speciosus Baker f., J. Bot. 1899: 64. 1899. Type: Somalia, Woqooyi Galbeed/Togdheer Regions, “Wagga Mountains”, Lort-Phillips s.n. (holotype: BM; isotype K).

Coleus coerulescens Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 169. 1906.

Plectranthus coerulescens (Gürke) R.H.Willemse, Kew Bull. 40: 95. 1985. Type: Ethiopia, Harar, Ellenbeck 743 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: K).

Coleus adolfi-friderici Perkins in G.W.J.Mildbraed (ed.), Wiss. Erg. Deut. Zentr.-Afr. Exped., Bot. 2: 550. 1913. Type: Rwanda, Mohasi, Büschen to Buganza, Mildbraed 671 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Distribution

Eritrea to N. Tanzania, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent to SC. China.

Coleus barbatus var. grandis (L.H.Cramer) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Coleus grandis L.H.Cramer, Kew Bull. 32: 556. 1978.

Plectranthus grandis (L.H.Cramer) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 509. 1979.

Plectranthus barbatus var. grandis (L.H.Cramer) Lukhoba & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 58: 915. 2003. publ. 2004. Type: Sri Lanka, Sita Eleiya, Cramer 3869 (holotype: PDA; isotypes: K, US).

Coleus kilimandschari Gürke, Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1891: 359. 1892.

Plectranthus kilimandschari (Gürke) H.I.Maass in R.Mansfeld, Verz. Landwirtsch. Gärtn. Kulturpfl. 3: 1136. 1986. Types: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Marangu, Meyer 377 (syntype: B, destroyed) & forest nearby, 2400 m, Meyer 116 (syntype: B, destroyed). Marangu, Volkens 427 (neotype, designated by Paton et al. (2009): K; isoneotype: G).

Distribution

NE. & E. Trop. Africa to DRC.

Coleus bariensis (Ryding) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus bariensis Ryding, Kew Bull. 54: 123. 1999. Type: Somalia, Bari Region, Escarpment of Bunder Murrayha, Buraha Dhaxi, Thulin & Warfa 5286 (holotype: UPS).

Distribution

N. Somalia.

Coleus batesii (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys batesii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 386. 1900. Type: Cameroon, Efulen, Bates 372 (holotype: K.; isotype: BM).

Distribution

Cameroon to SW. Uganda.

Coleus batianoffii (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus batianoffii P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 7: 707. 2008. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Palfrey Island, 23 July 1990, G.N.Batianoff 12118 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus bellus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus bellus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 8: 388. 2011. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Daintree National Park, Adeline Creek headwaters, 18 May 1999, P.I.Forster PIF24610 & R.Booth (holotype: BRI; isotype, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus betonicifolius (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus betonicifolius Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 72. 1895. Types: Zambia, Fwambo, Carson 64 & 79 (syntypes: K).

Elsholtzia carsonii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 450. 1900. Type: Zambia, Fwambo, S of Lake Tanganyika, 1890, Carson s.n. (holotype: K).

Coleus baumii Gürke in O. Warburg (ed.), Kunene-Sambesi Exped.: 357. 1903. Type: Angola, Cuito, Baum 544 (holotype: B, destroyed ; isotypes: G, K, W).

Coleus kasomenensis De Wild., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 514. 1913. Types: DRC, Upper Katanga, Kasomenia, Kassner 2555 (syntype: BR; isosyntype: K) & near Lubumbashi (Elizsabethville), Homblé 246 (syntype: BR) & Welgelegen, Bequaert 382 & 564 (syntypes: BR).

Distribution

Tanzania, DRC, Zambia and Angola.

Notes

The West African C. lyratus (A.Chev.) Roberty has been removed from synonymy and recognized here as a separate species, differing from Paton et al. (2013).

Coleus bifidus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus bifidus A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 235. 2013. Type: Zambia, Solwezi, Apr. 1960, Robinson 3520 (holotype: K; isotype: SRGH).

Distribution

Zambia.

Coleus bishopianus (Gamble) Smitha & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus bishopianus Gamble, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 265. 1924. Type: India. Tamil Nadu: Pulneys, shola forest at Pillar Rocks, 20 May 1901, A.G. Bourne and E.G. Bourne 1398 (lectotype: K, designated by Matthew (1993)).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus bipartitus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus bipartitus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 9: 208. 2014. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Hann Tableland National Park, west of Mareeba, 8 April 2013, P.I.Forster PIF39595 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus blakei (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus blakei P.I.Forst., Muelleria 7: 417. 1992. Type: Australia, Queensland, Leichardt District, Mimosa Creek, Blackdown Tableland National Park, 16 May 1984, P.I.Forster PIF1782 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: K, MEL, NSW).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus bojeri Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52. 1832

Solenostemon bojeri (Benth.) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 525. 1976.

Calchas bojeri (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997.

Plectranthus bojeri (Benth.) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 218. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Emirna, Betani-mena, Bojer s.n. (lectotype: P, designated by Hedge et al. 1998).

Mitsa maculata Chapel. ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52. 1832. nom. inval.

Plectranthus maculatus Bojer ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52. 1832. nom. inval.

Coleus latifolius Hochst. ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 74. 1848.

Majana latifolia (Hochst. ex Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Solenostemon latifolius (Hochst. ex Benth.) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 271. 1962. Types: Ethiopia, Gapdia, 17 Sept. 1838, Schimper 825 (syntypes: BM, E, K, G, GH, LG, STU, W) & Gafta, 18 Sept. 1838, Schimper 1228 (syntypes: BM, K, G, LG, W).

Coleus latifolius var. elatior Vatke, Linnaea 37: 322. 1872. Type: Ethiopia, Tigray, NNW of Axum, Bellitschen, 8 Sept. 1862, Schimper 378 (syntype: BM, JE).

Coleus micranthus Maxim., Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 3(1): 108. 1875. Type: seed from Ethiopia, 1872, Schimper (holotype: LE).

Plectranthus cymosus Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21: 434. 1885.

Solenostemon cymosus (Baker) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 524. 1976., nom. illeg. Type: Central Madagascar, Baron 2250 (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Coleus bernieri Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 128. 1894.

Solenostemon bernieri (Briq.) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 525. 1976.

Calchas bernieri (Briq.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Type: Madagascar, North of Madagascar, Bernier 147 (holotype: G).

Coleus gracilifolius Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 127. 1894.

Solenostemon gracilifolius (Briq.) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 525. 1976. Type: Madagascar, Fito (Ambanivoulu), Goudot s.n. 1832 (holotype: G).

Coleus schweinfurthii Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 181. 1894., nom. illeg., non C. schweinfurthii Vatke.

Coleus briquetii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 441. 1900., nom. superfl.

Calchas briquetii (Baker) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. nom. illeg.

Plectranthus bongensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 410. 1900. Type: Sudan, Bongo, Jur (Gir), Schweinfurth 2490 (holotype: K; isotype: PRE).

Coleus dewevrei Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 37: 71. 1899.

Calchas dewevrei (Briq.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: DRC, Dewèvre 1092a (holotype: BR).

Coleus latifolius var. madiensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 437. 1900. Type: Uganda, West Nile District: Madi, Grant in Speke & Grant s.n. (holotype: K).

Coleus heterotrichus Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 40: 40. 1901. Type: DRC, Bolobo, Demeuse 1155 (holotype: G; isotype: Z).

Coleus copiosiflorus Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 288. 1917.

Calchas copiosiflorus (Briq.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Types: Republic Central Africa, Haute Ombella, Kaga Do, 26 Oct. 1902, A. Chevalier 5967 (syntype: P); Mali, Koulikoro, 6–14 Oct. 1899, A. Chevalier s.n. (syntype, P).

Coleus phymatodes Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 289. 1917. Type: Mali, Koulikoro, 6–14 Oct 1899, A. Chevalier s.n. (holotype, P).

Coleus claessensii De Wild., Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 19: 117. 1920.

Calchas claessensii (De Wild.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Types: DRC, Mobwassa, Claessens 741 (syntype: BR) & Ekuta on the Lua, Sapin s.n. (syntype: BR).

Coleus homblei De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 174. 1921. Types: DRC, Lubumbashi (Elisabethville), Homblé 210 (syntype: BR) & Tshisinka, Homblé 1259 (syntype: BR.).

Coleus ringoetii De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 174. 1921. Type: DRC, Shinsenda, Ringoet 546 (holotype: BR).

Coleus termetophilus De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 175. 1921. Type: DRC, Lubumbashi (Elisabethville), Homblé 220 (holotype: BR; isotype: Z).

Coleus platostomoides Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 362. 1928.

Solenostemon platostomoides (Robyns & Lebrun) Troupin, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 55: 299. 1985.

Calchas platostomoides (Robyns & Lebrun) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: DRC, Lake Kivu, Saké Bay, Kuteruzi, Robyns 2482 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Coleus quarrei Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 3. 1928. Type: DRC, Lubumbashi (Elisabethville), Kibembe Farm, Quarré 608 (holotype: BR).

Coleus collinus Lebrun & L.Touss., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 81. 1943.

Solenostemon collinus (Lebrun & L.Touss.) Troupin, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 55: 299. 1985.

Calchas collinus (Lebrun & L.Touss.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Type: Congo, Kivu, Rutshuru, Nov. 1937, Lebrun 8232 (holotype: BR).

Distribution

Eastern, Central & Southern Africa, Madagascar.

Coleus botryosus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus botryosus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 335. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Songea District: just E of R. Gembabili ± 3 km SW of Kitai, Milne-Redhead & Taylor 9735 (holotype:K, sheet 2; isotypes EA, K sheet 1).

Distribution

S. Tanzania.

Coleus bourneae (Gamble) Smitha & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus bourneae Gamble, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1924: 264. 1924. Type: India. Tamil Nadu: Pulneys, Coelogyne rock, Poombarai road 16 May 1901, A.G. Bourne & E.G. Bourne 2028 (lectotype: K, designated by Smitha and Sunojkumar 2018).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus bracteatus Dunn, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 158. 1913

Fig. 4D

Plectranthus bracteatus (Dunn) Suddee, Kew Bull. 59: 399. 2004. Type: China, Yunnan, Puerh, 1350 m, Henry 13498 (lectotype: K, designated by Suddee et al. 2004; isolectotype: NY).

Plectranthus saphinensis Phuong, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 67: 1131. 1982. Type: Vietnam, Sa Phin, Prov. Ha Tuyen, 15 Sept. 1977, Phuong 294B (holotype: HN; isotype: HN).

Distribution

China: Yunnan to Indo-China.

Coleus brazzavillensis A.Chev., Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 1: 124. 1905

Coleus brazzavillensis A.Chev., Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 1: 124. 1905. Type: Congo, Brazzaville, Mission du Chari-Lac Chad, Chevalier 11154 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Republic of Congo (Brazzaville).

Coleus buchananii (Baker) Brenan, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 43. 1954

Plectranthus buchananii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 402. 1900. Type: Malawi, Shire Highlands, Nakajumbu, Buchanan 365 (holotype: K).

Coleus scaposus C.H.Wright, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 167. 1906. Type: Malawi, Namasi, Cameron 60 (holotype: K).

Coleus hockii De Wild., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 514. 1913. Type: DRC, Upper Katanga, valley of small Luembe, Hock s.n. (holotype: BR).

Distribution

Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus burorum Chiov., Fl. Somala 1: 278. 1929

Plectranthus burorum (Chiov.) J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 265. 1998. Type: Somalia, Somalia Meridionale: Boscaglia di Bur Budulca, 16 Mar.1924, N.Puccioni & G. Stefanini 287 (323) (holotype: FT).

Coleus cicatricosus Hutch. & E.A.Bruce, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1941: 180. 1941.

Plectranthus cicatricosus (Hutch. & E.A.Bruce) J.R.I.Wood, Handb. Yemen Fl.: 249. 1997. Type: Somalia, Buramo, 29 Jan. 1933, J.B.Gillett 4880 (holotype: K; isotype: FT).

Distribution

Ethiopia to Somalia, Yemen.

Coleus caillei A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel, Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 2: 291. 1931

Leocus caillei (A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 270. 1962. Plectranthus caillei (A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 64: 260. 2009. Type: Guinea, Longuery, Caille in Herb Chevalier 14684 (holotype: P).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to Cameroon.

Coleus calaminthoides (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Solenostemon calaminthoides Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 421. 1900. Type: Gabon, Gabon River, Mann (holotype, K).

Distribution

Cameroon, Gabon, DRC.

Coleus calcicola Murata, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 24: 105. 1970

Plectranthus chiangdaoensis Suddee, Kew Bull. 59: 404. 2004., non Plectranthus calcicola Hand.-Mazz. Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1500 m, 15 Sept. 1967, Shimizu & Hutoh T-10153 (holotype: KYO; isotype: BKF, KYO, TI).

Distribution

N. Thailand (Doi Chiang Dao).

Coleus caldericola (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus caldericola P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 8: 392. 2011. Type: Australia, New South Wales, The Pinnacle, 13 km W of Mt. Warning, 6 Apr. 1994, P.I. Forster & G. Leiper PIF15093 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: MEL, NSW).

Distribution

Australia: New South Wales.

Coleus calycinus (Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus calycinus Benth. in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 230. 1838.

Rabdosia calycina (Benth.) Codd, Bothalia 11: 117. 1973.

Rabdosiella calycina (Benth.) Codd, Bothalia 15: 10. 1984.

Isodon calycinus (Benth.) H.W.Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 69: 293. 1988. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape, between St Johns and Umsikaba rivers, 1837, Drège 3584 (lectotype: K designated by Codd (1975); isolectotypes: MO, P).

Plectranthus pyramidatus Gürke, Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 552. 1898. Type: South Africa, Mpumalanga, Houtbosch, s.d., Rehmann 6179 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus pachystachyus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1003. 1903.

Plectranthus calycinus var. pachystachyus (Briq.) T.Cooke in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 5(1): 271. 1910. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Umkomaas, iii.1892, Medley Wood 4621 (holotype: G; isotype: K).

Distribution

S. Mozambique to South Africa.

Coleus cambodianus (Murata) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus cambodianus Murata, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 28: 26. 1977. Type: Cambodia, Kampot Province, Poporkvil, c. 1000 m alt, 4 Dec. 1964, Kira, Hozumi, Yoda & Kokawa 292 (holotype: KYO).

Distribution

SE. Thailand to Cambodia.

Coleus caninus (Roth) Vatke, Linnaea 37: 318. 1872

Plectranthus caninus Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 279. 1821.

Majana canina (Roth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: India, Heyne s.n. in Wallich Cat. 2729C (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, K(000820142), K-W (K001116966), P).

Distribution

Eritrea to South Africa, India to Myanmar.

Coleus caninus subsp. caninus

Plectranthus caninus subsp. caninus, A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 345. 2009. Type: as above.

Ocimum monadelphum R.Br. ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 267. 1821.

Coleus heynei Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 50. 1832. Type: India, Heyne s.n. (holotype: B, destroyed; neotype,: India, Herb. Ham. in Wall. Cat. 2729B (neotype: K-W (K001116965), designated by Paton et al. 2009; isoneotype: K).

Coleus spicatus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15. 1830.

Majana spicata (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: India, Herb. Wight in Wall. Cat. 2729A (syntypes: BM, K (K000820139), K (K000820141), K-W(K001116964), G-DC).

Plectranthus monadelphus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 22. 1832. Type: Roxburgh’s illustration No. 1459 (lectotype: K, designated by Suddee et al. 2004).

Coleus spicatus var. rondinella Spreng., Gartenflora 45: 358. fig. 62. 1896. Type: cultivated, material from Eritrea, illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration designated by Paton et al. 2009).

Coleus pachyphyllus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 168. 1906. Types: Ethiopia, Galla Highlands, Ginea, Ellenbeck 1951 (syntype: B, destroyed) & Korkora in Borana, Ellenbeck 2233 (syntype: B, destroyed); neotype: Somalia, Juba R. north of Gelib, Mooney 7672 (neotype: K, designated by Ryding (2000)).

Distribution

Eritrea to N. Tanzania, India to Myanmar.

Coleus caninus subsp. flavovirens (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Coleus flavovirens Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 347. 1895.

Plectranthus caninus subsp. flavovirens (Gürke) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 345. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Lake Chala (Dschallasee), 1893, Volkens 1771 (holotype: B destroyed; isotype: BR).

Coleus omahekensis Dinter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 53: 123. 1928. Type: Namibia, Etemba and Otjikuara, Dinter 3265, two localities same number (syntypes: not seen.).

Distribution

Ethiopia to South Africa.

Coleus capitatus A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Pycnostachys parvifolia Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 72. 1895., non Coleus parviflorus Benth. Type: Zambia, Northern Province, Fwambo, Carson 103 (lectotype: K), designated by Bruce (1940).

Distribution

W. & S. Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus carnosifolius (Hemsl.) Dunn, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 158. 1913

Plectranthus carnosifolius Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 26: 270. 1890. Type: China, Guangdong Prov., Aug. 1887, C. Ford 107 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SE. China.

Coleus cataractarum (B.J.Pollard) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus cataractarum B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 56: 976. 2001. Type: Mt Cameroon, 25 Nov. 1993, Cheek 5563 (holotype: K; isotypes MA, MO, SCA, WAG, YA).

Distribution

Bioko, Cameroon.

Coleus caudatus (S.Moore) E.Downes & I.Darbysh. Blumea 62: 172. 2017

Plectranthus caudatus S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 176. 1911. Type: Zimbabwe, Chimanimani, 26 Nov. 1906, Swynnerton 2010 (holotype: BM; isotype: K).

Distribution

Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

Coleus celsus A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Solenostemon robustus Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 864. 1900., non Coleus robustus (Hook.f.) A.J.Paton.

Holostylon robustum (Hiern) G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69(suppl. 2): 161. 1931.

Plectranthus robustus (Hiern) A.J.Paton in Fl. Zambesiaca 8,8: 234. 2013. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, from Lombe to Condo, March 1857, Welwitsch 5538 (holotype: LISU; isotypes: BM, G).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus centraliafricanus A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Pycnostachys chevalieri Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 193. 1912., non Coleus chevalieri Briq. Type: Central African Republic, Dar Banda du Kaga Djé au Kaga Pongouru, A.Chevalier 6561 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Central African Republic.

Coleus chevalieri Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 287. 1917

Coleus chevalieri Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 287. 1917. Type: Central African Republic, Krebedjén (Fort Sibut), vallée de la moyenne Tomi, 8 Oct.1902, Chevalier 5662 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Central African Republic.

Coleus ciliatus (Bramley) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys ciliata Bramley, Kew Bull. 60: 587. 2005 publ. 2006. Type: Tanzania, Mbeya Dist., Songwe Valley, c. 2 km N of Mbeya–Tunduma road, fl. 25 Mar, 1988, Bidgood, Mwasumbi & Vollesen 693 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, DSM, NHT).

Distribution

Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus circinnatus (Hedge) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus circinnatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 228. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Prov. de Fianarantsoa, Massive d’Itremo, sur RN 35, 42 Km W. of Ambatofinandrahana, Clement, Phillipson & Rafamantanantsoa 2045 (holotype: E; isotypes MO, P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus coeruleus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 217. 1894

Calchas coeruleus (Gürke) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997.

Plectranthus coeruleus (Gürke) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 638. 1974. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Kwa Mshusa, Holst 8895 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: G, K, Z).

Distribution

Kenya to N. Malawi.

Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 212. 1894

Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Bothalia 11: 393. 1975., non Plectranthus comosus Sims. Type: Ethiopia, Dschenausa, 1 June 1840, Schimper 1328 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, FI, G, P).

Distribution

NE and E. Africa, naturalized in South Africa.

Coleus confertiflorus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus confertiflorus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 303. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Pare District: Mkomazi Game Reserve, Kisima Hill, Abdallah, Mboya & Vollesen 96/129 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, NHT, P).

Distribution

N. Tanzania.

Coleus congensis (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys congensis Gürke, Bull. Herb. Boissier 4: 819. 1896. Types: DRC, Samba, Deschamps 28 (syntype: B); Lusambo (syntype: B).

Distribution

DRC, Zambia.

Coleus congestus (R.Br.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus congestus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 506. 1810. Type: Australia, Queensland, Endeavour River, 1770, Banks & Solander (holotype: BM).

Distribution

N. Australia, Lesser Sunda Is., New Guinea.

Coleus conglomeratus (T.C.E.Fr.) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 105. 1929

Englerastrum conglomeratum T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 72. 1924.

Plectranthus conglomeratus (T.C.E.Fr.) Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926:481. 1926. Type: Togo (Benin), Sokode, Kersting 93 (holotype: B, destroyed; fragment K).

Plectranthus harrisii J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 267. 1962. Type: Ghana, between Toga Mt. and Maliato, Togo Plateau, 24 Dec. 1959, J.K.Morton A3830 (holotype: GC; isotypes: K, WAG). synon. nov.

Distribution

Tropical West Africa.

Coleus crassus (N.E.Br.) Culham, comb. nov.

Plectranthus crassus N.E.Br., Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 35: 21. 1904. Type: Plant cultivated at Kew in 1899 from material collected by Mahon 393 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Malawi (Mt. Mulanje).

Coleus cremnus (B.J.Conn) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus cremnus B.J.Conn, Telopea 4: 643. 1992. Type: Australia, New South Wales, Sawtell, 20 Feb. 1990, B.J. Conn 3478 (holotype: NSW; isotype: MEL).

Distribution

Australia, New South Wales.

Coleus cucullatus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus cucullatus A.J.Paton – Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 261. 2013. Type: Mozambique, Ribáuè Dist., Ribáuè mountains, Oct. 1931, Gomes & Sousa 754 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Mozambique.

Coleus cuneatus Baker f., J. Bot. 1899: 64. 1899

Plectranthus cuneatus (Baker f.) Ryding, Kew Bull. 54: 124. 1999. Type: Somalia, Woqooyi Galbeed/ Togdher Regions, Wagga Mt, Lort-Phillips s.n. (holotype: BM).

Distribution

S. Djibouti to N. Somalia.

Coleus cyanophyllus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus cyanophyllus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 166. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, North Kennedy District. Mt Abbot, 50 km W of Bowen, 27 Oct. 1992, A.R.Bean 5188 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus cylindraceus (Hochst. ex Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus cylindraceus Hochst. ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 60. 1848.

Germanea cylindracea (Hochst. ex Benth.) Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 861. 1900.

Burnatastrum cylindraceum (Hochst. ex Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 4: 175. 2001. Type: Ethiopia, near Gapdia, 29 Nov.1838, Schimper 1113 (holotype: K; isotypes: BM, G, P,W).

Plectranthus montanus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 17. 1830., non Coleus montanus Hochst. ex Ces. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, exact locality unknown (“Peninsula India Orientalis”), Herb. Wight in Wall. Cat. 2747B (lectotype: K ((K000820120), designated by Suddee et al. (2004); isolectotype: K-W (K001117007).

Plectranthus marrubioides Hochst. ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 60. 1848. Type: Ethiopia, near Jaja (Dschadscha), Jan. 1844, Schimper 1925 (holotype: K; isotypes: BM,G, K, P, W).

Geniosporum lasiostachyum Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 164. 1894. Type: Angola, Huíla, Mar. 1879, Welwitsch 5489 (syntypes: K, BM, LISC).

Plectranthus fischeri Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 200. 1894. Types: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro (Kilimandcharo), Ugweno, Volkens 518 (syntype: B, destroyed); Masai Highlands (Massaihochland), Fischer ser.1 77 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: HBG) & Fischer ser.2 501 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus moschosmoides Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 414. 1900. Type: Angola, Huíla, Mar.1879, Welwitsch 5489 (holotype: BM; isotypes: K, LISC).

Geniosporum fissum S.Moore, J. Bot. 39: 263. 1901. Type: Kenya, Northern Frontier District: Dadaro, 1110 m, Delamere s.n. (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus densiflorus T.Cooke, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 378. 1909. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, near the Mooi R., Medley-Wood 4475 (holotype: K; isotypes: GRA, NH, SAM).

Plectranthus villosus T.Cooke, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 378. 1909. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Entumeni, Medley-Wood 3955 (holotype: K; isotype NH).

Plectranthus glomeratus R.A.Dyer, Fl. Pl. South Africa 24: t. 946. 1944. nom. superfl. Based on the above.

Plectranthus spiciformis R.A.Dyer, Fl. Pl. South Africa 24: t. 946. 1944. Type: South Africa, Gauteng, Hammanskraal, Mogg 27138 (holotype: PRE).

Coleus subbaraoi Kumari & Malathi, Fl. Visakhapatnam Distr. 2: 68. 2008. Type: India, Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam District, Kappakonda, Subba Rao 29637 (holotype: CAL; isotype: MH).

Distribution

Trop. & South Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S. India

Coleus daviesii E.A.Bruce, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 477. 1933

Plectranthus daviesii (E.A.Bruce) B.Mathew, Kew Bull. 31: 174. 1976. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe, R.M. Davies R4 (holotype: K; isotype: SRGH).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to N. Malawi.

Coleus decimus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus decimus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 324. 2009. Type: Zambia, Mbala (Abercorn) District: Kawimbe, Richards 7288 (holotype: K).

Distribution

W. Tanzania, Zambia to Angola.

Coleus decurrens Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 215. 1894

Plectranthus decurrens (Gürke) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 267. 1962. Type: Cameroon, Buea, Preuss 948 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: COI, HBG).

Coleus elatus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 427. 1900. Types: Bioko (Fernando Po), Mann 584 (syntype: K); Gabon, Crystal Mts, Mann s.n. 1661 (synype: K).

Coleus toroensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 45: 95. 1907. Type: Uganda, Toro District: Dura (Durro) R., Bagshawe 1043 (holotype: BM).

Coleus variifolius De Wild., Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 19: 124. 1920. Type: DRC, between Buta and Bima, Seret 96 (lectotype: BR, designated by Paton et al. 2009).

Distribution

Nigeria to Uganda and Angola.

Coleus deflexifolius (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys deflexifolia Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 381. 1900. Type: Kenya, Naivasha District: near Lake Elmenteita, Scott Elliot 6756 (holoype: K).

Distribution

E. Trop. Africa.

Coleus defoliatus (Hochst. ex Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus defoliatus Hochst. ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 60. 1848.

Isodictyophorus defoliatus (Hochst. ex Benth.) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 640. 1974. Type: Ethiopia, Jomara (Dschomara), 26 Dec. 1839, Schimper 847 (holotype: K; isotypes BR, FI, G, MPU, TUB, P, W).

Coleus floribundus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 438. 1900. Type: Ethiopia, 1 Jan. 1853, Schimper 21 (holotype: K; isotype: BR, G).

Distribution

Eritrea to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus densus (N.E.Br.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus densus N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 12. 1894. Type: Tanzania, N of Lake Malawi (Nyassa), Thomson s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus primulinus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 292. 1895.

Coleus primulinus (Baker) A.Chev., Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 33: 340. 1953. Type: Zambia, Mwero Plateau, 1894, Carson 36 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus descampsii (Briq.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys descampsii Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 37: 63. 1899. Type: DRC, Katanga, Lufonzo (Lufogo) R., Mar. 1896, Descamps s.n. (holotype: BR).

Pycnostachys linifolia Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 397. 1901. Type: Tanzania, Njombe District: Ubena, near Liangira, Goetze 798 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BR, K, fragment).

Pycnostachys lavanduloides Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 68. 1921. Type: Tanzania, Iringa District, Uhehe, Udzungwa Mts (Utschungwe-Berge), 1600 m, Prince 28a (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys pallide-caerulea Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 67. 1921. Type: Cameroon, Kumbo, Mt Bansso, Oct. 1909, Ledermann 5738 (holotype: B, destroyed, fragment K).

Distribution

Cameroon to W. Tanzania.

Coleus dewildemanianus (Robyns & Lebrun) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys dewildemaniana Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 352. 1928. Type: DRC, Katanga, Munama, Quarré 1143 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus dichotomus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus dichotomus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 317. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Kilosa District: Ukaguru, Mamiwa Forest Reserve, E of Ikwamba peak, Mabberley 1465 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Tanzania (Ukaguru Mts.).

Coleus dinteri (Briq.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus dinteri Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1070. 1903. Type: Namibia, Waterberg, Dinter 336 (holotype: Z).

Distribution

Namibia, South Africa: Limpopo (W. Waterberg).

Coleus dissitiflorus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 217. 1894

Plectranthus dissitiflorus (Gürke) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 267. 1962. Type: Cameroon, between Buea and Mimbia, 9 Oct. 1891, Preuss 1055 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: COI).

Distribution

WC. Trop. Africa.

Coleus divaricatus A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Anisochilus paniculatus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 82. 1848, non Coleus paniculatus Benth. Type: Sri Lanka, unknown locality, Walker 52 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus diversus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus diversus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 20. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Spring Creek near Bowen (cultivated at The Gap), Brisbane., Oct. 1963, S.T.Blake 22128 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus dolichopodus (Briq.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus dolichopodus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1069. 1903. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Karkloof, n.d., Rehmann 7383 (holotype: Z).

Distribution

Malawi to South Africa.

Coleus dumicola (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus dumicola P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 168. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, 31 km along road to Leo Creek Mine, McIlwraith Range, 8 June 1992, P.I.Forster PIF10268 & M.C.Tucker & G. Kenning (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus dysophylloides (Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus dysophylloides Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 19. 1830. Type: India, Madras, Nilghiri Hills, Herb. Wight in Wall. Cat. 2756 (lectotype: K ((K000674673)); isolectotypes: E, G-DC,K-W(K001117033), designated Suddee and Paton 2009).

Anisochilus sericeus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 82. 1848. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Courtallum, Herb. Wight 2515 (holotype: K: (K000674767)); isotype K (K000674768).

Anisochilus albidus Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t. 1436. 1849. Type: Madras, Nilghiri Hills, About Coonoor and Kaitie, ex Herb. Wight, Wight Ic. t. 1436 (holotype: K (K000674776)).

Anisochilus purpureus Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t. 1435. 1849.

Anisochilus dysophylloides var. purpureus (Wight) Gamble, Fl. Madras 2: 1128. 1924. Type: Madras, Nilghiri Hills, About Coonoor, Ex Herb. Wight Propr., Wight Ic. t. 1435 (holotype: K (K000674774)).

Distribution

SW. India (Shervarayan Hills).

Coleus efoliatus De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 173. 1921

Plectranthus efoliatus (De Wild.) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 289. 2009. Type: DRC, Welgelegen, Bequaert 486 (lectotype: BR, designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Plectranthus leviculus N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1921: 296. 1921. Type: DRC, Lubumbashi (Elisabethville), F.A. Rogers 26211 (holotype: K).

Englerastrum hjalmarii T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 71. 1924.

Plectranthus hjalmarii (T.C.E.Fr.) Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 481. 1926.

Coleus hjalmarii (T.C.E.Fr.) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe District: Kyimbila, Stoltz 926 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: G, K, W).

Englerastrum kassneri T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 70. 1924.

Plectranthus kassneri (T.C.E.Fr.) Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 481. 1926.

Coleus kassneri (T.C.E.Fr.) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929. Type: DRC, Mt Morumbe, Kassner 2951 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, K).

Distribution

Rwanda to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus elliotii (S.Moore) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys elliotii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 38: 275. 1908. Type: Uganda, Ruwenzori E, 2750 m, 10 Feb. 1906, Wollaston s.n. (holotype: BM).

Pycnostachys mildbraedii Perkins in G.W.J.Mildbraed (ed.), Wiss. Erg. Deut. Zentr.-Afr. Exped., Bot. 2: 548. 1913. Type: Uganda, Toro District/DRC, Ruwenzori, Butahu (Butagu) Valley, Friedrich 2537 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys cinerascens Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 352. 1928.

Pycnostachys bequaertii De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 393. 1928., nom. illeg., non Pycnostachys bequaertii De Wild. (1921). Type: DRC, Ruwenzori Lamia Valley, Bequaert 4287 (holotype: BR).

Pycnostachys butaguensis De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 389. 1928. Type: DRC, Ruwenzori, Butahu (Butagu) Valley, Bequaert 3715 (holotype: BR).

Distribution

DRC to Uganda (Ruwenzori Mts.).

Coleus elongatus Trimen, J. Bot. 27: 165. 1889

Englerastrum elongatum (Trimen) Alston, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 298. 1926.

Plectranthus elongatus (Trimen) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 510. 1979. Type: Sri Lanka, Ritgala, July 1887, Trimen s.n. (holotype: PDA; isotype: K).

Distribution

Sri Lanka.

Coleus eminii (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys eminii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22: 145. 1895. Type: Tanzania, Kanessa, west of Lake Victoria, Kanessa, 14 Nov. 1890, Stuhlmann 943 (lectotype: B, destroyed, designated by Bruce (1940).

Pycnostachys ruwenzoriensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 384. 1900. Type: Uganda, Ruwenzori, Scott Elliot 7621 (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys rotundatodentata De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 391. 1928. Type: DRC, Ruwenzori, Kisuki, Bequaert 4701 (lectotype: BR, designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009)).

Distribution

Cameroon to Ethiopia and NW. Tanzania.

Coleus engleri (Briq.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus engleri Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 190. 1894. Type: DRC, between Nyangwe and Kibundo, Pogge 1019 (lectotype: K, designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Anisochilus africanus Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 30: 94. 1894., non Coleus africanus Benth.

Briquetastrum africanum (Baker) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 102. 1929.

Coleus africanus (Baker) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 16: 330. 1954. nom. illeg.

Leocus africanus (Baker) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 270. 1962.

Plectranthus africanus (Baker) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 308. 2009. Type: Sierra Leone, Freetown, Scott Elliot 5033 (holotype: K).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to Uganda and NE. Angola.

Notes

Coleus africanus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 54. 1832., is superfluous being based on Solenostemon ocymoides Schumach. & Thonn. in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 271 (1827).

Coleus erici-rosenii (R.E.Fr.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys erici-rosenii R.E.Fr., Wiss. Erg. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo Exped. 1: 281. 1916. Type: DRC, Ninagongo, 2000 m, R.E. Fries 1588 (holotype: UPS).

Pycnostachys albidoviolacea De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 400. 1928. Type: DRC, Kivu, Mukule, Bequaert 5889 (lectotype: BR, designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009)).

Pycnostachys robynsii De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 398. 1928. Type: DRC/Burundi, Busiga, Robyns 2356 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

E. DRC to Uganda.

Coleus esculentus (N.E.Br.) G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (suppl. 2): 158. 1931

Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 12. 1894. Type: cultivated at K from material sent by J. Medley Wood from KwaZulu-Natal, 1893 (lectotype: K, designated by Codd (1975); isolectotype: BOL).

Plectranthus floribundus N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 12. 1894.

Englerastrum floribundum (N.E.Br.) T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 73. 1924.

Coleus floribundus (N.E.Br.) Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 359. 1928. nom. illeg., non C. floribundus Baker. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Inanda, Medley Wood 646 (lectotype: K; isolectotype: PRE designated by Robyns & Lebrun (1928)).

Plectranthus floribundus var. longipes N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 13. 1894.

Coleus floribundus var. longipes (N.E.Br.) Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 360. 1928. Type: South Africa, valley of Umzingwani R., Baines s.n. (lectotype: K, designated by Robyns & Lebrun (1928)).

Coleus coppinii Heckel, Rev. Cultures Colon. 8: 166. 1900. Type and protologue not seen.

Coleus dazo A.Chev., Agric. Prat. Pays Chauds 4: 104. 1905. Type: tubers from Central African Republic, upper Oubangui, fragment at K sent from Oubangui, 1904 (syntype: K).

Coleus langouassiensis A.Chev., Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 1: 127. 1905. Type: not seen.

Distribution

Trop. & South Africa.

Coleus eungellaensis P.I.Forst. & A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Plectranthus graniticola P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 3: 732. 1992., non C. graniticola (A.Chev.) A.J.Paton. Type: Australia, Queensland, South Kennedy District, Clarke Range, Eungella National Park, 23 Apr. 1991, P.I.Forster PIF8056 & W.J.F. Mc Donald (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus excelsus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus excelsus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 172. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Garroway Hill, 11 July 1993, P.I.Forster PIF13543 & M.C.Tucker (holotype: BRI, isotypes: A, AD, CBG, CNS, K, L, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus exilis (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus exilis A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 350. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Njombe District: Ruhudje, Lupembe, Schlieben 185 (holotype, K; isotypes: B, K, LISC, MO, PRE).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania.

Coleus fasciculatus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus fasciculatus P.I.Forst., Haseltonia 6: 14. 1998 publ. 1999. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Mt Windsor Tableland, State Forest 144, 24 July 1993, P.I.Forster PIF13709, G. Sankowsky & M.C. Tucker (holotype: BRI; isotype: CNS).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus ferricola Phillipson, O. Hooper & A.J. Paton, Kew. Bull. 74, 24: 4. 2019

Coleus ferricola Phillipson, O. Hooper & A.J. Paton, Kew. Bull. 74, 24: 4. 2019. Type: Guinea (Conakry), Nzérékoré, Lola, Guinée Forestière, Nimba Mountains, SMFG iron ore mine concession. East side of Pierre Richaud., Phillipson 6324 (holotype MO; isotypes BR, K, P, SERG, WAG).

Coleus foetidus (Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus foetidus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 35. 1832.

Ocimum foetidum Banks ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 35. 1832. nom. nud. Type: Australia, Queensland, Endeavour River, 1770, Banks & Solander, (holotype: BM).

Distribuion

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus foliatus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus foliatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 284. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Sumbawanga District: Tatanda, Mbaa Hill, Bidgood et al. 3459 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, DSM, K, NHT).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to N. Zambia.

Coleus forsteri (Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus forsteri Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 38. 1832. Type: Vanuatu, Tanna, J.R. & G. Forster (holotype, BM).

Distribution

SW. Pacific.

Coleus fragrantissimus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus fragrantissimus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 8: 394. 2011. Type: Australia, Queensland, Port Curtis District, State Forest 316, Kroombit Tops, 16 Feb. 1995, P.I.Forster PIF16246 (holotype: BRI; MEL, NE, istotypes).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus fredericii G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (Suppl. 2): 159. 1931

Neomuellera welwitschii Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 180. 1894., non Coleus welwitschii Briq.

Plectranthus welwitschii (Briq.) Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 42: t. 1646. 1972. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, April 1857, Welwitsch 5544 (isotypes: BM, C, K).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus fruticosus Wight ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 78. 1848

Plectranthus fruticosus (Wight ex Benth.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 623. 1885, nom. illeg.

Plectranthus deccanicus Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 234. 1898. Type: India, Pulney Hills, 1837, Wight 2514 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. India

Coleus galeatus (Vahl) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 56. 1832

Germanea galeata (Vahl) Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 763. 1788.

Majana galeata (Vahl) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Plectranthus galeatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1: 43. 1790. Type: Indonesia, Java, Vahl s.n. (holotype: C).

Ocimum plectranthus J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat. ed. 13(bis): 917. 1792. Type: not seen.

Plectranthus bicolor Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 837. 1826.

Coleus bicolor (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55. 1832.

Majana bicolor (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume 2037. (lectotype: L, designated by Keng (1969)).

Plectranthus macrophyllus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 835. 1826.

Coleus macrophyllus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55. 1832.

Majana macrophylla (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume 1453 (syntype: L).

Plectranthus leschenaultii Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 34. 1832. Type: Java, Leschenault (holotype: P).

Coleus macrostachys Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 57. 1832. Type: Indonesia, Java, Commerson s.n. (lectotype: P, designated here).

Coleus macropus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 956. 1858. Type: Indonesia, ?Java, Horsfield s.n. (holotype: U; isotypes: BM, K).

Coleus puberulus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 955. 1858.

Majana puberula (Miq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Indonesia, Sumatra, Singalang, Teysmann s.n. (isotype: U).

Coleus remotiflorus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 954. 1858. Type: Indonesia, Java in Soerakerta, Horsfield Lab. 112 (holotype: U; isotypes: BM, K).

Coleus spectabilis Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 955. 1858. Type: Indonesia, Java, in Blam.-bagan, Horsfield s.n. (holotype: U; isotypes: BM, K).

Distribution

W. Malesia to Lesser Sunda Is. (Bali).

Coleus gamblei (Smitha & Sunojk.) Smitha, comb. nov.

Plectranthus gamblei Smitha & Sunojk., Nordic J. Bot. 36 (8): 4. 2018. Type: India. Tamil Nadu, Coonoor, Aug 1883, Gamble 12263 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus garckeanus Vatke, Linnaea 37: 323. 1872

Plectranthus garckeanus (Vatke) J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 265. 1998. Type: Ethiopia, Begember in valley of river Repp, 1 July 1863, Schimper 1193 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, E, JE, K).

Plectranthus salviiflorus Chiov., Malpighia 34: 516. 1937. Type: Ethiopia, Boyi near Kardobi and Abeba Kolla, Taschdjian 188 (syntype: FT); 124 (syntype: FT).

Distribution

Ethiopia.

Coleus geminatus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus geminatus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 9: 285. 2014. Type: Australia, Queensland, Moreton District, Lamington National Park, Cainbable Falls, 27 Feb. 2014. P.I.Forster PIF40722 & G.Leiper (holotype: BRI; isotypes: K, MEL, NSW).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus gibbosus A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Plectranthus rehmannii Gürke, Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 553. 1898., non Coleus rehmanii Briq. Type: South Africa, Natal, Karkloof, Rehmann 7359 (holotype: Z; isotype: K).

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Coleus gigantifolius (Suddee) Suddee, comb. nov.

Plectranthus gigantifolius Suddee, Kew Bull. 59: 401 (2004). Type: Thailand, Kanchanaburi, Thung Yai Naresuarn Wildlife Sanctuary, Ban Saneh Pawng, Lai Wo Subdistr., 225 m, 7 Oct. 1993, Maxwell 93-1156 (holotype: CMU; isotypus: L).

Distribution

SW. Thailand.

Coleus gillettii (J.K.Morton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus gillettii J.K.Morton, Kew Bull. 53: 998. 1998. publ. 1999. Type: Kenya, Northern Frontier District: Moyale, Gillett 13721 (holotype: K; isotypes: EA, LMA).

Distribution

S. Ethiopia, S. Somalia, N. Kenya.

Coleus glabriflorus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus glabriflorus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 174. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, North Kennedy District, Herberton, 20 Jan. 1993, P.I.Forster PIF12814 & A.R.Bean (holotype: BRI; isotype: CNS).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus globosus (Ryding) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus globosus Ryding, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 66: 101. 1997. Type: DRC, Shaba, Kundulungu Plateau, 20 Mar. 1971, Lisowski 23152 (holotype: POZG, photo C).

Distribution

DRC.

Coleus goetzenii (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys goetzenii Gürke, Durch Afr., reimpr.: 8. 1896). Type: Rwanda, Virunga Mts, Goetzen 98 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys vulcanicola Lebrun & L.Touss., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 71. 1943. Type: DRC, Virunga Range, Lebrun 5006 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

EC. Trop. Africa (Virunga Mts.).

Coleus gossweileri A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Pycnostachys gracilis R.D.Good, J. Bot. 69 (suppl. 2): 164. 1931., non Coleus gracilis Gürke. Type: Angola, R. Cuartiri, Gossweiler 4035 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus gracillimus (T.C.E.Fr.) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929

Englerastrum gracillimum T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 69. 1924.

Plectranthus gracillimus (T.C.E.Fr.) Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 481. 1926. Type: DRC, Mt Corva, Deschamps s.n. (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: UPS, K, fragment).

Englerastrum schlechteri T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 70. 1924.

Plectranthus schlechteri (T.C.E.Fr.) Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 481. 1926.

Coleus schlechteri (T.C.E.Fr.) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929. Types: Mozambique, Dondo near Beira, Schlechter 12240 (syntype: B, destroyed, isosyntype: PRE, K, fragment) & Tanzania, Rungwe District: Kyimbila, Mulinda, Stoltz 1440 (syntype: B, destroyed, isosyntypes: K, W).

Plectranthus micranthus Chiov., Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1924: 44. 1924, nom. illeg., non Spreng.

Englerastrum diffusum Alston, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 298. 1926.

Plectranthus tenuis Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 481. 1926.

Coleus diffusus (Alston) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929. Type: Nigeria: Nupe, Barter s.n. (syntype: K); Nigeria, Muri Province, weed in arable land, Lamb 72 (syntype, K).

Distribution

Widespread in Trop. Africa.

Coleus gracilipedicellatum (Robyns & Lebrun) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Holostylon gracilipedicellatum Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 103. 1929. Type: DRC, Katanga, Pweto to Moba (Baudouinville), between Kayabala and Lungulungu, 29 Apr. 1926, Robyns 2196 (holotype: BR; isotypes: BM, K).

Plectranthus baumii Gürke in O. Warburg (ed.), Kunene-Sambesi Exped.: 356. 1903, non Coleus baumii Gürke.

Holostylon baumii (Gürke) G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69(suppl. 2): 161. 1931. Type: Angola, Kubango, Massaca, 19 Oct. 1899, Baum 283 (holotype: B, destroyed, isotypes: BM, E (as 238), K, W).

Distribution

Southern DRC to Botswana.

Coleus gracilis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 170. 1906

Plectranthus puberulentus J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 265. 1998. Types: Ethiopia, Sagan, Riva 1564 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: FT), Harar, Ellenbeck 965 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Distribution

Ethiopia to Tanzania.

Coleus graminifolius (Perkins) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys graminifolia Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 66. 1921. Type: Tanzania, Dodoma District: Kilimatinde, Prittwitz 118 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: UPS, K, fragment).

Distribution

Kenya.

Coleus grandicalyx E.A.Bruce, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3391 1939

Plectranthus grandicalyx (E.A.Bruce) J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 265. 1998. Type: Sudan, Imatong Mts, Lomul, A.S.Thomas 1935 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Sudan to N. Uganda.

Coleus grandidentatus (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus grandidentatus Gürke, Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 554. 1898. Type: South Africa, Cape, East Griqualand, Emyembe Mt, April 1885, Tyson 1517 (lectotype: K, designated by Codd (1975)).

Distribution

S. Zimbabwe to South Africa.

Coleus graniticola (A.Chev.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Solenostemon graniticola A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 121. 1909.

Solenostemon monostachyus var. graniticola (A.Chev.) Brenan, Kew Bull. 5: 231. 1950.

Plectranthus saxicola B.J.Pollard & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 61: 229. 2006. Type: Ivory Coast, Mt Nienokue, 20 km NE of Fort Binger, Chevalier 19469 (holotype: P; isotype: K).

Distribution

W. & WC. Trop. Africa.

Coleus gratus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus gratus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 49. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Walsh’s Pyramid (Cultivated at The Gap), 10 Jan. 1960, S.T. Blake 21192 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: NE. Queensland.

Coleus graveolens (R.Br.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus graveolens R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 506. 1810.

Plectranthus parviflorus var. graveolens (R.Br.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 357. 1895.

Plectranthus australis var. graveolens (R.Br.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 565. 1928. Type: Australia, Queensland, Port Clinton, 22. Aug. 1802, R.Brown (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus australis f. eximius Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 565. 1928. Type: not seen.

Distribution

E. Australia, Lord Howe I.

Coleus guerkei (Briq.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Hyptis baumii Gürke in O. Warburg (ed.), Kunene-Sambesi Exped.: 354. 1903., non Coleus baumii Gürke.

Plectranthus guerkei Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 7–8: 323. 1904.

Germanea guerkei Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 7–8: 323. 1904., nom. altern. Type: Angola, Cuito (Kuito), Baum 789 (isotypes: K, W).

Geniosporum paniculatum Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 351. 1900., non Coleus paniculatus Benth.

Neohyptis paniculata (Baker) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 259. 1962. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, near Catete, Welwitsch 5528 (syntypes: BM, K).

Geniosporum paniculatum var. debile Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 853. 1900. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, Casalala near Pedra Songue, Welwitsch 5527 (holotype: LISU; isotype: BM).

Hyptis quadrialata A.Chev., Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franç. 1: 522. 1920., nom. nud.

Geniosporum borzianum Chiov. Ann. Bot. (Rome) 10: 402. 1912. Type: Ethiopia. Amhara-Dembià, Mt. Incedubà near Gondar, Chiovenda 2266 (holotype: FT), synon. nov.

Distribution

Widespread in Trop. & South Africa.

Coleus gymnostomus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 212. 1894

Plectranthus gymnostomus (Gürke) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 337. 2009. Type: East Africa, without precise locality, Fischer 333 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: K, photo.).

Distribution

Tanzania.

Coleus habrophyllus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus habrophyllus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 175. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Moreton District, Ormeau, CSR land near water tower, 12 Nov. 1992, P.I.Forster PIF12391 & G.Leiper (holotype: BRI, isotypes: K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus hadiensis (Forssk.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Ocimum hadiense Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 109. 1775.

Plectranthus forskalaei Vahl, Symb. Bot. 1: 44. 1790., nom. illeg.

Germanea forskalaei Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl., suppl. 2: 764. 1812., nom. superfl.

Majana forskalaei (Poir.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891., nom. superfl.

Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger, Wiener Ill. Gart.-Zeitung 19: 2. 1894.

Coleus forskalaei Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 359. 1897., nom. superfl. Type: Yemen, Hadiyah ((Hadi)) Mts, Forsskål s.n (C, holotype).

Plectranthus zeylanicus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 36. 1832.

Coleus zeylanicus (Benth.) L.H.Cramer, Kew Bull. 32: 560. 1978. Type: Ceylon, Macrae s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus tomentosus Benth. in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 229. 1838. Plectranthus zatarhendi var. tomentosus (Benth.) Codd, Bothalia 11: 399. 1975.

Plectranthus hadiensis var. tomentosus (Benth.) Codd, Fl. S. Afr. 28: 153. 1985. Type: South Africa, Durban (Port Natal), Drège s.n. (holotype: K).

Coleus personatus Lem., Hort. Universel 6: 128. 1844. Type: not seen. Material at G under this name, labelled Hort Paris Aug. 1845, is P. hadiensis.

Plectranthus madagascariensis var. ramosior Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 68. 1849.

Plectranthus ramosior (Benth.) van Jaarsv., Aloe 43: 46. 2006. Type: South Africa, Gauteng, Magaliesberg (Macalisberg), Burke s.n. (holotype: BM).

Coleus schweinfurthii Vatke, Linnaea 37: 323. 1872. Type: Ethiopia, Bellaka, Sept. 1854, Schimper s.n. (Type: destroyed B).

Plectranthus paucicrenatus Franch., Sert. Somal.: 56. 1882. Type: Somalia, Northern Somalia, Révoil s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus rupestris Hochst. ex Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 131. 1894., nom. nud.

Plectranthus cyaneus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 208. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Mashewa (Mascheua), Holst 8850 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: K) & Handei, near Kwa Mshusa, Holst 8984 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: JE, K, W).

Plectranthus woodii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 76. 1898.

Plectranthus zatarhendi var. woodii (Gürke) Codd, Bothalia 11: 401. 1975.

Plectranthus hadiensis var. woodii (Gürke) Codd, Fl. S. Afr. 28: 154. 1985. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Ipolweni, Medley Wood s.n. (lectotype: GRA, designated by Codd (1975)).

Germanea horrida Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 863. 1900.

Plectranthus horridus (Hiern) Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 416. 1900. Types: Angola, Pungo Andongo, R. Cuanza near Condo, Welwitsch 5537 (syntypes: BM, K, LISU.); Huila, Morro de Monino, Welwitsch 5613 (syntypes: LISU, K).

Plectranthus rupestris Vatke ex Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 409. 1900.

Coleus rupestris Hochst. ex Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 409. 1900., nom. inval. (based on Schimper 2172 as below) Type: Ethiopia, near Bellaka, Sept. 1854, Schimper 2172 (lectotype: K; isolectotypes: BM, W, designated by Paton et al. 2009).

Plectranthus draconis Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1071. 1903. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Biggarsberg, Rehmann 7092 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus hararensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 132. 1905. Type: Ethiopia, Harar, Bachufer, Ellenbeck 846 (holotype: B, destroyed; K, fragment).

Plectranthus erlangeri Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 166. 1906. Type: Ethiopia, Abuelkasim, Ellenbeck 1396 (holotype: B, destroyed but see fig. in protologue).

Plectranthus pachyphyllus Gürke ex T.Cooke in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 5(1): 285. 1910. Type: South Africa, Natal, Inchanga, Rehmann 7878 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus petrensis S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 175. 1911. Type: Zimbabwe, Chimanimani, Swynnerton 2018 (holotype: BM; isotype: K).

Plectranthus fragrans Lebrun & L.Touss., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 70. 1943. Type: DRC, Katanda, Lebrun 7618 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

Widespread, Egypt to South Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Maldives, Sri Lanka.

Notes

Heckenhauer et al. (2019) suggest the Sri Lankan C. zeylanicus may represent a separete species or subspecies but further work is required.

Coleus hallii (J.K.Morton) A.J.Paton, comb.nov.

Plectranthus hallii J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 267. 1962. Type: Ghana, Gambaga Scarp, 14 Nov. 1959, J.K.Morton A3791, (holotype: GC; isotype: K).

Distribution

Ghana.

Coleus harmandii (Doan ex Suddee & A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 4E

Anisochilus harmandii Doan ex Suddee & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 59: 384. 2004. Type: Cambodia, Mlu Prey, Jan. 1876, Harmand 326 (holotype: P; isotype: A).

Distribution

Indo-China.

Coleus helferi (Hook.f.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus helferi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 623. 1885. Type: Burma, Tenasserim, Helfer 4061 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus fulvescens Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66: 521. 1897. Type: Burma, Attran, Brandis 811 (holotype: CAL; isotype: K),

Coleus fulvescens Kurz, Mss in Herb. Calcutta, nom. inval., in protologue discussion above.

Distribution

Myanmar to N. Thailand.

Coleus hereroensis (Engl.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus hereroensis Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 267. 1888.

Burnatastrum hereroensis (Engl.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 4: 175. 2001. Type: Namibia, Hereroland, Kaiser Wilhelmsberg near Okahandja, May 1886, Marloth 1350 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: G, M, PRE, SAM).

Coleus aconitiflorus Welw. ex Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 866. 1900. Type: Angola, Huíla, Catumba, Mar.1879, Welwitsch 5495 (holotype: LISU; isotypes: G, K).

Plectranthus matabelensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 417. 1900. Type: Zimbabwe, Matabeleland, Shashe R., 27.Mar.1875, Holub 1403–1406 (holotype: K).

Neomuellera damarensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 1901: 265. 1901. Type: Namibia, Damaraland, 1879, Een s.n. (holotype: BM).

Germanea myriantha Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1001. 1903.

Plectranthus myrianthus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1001. 1903.

Coleus myrianthus (Briq.) Brenan, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 43. 1954. Type: South Africa, Witwatersrand, Apr.1895, Hutton 877 (holotype: Z: isotypes: GRA, K, PRE).

Coleus matopensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 45: 96. 1907. Type: Zimbabwe, Matobo Hills, Eyles 1024 (holotype: BM; isotype: GRA).

Coleus polyanthus S.Moore, J. Bot. 45: 96. 1907. Type: Zimbabwe, Matobo Hills, Nov. 1903, Eyles 1012 (holotype: BM).

Coleus gazensis S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 178. 1911. Type: Zimbabwe, Chimanimani (Melsetter), 28 June1907, Swynnerton 1998 (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus otaviensis Dinter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 53: 116. 1928. nom. inval. Based on Namibia, Otavi, Dinter 5699 (B, destroyed, PRE, SAM).

Plectranthus aurifer Dinter ex Launert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 312. 1957. Type: Namibia, Grootfontein, Nossib, 22 Apr.1934, Dinter 7367 (holotype: M, isotypes: BOL, K).

Distribution

Southern tropical & South Africa.

Coleus hijazensis (Abdel Khaik) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus hijazensis Abdel Khalik, Turkish J. Bot. 40(5): 507. 2016. Type: Saudi Arabia, Al Baha Province, Saad Medhass, Abdel Khalik & Howladar s.n (holotype: UQU; isotypes: E, K, SHG).

Distribution

SW. Arabian Peninsula

Coleus humulopsis (B.J.Pollard) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Leocus membranaceus J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 270. 1962., non Coleus membranaceus Briq.

Plectranthus humulopsis B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 64: 260. 2009. Type: Ghana, Kintampo, Morton A2585 (holotype: GC; isotypes: FHI, IFAN, K, WAG).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to Cameroon.

Coleus hymalis (J.R.I.Wood) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus hyemalis J.R.I.Wood, Kew Bull. 39: 133. 1984. Type: Yemen, between Musalla & Saqool, Ahkum, Hujariyah, 2 Feb. 1977, J.R.I. Wood 1532 (holotype: K; isotypes BM, E).

Distribution

Yemen.

Coleus idukkianus (J.Mathew, Yohannan & B.J.Conn) Smitha, comb. nov.

Plectranthus idukkianus J.Mathew, Yohannan & B.J.Conn, Telopea 20: 183. 2017. Type: India: Kerala: Idukki District, 10 km away from Kuttikkanam, Panchalimedu Hills, 14 Dec. 2015, J. Mathew 4821 (holotype: TBGT; isotype: MSSRF).

Distribution

India, endemic to the Western Ghats.

Coleus igniarioides (Ryding) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus igniarioides Ryding, Novon 15: 361. 2005. Type: Somalia, Sanaag, 43 km from Ceel Afweyn, on road to Ceerigaabo, M. Thulin 10768 (holotype: UPS; isotype: K).

Distribution

Somalia.

Coleus igniarius Schweinf., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop.: 121. 1867

Plectranthus igniarius (Schweinf.) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 638. 1974. Types: Ethiopia, Dehli-Dikeno, 1854, Schimper 527 (holotype: B, destroyed; neotype: Ethiopia, Gondar Region, Dehli Dikeno, July 1853, Schimper 1623 (neotype: P, designated by Ryding (2001)).

Plectranthus malinvaldii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 125. 1894.

Coleus malinvaldii (Briq.) Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 240. 1898. Type: Ethiopia, Gondar Region, Dehli Dikeno, 22 Oct. 1854, Schimper 529 (lectotype: G-DC; isolectotype: G, FT, P; K, photo., designated by Ryding (2001)).

Coleus degasparisianus Buscal. & Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 487. 1913. Types: Mozambique, Mbusi (but in reality from Mahio in Haddes Valley, Eritrea), von Aosta (holotype: B, destroyed; neotype: Eritrea, Arrot Valley, south of Aidereso, Schweinfurth & Riva 1398 (neotype: FT; BR, G, P, S, isoneo. designated by Ryding (2001)).

Coleus guidottii Chiov., Atti Reale Accad. Italia, Mem. Cl. Sci. Fis. 11: 54. 1940. Type: Eritrea, Habab, Cub Cub near Nacfa, Guidotti 776 (holotype: FT).

Plectranthus igniarius subsp. grandicalyx Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 633. 1994, nom. inval. Based on: Kenya, Mt Kulal, Verdcourt 2269 (single collection at K or EA not specified).

Distribution

NE. Trop. Africa to N. Kenya, Arabian. Peninsula.

Coleus ignotus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus ignotus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 278. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Ufipa District: Mbisi (Mbizi) Mts, Bidgood, Mbago & Vollesen 2544 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, DSM, NHT).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania.

Coleus inflatus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 58. 1832

Majana inflata (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Plectranthus inflatus (Benth.) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 509. 1979. Type: Ceylon, Macrae s.n., in Hb. Benth. (holotype: K (K000820110)).

Coleus benthamianus Arn., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 18: 354. 1836.

Majana benthamiana (Arn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Ceylon, Graham s.n. (type: not seen).

Distribution

Sri Lanka.

Coleus inselbergii (B.J.Pollard & A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus inselbergi B.J.Pollard & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 61: 225. 2006. Type: Equatorial Guinea, Dalle Rocheuse (inselberg), 3 km S of Asok, 13 Jan. 1999, LeJoly 99/282 (holotype: BRLU; isotype: K).

Distribution

Equatorial Guinea to NW. Gabon.

Coleus insignis (Hook. f.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus insignis Hook.f., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 210. 1864. Type: Cameroons Upper Guinea Cameroon Mountain, 7000 ft., Mann 1257 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Rep.

Coleus insolitus (C.H.Wright) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 94. 1929

Symphostemon insolitus (C.H.Wright) Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 867. 1900.

Plectranthus insolitus C.H.Wright, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 34: 275. 1900. Type: Angola, Welwitsch 5593 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus insularis (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus insularis P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 8: 398. 2011. Type: Australia, Queensland, Darling Downs District, Mingimarny State Forest 131, Pine hill, 20 km S of Millmerran, 28 Apr. 1995, P.I.Forster PIF16468 & S.J.Figg (holotype: BRI; isotype: MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus intraterraneus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus intraterraneus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 33. 1971. Type: Australia, Northern Territory, Palm Valley W of Alice Springs (Cultivated at The Gap), 1958, S.T.Blake 20193 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland, Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia.

Coleus kanneliyensis L.H.Cramer & S. Balas., Kew Bull. 32: 558. 1978

Plectranthus kanneliyensis (L.H.Cramer & S. Balas.) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 510. 1979. Type: Sri Lanka, Kanneliya, Cramer 4317 (holotype: PDA; isotypes: E, K, NVB, US).

Distribution

Sri Lanka.

Coleus kanyakumariensis (Shinoj & Sunojk.) Smitha, comb. nov.

Anisochilus kanyakumariensis Shinoj & Sunojk. Phytotaxa 333(1): 100. 2018. Type: India, Kanyakumari district, Maruthwamala, K.Shinoj & P.Sunojkumar CU138400a (holotype: CALI; isotypes (CALI, MH).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus kapatensis R.E.Fr., Wiss. Erg. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo Exped. 1: 283. 1916

Plectranthus kapatensis (R.E.Fr.) J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 265. 1998. Type: Zambia, Bangweulu (Bangwelo), Kamindas on Kapata Peninsula, R.E.Fries 871 (isotype: K).

Distribution

S. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus kirkii (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys kirkii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 381. 1900. Type: Malawi, Manganja Hills, Kirk s.n. (lectotype; K, designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009)).

Echinostachys reticulata E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 243. 1838., non Coleus reticulatus A.Chev.

Pycnostachys reticulata (E.Mey.) Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 83. 1848. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Umlazi Valley, near Durban, Drège s.n. (holotype: K; isotype: PRE).

Pycnostachys reticulata var. angustifolia Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 83. 1848. Types: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 1840, Krauss 329 (syntype: K); Gauteng, Magaliesburg, n.d., Burke s.n. (syntype: K).

Pycnostachys uliginosa Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 396. 1901. Type: Tanzania, Njombe District: Ubena, Luhigi stream, Goetze 806 (holotype: B, destroyed; K, fragment).

Pycnostachys holophylla Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1000. 1903. Type: South Africa, Gauteng, Johannesburg, n.d., E.S.C.A. Herb. 347 (holotype: G).

Pycnostachys purpurascens Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 998. 1903. Type: South Africa, Witwatersrand, no locality, April.1895, Hutton 878 (holotype: Z).

Pycnostachys schlechteri Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 999. 1903. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Mt Frere, 24 Jan.1895, Schlechter 6406 (holotype Z; isotypes: GRA, PRE).

Distribution

Nigeria to Cameroon, Tanzania to South Africa.

Coleus kivuensis Lebrun & L.Touss., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 72. 1943

Plectranthus kivuensis (Lebrun & L.Touss.) R.H.Willemse, Kew Bull. 40: 96. 1985. Type: DRC, Kivu, Rutshuru, Lebrun 9031 (holotype BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

Eritrea to N. Tanzania.

Coleus klossii (S.Moore) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus klossii S.Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 9: 137. 1916. Type: Indonesia, Papua, Utakwa River to Mt Carstensz, C. Boden-Kloss (holotype: BM (BM000950283); isotype: K).

Plectranthus klossii var. major S.Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 9: 137. 1916. Type: Indonesia, Papua, Utakwa River to Mt Carstenz, C. Boden-Kloss (holotype: BM (BM000950282)).

Coleus koualensis A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel, Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 2: 290. 1931

Solenostemon koualensis (A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 270. 1962.

Plectranthus koualensis (A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) B.J.Pollard & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 61: 228. 2006. Type: Ivory Coast, Upper Sassandra, Mt Dourou, Fleury in Chevalier 21715 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Ivory Coast (Mt. Dourou).

Coleus koulikoroensis A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Solenostemon chevalieri Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 286. 1917., non Coleus chevalieri Briq.

Plectranthus chevalieri (Briq.) B.J.Pollard & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 61: 229. 2006. Type: Mali, Koulikoro, Chevalier 2779 (holotype: P).

Coleus nigericus A.Chev., Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franç. 1: 519. 1920, nom. nud.

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa.

Coleus kunstleri (Prain) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus kunstleri Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66: 521. 1897. Type: Malaysia, Perak, Kwala Dipoug (Kuala Dipang), Kunstler, 8240 (holotype: CAL).

Distribution

Peninsula Malaysia (Perak).

Coleus lactiflorus Vatke, Linnaea 43: 89. 1881

Plectranthus lactiflorus (Vatke) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 637. 1974. Type: Kenya, Teita District: Ndi Hill (N’Di), Hildebrandt 2522 (holotype: B, destroyed; neotype: Kenya, Teita District, Mbololo Forest, Taita Hills Expedition 1042 (neotype: K, isoneotype: EA, designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Distribution

Ethiopia to N. & NW. Tanzania.

Coleus laetus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus laetus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 9: 431. 2015. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Orchid Creek Station, 30 April 2014, P.I.Forster PIF41138 & S.L.Thompson (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, MEL, NSW).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus lageniocalyx Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 292. 1917

Coleus lageniocalyx Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 292. 1917. Type: Central African Republic, Bassinde Haute Ombella, Kaga Do, near Diouma, 26 Oct.1902, Chevalier 5923 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Central African Republic

Coleus lanceolatus (Bojer ex Benth.) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus lanceolatus Bojer ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 40. 1832.

Burnatastrum lanceolatum (Bojer ex Benth.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 358. 1897. Type: Madagascar, Bojer s.n. (holotype: P; isotype: K).

Plectranthus lavanduloides Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 20: 230. 1883.

Burnatastrum lavanduloides (Baker) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 358. 1897. Type: Madagascar, Central Madagascar, Baron 978 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus burnatii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 124. 1894. Type: Madagascar, around Antananarive, Goudot s.n. (holotype: G; isotype: G).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus lancifolius (Bramley) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys lancifolia Bramley, Kew Bull. 60: 590. 2005 publ. 2006. Type: Tanzania, Kigoma District: Lubalisi village to Ntakatta, Bidgood, Leliyo & Vollesen 4621 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, DSM, NHT, P).

Distribution

W. Tanzania.

Coleus lanuginosus Hochst. ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 79. 1848

Majana lanuginosa (Hochst. ex Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Plectranthus lanuginosus (Hochst. ex Benth.) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 638. 1974. Type: Ethiopia, Adua, 4 Oct. 1842, Schimper 1915 (lectotype: K; isolectotypes: BM, FT, KIEL, UPS, W; designated by Ryding (2000)).

Coleus albidus Vatke, Linnaea 37: 321. 1872. Type: Ethiopia, Mettaro, 1 Oct. 1862, Schimper 347 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: JE, PRE, Z).

Coleus schimperi Vatke, Linnaea 37: 320. 1872.

Coleus barbatus var. schimperi (Vatke) Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 430. 1900.

Plectranthus semayatensis Cufod., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 33(Suppl.): 838. 1963., non P. schimperi Vatke. Type: Ethiopia, Semajada (Semayata), 12 Oct. 1862, Schimper 618 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, G, JE, K).

Coleus montanus Hochst. ex Ces., Rendiconto Reale Accad. Sci. Fis. 12: 264–266. 1879. Type: Ethiopia, Schimper 2460 (holotype: RO, Erbario Cesati) synon. nov.

Coleus trichophorus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 130. 1894. Type: Ethiopia, Aman-eski, 5 Nov. 1854, Schimper 342 (holotype; G; isotype: P).

Coleus maculatus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 210. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Moshi District: Marangu, Volkens 429 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, G).

Coleus maranguensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 216. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Moshi District: Marangu, Volkens 630 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: BM).

Coleus gomphophyllus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 225. 1895. Type: Somalia, Golis Range, Lort Phillips s.n. (holotype, K).

Coleus schweinfurthii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 432. 1900., nom. illeg., non C. schweinfurthii Vatke.

Coleus sodalium Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 526. 1900. Type: Eritrea, Mogad (Magod) Valley, Schweinfurth & Riva 1810 (holotype: K; isotype: Z).

Coleus somalensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 1901: 265. 1901. Type: Somalia, Gan Liban, Donaldson-Smith s.n. (holotype: BM).

Coleus gallaensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 169. 1906. Type: Ethiopia, Belana, Ellenbeck 374 (syntype: B, destroyed); Gara Mulata, Ellenbeck 576 (syntype: B, destroyed; neotype: Ethiopia, Harerge Region, Gara Mulata, Gillett 5348 (neotype: K, designated by Ryding (2000)).

Coleus helenae Buscal. & Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 487. 1913. Type: Zambia, Lake Bangweulu (Banguelo-See), but in reality from Eritrea, Mai Gogol, near Segeneti, von Aosta 862 (holotype: B, destroyed; neotype: Eritrea, Sageneti, Schweinfurth & Riva 1184 (neotype: FT; isoneotype: BR, K, P; designated by Ryding (2001)).

Distribution

Eritrea to N. Tanzania, SW. Arabian Peninsula. Naturalized in Zimbabwe.

Coleus lasianthus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 212. 1894

Plectranthus lasianthus (Gürke) Vollesen, Opera Bot. 59: 84. 1980. Types: Tanzania, Kondoa District: Irangi, Fischer 507 (holotype: B, destroyed; neotype selected here: Tanzania, Same District: Mkomazi Game Reserve, Ngurunga Dam, Abdallah, Mboya & Vollesen 96/109, (neotype: K; isoneotype: NHT, designated by Paton in Paton et al. (2009)).

Coleus decumbens Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 211. 1894. Types: Tanzania, Moshi District: Lake Chala (Dschallasee), Volkens 327 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype; K) & Kenya, Kwale District: Duruma, Txamtei, Hildebrandt 2320 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Coleus tetensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 431. 1900.

Plectranthus tetensis (Baker) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 635. 1974. Type: Mozambique, Lower Zambesi, near Tete, Kirk s.n. (holotype: K).

Coleus menyharthii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1074. 1903. Type: Mozambique, Mefídze (Mfidzi) R., towards Katacha, Menyharth 1185 (isotype: Z).

Coleus vagatus E.A.Bruce, Bothalia 6: 227. 1951.

Plectranthus vagatus (E.A.Bruce) Codd in Ross, Fl. Natal: 305. 1971, nom. inval. Type: South Africa, Nelspruit District: Kruger National Park, 2.4 km E of Skukuza, Codd 5489 (holotype: PRE; isotype: K).

Plectranthus erubescens Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 216. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Phillipson 1833 (holotype: E; isotypes: K, MO, P).

Distribution

Ethiopia to South Africa, Madagascar.

Coleus lateriticola (A.Chev.) Phillipson, O. Hooper & A.J. Paton, Kew. Bull. 74, 24: 9. 2019, non C. lateriticola A. Chev. Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franc. 1: 519. 1920, nom. nud.

Solenostemon lateriticola A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 121. 1909.

Solenostemon monostachyus subsp. lateriticola (A.Chev.) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 271. 1962.

Plectranthus monostachyus subsp. lateriticola (A.Chev.) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 56: 980. 2001. Type: Guinea, Fonta-Djalon, entre Irebeleya et Timbo, Chevalier 18300 (holotype: P, photo K).

Distribution

Guinea, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone.

Coleus laxus (T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst) T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst, comb. nov.

Plectranthus laxus T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst., Australian Systematic Botany 31: 440. 2018. Type: Queensland: Cook: Mount Cook walking track, before National Park, 7 April 2016, P.I. Forster PIF45043 & K.R. McDonald (holotype: BRI; isotype: NSW).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus leiperi (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus leiperi P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 177. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Moreton District, Diana’s Bath area, D’Aguilar Range, 9 km E of Somerset Dam, 19 Jun. 1993, P.I.Forster PIF13348 (holotype: BRI, isotype: MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus linearifolius (J.K.Morton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus linearifolius (J.K.Morton) B.J.Pollard & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 61: 229. 2006.

Solenostemon linearifolius J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 271. 1962. Type: Guinea, Fiendiou, Pobeguin 1920 (holotype: IFAN; isotype P).

Distribution

Guinea.

Coleus livingstonei A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Pycnostachys urticifolia Hook., Bot. Mag. 89: t. 5365. 1863.

Coleus urticifolius (Hook.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 16: 330. 1954, nom. illeg., non Coleus urticifolius Benth. Type: Malawi, ex Hort. Kew, seeds sent from Mt Zomba by Livingstone (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys pubescens Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345 (1895), non Coleus pubescens Merr.

Pycnostachys urticifolia var. pubescens (Gürke) Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22: 146 (1895). Types: Mozambique, Gorungosa, Carvalho s.n. (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype:, COI); Malawi, without precise locality, Buchanan s.n. (syntype: B, destroyed).

Distribution

Tanzania to South Africa.

Coleus longipetiolatus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 214. 1894

Coleus longipetiolatus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 214. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Usambara Mts, Kwa Mshusa, 15.Aug.1893, Holst 9076 (holotype: B destroyed; isotypes: COI, G, K, M, P, W).

Coleus leptophyllus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 427. 1900.

Plectranthus leptophyllus (Baker) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 284. 2009. Type: Kenya, Ribe (Ribi) to Galla country, Wakefield s.n. (holotype: K).

Coleus swynnertonii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 177. 1911.

Plectranthus chiridensis Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 48: t. 1887. 1984. Type: Zimbabwe, Chirinda, Swynnerton 349 (holotype: BM; isotype K).

Distribution

E. & S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus lyratus (A.Chev.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 16: 330. 1954

Leocus lyratus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 126. 1909. Type: Guinea, Fouta-Djalon, Mt Tinka, near Dalaba, Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P).

Distribution

Sierra Leone, Guinea.

Notes

Paton et al. (2013) considered this as a synonym of P. betonicifolius, but the west African C. lyratus is a larger plant with retrorse, rather than antrorse stem hairs.

Coleus macranthus Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1(suppl.): 234. 1906

Plectranthus merrillii H.Keng, Fl. Males. 8: 391. 1978. Types: Phillippines, Luzon, Mt Data, Merrill 4502, 4483, 4505 (isosyntypes: K).

Distribution

Philippines (N. Luzon).

Coleus maculosus (Lam.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Galeopsis maculosa Lam., Encycl. 2: 601. 1788.

Germanea maculosa Lam., Encycl. 2: 691. 1788.

Plectranthus maculosus (Lam.) Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 88. 1796. Type: cultivated, from Africa (holotype: P-Lam).

Ocimum punctatum L.f., suppl. Pl.: 275. 1782, non Coleus punctatus Baker.

Plectranthus punctatus (L.f.) L’Hér., Stirp. Nov.: 87. 1788.

Germanea punctata (L.f.) Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 763. 1788.

Coleus praetermissus Bullock & Killick, Taxon 6: 239. 1957.

Plectranthus punctatus L’Hér. subsp. punctatus. Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 350. 2009. Type: “Abyssinia”, cultivated from seed sent by Bruce at Hort. Kew, 1774, (neotype: BM; isoneotype; G; designated by Hedge et al. (1998)).

Distribution

Widespread. Trop. Africa, Madagascar.

Coleus maculosus subsp. maculosus

Coleus glandulosus Hook.f., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 211. 1864.

Majana glandulosa (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Types: Cameroon, Cameroon Mt, Mann 1301 & 1988 (syntypes: K).

Coleus doba Hochst. ex Chiov., Ann. Bot. (Rome) 9: 126. 1911. Types: Ethiopia, Tigre, near Adua, 1852, Schimper 2040 (syntype: P; isosyntype: TUB); Semien, Dabarek, Chiovenda 969 (syntype: FT); Dembia, Gondar, Chiovenda 1500 (syntype: P).

Coleus serrulatus Robyns, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 78. 1943.

Plectranthus serrulatus (Robyns) Troupin & Ayob., Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 55: 299. 1985. Type: DRC, R. Susa, de Witte 2214 (isosyntype: K).

Distribution

Cameroon, to Eritrea and Tanzania, Madagascar.

Coleus maculosus subsp. edulis (Vatke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Coleus edulis Vatke, Linnaea 37: 319. 1872.

Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl.: 640. 1974.

Plectranthus punctatus subsp. edulis (Vatke) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 350. 2009. Type: Ethiopia, near Gaffat, 1863, Schimper 1212 (isotype: K, Z, mixed with C. barbatus).

Coleus tuberosus A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 185. 1850., nom. illeg., non C. tuberosus (Blume) Benth.

Majana richardiana Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891., nom. illeg., based on above.

Coleus palustris Vatke, Linnaea 37: 319. 1872. Type: Ethiopia, Daschan Meda, 15 Sept. 1863, Schimper 1186 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, JE, K, PRE, W, Z).

Coleus rivularis Vatke, Linnaea 37: 320. 1872. Type: Ethiopia, Gaffat, 25 Sept. 1863, Schimper 1172 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, JE, K, PRE, US, W, Z).

Coleus aquaticus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 218. 1894. Types: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Marangu, Volkens 583 (syntype: B, destroyed); Mawenzi, Volkens 860 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: E).

Coleus clivicola S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 38: 274. 1908. Type: Uganda, E Ruwenzori, Wollaston s.n. (holotype: BM).

Coleus fimbriatus Lebrun & L.Touss., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 79. 1943.

Plectranthus fimbriatus (Lebrun & L.Touss.) Troupin & Ayob., Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 55: 299. 1985. Type: DRC, Mt Mushumangabo, Lebrun 7163 (holotype: BR).

Distribution

Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda and DRC.

Coleus maculosus subsp. lanatus (J.K.Morton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 5A

Plectranthus punctatus subsp. lanatus J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 268. 1962. Type: Cameroon, Bamenda, near Bambui, Bamenda, Adams GC11322 (holotype: GC).

Distribution

Cameroon.

Notes

Paton et al. (2009, 2013) considered this as a synonym of subsp. edulis, but the prominent indumentum and disjunction warrant separate recognition.

Coleus madagascariensis (Pers.) A.Chev., Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 33: 338. 1953

Ocimum madagascariense Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 135. 1806.

Plectranthus madagascariensis (Pers.) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 37. 1832. Type: Mauritius or Reunion, n.d., Commerson 266 (holotype: P-JU 5706).

Plectranthus hirtus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 38. 1832. Type: South Africa, Cape, n.d., Masson s.n. (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus villosus Sieber ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 38. 1832. Type: Mauritus, Sieber, Fl. Maurit. Exsic. 152 (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Plectranthus mauritianus Bojer, Hortus Maurit.: 254. 1837., nom. inval.

Plectranthus pubescens Willd. ex Benth., Linnaea 11: 344. 1837., nom. inval.

Ocimum auricula Forssk. ex Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 43, 68. 1848., nom. inval.

Distribution

Mozambique to South Africa, Mascarenes.

Coleus malabaricus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830

Plectranthus malabaricus (Benth.) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 509. 1979. Type: India, Travancore, Wall. Num. List 2735A, in Hb. Madr. (holotype: K-W (K001116979)).

Coleus macraei Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 58. 1832. Type: Ceylon, Macrae s.n., (holotype: K(K000820112)).

Coleus ovatus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 57. 1832. Type: India, in Coromandelia, Wright, s.n. (holotype: K (K000820121)).

Coleus leptostachys Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 77. 1848.

Plectranthus malabaricus var. leptostachys (Benth.) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 510. 1979. Type: Ceylon, Walker s.n., (holotype: K (K000820114)).

Coleus walkeri Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 77. 1848. Type: Ceylon, Walker s.n., in Hb, Benth. (holotype: K (K000820113)).

Distribution

S. India, Sri Lanka.

Coleus mannii Hook.f., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 211. 1864

Majana mannii (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Solenostemon mannii (Hook.f.) Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 422. 1900.

Plectranthus occidentalis B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 60: 146. 2005. Type: Mt Cameroon, Mann 1967 (holotype: K).

Solenostemon cymosus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 422. 1900. Type: Cameroon, Mt. Cameroon, Mann 1251 (holotype: K).

Coleus giorgii De Wild., Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 19: 120. 1920.

Solenostemon giorgii (De Wild.) Champl., Syst. Geogr. Pl. 69: 16. 1999. Type: DRC, Likimi, De Giorgi 1511 (BR: lectotype, designated by Champluvier & Dowsett-Lemaire (1999)). synon. nov.

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to DRC and Sudan.

Coleus marrubatus (J.K.Morton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus marrubatus J.K.Morton, Kew Bull. 53: 997. 1998 publ. 1999. Type: Ethiopia, Mega, Gillett 14206 (holotype: K; isotype: FT).

Distribution

S. Ethiopia to N. Kenya.

Coleus megacalyx (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus megacalyx A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 316. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe District: Ngozi, Geilinger 2884 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to E. Zambia.

Coleus megadontus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus megadontus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 181. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Rocky River Scrub, eastern fall of McIlwraith Range, 16 June 1992, P.I.Forster PIF10637A, M.C.Tucker & G.Kenning (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, L, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus melleri (Baker) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus melleri Baker, J. Bot. 20: 243. 1882. Type: Madagascar, between Toamasina (Tamatave) and Antananarivo, July–August 1862, Meller s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus luteus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 468. 1900.

Coleus luteus (Gürke) Staner, Bull. Agric. Congo Belge 25: 426. 1934. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: SE Uluguru Mts, Stuhlmann 8790 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Coleus entebbensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 44: 89. 1906. Type: Uganda, Mengo District: Entebbe, Bagshawe 701 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

Liberia, Gabon, Uganda to S. Trop. Africa, Madagascar.

Coleus meyeri (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys meyeri Gürke, Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1891: 362. 1892. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Rua stream, Meyer 279 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys volkensii Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 344. 1895. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Mawenzi, Volkens 823 (lectotype: K, designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009); isolectotype: BM).

Pycnostachys oblongifolia Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 385. 1900. Type: Uganda, Toro District: Ruimi (Wimi) Valley, Scott Elliot 7883 (lectotype: K, designated by Bruce (1940)).

Pycnostachys bowalensis A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 126. 1909. Type: Guinea, Conakry, Fouta-Djalon, Kala, Diaguissa, Oct. 1907, A. Chevalier 18853 (holotype: P; isotype: K).

Pycnostachys longiacuminata Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 76. 1921. Type: Ethiopia, Sidamo, Lake Abassa, (?Lake Margharita), Dec. 1900, Ellenbeck 1728a (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys longibracteata De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 388. 1928. Type: DRC, Ruwenzori, Lanuri Valley, Bequaert 4490 (holotype: BR; K fragment).

Pycnostachys ovoideoconica De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 396. 1928. Type: DRC, Mukule–Mokoto, Bequaert 6325 (holotype: BR; K, fragment).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

Coleus minor (J.K.Morton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Solenostemon minor J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 271. 1962. Type: Nigeria, West Kagoro Hills, Jos Plateau, Killick 15 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus decumbens Hook.f., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 210. 1864., non Coleus decumbens Gürke.

Solenostemon decumbens (Hook.f.) Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 421. 1900.

Calchas decumbens (Hook.f.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Type: Cameroon, Mt Cameroon, Mann 2002 (holotype: K).

Distribution

WC. Trop. Africa.

Coleus minutiflorus (Ryding) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus minutiflorus Ryding, Nordic J. Bot. 20: 43. 2000. Type: Ethiopia, Sidamo, ± 35 km from the main road Yabelo–Mega, on road to Arero, Friis, Bidgood, L. & W. Malaku & Gashaw 8374 (holotype: C; isotypes: ETH, K).

Distribution

Ethiopia to N. Kenya.

Coleus minutus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus minutus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 3: 734. 1992. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Mount Muligan, c 40 km NW of Dimbulah, c. 0.5 km SE of Dam on top of mountain, 17 April 1985, J.R.Clarkson 5902 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus mirabilis Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 183. 1894

Fig. 5B

Coleus mirabilis var. hypisodontus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 184. 1894., nom. inval.

Ascocarydion mirabile (Briq.) G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69(suppl. 2): 162. 1931.

Burnatastrum mirabile (Briq.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 4: 175. 2001.

Plectranthus mirabilis (Briq.) Launert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 7: 299. 1968. Type: Angola, Malanje (Malandsche), Mar. 1880, Mechow 489 (lectotype: Z isolectotype: W; designated by Codd (1975)).

Coleus mirabilis var. buchnerianus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 184. 1894. Types: Angola, Moma, N of Malanje (Malandsche), Buchner 81, 82, 83, 84 & 85 (syntypes: B, destroyed).

Coleus mirabilis var. mecjowianus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 184. 1894. Type: Angola, Lumsuneja stream, between Malanje (Malandsche) and Cuango (Quango) rivers, June1880, Mechow s.n. (isotype: Z).

Coleus mirabilis var. poggeanus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 184. 1894. Type: Congo, R.Lulua, 9°30'S, Pogge 350 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Coleus leucophyllus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 292. 1895. Type: Zambia, near Mwero, W of Lake Tanganyika, 1894, Carson 26 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. DRC to NE. Namibia.

Coleus mirus (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus mirus S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 22. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, White Cliff Point NW of Cairns, 21 May 1962, S.T.Blake 21791 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus mitis (R.A.Clement) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus mitis R.A.Clement, Edinburgh J. Bot. 50: 35. 1993. Type: Bhutan, Khoma, open spaces, 1219 m, 21 July 1949, Ludlow, Sherriff & Hicks 20927 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

E. Himalaya.

Coleus modestus (Baker) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929

Plectranthus modestus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 72. 1895.

Englerastrum modestum (Baker) T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 76. 1924. Type: Zambia, Mbala District: Tanganyika Plateau, 1889, Carson s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus mollis Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 77. 1848

Plectranthus crameri R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 510. 1979. Type: Ceylon, Walker s.n., in Hb. Benth. (lectotype: K (K000820116), designated by Cramer (1978)).

Distribution

Sri Lanka.

Coleus monostachyus (P.Beauv.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Ocimum monostachyum P.Beauv., Fl. Oware 2: 60. 1818.

Plectranthus palisotii Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 39. 1832., nom. illeg.

Solenostemon monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 359. 1897.

Solenostemon ocymoides var. monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 421. 1900.

Plectranthus monostachyus (P.Beauv.) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 56: 980. 2001. Type: Benin, Palisot de Beauvois s.n. (holotype: G).

Coleus monostachyus (P.Beauv.) A.J.Paton subsp. monostachyus

Solenostemon ocymoides Schumach. & Thonn. in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 271. 1827.

Coleus africanus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 54. 1832., nom. illeg.

Solenostemon africanus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 181. 1894. Type: “Guinea”, Thonning 92 (lectotype: C, designated by Pollard & Paton (2001); Isert & Thonning herbarium, microf. 102: III. 7).

Solenostemon monostachyus var. amplifrons Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 826. 1906. Type: DRC, Bangala, 26 May 1888, Hens Ser. C 33 (holotype: Z).

Solenostemon godefroyae N.E.Br., Bot. Mag. 139: t. 8511. 1913. Type: illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration designated here).

Coleus godfroyae Godfroy-Lebeuf, Cat Pl. Nouv.: 2 1903. Type: not seen. Protologue of S. godefoyae suggests the name C. godfroy exists (with drawing), but this manuscript has not been seen.

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to S. Chad and Cabinda.

Coleus monostachyus (P.Beauv.) A.J.Paton subsp. marrubiifolius (Brenan) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Solenostemon monostachyus var. marrubiifolius Brenan, Kew Bull. 5: 231. 1950.

Solenostemon monostachyus subsp. marrubiifolius (Brenan) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 272. 1962.

Plectranthus monostachyus subsp. marrubiifolius (Brenan) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 56: 980. 2001. Type: Nigeria, Ondo Province, Carter’s Peak, Idanre Hills, Keay FHI 22585 (holotype: K).

Solenostemon gouanensis A.Chev., Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franç. 1: 517. 1920., nom. nud.

Distribution

W. & WC. Trop. Africa.

Coleus monostachyus (P.Beauv.) A.J.Paton subsp. perennis (J.K. Morton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Solenostemon monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq subsp. perennis J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 272. 1962.

Plectranthus monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq subsp. perennis (J.K.Morton) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 56: 981. 2001. Type: Ghana, Northern Province, Damongo Scarp, Morton A1242 (holotype: GC, not seen).

Distribution

Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria.

Coleus mutabilis (Codd) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus mutabilis Codd, Bothalia 11: 404. 1975. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Pietersburgh District, farm Bulbul, eastern end of Blouberg, Codd 7953 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: Northern Prov.

Coleus myrianthellus Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 290. 1917

Coleus myrianthellus Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 290. 1917. Type: Central African Republic, Gribingui, bassin de la Moyenne Kododo, 29 Nov. 1902, Chevalier 6454 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Central African Republic.

Notes

Related to C. splendidus. A revision of this group is required.

Coleus namuliensis E.Downes & I.Darbysh., Blumea 62: 169. 2017

Coleus namuliensis E.Downes & I.Darbysh., Blumea 62: 169. 2017. Type: Mozambique, Zambezia Province, Mt Namuli, small peak 5 km west of highest peak, Harris 237 (holotype: K (K000962083); isotype K(K000962089), LMA).

Distribution

. Mozambique.

Coleus neochilus (Schltr.) Codd, Bothalia 7: 432. 1961

Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., J. Bot. 34: 394. 1896. Type: South Africa, Mpumalanga, Rimero Creek near Baberton, 1890, Galpin 968 (holotype: K; isotypes: BOL, GRA, NH).

Coleus schinzii Gürke, Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 555. 1898. Type: Namibia, Ovamboland, Tsumeb, Schinz 56 (holotype: Z).

Coleus palliolatus S.Moore, J. Bot. 38: 464. 1900. Type: Zimbabwe, Bulawayo, Jan.1898, Rand 144 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

S. Trop. & South Africa.

Coleus nepetifolius (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys nepetifolia Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 383. 1900. Type: Kenya, Nandi/North Kavirondo District: Nandi Range, Scott Elliot 6471 (holotype: K; isotype: BM).

Distribution

Kenya.

Coleus niamniamensis (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys niamniamensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22: 145. 1895. Type: Sudan, Niamniam, east of R. Huuh, Schweinfurth 3750a (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: UPS, K, fragment).

Pycnostachys decussata Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 382. 1900. Type: Kenya, ‘Kavirondo’, Scott Elliot 7155 (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys petherickii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 383. 1900. Type: Sudan, White Nile, Petherick s.n. (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys lindblomii T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 24. 1930. Type: Kenya, North Kavirondo District: Elgon, Kitosh, Lindblom s.n. (holotype: S; K, fragment).

Distribution

Sudan to Kenya.

Coleus nigericus (Alston) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Englerastrum nigericum Alston, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 298. 1926. Type: Nigeria, Northern Nigeria, Katagum District, Dalziel 109 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus denudatus A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel, Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 2: 288. 1931.

Coleus denudatus (A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel) Robyns, Mem. Inst. Roy. Colon. Belge, Sect. Sci. Nat. (4°): 50. 1936. Type: Senegal, Diola (Casamance), Flory-Feygan, Chevalier 2815 (holotype: P).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa.

Notes

Non C. nigericus A.Chev., nom. nud.

Coleus nitidus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus nitidus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 3: 736. 1992. Type: Australia, New South Wales, cultivated at Byron Bay, from plant collected at Terania Creek, Nightcap Range, P. Hardwick s.n. (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, L, MEL, NSW).

Distribution

E. Australia.

Coleus niveus (Hiern) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Solenostemon niveus Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 864. 1900 (August). Type: Angola, Bumbo, Sierra de Xella, Welwitsch 5619 (holotype: LISU; isotype: BM).

Coleus orbicularis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 437. 1900. (December). Type: Angola, Benguella Prov., Welwitsch 5619, (holotype: K).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus nyikensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 439. 1900

Plectranthus malawiensis B.Mathew, Kew Bull. 31: 174. 1976. Type: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, July 1896, Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

SE. Kenya to N. Zambia.

Coleus omissus (P.I.Forst) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus omissus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 3: 731. 1992. Type: Australia, Queensland, Wide Bay District, Mudlow Gap, Beauty Spot 11, Timber reserve 26, 8 km N of Kilkivan, 21 Feb. 1989, P.I. Forster PIF4977 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CANB, K, MO).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus orthodontus (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 5D

Pycnostachys orthodonta Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345. 1895. Type: Mozambique, Manica, near Catandica (Gouveia), 1884, Carvalho s.n. (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: COI, K frag.).

Pycnostachys cyanea Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345. 1895. Type: Tanzania, Mpwapwa, Tubugwe, Stuhlmann 213 (lectotype: B, destroyed; designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009)).

Pycnostachys leptophylla Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1898: 161. 1898. Type: Malawi, Shire Highlands, 1891, Buchanan 873 (lectotype: K; designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009)).

Pycnostachys hanningtonii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 384. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Dodoma Dist., Ugogo, n.d., Hannington s.n. (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys bussei Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 131. 1905. Type: Tanzania, Lindi Dist., near Nguya, n.d., Busse 2834 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BR, K frag.).

Distribution

Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus otostegioides (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Capitanya otostegioides Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21: 106. 1895.

Plectranthus otostegioides (Gürke) Ryding, Kew Bull. 54: 126. 1999. Types: Eritrea, upper Lebka valley, Heuglin s.n. (syntype: B, destroyed) & Müller-Prosko-Capitany s.n. (syntype: B, destroyed) & Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Volkens 492 (syntype: B, destroyed); neotype: Tanzania, Arusha District: Ngaserai Plain, Richards & Arasululu 26472 (neotype: K, designated by Ryding (1999)).

Distribution

NE. Trop. Africa to N. Tanzania.

Coleus pallidus (Wall.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus pallidus Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 18. 1830. Type: Burma, Taong Dong, 26 Nov. 1826, Wallich Cat. 2754, (lectotype: K (K000674759); isolectotypes: G-DC, K-W (K001117031), designated by Suddee and Paton (2009)).

Distribution

Nepal to SC. China and Indo-China.

Coleus paniculatus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830

Majana paniculata (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Solenostemon paniculatus (Benth.) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 525. 1976. Type: India, Dindygul, Herb. Wight in Wall. Cat. 2734 (syntypes: K (K000820126); K-W(K001116978).

Coleus glabratus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 58. 1832.

Plectranthus glabratus (Benth.) Alston in H.Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6(suppl.): 236. 1931. Type: India, Madras, Wight s.n. ((holotype: K (K000820127)).

Coleus wightii Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 58. 1832. Type: India, Nilgiris, Wight s.n. (holotype: K (K000820125)).

Plectranthus coleoides Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 64. 1848. Type: India, Nilgiris, Perrottet s.n. (syntypes: 2 shts. G-DC; isosyntype: K (K000820123), P (P00720715).

Plectranthus bernardii Doan in H.Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 949. 1936 nom. inval. no Latin descr.

Distribution

S. India to S. Indo-China.

Coleus parishii (Hook.f.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus parishii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 622. 1885. Type: Burma, Tenasserim, Moulmein, Parish 444 (holotype: K).

Calamintha esquirolii H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8: 450. 1910.

Coleus esquirolii (H.Lév.) Dunn, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 158. 1913. Type: China, Kweichow, Shin- gny-hien, chemin pierreux de Sy-Koua-Tong, Nov. 1906, Esquirol 1058 (holotype: E).

Coleus mucosus Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 225. 1911. Types: Kodensho, Oct. 1906, Kawakami & Mori 1755 (TI: syntype); Kashito, Aug. 1905, Nakahara 302 (TI: syntype); Banchoryo, Oct. 1905, Nakahara 582, Oct. 1905 (TI: syntype); Kodensho, Oct. 1905, Nagasawa 764 (TI: syntype)

Distribution

Myanmar to SC. China and Taiwan.

Notes

See Suddee et al. (2004) for discussion of C. mucosus.

Coleus parvicalyx (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb.nov.

Plectranthus parvicalyx A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 316. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe District: Kiejo Volcano, Hepper, Field & Mhoro 5389 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania.

Coleus penicillatus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus penicillatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 325. 2009. Type: Zambia, Mbuzi–Kaluza, Greenway & Trapnell 5627 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Tanzania to E. Zambia.

Coleus pentheri Gürke, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 20: 48. 1905

Plectranthus pentheri (Gürke) van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 5. 1997. Type: South Africa, Mpumalanga, Rimero Creek near Baberton, 1890, Galpin 968 (holotype: K; isotypes: BOL, GRA, NH).

Distribution

SW. Zimbabwe to South Africa.

Coleus perrieri (Hedge) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus perrieri Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 199. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Ampandrandava, Seyrig 637 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus persoonii Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55. 1832

Ocimum paniculatum Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 135. 1806, non Coleus paniculatus Benth.

Solenostemon paniculatus (Pers.) Guillaumet & Cornet, Adansonia n.s., 15: 525. 1976

Plectranthus persoonii (Benth.) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 222. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Commerson s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus goudotii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 126. 1894.

Solenostemon goudotii (Briq.) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 525. 1976. Type: Madagascar, Goudot s.n. (G, holotype).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus petiolatissimus Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 291. 1917

Coleus petiolatissimus Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 291. 1917. Type: Central African Republic (Bangui), 16 Aug. 1902, Chevalier 5214 bis. (holotype: P).

Distribution

Central African Republic.

Notes

Related to P. bojeri. Complex in need of revision.

Coleus petraeus (Backer ex Adelb.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus petraeus Backer ex Adelb., Reinwardtia 3: 152. 1954. Type: Java, Idjin Plateau, Sempolm, Backer 36387 (holotype: L).

Distribution

E. Java.

Coleus petricola (J.Mathew & B.J.Conn) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus petricola J.Mathew & B.J.Conn, Telopea 20: 179. 2017. Type: India: Kerala: Idukki District, 10 km away from Udumbanchola, Chemmannar Hills, 20 Feb 2010, J. Mathew 4417 (holotype: TBGT; isotype: MSSRF).

Distribution

India, endemic to Western Ghats.

Coleus phulangkaensis (Suddee, Suphuntee & Saengrit) Suddee, comb. nov.

Plectranthus phulangkaensis Suddee, Suphuntee & Saengrit, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 42: 6. 2014 (Dec 2014) Type: Thailand. Nakhon Phanom, Ban Phaeng District, Phu Langka National Park, 9 Oct. 2013, Suddee, Puudjaa, Rueangruea, Kiewbang, Hemrat & Pansamrong 4588 (holotype: BKF; isotypes: BKF).

Distribution

Thailand.

Coleus plantagineus (Hook.f.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus plantagineus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 628. 1885. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Mysore, Bababoodan Hills, Dalzell s.n. (lectotype: K(K000674770); isolectotype K(K000674771), designated by Suddee & Paton (2009).

Distribution

SW. India.

Coleus platyphyllus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus platyphyllus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 331. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Iringa District: Mafinga (Sao Hill) to Madibira road, Richards 17354 (holotype: K; isotype: EA).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania.

Coleus pobeguinii Hutch. & Dalziel, Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 2: 291. 1931

Leocus pobeguinii (Hutch. & Dalziel) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 270. 1962.

Plectranthus pobeguinii (Hutch. & Dalziel) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 64: 260. 2009. Type: Guinea (Conakry), Kouroussa, Pobéguin 556 (P, lectotype, designated by Pollard and Paton (2009)).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa.

Coleus polystachys (Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus polystachys Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 19. 1830.

Stiptanthus polystachyus (Benth.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 352. 1897. Type: Nepal, Hetoundah (Hetauda), 14 Dec. 1820, Wall. Cat. 2755 (lectotype: K (K000674760); isolectotypes: BM, E, G-DC, K (K000674761), K-W(K001117032), designated Suddee & Paton (2009)).

Distribution

Nepal to Bangladesh.

Coleus porcatus (van Jaarsv. & P.J.D.Winter) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus porcatus van Jaarsv. & P.J.D.Winter, Bothalia 35: 170. 2005. Type: South Africa, Sekukuniland, N. Leolo Range, Farm de Kamp, P.J.D. Winter 6725 (holotype: PRE; isotype: NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: Limpopo (Leolo Mts.).

Coleus porphyranthus (T.J.Edwards & N.R.Crouch) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 5C

Plectranthus porphyranthus T.J.Edwards & N.R.Crouch, Kew Bull. 55: 459. 2000. Type: Zimbabwe, Masvingo Dist., Richmond Farm, Harare road, 4 km from Masvingo, Dec. 1997, Crouch 800 (holotype: NU; isotypes: E, K, PRE, SRGH).

Distribution

S. Zimbabwe.

Coleus prittwitzii (Perkins) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys prittwitzii Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 68. 1921. Type: Tanzania, Iringa District: Ndembera flood plain, near Gominyi, Prittwitz & Gaffron 28 (holotype: B, destroyed; K, fragment).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to N. Zambia.

Coleus prostratus (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus prostratus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 206. 1894. Types: Tanzania, Pangani, Volkens 484 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: G) & North Mara District: Ukira, Fischer 497 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus quadridentatus Schweinf. ex Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 409. 1900. Type: Eritrea, Mount Alam Kale, NW of Aidereso, Schweinfurth & Riva 2086 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus margeritae Buscal. & Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 485. 1913. Type: Neumann Camp (Kenya, but in reality based on material from E or NE Africa and Yemen), von Aosta 1688 (holotype: B, destroyed); neotype: Eritrea, Nefasit, base of Mt Bizen, Ryding et al. 2095 (neotype: C; isoneotypes: ASMU, ETH, UPS, designated by Ryding (2001)).

Plectranthus ugandensis Lye, Norweg. J. Bot. 20: 57. 1973, nom. illeg., non P. ugandensis S.Moore.

Distribution

Yemen, Eritrea to Tanzania.

Coleus psammophilus (Codd) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus psammophilus Codd, Bothalia 11: 405. 1975. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Makatini Flats, Jan.1964, Strey 5779 (holotype: PRE; isotypes: BR, K, M, NH).

Distribution

Mozambique to N. KwaZulu-Natal.

Coleus pseudospeciosus (Buscal. & Muschl.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys pseudospeciosa Buscal. & Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 486. 1913. Type: Zambia, Lake Bangweulu, n.d, D’Aosta 1002 (holotype: B, destroyed; lectotype: K, designated by Ryding (2001)).

Pycnostachys ballotoides Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 72. 1921. Type: Congo, Katanga, Mt Senga, Kassner 2930a (holotype: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys mausaensis Gürke, Notes Fl. Katanga 7: 47. 1921. Type: Congo, Katanga, Mt Senga, 31.May 1908, Kassner 2920a (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

S. DRC to N. Zambia.

Coleus pulchellus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus pulchellus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 182. 1994. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Wasp Gully, Glennie Tableland, 5 Jul. 1991, M.C.Tucker (holotype: BRI (AQ509442); isotype: CNS).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus recurvata (Ryding) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys recurvata Ryding, Novon 9: 101. 1999. Type: Ethiopia, 60km W of Ambo along Lekemti (Nekemte) road, W.J.de Wilde & de Wilde-Duyfjes 8754 (holotype: C; isotypes: BR, ETH, K, UPS, WAG).

Distribution

Ethiopia.

Coleus repens Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 213. 1894

Solenostemon repens (Gürke) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 272. 1962.

Plectranthus epilithicus B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 60: 145. 2005. Type: Kamerun, im Urwald westlich von Buea, Preuss 949 (holotype: B, destroyed); (neotype: Cameroon, Mt Kupe, Nyasoso, nature trail above the Government High School, Pollard 83 (neotype: K; isoneotypes KUPE, WAG YA, designated by Pollard (2005)).

Coleus carnosus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 125. 1909., nom. illeg.

Coleus carnosus var. lamiifolius A.Chev., Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franç. 1: 518. 1920. nom. illeg.

Distribution

W. & WC. Trop. Africa.

Coleus reticulatus A.Chev., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 200. 1912

Isodictyophorus reticulatus (A.Chev.) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 272. 1962.

Plectranthus reticulatus (A.Chev.) B.J.Pollard, Kew Bull. 67: 49. 2012. Type: Guinée Francaise, Cercle de Faranah (Faranna), dans la brousse très marécageuse et au bord des petits marigots, entre Kaba et Tonfili, 11 Jan.1909, Chevalier 20393 (holotype: P; isotype: K).

Isodictyophorus chevalieri Briq., Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 285. 1917. Type: Mali, Sedwhi toTimbuktu, 11–12 Feb. 1900, Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus casamancicus A.Chev. ex Hutch. & Dalziel, Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 2: 291. 1931. Type: Senegal, Casamance from Farancounda to Tambanaba, Sedhiou, 12 Feb. 1900, Chevalier 2777b (holotype: P).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa.

Coleus rhodesianum (N.E.Br.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Englerastrum rhodesianum N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1922: 31. 1922. Types: Zambia, Mumbwa, Macauly 637 (syntype: K); Livingstone, Rogers 7205 (syntype: not seen).

Englerastrum schweinfurthii Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 178. 1894, non Coleus schweinfurthii Vatke.

Coleus englerastrum Roberty, Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 16: 330. 1954. Type: Sudan, headwaters of Ghasal, Addai, Schweinfurth 2532 (isotypes: K, WU).

Englerastrum djalonense A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 126. 1909, non Coleus djalonensis A.Chev.

Plectranthus djalonensis (A.Chev.) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 286. 2009. Type: Guinea, between Timbo and Kouria, Sept. 1907, Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P; isotype: K).

Plectranthus piliferus Chiov., Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1924: 44. 1924. Type: Angola, Mossamedes, Huambo, Mazzocchi-Alemanni (holotype: FT).

Englerastrum hutchinsonianum Alston, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 298. 1926. Type: Nigeria, Lokoja, Mt Patti, Dalziel 105 (holotype: K).

Englerastrum schlechteri Alston, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 297. 1926., nom. illeg., non. T.C.E.Fr.

Distribution

Trop. Africa to Caprivi Strip.

Coleus robustus (Hook.f.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus robustus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 629. 1885. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Courtallum, Herb. Wight 625 (holotype: K (K000674766); isotype: E).

Anisochilus henryi K.Ravik. & V.Lakshm., Rheedea 9: 72. 1999. Type: India, Tamil Nadu, Theni Distr., near Varaiyaatumottai peak, Venniar Estate, Pachakumatchi hills, 1800 m, 28 May 1989, Lakshmanan & Ravikumar 91078 (holotype: CAL; isotypes: K, MH).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus rotundifolius (Poir.) A.Chev. & Perrot, Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 1: 101. 1905

Germanea rotundifolia Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 763. 1788.

Plectranthus rotundifolius (Poir.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690. 1825.

Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir.) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 272. 1962. Type: Mauritius (Ile de France), Commerson s.n. (holotype: P; isotype: FI).

Nepeta madagascariensis Lam., Encycl. 1: 712. 1785, non Coleus madagascariensis (Benth.) A.Chev. Type: illustration in Rheede, Hortus Mal. 11: 49 t.25. 1692.(lectotype: illustration designated here).

Plectranthus ternatus Sims, Bot. Mag. 51: t. 2460. 1824.

Coleus ternatus (Sims) A.Chev., Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 1: 109. 1905. Type: specimen of cultivated plant illustrated in Bot. Mag. t. 2460 (lectotype: illustration designated here).

Plectranthus tuberosus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 838. 1826.

Coleus tuberosus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 59. 1832.

Majana tuberosa (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume s.n. (holotype: L: isotypes: NY, P).

Coleus rugosus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15. 1830. Type: India, Madras, Palamcotta, Herb. Madras, with ‘Dracocephalum rugosum’ mss., Wall. Cat. 2760 (holotype: K (no barcode.); isotype: K-W(K001117037).

Coleus parviflorus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 72. 1848.

Calchas parviflorus (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: South India, Quilon and Panpanassum, Wight 2512 (holotype: K(K000674660); isotype: E).

Coleus dysentericus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1894: 10. 1894. Type: Niger, Zomba region, Barter 846 (holotype: K).

Coleus salagensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 220. 1894. Type: Benin, between Paratau and station Bismarkburg, Kling 199, Buttner 94, 690 (syntypes: not seen).

Plectranthus coppinii Heckel, Rev. Cultures Colon. 8: 164. 1900. Type and protologue not seen.

Coleus rehmannii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1075. 1903. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Houtbosch, Rehmann 6156 (holotype: Z).

Coleus pallidiflorus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 124. 1909. Type: Guinea, Conakry, Fouta Djalon, Dalaba, Nov. 1907, Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P). Locality of Chevalier 18234 in P and annotated as type, does not match protologue locality.

Coleus rotundifolius var. nigra A.Chev., Explor. Bot. Afrique Occ. Franç. 1: 520. 1920. Type: Ivory Coast, Haute sassandra, Pays Dyolas, village de Man, 13 May 1909, Chevalier 21532 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Tropical Asia, cultivated elsewhere.

Coleus ruandensis (De Wild.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys ruandensis De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 401. 1928. Type: Rwanda, between Kirinda and Lubengera, Robyns 2449 (holotype: BR).

Pycnostachys clinodon Mildbr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 405. 1932. Type: Tanzania, Njombe District: Lupembe, Schlieben 1053 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BM, BR, K, fragment).

Distribution

Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, DRC and Malawi.

Coleus rutenbergianus (Vatke) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus rutenbergianus Vatke, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereins Bremen 9: 135. 1885.

Solenostemon rutenbergianus (Vatke) Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 524. 1976. Type: Madagascar, Nahe des Itasi Sees, 19 Dec. 1877, Rütenberg s.n. (holotype: B, destroyed).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus sahyadricus (Smitha & Sunojk.) Smitha, comb. nov.

Plectranthus sahyadricus Smitha & Sunojk., Phytotaxa 345 (2): 166. 2018. Type: India. Kerala: Idukki district, Munnar, Lockhart Gap view point, 21 Sept. 2015, Smitha & Sunojkumar 135456 (holotype: CALI).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus sallyae (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus sallyae A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 275. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Ufipa District: Nkansi, 15 km on Kipili–Namanyere road, Bidgood, Mbago & Vollesen 2661 (holotype: K(K000431951); isotypes: K (K000431952), BR, C, DSM, EA, NHT, UPS).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania.

Coleus sanguineus (Britten) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus sanguineus Britten, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 36. 1894. Type: Malawi, Mulanje, Dec.1891, Whyte 46 (holotype: BM; isotypes: G, K).

Distribution

S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus saxorum (J.Mathew, Yohannan & B.J.Conn) Smitha, comb. nov.

Plectranthus saxorum J.Mathew, Yohannan & B.J.Conn, Telopea 20: 187. 2017. Type: India, Kerala, Kozhikode District, Vellarimala, 10 km away from Muthappanpuzha, 30 Jan. 2015, J.Mathew 4911 (holotype: TBGT; isotype, MSSRF).

Distribution

India, endemic to Western Ghats.

Coleus scaber (Benth.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus scaber Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 81. 1848. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Courtallum, Herb. Wight 2520 (holotype: K (K000674680); isotypes E, K (K000674681).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus scandens Gürke, Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1894: 51. 1894

Englerastrum scandens (Gürke) Alston, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 299. 1926.

Plectranthus scandens (Gürke) R.H.Willemse, Blumea 25: 510. 1979. Types: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Msinga to Kwa Mshusa, Holst 9119 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: K) & 9120a (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntypes: G, JE, K, W).

Distribution

Kenya to N. Tanzania.

Coleus scebeli Chiov., Fl. Somala 1: 2. 1929

Plectranthus scebeli (Chiov.) Ryding, Kew Bull. 54: 125. 1999. Type: Somalia, Shabeellaha Dhexe Rguion, between Ganale and Audegle, Puccioni & Stafanini 48 (holotype: FT).

Distribution

S. Somalia.

Coleus schizophyllus (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus schizophyllus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 414. 1900.

Calchas schizophyllus (Baker) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: Malawi, between Khondowe and Karonga, Whyte 376 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to N. Malawi.

Coleus schliebenii (Mildr.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys schliebenii Mildbr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 405. 1932. Type: Tanzania, Njombe District: Lupembe, Schlieben 713 (holotype: B, destroyed: isotypes: BR, Z; K, fragment).

Distribution

Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus scruposus A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Pycnostachys kassneri De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 172 1921., non Coleus kassneri Robyns & Lebrun. Type: DRC, Katanga, West Kundelungu, Kassner 2794 (holotype: BR; isotypes: BM, K).

Pycnostachys carigensis Gürke, Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., sér. 4, 2: 135. 1913., nom. nud.

Distribution

Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830

Ocimum scutellarioides L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 833. 1763.

Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 506. 1810.

Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb., Hort. Bengal.: 45. 1814.

Majana scutellariodes (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, Bothalia 11: 439. 1975.

Calchas scutellarioides (L.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: Majana (alba et rubra) Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 5: 291, t. 101. 1747, (lectotype: illustration designated by Merrill (Interpr. Rumph. Herb. Amboin.: 460 1917).

Polypodium ovatum Burm. f., Fl. Ind.: 233. 1768. Type: Java, Unknown collector (holotype: G).

Germanea nudiflora Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 763. 1788.

Plectranthus nudiflorus (Poir.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 168. 1800. Type: Amboina, Willdenow Herbarium 11079.1 & 11079.2 (syntypes: B-W).

Ocimum peltatum Schweigg. ex Schrank, Denkschr. Königl.-Baier. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 2: 55. 1822. Type: Cultivated from seed collected by Martius in Brazil (type: not seen).

Plectranthus ingratus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 836. 1826.

Coleus ingratus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 53. 1832.

Coleus scutellarioides var. ingratus (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 950. 1858. Type: Indonesia, Java, G. Parang, Blume 992 (lectotype: L, designated by Keng (1969)).

Plectranthus laciniatus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 838. 1826.

Coleus laciniatus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 56. 1832.

Coleus scutellarioides var. laciniatus (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 950. 1858. Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume s.n. (lectotype: L, designated by Keng (1969)).

Plectranthus scutellarioides Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 837. 1826., nom. illeg.

Coleus blumei Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 56. 1832.

Coleus scutellarioides var. blumei (Benth.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 950. 1858.

Majana scutellarioides var. blumei (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Solenostemon blumei (Benth.) M.Gómez, Bol. Secr. Agric. Comerc. Trab., Cuba 22: 127. 1914.

Plectranthus blumei (Benth.) Launert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 7: 301. 1968. Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume s.n. (lectotype: L, designated by Suddee et al. (2004)).

Coleus atropurpureus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830.

Majana scutellarioides var. atropurpureus (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Calchas atropurpureus (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Type: Singapore, Wall. Cat. 2733A (syntypes: K (no barcode), K-W (K001116976)).

Coleus atropurpureus var. ramosus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830. Type: Malaysia, Penang, Wall. Cat. 2733B (syntypes: G-DC(microfiche), K-W (K001116976).

Coleus acuminatus Benth., Linnaea 6: 81. 1831.

Majana acuminata (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Calchas acuminatus (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1996. Type: Philippines, Island of Samar, 1841, Cuming 1683 (neotype: K (K000897809), neotype designated by Suddee et al. 2004; isoneotypes: BM, K (K000897810), P, TCD).

Coleus atropurpureus var. densiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 54. 1832. Type: Philippines, Manila, 1830, Chamisso s.n. (syntype: K (K000897808).

Coleus grandifolius Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 53. 1832.

Majana grandifolia (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Coleus scutellarioides var. grandifolius (Benth.) Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 58. 1969. Type: Timor, Guichenot s.n. (syntype P; isosyntypes: K, L, G-DC).

Coleus multiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55. 1832.

Majana multiflora (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Philippines, Manila, Perrottet s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus secundiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55. 1832.

Majana secundiflora (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Timor, Guichenot s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus grandifolius Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 482. 1837., nom. illeg.

Coleus blancoi Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 79. 1848.

Majana blancoi (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Phillippines, Blanco, s.n. (type: not seen).

Coleus pumilus Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 482. 1837.

Majana pumila (Blanco) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891. Type: Philippines, Barrio of Pineda, Pasig, Rizal Province, Luzon, Oct. 1914, Merrill: Species Blancoanae No. 190 (neotype: K, designated by Suddee et al. (2004)).

Coleus atropurpureus var. javanicus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 74. 1848. Type: Indonesia, Java, Zollinger 138 (syntypes: G-DC, K).

Coleus blumei var. pectinatus C.Morren, Belgique Hort. 6: 99. t 18. 1856. Type: Cultivated in Liege, illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration designated here).

Coleus scutellarioides var. celebicus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 950. 1858. Type: Indonesia, Celebes, Reinwardt s.n. (type: not seen).

Coleus scutellarioides var. gracilis Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 950. 1858. Type: Indonesia, Ceram, Bangka, Miquel (type: not seen).

Perilla nankinensis Wender., Linnaea 29: 726. 1859, nom. illeg., non P. nankinensis (Lour.) Decne.

Coleus verschaffeltii Lem., Ill. Hort. 8: t. 293. 1861. Type: based on cultivated plants from Java,illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration, designated by Suddee et al. 2004).

Coleus marmoratus W.Bull, Proc. Roy. Hort. Soc. London 4: 133. 1864.

Coleus verschaffeltii var. marmoratus (W.Bull) André, Pl. Feuill. Ornem.: 144. 1866. Type: not seen.

Coleus gibsonii Verl., Veitch & Sons in Gard. Chron. 1866: 432 (12 May 1866). Rev. Hort. (Paris) 37: 279. 1866 (July 1866). Type: Cultivated in London, sent by John Veitch from New Caledonia. (type: not seen).

Coleus veitchii Dombrain, Fl. Mag. (London) 6: t. 345. 1867. Type: Cultivated in London, sent by John Veitch from New Caledonia, illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration, designated here).

Coleus batemannii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus bausei T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus berkeleyi T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 376. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus clarkii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus dixii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 376. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus marshallii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 376. 1868.

Coleus blumei var. marshallii (T.Moore) Rothsch., Pl. Feuill. Col., 2: 74. t. 37. 1869. Type: Illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration, designated here).

Coleus murrayi T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868.

Coleus blumei var. murrayi (T.Moore) Rothsch., Pl. Feuill. Col., 2: 74 t. 37. 1869. Type: Illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration, designated here).

Coleus reveesii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus ruckeri T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 376. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus saundersii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 376. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus scottii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus wilsonii T.Moore, Gard. Chron. 1868: 377. 1868. Type: not seen.

Coleus telfordii McPhail ex H.Laurentius, Nursery Cat. (H.Laurentius) 40: 3. 1868.

Coleus blumei var. telfordii (McPhail ex H.Laurentius) Rothsch., Pl. Feuill. Col., 2: 74 t. 37. 1869. Type: Illustration cited above (lectotype: illustration, designated here).

Coleus scutellarioides var. angustifolia Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 80. 1870.

Calchas scutellarioides var. angustifolia (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: Australia, Table Hill, Victoria River & Macadam Range, 1855, F. Mueller s.n. (syntype: K); Port Essington, Armstrong 244 (syntype: K).

Coleus scutellarioides var. laxa Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 80. 1870. Types: Australia, Roe River, York Sound, NW coast, A.Cunningham (syntype: K); Roebuck Bay NW coast, Martin s.n. (syntype: not seen); Arnhems land, Mackinley, R.Brown (syntype: MEL).

Coleus scutellarioides var. limnophila Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 80. 1870.

Calchas scutellarioides var. limnophila (Benth.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: Australia, Nicholson & MacArthur Rivers, F. Mueller (syntypes: K).

Coleus tryonii auct., Fl. Mag. (London), n.s., 1: t. 34. 1872. Type: cultivated in UK, Leicester, garden of Captain Tryon (lectotype: illustration designated here).

Coleus verschaffeltii var. splendens auct., Garden (London 1871–1927) 5: 54. 1874. Type: not seen.

Coleus multicolor J.H.Veitch ex Kellock, Gard. Chron., n.s., 7: 571. 1877. Type: not seen.

Coleus hendersonii Regel, Gartenflora 28: 244. 1879. Type: not seen.

Coleus × eureka auct., Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 5: 808. 1889. nom. nud.

Coleus gaudichaudii Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 237. 1898. Type: Philippines, fle de Luzon pres de Manille, Dec. 1836, Gaudichaud s.n. (holotype: G-DEL).

Coleus igolotorum Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 236. 1898. Type: Philippines, fle de Luzon, dans le pays des Igolotes, Callery 48 (holotype: G-DEL; isotype: P).

Coleus savannicola K.Schum. in K.M.Schumann & C.A.G.Lauterbach, Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee: 529. 1900. Type: not seen.

Coleus formosanus Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 320. 1906. Type: Kotosho, 21 Nov. 1899, Miyake s.n. (holotype: TI).

Coleus macranthus var. crispipilus Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1(suppl.): 235. 1906.

Coleus crispipilus (Merr.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C 5: 382. 1910.

Calchas crispipilus (Merr.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1996.

Coleus scutellarioides var. crispipilus (Merr.) H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 56. 1969.

Calchas scutellarioides var. crispipilus (Merr.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999. Type: Philippines, Suyoc to Panai, Province of Benguet, Luzon, 2200 m, Nov. 1905, Merrill 4780 (holotype: PNH; isotypes: BM, K, NY).

Coleus pubescens Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 432. 1909. Type: Philippines, Babuyan Island, 17 June 1907, Eugenio Zenix, Bureau of Science 3892 (holotype: PNH; isotype: BM).

Coleus zschokkei Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C 5: 382. 1910. Type: Philippines, Mt Pulog, Prov. of Bengnet, Luzon, May 1909, Merrill 6529 (holotype: PNH; isotypes: K, NY, P).

Coleus integrifolius Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7: 2696. 1915.

Coleus scutellarioides var. integrifolius (Elmer) Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 58. 1969. Type: Philippines, Mindanao, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Prov. of Agusan, Island of Mindanao, August 1912, Elmer 13627 (holotype: PNH; isotypes: A, BM, K, L, NY, P).

Coleus gibbsiae S.Moore in L.S.Gibbs, Fl. Arfak Mts.: 178. 1917.

Coleus scutellarioides var. gibbsiae (S.Moore) Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 58. 1969. Type: Indonesia, New Guinea, Arfak Mts, 2100 m, Gibbs 5909 (holotype: BM; isotypes: K, L).

Coleus rehneltianus A.Berger, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54 (5, Beibl. 120): 197. 1917. Type: not seen.

Coleus hybridus Cobeau, Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 4: 35. 1928. Type: not seen.

Distribution

Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to N. Australia. Widely cultivated as an ornamental.

Coleus seretii De Wild., Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 19: 122. 1920

Calchas seretii (De Wild.) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999.

Plectranthus seretii (De Wild.) Vollesen, Opera Bot. 59: 84. 1980. Type: DRC, Buta to Bima (Bali), Seret 68 (syntype: BR) & Suronga Forest, Seret 420 (wrongly cited as 120 in protologue) (syntype: BR; isosyntype: K).

Distribution

Ethiopia, DRC, Tanzania, NW. Madagascar.

Coleus sessilifolius (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus sessilifolius A.J. Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 281. 2013. Type: Zimbabwe, Mutare Dist., Himalaya Mts, 5 Mar.1954, Wild 4505 (holotype: K; isotypes: LISC, MO, SRGH).

Distribution

Zimbabwe, Mozambique.

Coleus shirensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 216. 1894

Solenostemon shirensis (Gürke) Codd, Bothalia 11: 440. 1975.

Calchas shirensis (Gürke) P.V.Heath, Calyx 6: 51. 1999.

Plectranthus shirensis (Gürke) A.J.Paton, SABONET Rep. Ser. 31: 189. 2005. Type: Malawi, 1891, Buchanan 376 (lectotype: K; isolectotype: E, designated by Mathew (1976)).

Coleus punctatus Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 291. 1895. Type: Zambia, Mweru Plateau, W of Lake Tanganyika, 1894, Carson 25 (holotype: K).

Solenostemon zambesiacus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 421. 1900. Types: Malawi, Blantyre, 1887, Last s.n. (syntype: K); ?Mozambique, “Zambesia”, between Shibisa and Tshinmuzo, Nov.1859, Kirk s.n. (syntype: K).

Distribution

SW. & S. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus shoolamudianus (Sunil & Naveen Kum.) Smitha & A.J. Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus shoolamudianus Sunil & Naveen Kum. Webbia 70(2): 217. 2015. Type: India, Ernakulam District, Edamalayar Forest Range, Shoolamudi, Sunil & Naveen Kumar 6918 (holotype: MH; isotype CALI).

Coleus sigmoideus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus sigmoideus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 333. 2009. Type: Zambia, track opposite turning to Mbala (Abercorn) Club, Richards 4353 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus socotranus (A.R.Sm.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus socotranus A.R.Sm., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 37: t. 3692. 1971. Type: Socotra, Adhoh de Melhoh, Hagghiher Mts, 22 Apr. 1967, Smith & Lavranos 499 (holotype: K; isotype FI).

Distribution

Socotra.

Coleus sparsiflorus Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7: 2699 1915

Plectranthus sparsiflorus (Elmer) H.Keng, Fl. Males. 8: 391. 1978. Type: Philippines, Mindanao, Mt. Apo, Sept. 1912, A.D.E.Elmer 11646 (isotypes: G, L).

Distribution

Philippines.

Coleus magnificus P.I.Forst. & A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Plectranthus spectabilis S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 50. 1971, non Coleus spectabilis Miq. Type: Australia, Queensland, Macalister Range near Hartley Creek C NW of Cairns (Cultivated at The Gap), Apr. 1959, S.T.Blake 20535 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus sphaerocephalus (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys sphaerocephala Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1898: 162. 1898. Type: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, 1800–2100 m, Whyte 139 (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys whytei Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 383. 1900. Type: Malawi, Chitipa (Fort Hill), Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys perkinsii E.A.Bruce, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1939: 587. 1940.

Pycnostachys kaessneri Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 73. 1921., nom. illeg. Type: DRC, Katanga, Muhila (Mugila) Mts, western slope, Kassner 2991a (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: BR, K).

Distribution

Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus splendens (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus splendens P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 9(2): 211. 2014. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, Hann Tableland National Park, 8 April 2013, P.I.Forster PIF39587 (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus splendidus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 122. 1909

Coleus splendidus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 122. 1909. Type: Guinea, Timbo, 16 September 1907, A. Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus djalonensis A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 123. 1909. Type: Guinea, between Kouria and Bouroukountou, 12 Sept. 1907, A. Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus peulhorum var. violacea A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 124. 1909. Type: Guinea: Fouta Djallon, entre Diaguissa et Boulwel, Chevalier 18606bis (holotype: P; isotype: P).

Distribution

Guinea.

Coleus stachyoides (Oliv.) E.A.Bruce, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1934: 306. 1934

Plectranthus stachyoides Oliv., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 136. 1875. Type: Uganda, West Nile District: Madi, Grant 732 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus cylindrostachys Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 356. 1928. Type: Burundi, Irubura, Akanguru valley, Robyns 2403 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

Central African Rep. to E. Trop. Africa.

Coleus steenisii (H.Keng) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus steenisii H.Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 145. 1969. Type: Java, res. Pasoeroean, G. Ardjoeno, rd bet. Sawahan Bakal and Sawaham Ardjoeno, 5 June 1935, van Steenis 7111 (holotype: L).

Distribution

E. Java.

Coleus stenostachys (Baker) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys stenostachys Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 380. 1900. Type: Uganda, Bunyoro District: sides of Nile, 1862, Grant in Speke & Grant s.n. (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys coerulea Hook., Exot. Fl. 3: t. 202. 1826, non Coleus coeruleus Gürke. Type: cultivated from seeds sent from Madagascar, collected by Bojer & Helsinger (holotype: K; isotype: M).

Pycnostachys micrantha Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345. 1895, non Coleus micranthus Maxim. Types: Tanzania, Bukoba District: Karagwe, Stuhlmann 1720 & Mpororo, Stuhlmann 2056 & Bukoba, Stuhlmann 3276, 3718 & 3953 (syntypes: B, destroyed).

Pycnostachys brevipetiolata De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 4: 394. 1928. Type: DRC, Kivu, Rutshuru R., Kaisafu, Bequaert 5972 (holotype: BR).

Distribution

Ethiopia to South Africa, Madagascar.

Coleus strictipes (G.Taylor) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus strictipes (G.Taylor) A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 234. 2013.

Holostylon strictipes G.Taylor in J. Bot. 69, suppl.2: 161. 1931. Types: Angola, Cahaingalamush near Mulanje, 1903, Gossweiler 1038 (syntype: BM, K, P); Gola Luige, Malanje, Nov. 1922, Gossweiler 8848 (syntype: BM, K).

Distribution

Angola.

Coleus strobilifer (Roxb.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 5E

Plectranthus strobilifer Roxb., Hort. Bengal.: 45. 1814. Type: Katu-Kurka, Illustration in Rheede, Hort. Malab. 10: 179., t.90. 1690, (lectotype: illustration, designated by Suddee and Paton 2009).

Lavandula carnosa L.f., suppl. Pl.: 273. 1782 non Coleus carnosus Hassk.

Plectranthus carnosus (L.f.) Sm. in A.Rees, Cycl. 27: n.° 7. 1814.

Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) ex Benth., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 15: t. 1300. 1830. Type: India, Koenig s.n., Linnean Herbarium 727.7 (lectotype LINN).

Plectranthus dubius Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 691. 1825., nom. illeg.

Anisochilus carnosus var. purpurascens Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 18. 1830. Type: Burma, inm onte Taong Dong Ava, 24 Nov. 1826, Wall. Cat. 2753A (lectotype: K (K000674685); isolectotypes G-DC, K-W (K001117024); designated by Suddee & Paton (2009)).

Anisochilus glaber Schrad., Index Seminum (GOET) 1833: 1. 1833.

Anisochilus carnosus var. glaber (Schrad.) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 711. 1835. Type: India, W Himalaya, to 2400 m, Edgworth 14 (neotype: K(K000674684), designated by Suddee et al. (2004)).

Anisochilus carnosus var. villosior Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 81. 1848. Type: Deccan Peninsula. Herb. Wight 2516 (K (K000674688), lectotype designated Suddee and Paton 2009).

Anisochilus carnosus var. viridis Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 81. 1848. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Herb. Wight 2521, (holotype: K (K000674686).

Anisochilus crassus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 81. 1848. Type: Deccan Peninsula, Herb. Wight. 2517 (lectotype: K (K000674682); isolectotype: E; designated Suddee and Paton 2009).

Anisochilus eriocephalus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 81. 1848.

Anisochilus carnosus var. eriocephalus (Benth.) T.Cooke, Fl. Bombay 2: 450. 1908. Type: Deccan Peninsula, Bellary, Herb. Wight 2518 (lectotype: K (K000674676); isolectotypes: E, K (K000674678, K000674677), designated Suddee & Paton (2009)).

Anisochilus decussatus Dalzell & A.Gibson, Bombay Fl.: 206. 1861. Type: India, Concan, on the Highest Ghauts opposite Bombay, Dalzell s.n. (holotype: K).

Anisochilus rupestris Wight ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 627. 1885. Type: India Deccan Peninsula, Herb. Wight 2521, (holotype: K (K000674686).

Distribution

Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.

Coleus stuhlmannii (Gürke) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys stuhlmannii Gürke in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 345. 1895. Type: Tanzania, Bukoba District: Karagwe, Ngaramo, Stuhlmann 1630 (holotype: B, destroyed; K, fragment).

Pycnostachys remotifolia Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1898: 161. 1898. Type: Malawi, Chitipa (Fort Hill), July 1896, Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Pycnostachys bequaertii De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 171. 1921. Type: DRC, Katanga, Shinsenda, Bequaert 425 (lectotype: BR; designated by Bramley in Paton et al. (2009)).

Pycnostachys longifolia De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 172. 1921. Type: DRC, Katanga, Welgelegen, Bequaert 562 (holotype: BR; isotype: K, fragment).

Distribution

Kenya to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus suaveolens (S.T.Blake) P.I.Forst. & T.C.Wilson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus suaveolens S.T.Blake, Contr. Queensland Herb. 9: 30. 1971. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cultivated at The Gap, Brisbane. Grown from transplants collected at Queen Mary’s Falls, by J.A. Gresty, Jan. 1959, S.T.Blake 20506 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

E. Australia.

Coleus subspicatus (Hochst.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6: 658. 1847

Plectranthus subspicatus Hochst., Flora 28: 67. 1845. Type: South Africa, Cape, Uitenhage, Krauss 1112 (syntypes: TUB (TUB008736, TUB008735).

Plectranthus spicatus E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 230. 1838.

Burnatastrum spicatum (E.Mey.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 358. 1897, non Coleus spicatus Benth. Type: South Africa, Cape, Bathurst Division, Glenfilling, 1836, Drège 4731b (lectotype: K; isolectotypes: MO, P, S; designated by Codd (1975)).

Distribution

S. Mozambique to South Africa.

Coleus succulentus Pax, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 39: 646. 1907

Coleus succulentus Pax, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 39: 646. 1907. Types. Ethiopia, Shoa, Schankora, Rosen s.n. (holotype: WRSL, destroyed); neotype: Ethiopia, Zuquala Mt, Ryding & Puff 1657 (neotype: UPS; isoneotype: ETH ; designated by Ryding (2000)).

Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides R.H.Willemse, Kew Bull. 40: 93. 1985. Type: Ethiopia, Debre Libanos, de Wilde 8656 (holotype: WAG).

Distribution

Ethiopia to N. Tanzania, Arabian Peninsula.

Coleus suffruticosus (Wight) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus suffruticosus Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4 (1): t. 1437. 1849. Type: India, Deccan Peninsula, Western Ghats, Nilghiri Hills, western slopes at Sisparah, Ex Herb. Wight Propr, Wight 1437 (holotype: K).

Distribution

India.

Coleus sylvestris (Gürke) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Plectranthus sylvestris Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 205. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Rifinika Hill on Mawenzi, 14 Sept. 1893, Volkens 965 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: BM, G).

Coleus ruwenzoriensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 427. 1900. Types: Uganda, Ruwenzori, Scott Elliot 7556 & 7798 (syntypes: BM).

Plectranthus chiradzulensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 412. 1900. Types: Malawi, Mt Chiradzulu summit, Meller s.n. (syntype: K (K000430788); Mt Mulanje, Whyte s.n. (syntype: K (K000430787).

Coleus ferrugineus Robyns, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 77. 1943.

Plectranthus ferrugineus (Robyns) Troupin & Ayob. in G.M.D.Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 336. 1985., nom. inval. Type: DRC, Karisimbi, Lebrun 5005 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Coleus subulatus Robyns, Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 76. 1943. Type: DRC, Kivu, Tschamugussa, de Witte 1854 (holotype: BR).

Plectranthus bosseri Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 214. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Bosser 17953 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Trop. Africa, Madagascar.

Coleus tenuicaulis Hook.f., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 211. 1864

Fig. 5E

Majana tenuicaulis (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 524. 1891.

Plectranthus tenuicaulis (Hook.f.) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 268. 1962. Type: Cameroon, Mt Cameroon, Dec.1862, Mann 1939 (holotype: K).

Coleus membranaceus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 182. 1894. Type: Angola, Cissacala (Sacalla?) in Cuango (Quango) region, Jan.1881, Mechow 554 (isotype: W).

Coleus montanus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 218. 1894., nom. illeg., non Coleus montanus Hochst. ex Ces.

Plectranthus herbaceus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 179. 1894.

Germanea herbacea (Briq.) Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 861. 1900.

Coleus herbaceus (Briq.) G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (suppl. 2): 158. 1931. Type: Angola, Huíla, Lopolo, Mar. 1879, Welwitsch 5506 (syntypes: BM, G, K).

Plectranthus minimus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 205. 1894. Type: Cameroon, Buea, Preuss 1019 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Coleus cunenensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 443. 1900. Type: Angola, near Rio Cunene, Sept. 1883, Johnston s.n. (holotype: K).

Germanea andongensis Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 862. 1900.

Plectranthus andongensis (Hiern) K.Schum., Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 28(1): 486. 1902.

Coleus andongensis (Hiern) G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (suppl. 2): 158. 1931. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, 1856–57, Welwitsch 5543 (holotype: LISU, isotype: BM).

Germanea concinna Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 861. 1900.

Plectranthus concinnus (Hiern) K.Schum., Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 28(1): 486. 1902. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, Mata de Pungo, Apr. 1857, Welwitsch 5533 (holotype: LISU; isotype: K).

Germanea concinna var. albiflora Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 862. 1900. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, between Luxilo and Cazela, May 1857, Welwitsch 5586 (holotype: LISU; isotypes: BM, G).

Germanea concinna var. caerulea Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 862. 1900. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, Nov. 1856, Welwitsch 5521 (holotype: LISU; isotype: BM).

Coleus peulhorum A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 123. 1909.

Plectranthus peulhorum (A.Chev.) J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 268. 1962. Type: Guinea, Fouta Djalon, 13 Sept. 1907, Chevalier s.n. (holotype: P).

Coleus drymophilus G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69 (Suppl. 2): 160. 1931. Type: Angola, Cassuango, Cuiriri, n.d., Gossweiler 4056 (holotype: BM; isotype: K).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to Cameroon, SW. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus tetradenifolius (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus tetradenifolius A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 304. 2009. Type: Uganda, Karamoja District: Mt Moroto, Tweedie 2665 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Cameroon, S. Sudan to E. Trop. Africa.

Coleus tetragonus (Gürke) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929

Plectranthus tetragonus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 209. 1894.

Englerastrum tetragonum (Gürke) T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 73. 1924. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambara Mts, Mashewa (Mascheua), Holst 3573 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: K, W, Z).

Plectranthus melanocarpus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 210. 1894.

Englerastrum melanocarpum (Gürke) T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 71. 1924.

Coleus melanocarpus (Gürke) Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 106. 1929. Type: Tanzania, Masai steppe, Fischer 511 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: K, fragment).

Plectranthus biflorus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 402. 1900.

Englerastrum biflorum (Baker) T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 73. 1924. Type: Malawi, between Khondowe and Karonga, Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus dekindtianus De Wild., Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., sér. 4, 2: 135. 1913. Type: DRC, Bugege, Hock s.n. (holotype: BR).

Distribution

Kenya to South Africa.

Coleus thalassoscopicus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus thalassoscopicus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4: 653. 1997. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District, North Bell Peak, Malbon Thompson Range, 12 Nov. 1995, P.I. Forster PIF18048, R.L. Jago & R. Jensen (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, K, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland (Cook).

Coleus thyrsoideus Baker, Bot. Mag. 125: t. 7672 1899

Plectranthus thyrsoideus (Baker) B.Mathew, Kew Bull. 31: 174. 1976. Type: Plant cultivated at Kew 3 Jan.1899; seed from herbarium specimen from N of Lake Malawi collected by Whyte (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus togoensis (Perkins) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys togoensis Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 69. 1921. Type: Benin (Togo), between Kete and the Volta, Jan. 1895, Baumann 404 (B, holotype, destroyed; K, fragment).

Pycnostachys schweinfurthii Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 191. 1894, non Coleus schweinfurthii Vatke. Type: Sudan, Equatoria, Dokuto (Dukuttu), Schweinfurth 2770 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: K).

Distribution

W. Trop. Africa to Tanzania.

Coleus tomentifolius (Suddee) Suddee, comb. nov.

Plectranthus tomentifolius Suddee, Kew Bull. 59: 393. 2004. Type: Thailand, Takua Thung, Nov. 1896, Curtis s.n. (holotype: SING).

Distribution

Peninsula Thailand.

Coleus torrenticola (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus torrenticola P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 3: 729. 1992. Type: Australia, Moreton District, Pooles Dam, Cooloolabin, State Forest Drive, 20 Feb. 1991, P.I. Forster PIF7797 & P.R. Sharpe (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CANB, K, MEL, NSW).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus triangularis (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus triangularis A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 313. 2009. Type: Kenya, Taita District: Ngangao Forest, Luke et al. 5497 (holotype: K; isotype: EA).

Distribution

SE. Kenya to E. Tanzania.

Coleus trullatus (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus trullatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 315. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Iringa District: Udzungwa Mts, Sanje path above loggers’ camp, Bridson 641 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Tanzania.

Coleus umbrosus Vatke, Linnaea 43: 91. 1881

Pycnostachys umbrosa (Vatke) Perkins, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 8: 77. 1921. Type: Kenya, Teita District: Ndara, Hildebrandt 2424 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Coleus tricholobus Gürke, Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1894: 62. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Mlalo, Holst 455 (holotype: B, destroyed; K, fragment).

Distribution

Kenya to N. Tanzania.

Coleus unguentarius (Codd) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus unguentarius Codd, Bothalia 11: 387. 1975. Type: Namibia, Kaokoveld, 17 km S. of Kaoko Otavi on road to Sesfontein, 21 April 1957, De Winter & Leistner 5595 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

Namibia.

Coleus urticifolius Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 78. 1848

Plectranthus urticifolius (Benth.) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 622. 1885., nom. illeg.

Plectranthus beddomei Raizada, Indian Forester 84: 503. 1958. Type: India, Courtallum, R.Wight 622 (holotype: K (K000820175); isotype: K(K000820174)).

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus velutinus (Trimen) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Anisochilus velutinus Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 377. 1895. Type: Sri Lanka, Gunner’s Quoin, in the Batticaloa Distr, CP 3573 (holotype: PDA; isotypes: BM, K).

Anisochilus suffruticosus sensu Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 238. 1860., non Anisochilus suffruticosus Wight; non Coleus suffrutescens (Wight) A.J.Paton.

Distribution

Sri Lanka.

Coleus venteri (van Jaarsv. & L.Hankey) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus venteri van Jaarsv. & L.Hankey, Aloe 34: 40. 1997. Type: South Africa, Northern Prov., Tzaneen, Geeneinde, Schoonoord, Sekekuneland, Venter 13626 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

S. Zimbabwe to Limpopo (Leolo Mts.).

Coleus ventosus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus ventosus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 9: 435. 2015. Type: Australia, Queensland, Cook District; ex situ cultivation from Melville Peak, Cape Melville National Park, 10 April 2015, H.B.Hines & C.J.Hoskin CM4 (holotype: BRI).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus venustus (P.I.Forst.) P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus venustus P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 8: 401. 2011. Type: Queensland, Cook District, Kennedy Hill Gorge, 21 June 1989, P.I.Forster PIF5388 & M.C.Tucker (holotype: BRI; isotypes: CNS, MEL).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus verticillatus (Baker) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Pycnostachys verticillata Baker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 71. 1895. Type: Zambia, Northern Province, Fwambo, Carson 38 (holotype: K).

Distribution

W. Tanzania to Zambia.

Coleus vettiveroides K.C.Jacob, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 42: 320. 1941

Plectranthus vettiveroides (K.C.Jacob) N.P.Singh & B.D.Sharma, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 79: 712. 1982. publ. 1983. Type: India, Coimbatore, Madras Herbarium No. 85676. (holotype: MH).

Coleus osmirrhizon Elliot, Fl. Andhrica: 105. 1859. nom. inval.

Distribution

S. India.

Coleus veyretiae (Guillaumet & A.Cornet) A.J.Paton & Phillipson, comb. nov.

Solenostemon veyretiae Guillaumet & A.Cornet, Adansonia, n.s., 15: 526. 1976.

Plectranthus veyretiae (Guillaumet & A.Cornet) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 226. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Mahajanga, Sofia, Veyret 1154 (holotype: P; isotypes: K, TAN).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Coleus villosus (Forssk.) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Ocimum villosum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: cxv, 369. 1775.

Ocimum β zatarhendi Forssk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 110. 1775.

Plectranthus villosus (Forssk.) C, Chr.,, Dansk Bot. Arkiv. 4, 21. 1922, nom. illeg., non P. villosus Sieber ex Benth.

Plectranthus arabicus E.A.Bruce, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1935: 324. 1935., non Coleus arabicus Benth. Type: Yemen, between Dorebat and Taaes (Taiz), Forsskal (holotype C, destroyed). Neotype: Saudi Arabia, Wolledje, Gebel Melhan Schweinfurth 690 (neotype: K; isoneotype: BM, P; designated by Wood (1983)).

Distribution

SW. Arabian Peninsula.

Coleus wallamanensis (T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst.) T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst., comb. nov.

Plectranthus wallamanensis T.C.Wilson & P.I.Forst. Australian Systematic Botany, 31: 443. 2018. Type: Australia, Queensland:,North Kennedy District, Girringun National Park, rock fall at the base of Wallaman Falls, 9 May 2014, T.C.Wilson 521 & M.A.M.Renner (holotype: NSW 852570; isotypes: BRI, CANB).

Distribution

Australia: Queensland.

Coleus welwitschii Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 185. 1895

Coleus welwitschii Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 185. 1895. Type. Angola, Welwitsch 5589 (isosyntypes: BM, K) & Angola, Pungo Andongo, Mechow 75 (not seen).

Coleus marquesii Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 239. 1898. Type: Angola, Cuango and Cuillo, Marques 191 (holotype: G).

Coleus dupuisii Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 37: 70. 1899.

Plectranthus dupuisii (Briq.) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 329. 2009. Type: DRC, Kasai, Mayumbe, Dupuis s.n. (holotype: BR).

Coleus eetveldeanus Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 37: 73. 1899. Type: Congo, Lake Tanganyika, Mtowa, Deschamps s.n. (holotype: BR).

Coleus betonicoides Baker ex Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 866. 1900.

Calchas betonicoides (Baker ex Hiern) P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160. 1997. Type: Angola, Huila, Lopollo, Ferrão da Sola, Welwitsch 5612 (holotype: LISU; isotypes: BM, G, K).

Plectranthus microphyllus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 410. 1900., nom. illeg.

Plectranthus porpeodon Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 525. 1900.

Solenostemon porpeodon (Baker) J.K.Morton, Novon 8: 266. 1998. Type: Tanzania, Tanga District: Magila, Kirk s.n. (holotype: K).

Coleus newtonii Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 826. 1906. Type: Angola, Mossamedes, Huila, Newton 105 (holotype: Z).

Coleus delpierrei De Wild., Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 19: 119. 1920. Types: DRC, Vankerkhovenville, Delpierre s.n. (syntype: BR) & Niangara, Delpierre s.n. (syntype: BR).

Coleus laurentii De Wild., Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 19: 121. 1920. Type: DRC, Gombe, E. & M. Laurent s.n. (holotype: BR).

Coleus thyrsiflorus Lebrun & L.Touss. in J.-P.A.Lebrun, Expl. Parc Nat. Kagera 1: 120. 1948.

Solenostemon thyrsiflorus (Lebrun & L.Touss.) Vollesen, Opera Bot. 59: 85. 1980. Type: DRC, Kagera, Nyakayaga, Lebrun 9447 (holotype: BR; isotype: K).

Distribution

Ethiopia to S. Trop. Africa.

Coleus xanthanthus C.Y.Wu & Y.C.Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 241. 1965

Coleus xanthanthus C.Y.Wu & Y.C.Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 241. 1965. Type: China, Yunnan, Mon-lun, 15 Sept. 1959, S.K.Pei (holotype: HK).

Distribution

China: Yunnan.

Coleus xerophilus (Codd) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus xerophilus Codd, Bothalia 11: 282. 1974. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Lydenburg, district, near Marone, Codd & Dyer 7729 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Afica: Northern Prov.

Coleus xylopodus (Lukhoba & A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus xylopodus Lukhoba & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 55: 960. 2000. Type: Kenya, Trans-Nzoia District: S Cherangani, Symes 293 (holotype: EA; isotype: K).

Ocimum cinereum R.Br. in H.Salt, Voy. Abyss.: 64. 1814., nom. nud.

Distribution

S. Ethiopia to Uganda.

Coleus yemenensis A.J.Paton, nom. nov.

Plectranthus ovatus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 709 1835., non Coleus ovatus Benth.

Ocimum gratissimum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 110. 1775., nom. illeg. Type: Yemen, July 1763, Forsskal 350 (holotype: C).

Distribution

Arabian Peninsula.

Coleus zombensis (Baker) Mwany., comb. nov.

Plectranthus zombensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 402. 1900. Type: Malawi, summit of Mt Zomba, 1881, Buchanan 395 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus lastii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 403. 1900. Type: Malawi, near Blantyre, Jan. 1887, Last s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Malawi.

Genus Equilabium

Equilabium Mwany., A.J. Paton & Culham, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 188(4): 367. 2018

Figs 6, 7

Type species

Equilabium laxiflorum (Benth.) Mwany., A.J.Paton & Culham.

Description

Annual or perennial herbs or soft wooded shrubs, rarely woody shrubs, sometimes with a persistent woody or fleshy rootstock. Leaves opposite. Inflorescence thrysoid, usually lax; cymes sessile or pedunculate, 1–3(–5, very rarely –7); bracts subtending cymes persistent. Flowers pedicelate. Calyx funnel-shaped, straight with pedicel attaching symmetrically at the calyx base, not opposite posterior lip, two-lipped; throat glabrous within, open; posterior lip 1-lobed, usually broader than anterior lobes, shortly decurrent on tube or not; anterior lip 4-lobed; lobes triangular or lancolate; lateral lobes broader or equal to median lobes and held midway between the posterior lobe and the median lobes of the anterior lip; median lobes triangular to lanceolate. Corolla two-lipped with lips equal in length; tube sigmoid, sometimes strongly so, narrow and parallel-sided at base and expanding towards throat; posterior lip 4-lobed erect or ascending; anterior lobe horizontal, cucullate, sometimes frilled at apex. Stamens 4; filaments not fused together, held within the anterior lip. Style bifid with lobes subulate. Nutlets ovoid.

Figure 6. 

Species of Equilabium 1. A Equilabium dolomiticum (Photo: Neil Crouch) B E. dissectum var. dissectum (Photo: Montfort Mwanyambo) C E. gracilum (Photo: Bart Wursten) D E. laxiflorum (Photo: Bart Wursten).

Figure 7. 

Species of Equilabium 2. A Equilabium laxiflorum (Photo: Bart Wursten) B E. petiolare (Photo: Neil Crouch) C E. subincisum (Photo: K. Smitha) D E. stenophyllum (Photo: Bart Wursten).

42 species mainly in Tropical Africa but including two in India.

Equilabium acaule (Brummitt & Seyani) Mwany., Culham & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus acaulis Brummitt & Seyani, Kew Bull. 42: 695. 1987. Type: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, 8. Dec. 1965, Banda 760 (holotype: K; isotype: MAL).

Distribution

Malawi to Zambia (Nyika Plateau).

Equilabium agnewii (Lukhoba & A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus agnewii Lukhoba & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 55: 957. 2000. Type: Kenya, Nakuru National Park, W of Lake, Gillett 20847 (holotype: EA; isotype: K).

Distribution

E. Tropical Africa.

Equilabium annuum (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus annuus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 270. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Masasi District: Ndanda Mission, Bidgood, Abdallah & Vollesen 2077 (holotype: K (sheet 2); isotypes: BR, C, DSM, EA, K (sheet 1), NHT).

Distribution

S. Tanzania to Mozambique.

Equilabium caespitosum (Lukhoba & A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus caespitosus Lukhoba & A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 58: 910. 2003, publ. 2004. Type: Kenya, E Mt Elgon, Irwin 286 (holotype: EA; isotype: K).

Distribution

Kenya to N. Tanzania.

Equilabium candelabriforme (Launert) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus candelabriformis Launert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 7: 300. 1968. Type: Namibia, 16 km E of Runtu, 7 Mar. 1958, Merxmüller & Giess 1912 (holotype: M).

Distribution

Tanzania to N. Namibia.

Equilabium cinereum (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus cinereus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 247. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Mbulu District: Lake Manyara National Park, Ndala R., Greenway & Kanuri 11151 (holotype: K; isotype: EA).

Distribution

Kenya to Tanzania.

Equilabium dissectum (Brenan) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus dissectus Brenan, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 42. 1954. Type: Malawi, Zomba Plateau, 31 May 1946, Brass 16124 (holotype: K; isotypes: MO, PRE).

Distribution

S. Malawi.

Equilabium dissectum var. dissectum

Fig. 6B

Plectranthus dissectus Brenan var. dissectus A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 224. 2013.

Equilabium dissectum var. chambense (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J. Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus dissectus Brenan var. chambensis A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 224. 2013. Type: Malawi, Mulanje, Chambe basin, 4 May1989, Goyder, Pope & Radcliffe-Smith 3205 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Malawi.

Equilabium dolomiticum (Codd) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 6A

Plectranthus dolomiticus Codd, Bothalia 15: 142. 1984. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Farm Ostend, 7 km NW of Penge Mine, 10 Dec. 1982, Van Jaarsveld 7052 (holotype, PRE).

Distribution

Zimbabwe to Limpopo.

Equilabium equisetiforme (E.A.Bruce) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Coleus equisetiformis E.A. Bruce in Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1935: 285. 1935.

Plectranthus equisetiformis (E.A. Bruce) Launert in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 7: 299. 1968. Type: Tanzania, Mpwapwa, Kiboriani Mts, 19 Apr. 1932, Burtt 3892 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Tanzania to N. Zambia.

Equilabium flaccidum (Vatke) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Coleus flaccidus Vatke in Linnaea 43: 9. 1881.

Plectranthus flaccidus (Vatke) Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 206. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Bagamoyo District: Ruvu [Kingani] R., Hildebrandt 1264 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: K).

Plectranthus fragilis Baker in Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 407. 1900. Type: Zanzibar, Kirk s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Somalia to Mozambique, Comoros.

Equilabium glandulosum (Hook. f.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus glandulosus Hook.f., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 6: 17. 1862. Type: Bioko [Fernando Po], Clarence Peak, Mann 318 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus hylophilus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 283. 1894. Type: Cameroon, Mann’s Spring, Preuss 815 (holotype B, destroyed; isotype: K).

Plectranthus laxiflorus var. genuinus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 180. 1894., nom. inval.

Germanea laxiflora var. genuina (Briq.) Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 861. 1900., nom. inval. Based on: Angola, Pungo Andongo, Welwitsch 5545 (BM, COI, K, PRE).

Plectranthus phryxotrichus Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 37: 66. 1899. Type: Congo-Kinshasa, Dewèvre 862 a (holotype: BR).

Plectranthus urticoides Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 412. 1900. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, Welwitsch 5545 (holotype: LISU; isotype: K).

Plectranthus almamii A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 120. 1909. Type: Guinea, Conakry, Diagussa, around Diagussa and Dalaba, Oct. 1907, A.Chevalier 18609 (holotype: P; isotype: P).

Distribution

Widespread in Trop. Africa.

Equilabium goetzei (Gürke) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus goetzei Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 469. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Iringa Dist., Rungemba, Mar. 1899, Goetze 724 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: BM).

Plectranthus salubenii Brummitt & Seyani, Kew Bull. 42: 690. 1987. Type: Malawi, Katumbi Escarpment, 41.5 km N of Rumphi, 26 Dec. 1970, Pawek 4155 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to Zambia.

Equilabium gracile (Suess.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 6E

Plectranthus gracilis Suess., Trans. Rhodesia Sci. Assoc. 43: 52. 1951. Type: Zimbabwe, Marondera (Marandellas), 26 Feb. 1943, Dehn 748 (holotype: M).

Plectranthus zernyi Gilli, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 39. 1973. Type: Tanzania, Matengo Highlands, WSW from Songea, Ugano, 2 Mar. 1936, Zerny 483 (holotype: W; isotype: K).

Plectranthus seyanii A.J.Paton & Brummitt, Kew Bull. 46: 523. 1991. Type: Malawi, Shire Valley, 16 km W of Zomba, 12 Mar. 1977, Brummitt & Patel 14821 (holotype: K; isotypes: MAL, SRGH, WAG).

Distribution

S. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Equilabium intrusum (Briq.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus intrusus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 834. 1901. Type: DRC, N’Dembo, ann. 1898, J.Gillet s.n. (holotype: BR).

Distribution

DRC.

Equilabium janthinothryx (Lebrun & L. Touss) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus janthinothryx Lebrun & L.Touss., Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 17: 69. 1943. Type: DRC, Rwindi, Lebrun 7930 (holotype: BR, isotype: K).

Distribution

DRC and Uganda.

Equilabium jebel-marrae (Wickens & B.Mathew) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus jebel-marrae Wickens & B.Mathew, Kew Bull. 25: 255. 1971. Type: Sudan, Darfur Province: Kulme, Sept. 1921. Lynes 589 (holotype: BM).

Distribution

Sudan.

Equilabium kamerunense (Gürke) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus kamerunensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 202. 1894. Type: Cameroon, West Buea, Preuss 1039 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus mannii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 408. 1900. Type: Cameroon, Mt Cameroon, Mann 1947 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus keniensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 1901: 264. 1901. Type: Kenya, Mt Kenya, Mackinder s.n. (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus sangerawensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 134. 1905. Types: Tanzania, E Usambara Mts, Sangerawe, Mongu, Engler 872 & Amani, Warnecke in Herb. Amani 481 (syntypes: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus aberdaricus T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 27. 1930. Type: Kenya, Aberdares, R.E. & T.C.E. Fries 2784 (isotype: BM).

Plectranthus sangerawensis var. glabrior T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 25. 1930. Types: Kenya, W Mt Kenya, R.E. & T.C.E. Fries 514, 518, 843 & Aberdares, R.E. & T.C.E. Fries 2443a (syntypes: UPS; isosyntype of 518: K).

Plectranthus vicinus T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 27. 1930. Type: Kenya, Meru, R.E. & T.C.E. Fries 1580 (isotypes: K, MO).

Distribution

Nigeria to Cameroon, E. Trop. Africa.

Equilabium laxiflorum (Benth.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 188(4): 367. 2018

Figs 6D, 7A

Plectranthus laxiflorus Benth. in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 228. 1838.

Germanea laxiflora (Benth.) Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 861. 1900.

Coleus laxiflorus (Benth.) Roberty, Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 16: 331. 1954. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, between Umzimkulu and Umkomaas Rivers, Drège 3586 (lectotype: K; designated by Codd (1975)).

Plectranthus albus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 202. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Moshi District: Marangu, Volkens 744 (holotype: B, destroyed, isotype: BM).

Plectranthus violaceus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 201. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambara Mts, near Lutindi, Holst 3317 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotypes: K, W).

Plectranthus johnstonii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 411. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, H.H. Johnston 69 (holotype: K).

Plectranthus kondowensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 417. 1900. Type: Malawi, between Khondowe and Karonga, 1896, Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus triflorus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 417. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Thomson s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus neumannii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 131. 1905. Types: Ethiopia, Gofa, Neumann 168 & 179 (syntype: B, destroyed); neotype: Ethiopia, Gamo Gofa, Busa Forest, near Gidole. Ryding et al. 1630 (neotype: UPS; isoneotype: ETH designated by Ryding (2000)).

Plectranthus lilacinus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 315. 1908. Types: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Engler 1797 (syntype: B, destroyed) & Moshi, Uhlig 137 (isosyntype: EA).

Coleus keniensis Standl., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 68(5): 14. 1917. Type: Kenya, W of Mt Kenya, Mearns 1334 (holotype: US; isotype: BM).

Plectranthus fraternus T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 26. 1930. Type: Kenya W Mt Kenya, between Cole’s Mill and Forest Station, R.E. & T.C.E. Fries 911 (lectotype UPS; isolectotype K, MO; designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Distribution

Ethiopia to South Africa.

Equilabium longipes (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus longipes Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 406. 1900. Type: Eritrea, Ghinda, Schweinfurth 178 (holotype: K, isotype: G).

Plectranthus amaniensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 134. 1905. Types: Tanzania, Lushoto District: E Usambara Mts, between Amani & Kwambugo, Engler 783 & same vicinity, Warnecke in Herb. Amani 413a (syntypes: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus ellenbeckii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 132. 1905. Types: Ethiopia, Gallaland, Belana, Ellenbeck 334 (holotype: B, destroyed); neotype: Ethiopia, Harerge Region, Awalla Valley, Jansen 1952 (neotype: WAG, designated by Ryding (2000)).

Plectranthus panganensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 314. 1908. Type: Kenya, Kwale District: Samburu, Kassner 483 (lectotype: BM, designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Plectranthus emanueli Buscal. & Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 484. 1913. Types: Kenya, Guaso Nyiro valley, but probably from elsewhere, von Aosta 1558 (holotype: B, destroyed); neotype: Eritrea, Nefasit, Mt Bizen, Ryding et al. 2034 (neotype: UPS; isoneotype: ASMU, ETH, designated by Ryding (2001)).

Plectranthus buraensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 54: 290. 1916. Type: Kenya, Teita District: Bura, A. Buchanan s.n. (holotype: BM).

Distribution

Eritrea to Rwanda and Tanzania.

Equilabium mafiense (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus mafiensis A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 267. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Mafia I., Kikutani, Greenway 5218 (holotype: EA; isotype: K).

Distribution

Tanzania (Mafia I.).

Equlabium masukense (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus masukensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 405. 1900. Type: Malawi, Masuku (Masuka) Plateau, Whyte 299 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Kenya to N. Zambia.

Equilabium masukense (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton var. masukense.

Orthosiphon nyasicus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 373. 1900.

Plectranthus nyasicus (Baker) M.R.Ashby, J. Bot. 76: 47. 1938. Type: Malawi, “north Nyassa”, 1896, Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus brevipes Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 406. 1900. Type: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, Whyte s.n. (lectotype: K (K000430762), designated by Paton et al. (2009)).

Distriution

Kenya to N. Zambia.

Equilabium masukense (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton var. dissectum (A.J.Paton) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus masukensis var. dissectus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 264. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Ufipa District: Sumbawanga, Tatanda Mission, Bidgood, Mbago & Vollesen 2383 (holotype: K; isotype: DSM).

Distribution

W. Tanzania.

Equilabium megafolium (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus megafolius A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 217. 2013.

Plectranthus macrophyllus A.J.Paton, nom. illegit. in F.T.E.A., Lamiaceae: 262. 2009, non Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14: 835, 1826. Type: Tanzania, Pare Dist., Mkomazi Game Reserve, 6 km on Kisiwani–Mnazi road, Abdallah & Vollesen 95/181 (holotype: K; isotypes: C, NHT, P).

Equilabium molle (Aiton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Ocimum molle Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2: 322. 1789.

Plectranthus mollis (Aiton) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690. 1825.

Plectranthus secundus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3: 20. 1832. Nom. superfl. based on Ocimum molle Aiton. Type: Cultivated, native of the East Indies. Introduced by Sir Joseph Banks in 1781 (holotype: BM).

Ocimum maypurense Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 271. 1821.

Plectranthus maypurensis (Roth) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 691. 1825. Type: India, Heyne s.n. in Wall. Cat. 2736C (holotype B, destroyed; isotypes: K(K000820180), K-W (K001116983)).

Plectranthus incanus Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 120. 1822. Type: Cultivated, (B, destroyed).

Plectranthus divaricatus Weinm., Syll. Pl. Nov. 1: 68. 1824. Type: Cultivated (not seen).

Ocimum cordifolium Hamilton in D.Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 116. 1825. nom inval.

Plectranthus cordifolius Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 116. 1825. Type: Nepal, Wall. Cat. 2736A (holotype: not at BM; neotype: K (K001116984), isoneotype: K (K000820186); K-W (K001116982) designated by Suddee et al. (2004)).

Distribution

Indian Subcontinent to N. Myanmar.

Equilabium orbiculare (Gürke) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus orbicularis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 203. 1894. Types: Tanzania, Usambara Mts, Upanga swamp, Holst 4159 (syntype: B, destroyed) & Zanzibar, Stuhlmann 826 (syntype: B, destroyed; isosyntype: HBG).

Plectranthus sphaerophyllus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 410. 1900. Types: Tanzania, Uzaramo District: Dar es Salaam, Kirk s.n. (syntype: K) & Zanzibar, Kirk s.n. (syntype: K).

Distribution

E. Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar, Pemba).

Equilabium parvum (Oliv.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus parvus Oliv., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 2: 347. 1887. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, H.H. Johnston s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

Uganda to N. Zambia.

Equilabium pauciflorum (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus pauciflorus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 405. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Shinyanga District: Msalala [Misilala], Hannington s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus ugandensis S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 200. 1903. Type: Uganda, Kigezi District: Rukiga [Ruchigga], Bagshawe 532 (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus auriculatus Robyns & Lebrun, Rev. Zool. Bot. Africaines 16: 353. 1928. Type: DRC, Kivu, Saké, Katouzi, Robyns 2486 (holotype: BR, isotype: K).

Distribution

DRC, East Africa, Zambia.

Equilabium petiolare (Benth.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 7B

Plectranthus petiolaris Benth. in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 228. 1838. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape, between Umtata and Umzimvubu Rivers, 1836, Drège 4773b (K lectotype), lectotypified by Codd (1975).

Plectranthus kuntzei Gürke in C.E.O.Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2): 260. 1898. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Clairmont, 18 Oct. 1913, Kuntze s.n. (holotype: NY; isotype: K).

Distribution

S. Mozambique to South Africa.

Equilabium pinetorum (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus pinetorum A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 224. 2013. Type: Malawi, Mulanje, Sombani basin, 15 Feb. 1992, Goyder & Paton 3660 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Malawi and E. Zimbabwe.

Equilabium pulcherissimum (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus pulcherissimus A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 214. 2013. Type: Zambia, Mwinilunga Dist., Kalene Hill, 5 km N of bridge over Zambezi R. on Kalene Hill–Jimbe Bridge road, 2 Mar.1995, Harder, Zimba, Luwiika & Nawa 2854 (holotype: K; isotype: MO).

Distribution

DRC and Zambia.

Equilabium pubescens (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus pubescens Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 416. 1900. Type: Malawi, Mt Malosa, Nov. 1896, Whyte s.n. (holotype: K).

Plectranthus manganjensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 406. 1900. Types: Malawi, Manganja Highlands, iv.1859, Kirk (syntype: K); Malawi, Mt Zomba, Dec. 1896, Whyte (syntype: K).

Plectranthus nyikensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 416. 1900. Type: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, n.d., Whyte 162 (holotype: K).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to Mozambique.

Equilabium radiatum (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus radiatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 277. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Tunduru District: 13 km NW of Tunduru, Milne-Redhead & Taylor 7842 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Tanzania.

Equilabium rungwense (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus rungwensis A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 252. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe District: NW slope of Mt Rungwe on N slope of Mwashitu Hill, above Sinihi stream, Mwasumbi 16222 (holotype: K; isotypes: DSM, MO).

Distribution

Tanzania (Mt. Rungwe).

Equilabium scopulicola (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus scopulicola A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 259. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: World’s View, 1.5 km W of Gologolo, Drummond & Hemsley 2846 (holotype: K (K000431939); isotypes: BR, EA, K).

Distribution

Tanzania (W. Usambara Mts.).

Equilabium selukwense (N.E.Br.) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus selukwensis N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906: 167. 1906. Type: Zimbabwe, Shurugwi (Selukwe), Nov. 1899, Cecil 123 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Zambia to Zimbabwe.

Equilabium spananthum (A.J.Paton, Friis & Sebsebe) A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus spananthus A.J.Paton, Friis & Sebsebe, Webbia 73(2): 216. 2018. Type: Ethiopia, Somali Regional State, Afder Zone, El Kere Woreda (in Bale floristic province of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea), on road from Imi to El Kere, 10 km N of El Kere, I. Friis et al. 15539 (holotype: ETH; isotypes: C, K).

Distribution

Ethiopia.

Equilabium stenophyllum (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 7D

Plectranthus stenophyllus Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 402. 1900. Type: Malawi, Shire Highlands, near Blantyre, 1887, Last s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Equilabium stenosiphon (Baker) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus stenosiphon Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 415. 1900. Type: Malawi, R. Shire, 1863, Kirk s.n. (lectotype: K designated by Paton et al. (2013)).

Plectranthus albocaeruleus N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1901: 130. 1901. Type: Malawi, Zomba, plant cultivated at Kew raised from seed sent June1898, Mahon s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Malawi to C. Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

Equilabium stoltzii (Gilli) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus stolzii Gilli, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 40. 1973. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe Dist., Kyimbila, 6 Oct. 1911, Stolz 914 (holotype: W; isotypes: B, C, G, K, LD, M, STU, Z).

Distribution

SW. Tanzania to N. Malawi.

Equilabium subincisum (Benth.) Mwany., Smitha & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Fig. 7C

Plectranthus subincisus Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16. 1830. Type: India, Tamil Nadu: Courtallum, 1829, Wallich, Cat. No. 2737 (holotype: K (K000820179); isotype: K-W (K001116985)).

Distribution

S. India, Sri Lanka. Occurrence in Sri Lanka is questionable and it is likely to be extinct there (Cramer 1981).

Equilabium vesiculare (A.J.Paton) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus vesicularis A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 272. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Kilwa Dist., Kilunda, 6.5 km (4 mile), 24 Apr. 1971, Ludanga in MRC 1301 (holotype: K; isotype: EA).

Distribution

Tanzania to N. Mozambique.

Equilabium viphyense (Brummitt & Seyani) Mwany., Culham & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus viphyensis Brummitt & Seyani, Kew Bull. 42: 692. 1987. Type: Malawi, Mzimba Dist., Viphya, 11 Jan. 1970, Pawek 3338 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Equilabium viphyense subsp. viphyense

Distribution

Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.

Equilabium viphyense subsp. zebrarum (Brummitt & Seyani) Mwany. & A.J.Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus zebrarum Brummitt & Seyani, Kew Bull. 42: 694. 1987.

Plectranthus viphyensis subsp. zebrarum (Brummitt & Seyani) A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 276. 2009. Type: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, Chelinda, below No.1 dam, 27 Feb.1982, Brummitt, Polhill & Banda 16140 (holotype: K).

Distribution

E. Zambia to N. Malawi.

Equilabium wollastonii (S.Moore) Mwany. & A.J. Paton, comb. nov.

Plectranthus wollastonii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 38: 272. 1908. Type: Uganda, E Ruwenzori, Wollaston s.n. (holotype: BM).

Distribution

EC. Trop. Africa to S. Kenya.

Genus Plectranthus

Plectranthus L’Hér., Stirp. Nov.: 84, verso 1788, nom. cons.

Figs 8, 9

Germanea Lam., Encycl. 2: 690. 1788. Lectotype species: G. urticifolia Lam. (here placed under Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér.) designated by Heath (2001).

Lectotype species

Plectranthus fruticosus L’ Hér. (typ. cons.).

Description

Perennial, rarely annual herbs or soft-wooded shrubs, sometimes succulent; sometimes with a tuberous base. Leaves opposite. Inflorescence thrysoid, usually lax; cymes sessile, 1–3-flowered; bracts subtending cymes persistent. Flowers pedicelate. Calyx funnel-shaped straight, with pedicel attaching symmetrically at calyx base, not opposite posterior lip, two-lipped; throat glabrous within, open; posterior lip 1-lobed, broader than lobes of anterior lip, shortly decurrent on tube or not; anterior lip 4-lobed; lobes lanceolate; lateral lobes broader at base than medial lobes and held closer to the median lobes than the posterior lip; median lobes usually fused for a greater distance than the lateral and median lobe. Corolla two-lipped with lips equal in length; tube straight or gently curved downwards, often gibbous, saccate or almost spurred a base, more rarely dilating gradually towards throat; posterior lip 4-lobed erect, often becoming reflexed; anterior lip cucullate or concave straight or becoming reflexed. Stamens 4, very rarely only 2 fertile (P. zuluensis); filaments not fused together (anterior stamen and adjacent posterior stamen sometimes fused in P. alboviolaceus), held within the anterior lip or becoming free from it and sometimes coiling downwards away from style after anthesis. Style bifid with lobes subulate. Nutlets ovoid.

Figure 8. 

Species of Plectranthus 1. A Plectranthus ambiguus (Photo: Neil Crouch) B P. brevicaulis (Photo: Jean Bosser) C P. brevimentus (Photo: Neil Crouch) D P. ciliatus (Photo: Neil Crouch) E P. fruticosus (Photo: Neil Crouch) F P. ecklonii (Photo: Neil Crouch).

Figure 9. 

Species of Plectranthus 2. A Plectranthus papilionaceus (Photo: Patrick Ranirison) B P. purpuratus subsp. montanus (Photo: Neil Crouch) C P. saccatus var. longitubus (Photo RBG Kew) D P. vestitus (Photo: Patrice Antilahimena).

72 species in Southern and Tropical Africa and Madagascar and including one in Sri Lanka.

Plectranthus alboviolaceus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 397. 1901

Plectranthus alboviolaceus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 397. 1901. Type: Tanzania, Rungwe District: Kalengalenga Mts, Goetze 1140 (isotype: E).

Plectranthus rhomboideus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 135. 1905. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Engler 1775 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Distribution

Ethiopia to S. Trop. Africa.

Plectranthus ambiguus (Bolus) Codd, Bothalia 8: 159. 1964

Fig. 8A

Orthosiphon ambiguus Bolus, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 394. 1881. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape, near Grahamstown, MacOwen (holotype: BOL; isotype: SAM).

Plectranthus coloratus E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 228. 1838., nom. illeg., non. P. coloratus D.Don.

Plectranthus dregei Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 32: t. 1244. 1957. Type: South Africa, between Umgazana and Umzimvubu rivers, 19 May 1832, Drège a (syntypes: BM, HBG, K (K000430874), MO, P(P00450719, P00450717), S); between Umizimkulu and Umkomass Rivers, 1 May 1832, Drège b (syntype: P(00450718).

Distribution

South Africa: E. Cape Prov. to N. KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus amplexicaulis Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 203. 1998

Plectranthus amplexicaulis Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 203. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Andrambovato, à l’Est de Fianarantsoa, H. Humbert & R.P.R. Capuron 28517 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus antongilicus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 160. 1998

Plectranthus antongilicus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 160. 1998. Type: Madagascar, around Rantabe, baie d’Antongil, Perrier de la Bâthie 10475 (holotype: P; isotypes: MO, TAN).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus asymmetricus A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 207. 2013

Plectranthus asymmetricus A.J.Paton,, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 207. 2013. Type: Zambia, Mbala Dist., Chinakila, Jembele Forest, 13 Jan.1965, Richards 19510 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Zambia.

Plectranthus atroviolaceus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 156. 1998

Plectranthus atroviolaceus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 156. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Haute vallée de la Rienana (bassin du Matitanana). 2e voyage. Humbert 3464 (holotype: P; isotype: E).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus betamponus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 175. 1998

Plectranthus betamponus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 175. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Reserve Integrale #1 Betampona, approximately 3 km N of Fotsimavo, Schatz, Goldblatt, Rakotozafy & Randrianasolo 2682 (holotype: MO; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus bracteolatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 245. 2009

Plectranthus bracteolatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 245. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: Uluguru Mts, Schlieben 4215 (holotype: K; isotypes: K, MO, PRE, SRGH).

Distribution

Tanzania.

Notes

More work is needed to be confident about the generic placement of this species. A preliminary investigation suggests a possible relationship to Isodon or a clade basal to the Ocimeae and Plectranthinae.

Plectranthus brevicaulis (Baker) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 154. 1998

Fig. 8B

Orthosiphon brevicaulis Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21: 433. 1885. Type: Madagascar, central, Baron 2656 (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus brevimentus T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 35: 149. 2005

Fig. 8C

Plectranthus brevimentus T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 35: 149. 2005. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape; Lupatana River Gorge; ca 1km from sea, T.J.Edwards, D.G.A. Styles, N.Crouch, N.D.U.Bellstedt, C.J.Potgieter 3210 (holotype: NU).

Distribution

South Africa: Eastern Cape Prov.

Plectranthus canescens Benth ., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 33. 1832

Plectranthus canescens Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 33. 1832. Type: Madagascar, Bojer s.n. (lectotype: K, designated by Hedge et al. (1998); isolectotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus capuronii Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 164. 1998

Plectranthus capuronii Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 164. 1998. Type: Madagascar, montagnes au nord de Mangindrano jusqu’aux sommets d’Ambohimirahavavy, Humbert & Capuron 25183 (holotype: P; isotypes: B, BR, K, MA, MO, NY, TAN, WAG).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus chimanimanensis S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 174. 1911

Plectranthus chimanimanensis S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 174. 1911. Type: Mozambique, Gazaland, 26 Sept. 1906, Swynnerton 2019 (holotype: BM; isotype: K).

Distribution

E. Zimbabwe to W. Mozambique.

Plectranthus ciliatus E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 227. 1838

Fig. 8D

Plectranthus ciliatus E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 227. 1838. Type: South Africa, Natal, Omsamvubo [Umzimvubu] Drège 4777 (lectotype: K (K000430860), designated by Codd (1975)).

Plectranthus natalensis Gürke, Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 552. 1898. Type: South Africa, Natal, Camperdown, Rehmann 7701 (holotype: Z).

Distribution

South Africa and Swaziland.

Plectranthus clementiae Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 168. 1998

Plectranthus clementiae Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 168. 1998. Type: Madagascar:, prov. de Tuléar, près de la réserve intégrale d’Andohahela, parcelle 1, 33km sur la route vers Ranomafana, à partir de la RN 13, Clement, Phillipson & Rafamantanantsoa 2097 (holotype: E; isotypes: MO, P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus cordatus A.J.Paton & Phillipson, nom. nov.

Plectranthus cardiophyllus Hedge, Fl. Madagasc. 175: 172. 1998, nom. illeg., non. P. cardiophyllus Hemsl. Type: Madagascar, Mt Vatovavy, bassin du Mananjary, Perrier de la Bâthie 10441 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus decaryi Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 182. 1998

Plectranthus decaryi Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 182. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Mt Maromizaha, près d’Analamazaotra, Perrier de la Bâthie 16027 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus delicatissimus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 197. 1998

Plectranthus delicatissimus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 197. 1998. Type: Madagascar, prov. d’Antsiranana, réserve spéciale 5, Manongarivo, sud-est d’Ankaramy et à 1–3 km au sud d’Ambalafary, Schatz 3204 (holotype: MO; isotype: E).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus ecklonii Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 64. 1848

Fig. 8F

Plectranthus ecklonii Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 64. 1848. Type: South Africa, Cape, slopes of Katberg, Ecklon s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

South Africa.

Plectranthus elegans Britten, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 36. 1894

Plectranthus elegans Britten, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 36. 1894. Type: Malawi, Mulanje, 1891, Whyte s.n. (holotype: BM).

Plectranthus mahonii (Baker) N.E.Br. ex Hook.f., Bot. Mag. 128: t. 7818. 1902.

Coleus mahonii Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 434. 1900. Type: Cultivated plant, raised from seed sent from Malawi by Mahon 19 Dec.1899 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Malawi.

Plectranthus elegantulus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1005 1903

Germanea elegantula Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1005. 1903. Type: South Africa, Natal, Karkloof, Rehmann 7368 (holotype: Z).

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus ellipticus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 186. 1998

Plectranthus ellipticus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 186. 1998. Type: Madagascar, haute vallée de la Rienana, Hubert 3638 (holotype: P; isotype: E).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus emirnensis (Baker) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 187. 1998

Orthosiphon emirnensis Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21: 433. 1885. Type: Madagascar, centre, Baron 1056 (lectotype: K, designated by Hedge et al. (1998)).

Orthosiphon hildebrandtii Vatke, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereins Bremen 9: 134. 1885. nom. superfl. based on Baron 1506.

Ocimum hildebrandtii (Vatke) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 372. 1897., nom. illeg.

Ocimum siphonanthum Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 121. 1894. Type: Madagascar, Betsileo, near Ankafina, Hildebrandt 3947 (holotype: G, not seen; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus ernstii Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 47: t. 1855. 1982

Plectranthus ernstii Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 47: t. 1855. 1982. Type: South Africa, Kwa Zulu Natal, Oribi Gorge, Fairacres Farm, van Jaarsveld 2196; Cultivated in Pretoria sub Garden 24529 in PRE 57984 (holotype: PRE; isotype: NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: E. Cape Prov. to S. KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus forsythii Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 177. 1998

Plectranthus forsythii Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 177. 1998. Type: Madagascar, entre Itandraka et Ambohimitombo, Forsyth Major 727 (holotype: K, isotype: BM).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér., Stirp. Nov.: 85. 1788

Fig. 8E

Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér., Stirp. Nov.: 85. 1788. Type: cultivated, illustration t.41 of L’Hér. Stirp. Nov. fasc. 4. 1788 (lectotype: Illustration, designated by Codd (1975)).

Germanea urticifolia Lam., Encycl. 2: 691. 1788.

Plectranthus urticifolius (Lam.) Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 88. 1796. Type: Cultivated, illustration, Tabl. Encycl. 3: 514. 1819 (lectotype: Illustration, designated by Codd (1975)).

Plectranthus galpinii Schltr., J. Bot. 1896: 393. 1896. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Barberton, Rimers Creek, Galpin 939 (holotype: B, destroyed; isotype: PRE).

Plectranthus arthropodus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1073. 1903. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Houtbosch, Rehman 6151 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus charianthus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 824. 1906. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Houtbosch, Rehman 6157 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus peglerae T.Cooke, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 378. 1909. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Kentani, Pegler 377 (holotype: K; isotypes: GRA, PRE).

Plectranthus behrii Compton, J. S. African Bot. 11: 122. 1945. Type: South Africa, Pondoland, Lusikisiki, Behr, sub NBG 1252/31 (holotype: SAM; isotype: PRE).

Distribution

S. Mozambique to South Africa.

Plectranthus gardneri Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 237. 1860

Plectranthus subincisus Benth. var. gardneri (Thwaites) Hook. f. in Flora of British India 4: 622. 1885. Type: Sri Lanka, Newera Ellis, Gardner in Thwaites CP16 (holotype: PDA; isotype: K).

Distribution

Sri Lanka.

Plectranthus gibbosus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 200. 1998

Plectranthus gibbosus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 200. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Fenerive, Decary 3922 (holotype: P(P00541407); isotype: P(P00541408)).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus grallatus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1004. 1903

Germanea grallata Briq. loc. cit as alternative name). Type: South Africa, Natal, Mt Frere, Jan. 1895, Schlechter 6415 (holotype: Z; isotype: GRA).

Plectranthus transvaalensis Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1005. 1903.

Germanea transvaalensis Briq., loc. cit as alternative name. Type: South Africa, Transvaal, Houtbosch, Rehmann 6154 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus krookii Gürke, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 20: 48. 1905. Type: South Africa, Griqualand East, R. Umzinklawa, Krook in Herb Penther 1698 (holotype: W).

Plectranthus praetervisus Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 825. 1906. Type: South Africa, Natal, Drakensberg, Mountain Prospect, Rehmann 6965 (holotype: Z).

Plectranthus cooperi T.Cooke, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 377. 1909. Type: South Africa: Orange River Colony, Cooper, 2982 (lectotype: K, designated here).

Distribution

South Africa, Lesotho.

Plectranthus grandibracteatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 152. 1998

Plectranthus grandibracteatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 152. 1998. Type: Madagascar, vallée de l’Androranga, affluent de la Bemarivo aux env. Antongondriha, mont Anjenabe, Mubolt & Cuperon 24144 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus guruensis A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 205. 2013

Plectranthus guruensis A.J.Paton, Fl. Zambes. 8(8): 205. 2013. Type: Mozambique, Gurué Dist., Rio Malema, Marope, 22 km from Gurué, 1 Aug. 1979, de Koning 7530 (holotype: LMU; isotype: LISC).

Distribution

Mozambique.

Plectranthus hexaphyllus Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 20: 231. 1883

Plectranthus hexaphyllus Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 20: 231. 1883. Type: Madagascar, central, Baron 1799 (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus hilliardiae Codd, Bothalia 11: 282. 1974

Plectranthus hilliardiae Codd, Bothalia 11: 282. 1974. Type: South Africa, Natal, near Umtamvuna River, Hilliard & Burtt 6767 (holotype: PRE; isotype: NU).

Distribution

South Africa: E. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus hilliardiae subsp. hilliardiae .

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus hilliardiae subsp. australis van Jaarsv. & A.E.van Wyk, Bothalia 31: 44. 2001

Plectranthus hilliardiae subsp. australis van Jaarsv. & A.E.van Wyk, Bothalia 31: 44. 2001. Type: South Africa, Eastern cape, Mbotyi forest, van Jarsveld, Bellsredt, Dekker, van Wyk & Adams 16345 (holotype: NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: E. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus hirsutus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 158. 1998

Plectranthus hirsutus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 158. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Mont Kalabenono, Perrier de la Bâthie 10397 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus hoslundioides Scott-Elliot, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 44. 1891

Plectranthus hoslundioides Scott-Elliot, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 44. 1891. Type: Madagascar, near Fort Dauphin, Scott- Elliot 2645 (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus humbertii Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 194. 1998

Plectranthus humbertii Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 194. 1998. Type: Madagascar, partie occidentale du massif du Marojejy, de la vallée de l’Ambatoharanana au bassin supérieur de l’Antsahaberoka, Humbert & Saboureau 31311 (holotype: P; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus incrassatus Hedge, Edinburgh J. Bot. 60: 246. 2003

Plectranthus incrassatus Hedge, Edinburgh J. Bot. 60: 246. 2003.Type: Madagascar: massif de l’Anjanaharibe, à l’ouest d’Andapa, basin de la Lokoho, Humbert, Capuron & Cours 24774 (holotype: P; isotype: K).

Plectranthus pachyphyllus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 176. 1998., nom. illeg., non. P. pachyphyllus Gürke.

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus laurifolius Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 170. 1998

Plectranthus laurifolius Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 170. 1998. Type: Madagascar, vallée de la Lokoho, mont Ambodilaitra, au nord d’Andranomiforitra, Humbert 23277 (holotype: P; isotype: MO).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus linearis Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 191. 1998

Plectranthus linearis Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 191. 1998. Type: Madagascar, pentes occidentales du massif du Marojejy, bassin de la Lokoho, à l’est d’Ambalamanasy, Humbert & Capuron 22069 (holotype: P; isotypes: MO, P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus longiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 33. 1832

Plectranthus longiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 33. 1832.Type: Madagascar, forêt de Beforona, Bojer s.n. (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus longipetiolatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 147. 1998

Plectranthus longipetiolatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 147. 1998. Type: Madagascar, massif de Beampingaratra, du col de Bevava au sommet de Bekoho, Humbert 6432 (holotype: P; isotypes: B, E, K, MO, WAG).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus lucidus (Benth.) van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 5. 1997

Plectranthus strigosus var. lucidus Benth. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 12: 68. 1848. Type: Eastern Cape, Bathurst, Burchell 3924, (holotype: K).

Distribution

South Africa: S. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus macilentus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 170. 1998

Plectranthus macilentus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 170. 1998. Type: Madagascar, collines et plateaux de l’Ankarana du Nord, (Province de Diégo-Suarez), W de la grande route Mt Ambatopiraka, Antsiranana Humbert & Cours 32655 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus malvinus van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 1. 1997

Plectranthus malvinus van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 1. 1997. Type: Eastern Cape, 3129 (Port St Johns), Mount Sullivan, (-DA), E. van Jaarsveld & Bingham 10522 (holotype: NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: E. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus mandalensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 405. 1900

Plectranthus mandalensis Baker in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 5: 405. 1900. Type: Malawi, Mandala, cultivated at Kew, Feb. 1893, Moir s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

Malawi (Mt. Mulanje), Mozambique (Mt. Namuli).

Plectranthus membranaceus (Scott-Elliot) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 145. 1998

Plectranthus canescens var. membranaceus Scott-Elliot, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 49. 1891. Type: Madagascar, between Angalampena and the sea, Scott-Elliot 3072 (holotype: K; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus mocquerysii Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 233. 1898

Plectranthus mocquerysii Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 2: 233. 1898. Type: Madagascar, Maroa, forest inland from bay d’ Antongil, Mocquerys 239 (holotype: G).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus mzimvubuensis van Jaarsv., Bothalia 34: 30. 2004

Plectranthus mzimvubuensis van Jaarsv., Bothalia 34: 30. 2004. Type: South Africa, Eastern Cape, near Ludonga village, Mzimvubu River, Ecca group shale cliffs, Van Jaarsveld, Xaba, Harower & Zwide 92 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus oblanceolatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 161. 1998

Plectranthus oblanceolatus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 161. 1998. Type: Madagascar, partie occidentale du Massif du Marojejy, de la vallée de l’Ambatoharanana au bassin supérieur de l’Antsahaberoka, Humbert & Saboureau 31614 (holotype: P; isotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus oertendahlii T.C.E.Fr., Acta Horti Gothob. 1: 253. 1924

Plectranthus oertendahlii T.C.E.Fr., Acta Horti Gothob. 1: 253. 1924. Type: cultivated from material collected near Port Shepstone, Uppsala, (holotype, UPS).

Distribution

South Africa: S. KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus ombrophilus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 166. 1998

Plectranthus ombrophilus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 166. 1998. Type: Madagascar, haute vallée de la Manampanihy, col de Saindro, Humbert 14005 (holotype: P; isotypes: B, E, G, MO, PRE).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus oribiensis Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 46: t. 1809. 1980

Plectranthus oribiensis Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 46: t. 1809. 1980. Type: South Africa, Port Shepstone, Oribi Gorge, van Jaarsveld 2198, cultivated in Pretoria sub Garden 24530 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus papilionaceus Ranir. & Phillipson, Candollea 62: 158. 2007

Fig. 9A

Plectranthus papilionaceus Ranir. & Phillipson, Candollea 62: 158. 2007. Type: Madagascar, Province de Diego-Suarez/Antsiranana: sous-préfecture de Vohémar, commune rurale de Daraina, forêt de Binara, P.Ranirison & L.Nusbaumer PR 993 (holotype: G; isotypes: K, MO, P, TEF).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus pichompae Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 163. 1998

Plectranthus pichompae Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 163. 1998. Type: Madagascar, partie occidentale du massif du Marojejy, de la vallée de l’Ambatoharanana au bassin supérieur de l’Antsahaberoka, Humbert & Saboureau 31546 (holotype: P; isotype P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus praetermissus Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 45: t. 1791 1979

Plectranthus praetermissus Codd, Fl. Pl. Africa 45: t. 1791. 1979. Type: South Africa, Port St Johns, Stutterrhiem sub PRE 57330 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus purpuratus Harv., Thes. Cap. 1: 53. 1860

Plectranthus purpuratus Harv., Thes. Cap. 1: 53. 1860. Type: cultivated, ex Hort., Kew, from seed sent from Port Natal [KwaZulu-Natal: Durban], R. Vause s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

South Africa.

Plectranthus purpuratus subsp. purpuratus

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus purpuratus subsp. montanus van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 4. 1997

Fig. 9B

Plectranthus purpuratus subsp. montanus van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 4. 1997. Type: Swaziland, 2631 (Mbabane): Mbabane, Compton 32207 (holotype: NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: S. Mpumalanga to Swaziland.

Plectranthus purpuratus subsp. tongaensis van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 2. 1997

Plectranthus purpuratus subsp. tongaensis van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 2. 1997. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, 2732 (Ubombo): Kosi Bay, (-BB), Van Jaarsveld 12206 (holotype: NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus reflexus van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Fl. Pl. Africa 51: t. 2034 1991

Plectranthus reflexus van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Fl. Pl. Africa 51: t. 2034 1991. Type: South Africa, Port St Johns, western embankment of Bulowe River, van Jaarsveld, Campher & Dekker 10156 (holotype, NBG).

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus rosulatus Hedge, Adansonia, sér. 3, 27: 321. 2005

Plectranthus rosulatus Hedge, Adansonia, sér. 3, 27: 321. 2005. Type: Cultivated plants under glass, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh; specimen from Munich Botanic Garden, originally grown from seed collected in NW Madagascar, c. 50 km west of Sambava, in moss cushions in rain forest, by Mangelsdorff HC22 (holotype: E).

Distribution

NW. Madagascar.

Plectranthus rubropunctatus Codd, Bothalia 11: 420. 1975

Plectranthus rubropunctatus Codd, Bothalia 11: 420. 1975. Type: South Africa, Barberton, Nelshootge Forest Station, Strey 4081 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: Limpopo to Swaziland.

Plectranthus rubroviolaceus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 151. 1998

Plectranthus rubroviolaceus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 151. 1998. Type: Madagascar, contreforts occidentaux du massif du Marojejy, près du col de Boanyanala, limite des bassins de la Lokoho et de l’Androranga, Humbert 23127 (holotype: P; isotypes: BR, G, MO, NY, S, TAN).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus saccatus Benth. in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 227. 1838

Plectranthus saccatus Benth. in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 227. 1838. Type: South Africa, Cape, Omsamwubo [Umzimvubu river, near Port St Johns], Drège 4771 (lectotype: K (K000430872), designated by Codd 1975; isolectotypes: G, P, S).

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus saccatus subsp. saccatus

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus saccatus var. saccatus

Distribution

SE. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus saccatus var. longitubus

Fig. 9C

Plectranthus saccatus var. longitubus Codd, Bothalia 11: 428. 1975. Type: South Africa, Natal, Ingwavuma District, 2732 (Ubombo), Gwalaweni forest (-AC), Edwards 2930 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus saccatus subsp. pondoensis van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 4. 1997

Plectranthus saccatus subsp. pondoensis van Jaarsv. & T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 27: 4. 1997. Type: South Africa KwaZulu-Natal, 3030 (Port Shepstone): Oribi Gorge, (-CA), E. van Jaarsveld 2201 (holotype: PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov. to S. KwaZulu-Natal.

Plectranthus scaposus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 157. 1998

Plectranthus scaposus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 157. 1998. Type: Madagascar, Antsiranana, rés. nat. du Marojejy, pentes au nord d’Ambatosoratra, Miller 4232 (holotype: P; isotype: MO).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus secundiflorus (Baker) Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 180. 1998

Orthosiphon secundiflorus Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21: 433. 1885. Type: Madagascar, central, Baron 1226 (holotype: K).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus strangulatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 246. 2009

Plectranthus strangulatus A.J.Paton, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Lamiac.: 246. 2009. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: Uluguru Mts, Kitundu, E.M. Bruce 957 (holotype: K (K000431930); isotypes: BR, K (K000431929)).

Distribution

Tanzania (Uluguru Mts.).

Plectranthus strigosus Benth. ex E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 229. 1838

Plectranthus strigosus Benth. ex E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 229. 1838. Type: South Africa, Cape, Olifantshoek Forest (Alexandria), 1836, Eklon s.n. (lectotype: K (K000430853), designated by Codd 1975).

Plectranthus parviflorus Gürke in C.E.O.Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2): 261. 1898., nom. illeg., non P. parviflorus Willd.

Plectranthus kuntzeanus Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 564. 1928. Type: South Africa, East London, Kuntze s.n. (lectotype: NY, designated by Codd 1975).

Distribution

South Africa: S. Cape Prov.

Plectranthus stylesii T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 35: 149. 2005

Plectranthus stylesii T.J.Edwards, Bothalia 35: 149. 2005. Type: South Africa, Port St Johns, Msikaba River Gorge, c. 4km from the mouth, Edwards 3259 (holotype: NU; isotypes: E, GRA, K, PRE).

Distribution

South Africa: Eastern Cape Prov.

Plectranthus swynnertonii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 176. 1911

Plectranthus swynnertonii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 176. 1911. Type: Zimbabwe, Chirinda forest, Swynnerton 337 (holotype: K).

Distribution

S. Trop. Africa to South Africa, Mpumalanga.

Plectranthus trilobus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 205. 1998

Plectranthus trilobus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 205. 1998. Type: Madagascar, dans le haut bassin de l’Andranomaizina, affluent de l’Imonty, au-dessous du col d’Etsilotsilo, Capuron SF 22442 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus verticillatus (L.f.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 4: 640. 1916 (publ. 1917)

Ocimum verticillatum L.f., suppl. Pl.: 276. 1782.

Plectranthus thunbergii Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 37. 1832., nom. illeg. Type: South Africa, Cape, Thunbergs.n. (holotype: LINN 749.4).

Ocimum racemosum Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap.: 96. 1800. Type: South Africa, Cape, Houteniquas, Thunberg s.n. (holotype: UPS; isotype: SBT).

Plectranthus nummularius Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 1072. 1903. Type: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Camperdown, n.d., Rehmann 7702 (holotype: Z).

Distribution

S. Mozambique to South Africa.

Plectranthus vestitus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 32. 1832

Fig. 9D

Plectranthus vestitus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 32. 1832. Type: Madagascar, Prov. de Bezanozano, Bojer s.n. (holotype: K).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus vinaceus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 148. 1998

Plectranthus vinaceus Hedge, Fl. Madag. 175: 148. 1998. Type: Madagascar, sommet oriental du massif du Marojejy, ál’ouest de la haute Manantenina, affluent de la Lokoho, Humbert 22737 (holotype: P).

Distribution

Madagascar.

Plectranthus zuluensis T.Cooke, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 379. 1909

Plectranthus zuluensis T.Cooke, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1909: 379. 1909. Type: South Africa, Natal, Gerrard 1675 (holotype: K).

Distribution

South Africa: SE. Cape Prov. to Swaziland

Unplaced names

Anisochilus siamensis Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 59: 159. 1911. Type: Thailand, Bangsaphan Distr., Prachuap Khirikhan Province, Keith s.n. (not seen- see also Suddee & Paton (2009)).

Coleus anamallayensis Bedd., Madras J. Lit. Sci., ser. 2, 22: 73. 1861. Type: not seen, not cited in protologue.

Coleus aulihanensis Schweinf. & Volkens, Liste Pl. Somalis: 211. 1897. Type: Ethiopia, Aulihan, Dec. 1895 to Jan 1996, Schweinfurth & Volkens s.n. (not seen). Protologue suggests similarity to C. igniarius.

Coleus kisanfuensis De Wild., Contr. Fl. Katanga: 174. 1921. Types: Democratic Republic of Congo, Elizabethville, Hock s.n. (syntype: not seen); Kiasanfu, Hock s.n. (syntype: not seen).

Coleus luengerensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 167. 1906. Type: Tanzania, Usambara, Tanga, x. 1895, Heinsen 121 (syntype: B, destroyed); Sept. 1902, Engler 890 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Coleus mechowianus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 183. 1894. Type: Angola, Pungo Andongo, Mechow 123 (B, holotype destroyed). Protologue suggests similarity to C. tenuicaulis.

Coleus nervosus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 185. 1894. Type: DRC; South Central Kasongo; near the Lomami River, Pogge 1034 (B, holotype, destroyed).

Coleus parensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 317. 1908. Types: Tanzania, Pare District: foot of Pare Mts, Sengina–Simba, Engler 1620 (syntype: B, destroyed) & Uluguru Mts, Meyer 188 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Coleus petrophilus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 319. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Mbalu, Engler 1488 (holotype: B, destroyed)

Coleus petersianus Vatke, Linnaea 40: 180. 1876. Type: Mozambique, Rios de Sena, Peters s.n. (holotype: B, destroyed). The protologue suggests that this is either C. bojeri or C. welwitschii.

Coleus poggeanus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 182. 1894. Type: DRC, Mussumba des Muata Jamwo, Jan. 1876, Pogge 364 (type: B, destroyed).

Coleus preussii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 219. 1894. Type: Cameroon, Buea, Preuss 691 (B, destroyed, isotype); Dusen 309 (B, destroyed).

Coleus saxicola Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 316. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Kwai, Eick 27 (syntype: B, destroyed) & Engler 2250 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Coleus subscandens Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 319. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Mlalo, Engler 1394 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Coleus ulugurensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 470. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: NE Uluguru Mts, Kitope, Stuhlmann 9060 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Coleus viridis Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 181. 1894. Type: DRC, Mussumba, Pogge 365, (B, holotype, destroyed).

Coleus wugensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 318. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Wuga area, Engler 1165 (holotype: B, destroyed)

Plectranthus crenatus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 208. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambara Mts, Maschewa, Holst 8730 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus eminii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 207. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Bukoba, Stuhlmann 3882 (holotype: B, destroyed)

Plectranthus holstii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 204. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Mlalo, Holst 248 (holotype: B, destroyed). Perhaps close to E. orbiculare (Gürke) Mwany. & A.J.Paton.

Plectranthus lycopifolius A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 181. 1850. Type Ethiopia, Tigre, near Adoa, Quartin-Dillon (holotype: P, not seen, no Richard specimen in P which matches protologue.).

Plectranthus mbaluensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 136. 1905. Type: Tanzania, W Usambara Mts, Mbalu, Engler 1479 (holotype: B, destroyed). Note. Similar to E. kamerunense.

Plectranthus lindblomii T.C.E.Fr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 28. 1930. Type: Kenya, Mt Elgon, Kitosh, Lindblom s.n. (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus marquesii Gürke, Bol. Soc. Brot. 16: 70. 1896. Type: Angola, R. Cuillo, Marques 197 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus mildbraedii Perkins in G.W.J.Mildbraed (ed.), Wiss. Erg. Deut. Zentr.-Afr. Exped., Bot. 2: 549. 1913. Type: Uganda, Virunga Mts (Vulkan Mts), Karissimbi, Mildbraed 1618 (holotype: B, destroyed). Note. Protologue suggests relationship to E. longipes or E. kamerunense.

Plectranthus microphyllus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 467. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: E Uluguru Mts, Stuhlmann 8748 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus miserabilis Briq., Bot Jarbh. Syst 19: 180. 1895. Type: Democratic Republic of Congo, South Central Lunda; Mukenge, in Bashilange district, Pogge 1022 (type: not seen).

Plectranthus monticola Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 468. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: Uluguru Mts, Lukwangule, Stuhlmann 9166 (holotype: B, destroyed). Schlieben 2854 (BM, LISC) has been determined as C. monticola. These specimens are C. trullatus. However the description is a better match for the closely related C. triangularis which also occurs in the Uluguru Mts.

Plectranthus nodosus Bellardi ex Colla, Herb. Pedem. 4: 475. 1835. Listed as dubious species, no type details.

Plectranthus pallidus Biroli ex Colla, Herb. Pedem. 4: 475. 1835. Listed as dubious species, no type details.

Plectranthus pendulus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 314. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Engler 1180 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus rupicola Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 313. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Mbalu, Engler 1457 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus pratensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 201. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Marangu, Volkens 634 & W Usambara Mts, Mlalo, Holst 459 (syntype: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus sakarensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41: 313. 1908. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Sakare, Engler 989a (holotype: B, destroyed)

Plectranthus schweinfurthii Sprenger, Wiener Ill. Gart.-Zeitung 19: 1. 1894, non C. schweinfurthii Vatke Type: Arabian Peninsula (type: not seen).

Plectranthus saxatilis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 133. 1905. Types: Tanzania, Lushoto District: W Usambara Mts, Mlalo, Holst 345 & 611 & Engler 1485 (syntypes: B, destroyed).

Plectranthus stuhlmannii Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 469. 1900. Type: Tanzania, Morogoro District: S Uluguru Mts, Dundumi stream, Stuhlmann 9291 (holotype: B, destroyed) Protologue suggests similarity to E. laxiflorum.

Plectranthus usambarensis Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 207. 1894. Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Usambara Mts, Mlalo, Holst 487 (holotype: B, destroyed).

Saccostoma urticifolia Wall. ex Voigt Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis 449. 1845. Type: not seen.

Solenostemon bullatus Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 180. 1894.

Coleus bullulatus Briq., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 37: 69. 1899. nom. illeg. Type: DRC, Lulua River, 9.30 S, May 1876, Pogge 356. (holotype: not seen)

Excluded names

Coleus wulfenioides Diels: Orthosiphon wulfenioides (Diels) Hand.-Mazz.

Plectranthus adenanthus Diels: Isodon adenanthus (Diels) Kudô

Plectranthus adenolomus Hand.-Mazz.: Isodon adenolomus (Hand.-Mazz.) H.Hara

Plectranthus albidus Baker: Capitanopsis albida (Baker) Hedge

Plectranthus allenii C.H.Wright: Orthosiphon allenii (C.H.Wright) Codd

Plectranthus amethystoides Benth.: Isodon amethystoides (Benth.) H.Hara

Plectranthus angustifolius Dunn: Isodon angustifolius (Dunn) Kudô

Plectranthus assamicus Mukerjee: Isodon assamicus (Mukerjee) H.Hara

Plectranthus axillariflorus Honda: Isodon shikokianus var. intermedius (Kudô) Murata

Plectranthus barrelieri (Roth) Spreng.: Ocimum basilicum L.

Plectranthus benthamianus Miq.: Isodon