Print
Additional contributions to taxonomy, nomenclature and biogeography of the Turkish Crataegus (Rosaceae) taxa
expand article infoAli A. Dönmez, Sevgin Özderin§
‡ Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
§ Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey
Open Access

Abstract

Crataegus azarolus L. has a wide distribution pattern from the western Mediterranean coasts to the eastern parts of Iran with several varieties adapted to local climatic conditions. Crataegus azarolus var. senobaaensis var. nov. is described as a new variety from southeast Turkey with characteristic deep leaf sinuses, mostly 3–4 pairs of lobes and leaves ovate-oblong in outline. Two varieties of the species are accepted under the name of Crataegus azarolus and the correct names are published here. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. var. odemisii var. nov. is described from İzmir, in the western part of Turkey. This new variety is distinguished by its orange fruit colour. An outstanding disjunct distribution pattern has been discovered for the recently described species, Crataegus yaltirikii Dönmez. Updated descriptions and infraspecific identification keys for Crataegus azarolus and Crataegus monogyna are given and pictures and distribution data for the new taxa are also supplied.

Keywords

Crataegus, endemism, new variety, Rosaceae, Turkey

Introduction

The genus Crataegus L. grows mostly in the northern hemisphere and prefers forest openings and open areas of steppe. The number of species in the genus is ca. 240 with around 170 species in the New World and 70 species in the Old World (Pojarkova 1939; Meikle 1966; Riedl 1969; Browicz 1972; Christensen 1992; Khatamsaz 1991; Gu and Spongberg 2003; Phipps et al. 2003; Dönmez 2013; Phipps 2018). Phylogenetic studies, based on DNA sequences from both chloroplast and nuclear markers by Campbell et al. (2007), Lo et al. (2007), Potter et al. (2007) and Li et al. (2012), clarified the intergeneric relationships amongst the genera of the tribe Maleae. Subsequent to the publication of a revision of the Old World Crataegus taxa by Christensen (1992), extensive field work, both in Turkey and neighbouring countries by Dönmez (2008), showed that the section Crataegus is extensively diversified, especially in Turkey (Dönmez 2004, 2005, 2007, 2013; Dönmez and Oybak Dönmez 2005). Although exhaustive field work and collections in the region have been undertaken, it is still possible to detect new populations, probably representing new taxa (e.g. Dönmez 2005; Shahbaz and Sadeq 2006; Dönmez 2007, 2013; Sharifnia et al. 2011).

Ongoing studies both in the field and herbarium resulted in the discovery of a new variety (Figure 1) and an outstanding distribution pattern of a recently described species C. yaltirikii Dönmez. Moreover, during plant collection for the study on the photochemistry of the Aegean Crataegus species (Özderin et al. 2016), an unusual population of C. monogyna Jacq. with distinct pure yellow fruits has been discovered by the second author (Figure 2). Further, studies on the populations in the following years by the authors revealed that the fruit character is related to genetic factors and not temporary environmental conditions. Consequently, both specimens are described here as new varieties.

Figure 1. 

Crataegus azarolus var. senobaaensis Dönmez. A View of fruiting bush in steppe habitat B leaves of short shoot C mature fruits. (A.A. Dönmez 18745). Scale bar: 1cm.

Figure 2. 

Crataegus monogyna var. odemisii Dönmez & Özderin var. nov. A View of flowering individual in habitat B flowers C mature fruit D1 leaf of fertile shoot D2 leaf of short shoot. (A–B S.Özderin s.n. C–D A.A.Dönmez 20263-S.Özderin). Scale bar: 1cm.

Crataegus azarolus L. is an economically important fruit plant and its fruits have been used for food, jam and other traditional cuisines in the area. Although there is an extensive distribution from Spain to Iran, this species does extensively diversify in Turkey. Two varieties have been described by Browicz (1972) and they have been reduced to synonym by Christensen (1992). Based on the observations of the taxa in the field, it was found that both of them should be accepted as distinct taxa.

Materials and methods

The descriptions of Crataegus azarolus L. var. senobaaensis Dönmez and Crataegus monogyna var. odemisii Dönmez & Özderin are based on field collections of the new taxa at Şırnak, Bitlis and İzmir, observation on the habitat and examination of ca. 600 herbarium specimens from E, EGE, G, HUB, ISTO, K, LE and W (acronyms follow Index Herbariorum; http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/) by the authors. The preliminary conservation status of the new taxa was assessed using the IUCN (2017) criteria, according to field observations in the type localities and their environs.

Results

The descriptions of the species have been updated according to the relevant literature, field observations and collections, both from the mentioned herbaria and our own collections. The measurements are based on the herbarium materials.

Taxonomic treatment

Crataegus azarolus L., Sp. pl. 477. 1753.

Description

Shrub or tree up to ca. 4 (-10) m tall. Twigs more or less lanate or lanate-tomentose. Thorns up to ca. 8 cm long, more or less stout. Buds 2–3 (-4.2) mm long, 2–3 (-4.8) mm in diameter. Leaf blades more or less coriaceous, more or less lustrous dark green and appressed-pubescent above, pale or greyish-green and glabrous or appressed pubescent beneath, attenuate, cuneate or rounded at base, lobes obtuse, acute or cuspidate, margin entire or serrate with more or less coarse teeth; basal pair of veins divergent, straight or convergent. Subterminal leaf blades of flowering shoots (10-) 15–30 (-80) × (7-) 10–25 (-70) mm, lobes 1–2 (-4) pairs, rarely absent, basal lobes sometimes extending to midrib, each lobe entire or with (1-) 2–3 (-6) teeth in distal half, lobe length 0.5–1 (-3) times to width; petiole (2-) 4–6 (-17) mm; stipules rarely absent or 3–5 (-10) × 0.5–1 (-3) mm, entire or with 1–3 teeth. Subterminal leaf blades of short shoots (10-) 15–30 (-70) × (10-) 15–25 (-50) mm, lobes 1–2 (-4) pairs, basal pair extending to midrib, basal lobe entire or with 3 (-6) teeth in the upper half; petiole (2-) 4–8 (-28) mm long; stipules mostly undeveloped or 2–3 (-5) × 0.5–1 mm. Leaf blades of elongate shoots (15-) 20–35 (-80) × 15–25 (-70) mm, lobes 1–3 (-4) pairs, basal pair entire or 1–4 (-8) teeth at upper half; petiole 2–10 (-20) mm; stipules 4–10 (-25) × (0-) 3–5 mm, with 3–5 (-10) teeth. Inflorescence (10-) 15–20 (-45) × 15–20 (-60) mm long, corymbose, (5-) 10–20 (-25) flowered, more or less lanate or lanate-tomentose; pedicels 2–5 (-10) mm; bracts 1–4 × 0.2–0.9 mm, caducous, linear or lanceolate, margin entire or denticulate with 1–6 teeth. Flowers (5-) 10–15 mm in diameter. Hypanthium 3–6 × 3–6 mm; sepals 1.2–3.5 × 1.6–3.9 mm, usually broadly triangular, margin entire, apex more or less acute; petals 3–7 × 4–7 mm; stamens 15–20 (-22), anthers purple; styles (1-) 2–3 (4). Fruit (6-) 8–12 (-35) mm, depressed-globose, globose or slightly pyriform, yellowish-green or orange, often tinged with red, when dried, often becoming dark red; the immature fruit crowned by the persistent erect or spreading sepals, at maturity sepals re-curved; pyrenes (4-) 5–7 × 6–8 (-20) mm, dorsally sulcate, ventrally smooth, hypostyle pilose.

Crataegus azarolus L. var. dentata (Browicz) Dönmez, comb. nov.

Basionym

Crataegus aronia L. var. dentata Browicz, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31: 324. 1972. TYPE [Turkey] Muğla: Marmaris, Bayır, 15 iv 1965, P.H.Davis 41136 (holotype: E!; isotype: K!).

Crataegus azarolus L. var. minuta (Browicz) Dönmez, comb. nov.

Basionym

Crataegus aronia var. minuta Browicz, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31: 324. 1972. TYPE: [Turkey] Hatay: 8 km from Belen towards Antakya, ca. 600 m elev., 6 v 1965, Coode & Jones 521 (holotype: E!).

Crataegus azarolus L. var. senobaaensis Dönmez, var. nov.

Figure 1

Diagnosis

This new variety differs from the other varieties (Crataegus azarolus L. var. minuta Browicz and Crataegus azarolus L. var. dentata Browicz and Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia L.) by its deeply divided leaf sinuses, mostly 3–4 pairs of leaf lobes and mostly ovate-oblong leaves at outline.

Type

TURKEY. Şırnak: 20 km from Uludere to Şırnak, above Şenoba, steppe, ca. 1250 m elev., 28. September 2002, A.A.Dönmez 11139, (holotype: HUB, isoptypes, HUB, EGE). Paratypes: Bitlis: Tatvan, Koruklu village, Yenitoprak district, 1734 m elev., hedge, 02.10.2013. A.A.Dönmez 18745-K.Özgişi. (HUB!).

Distribution

(Figure 3). Crataegus azarolus var. senobaaensis is endemic to southeast Turkey and it is known from two different locations.

Ecology and habitat

Crataegus azarolus var. senobaaensis grows in dry steppes from 1250 to 1735 m elevation.

Etymology

The epithet denotes the type locality Şenoba.

Preliminary conservation status

Crataegus azarolus var. senobaaensis should be labelled as “Critically Endangered”, (CR B1+D) according to the IUCN (2017) threat categories. The area of occupancy is estimated to be smaller than 100 km2 and the number of examined mature individuals is less than 50. Besides this, all of the examined specimens are known from habitats which are not under threat.

Figure 3. 

Distribution of the taxa. (square)Crataegus azarolus var. senobaaensis; (star) Crataegus monogyna var. odemisii var. nov. (circle) Crataegus yaltirikii (Near East topographic map-blank.svg).

Infraspecific key Turkish taxa of C. azarolus

1 Inflorescence and leaves up to 15 mm in length C. azarolus var. minuta comb. nov.
Inflorescence and leaves longer than 15 mm 2
2 Leaves one or rarely two shallowly lobed at apex; ovate or elliptic C. azarolus var. dentata comb. nov.
Leaves 2–4 lobed, lobes more than half of the lamina 3
3 Leaf lobes 1–2 times wide, sinuses 1/2 to 1/3 of lamina C. azarolus var. aronia
Leaf lobes 3–4 times wide, leaves deeply pinnatisect C. azarolus var. senobaaensis, var. nov.

Crataegus yaltirikii Dönmez Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 155(2): 239. 2007.

Lectotype

[Turkey] Şırnak: Beytüşşebap, above Günyüzü village, opening of deciduous forest, 37°27'N, 043°09'E, 1495 m elev., 28.ix.2002; A.A.Dönmez 11143-B.Mutlu (designated by Dönmez 2007).

Distribution

(Figure 3). Crataegus yaltirikii is a species native to Turkey where it is known from two locations namely Şırnak and Mersin which are far from each other, nearly 400 km distant.

Ecology and habitat

Crataegus yaltirikii grows in Quercus brantii Lindley forest openings at the type locality and amongst the maquis vegetation in Mersin, a recently discovered location.

Conservation status

“LC” threat category was assessed for Crataegus yaltirikii in the description of the species (2005). Based on the new distribution pattern of the species, the threat category of the species was re-evaluated and “LC” is still the appropriate category for the species.

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Fl. Austriac. (Jacquin) 3: 50, t. 292, f. 1. 1775

Description

Trees or shrubs up to 10 m. Twigs glabrous rarely villose. Thorny or thornless, thorns up to 25 (-70) mm. Buds 1.1–2.8 × 1.1–2.5 mm. Leaves ±coriaceous, ±greyish below, glabrous to villose or villose on veins beneath, attenuate to widely cuneate at base, lobes obtuse to acute, entire to incised serrate at margin. Subterminal leaf blades of flowering shoots 10–35 (-57) × 8–30 (-60) mm, lobes (0-) 1–2 (-3) pairs, basal sinuses close to midvein, angles of basal vein at or wider than 45°, rarely narrower, basal lobes entire or with 2–4 (-9) serrate teeth in distal 1/2 to 3/4, petiole (1-) 5–15 (-30) mm; stipules (1-) 3–10 (-16) × 0.2–0.4 mm, entire or irregularly glandular serrate with 1–5 (-8) teeth. Subterminal leaf blades of short shoots (10-) 15–35 (-57) × (8-) 15–30 (-55) mm, lobes (0-) 1–2 (-3) pairs, basal sinuses reach to half lamina or close to midvein, lobes entire or with (2-) 4–8 (-14) teeth in the distal 1/3 to 1/8, petiole 5–15 (-45) mm, stipules undeveloped or (1-) 2–3 mm, entire or with 2–4 teeth. Middle leaf blades of elongate shoots 20–40 (-60) × 20–40 (-65) mm, 2–3 (-4) pairs, basal lobes with (0-) 3–5 (-16) teeth in distal 1/4 to 1/8, petiole (6-) 10–20 (-25) mm; stipules (4-) 8–15 (-20) × 2–4 (-8) mm, entire or irregularly serrate with 2–10 (-35) teeth. Inflorescence (10-) 15–35 (-50) × 15–45 mm, corymbose, lax, (5-) 8–15 (-20) flowered, glabrous to villose, pedicels 4–10 (-32) mm, bracts 0.5–8 (-10) × 0.1–0.5 mm, deciduous, linear-lanceolate, entire or denticulate with 1–4 teeth. Flowers (5-) 8–12 mm in diameter; hypanthium 2–4 × 2–3 mm; sepals 1.2–4 × 1.2–2.6 mm, widely triangular margin entire, acute or obtuse; petals (3-) 4–5 (-7) × 4–6 (-7) mm; stamens (15-) 18–20, anthers maroon; styles 1. Fruit 5–11 × 4–7 (-10) mm, globose to cylindrical, red to dark red, rarely orange, glabrous or sparsely villose, flesh yellowish, juicy to mealy, sepals recurved at maturity; pyrenes 4–6 (-9) × 3–5 (-8) mm, 1 (-2), dorsally and ventro-laterally entire or striate, hypostyle glabrous.

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. var. odemisii Dönmez & Özderin, var. nov.

Figure 2

Diagnosis

This new variety differs from the other varieties (Crataegus monogyna Jacq. var. monogyna and Crataegus monogyna var. lasiocarpa (Lange) K.I.Christ.) sensu Christensen (1992) by its orange fruit colour in contrast to red fruits in the former.

Type

TURKEY. İzmir: Ödemiş, around Gölcük region, towards peak of Bozdağ, 1050–1120 m elev., 9 September, 2014, A.A.Dönmez 20263-S. Özderin, (holotype: HUB); isotypes: HUB, EGE). Paratypes: İzmir: Ödemiş, around Gölcük region, towards to peak of Bozdağ, 1050–1120 m elev., 8 October, 2013, S. Özderin s.n.; 22 May, 2015, S. Özderin s.n. (HUB).

Phenology

flowering in May and fruiting in September-October.

Habitat

in openings of Pinus nigra forest.

Distribution

(Figure 3). Crataegus monogyna var. odemisii is endemic to İzmir; it has a narrow distribution at Gölcük.

Ecology and habitat

Crataegus monogyna var. odemisii grows in openings of Pinus nigra forest between 1050 and 1120 m elevation. The basic vegetation type is maquis at lower elevations of the area. Besides this, Pinus nigra forest replaces it at higher altitudes and steppe vegetation dominates above the tree zone.

Etymology

The epithet of this new variety denotes the collection area, Ödemiş.

Preliminary conservation status

Crataegus monogyna var. odemisii should be assigned to “Critically Endangered”, (CR B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv), D) according to the IUCN (2017) threat categories. The area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km2 and the examined specimens are known only from alongside the road. The location is close to the picnic area of the Gölcük Lake and is under threat from fire, cutting and other anthropogenic effects.

Discussion

Two new varieties have been published by Browicz (1972) from Turkey under the species name of C. aronia L. These two varieties were reduced to synonym by Christensen (1992) with their published name and he accepted the name Crataegus azarolus instead of C. aronia. Taxonomic decisions of Christensen have been based solely on herbarium material. During the taxonomic revision of the genus Crataegus, the first author had the opportunity to observe these varieties in their habitats alongside the complete set of morphological variations of the species. Moreover, morphological studies on the large set of herbarium material in the above-mentioned herbaria and fieldwork from Greece to Iran provided more opportunity to observe all kinds of variation of C. azarolus and the closely related taxa. Consequently, based on field observations and herbarium studies on the collected materials, these two varieties, namely Crataegus azarolus L. var. dentata (Browicz) Dönmez and Crataegus azarolus L. var. minuta (Browicz) Dönmez should be accepted as distinct taxa and they should be given as new combinations under the species name of Crataegus azarolus.

Crataegus monogyna is one of the most polymorphic species amongst the Eurasian Crataegus taxa with respect to leaf morphology and indumentum. Due to local variations of the species and species concepts by the authors who studied Crataegus, many new taxa have been described. In addition, new combinations and alteration of their status have been made. Based on these taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties, both taxonomic and nomenclatural synonyms of about 200 names have been listed by Christensen (1992). In C. monogyna, extensive variations in leaf morphology and indumentum are present, whereas variations in fruit colour are limited. Fruit colour of C. monogyna is clearly red and/or with degrees of red. Specimens of the new variety, C. monogyna var. odemisii are yellow. Red and various degrees of red colour for fruit of infraspecific C. monogyna taxa have been observed by the second author and they have hundreds of representative specimens for these fruit colours in the above-mentioned herbaria. According to observations on the fruit colour of single pyrened Crataegus taxon, it is a constant character and unique in the infraspecific taxa of C. monogyna. Hence, it is worthwhile accepting this population as a separate taxonomic status, as a variety.

Crataegus yaltirikii Dönmez is a recently described new species from southeast Turkey and we found a new population of the species on the Taurus Mountain ranges, nearly 400 km away from the type locality. Climatic conditions of these two localities are different; the type locality is a cold and snowy area, whereas the recently discovered locality is characterised by hot and dry summers, rainy and warm winters. We have not yet obtained molecular works on these disjunct populations. Besides this, we assume that these populations should be local ecotypes of the species.

Infraspecific key to Turkish taxa of Crataegus monogyna

1 Fruit orange yellow; fertile leaf lobes with only few teeth, short shoot leaf lobes with many teeth C. monogyna var. odemisii var. nov.
Fruit red to dark red; teeth of fertile and short shoot leaf lobes are similar 2
2 Leaves, twigs and fruits sparsely villous or glabrous C. monogyna
Leaves, twigs and fruits densely villous C. lasiocarpa

Selected additional specimens examined

Crataegus azarolus L. var. dentata (Browicz) Dönmez

TURKEY. Muğla: Datça, Taşlıca village, Karayurt district, limestone, 36°37.7’N, 28°6.1’E 208 m elev., 1 December 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10412 -S.Işık (HUB!). İçel: Tarsus, Kadıncık I Dam, 500 m elev., 11 May 1990, Y.Gemici 5480 (EGE!); Tarsus, Beylice village, 600 m elev., 10 August 1990, A. Güner 7951-H.Karaca (HUB!).

Crataegus azarolus L. var. minuta (Browicz) Dönmez

TURKEY. Denizli: around Pamukkale, 9 May 1975, Browicz & Zielinskii 104 (E!, LE!). Antalya: Kaş, Lengumen village, around Belpınarı, 1100 m elev., limestone, 9 September 1992, A.A.Dönmez 2963 (HUB!); Elmalı, y. 1300 m elev., 4 June 1961, Howard C.Stutz 1512 (W!). Konya: Ermenek, E of Ermenek ca. 1200 m elev., 27 May 1978, M.Vural 700 (ANK!). Mersin: Mut, Magras Mountain, 1100 m elev., 750 m elev., 11 May 1965, Coode & Jones 750 (E!, ISTO!). Kahramanmaraş: from Kahramanmaraş to Zeytin, Ahır Mountain, 1100 m elev., 8 May 1934, Balls 991 (E!). Kilis: 2 km from Kilis to Radar, slopes, Quercus çalılığı, ca. 800 m elev., 2 June 2000, A.A.Dönmez 7812 (HUB!).

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. var. monogyna

TURKEY. Edirne: Enez, Kılıçbey village, Quercus forest, 40°46.3"N, 26°32.61"E, 30 m elev., 8 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8704 (HUB!). Kırklareli: Demirköy Değirmendere district, 41°49.61"N, 27°45.25"E, 265 m elev., 9 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8778 (HUB!). Tekirdağ: Ganos Mt., Akçahalil village, ca. 500 m elev., 5 November 1999, A.A.Dönmez 6795 (HUB!). Çanakkale: Gelibolu, Bolayır, Koruköy, 40°33.65"N, 26°48.41"E, 60 m elev., 7 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8681 (HUB!). İstanbul: Büyükdere, Cumhuriyet street, amongst Pinus nigra, 41°9.6"N, 29°2.63"E, 50 m elev., 10 November 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10400 (HUB!). Kocaeli: Gebze, TÜBİTAK MAM campuse, ca. 100 m elev., 17 December 2002, A.A.Dönmez 11097. Bilecik: Taşçılar village, 40°14.5"N, 29°53.93"E, 600 m elev., 5 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8648 (HUB!). Bolu: Mengen, Çapak stream, Pinus nigra opening, ca. 550 m elev., 17 May 2002, A.A. Dönmez 10602 (HUB!). Ankara: Nallıhan, Kabaca village, 40°19.56"N, 31°21.19"E, 774 m elev., 24 August 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10004 (HUB!). Ankara: Ayaş road, amongst Quercus-Pinus plantation, 40°4.78"N, 32°27.95"E, 1050 m elev., 1 June 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8918 (HUB!). Karabük: between Karabük and Eskipazar, 41°19.05"N, 32°40.18"E, 289 m elev., 17 May 2002, A.A.Dönmez 10580 (HUB!). Kastamonu: Boyalı, Bahçeçiçek village, Abies nordmanniana opening, 41°9.12"N, 33°18.85"E, 993 m elev., 5 June 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9201 (HUB!). Amasya: Suluova, 630 m elev., M&D Zohary 2165 (E!). Tokat: between Koyulhisar and Reşadiye, Quercus-Pinus opening, 40°22.25"N, 37°33.2"E, 505 m elev., 25 May 2002, A.A.Dönmez 10569 (HUB!). Artvin: west of the city, 500 m elev., 3 June 1993, A.A.Dönmez 3244 (HUB!). Çanakkale: Biga, Gerlengeç village, ca. 5 m elev., Quercus-Fraxinus scrub, 07 April 1999, A.A.Dönmez 7532 (HUB!). İzmir: Bozdağ, from Ödemiş to Bozdağ Quercus scrub, 38°17.16"N, 28°3.18"E, 990 m elev., 4 April 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8356 (HUB!). Aydın: Nazilli, Yağdere village, 37°55.43"N, 28°12.85"E, 312 m elev., 4 April 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8339 (HUB!). Balıkesir: Akbaş village, Quercus-Juniperus scrub, 39°40.08"N, 27°31.96"E, 390 m elev., 6 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8662 (HUB!). Bilecik: Söğüt, Quercus opening, 39°58.16"N, 30°7.15"E, 1100 m elev., 5 April 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8378 (HUB!). Manisa: Kula, Sandal village, 38°59.16"N, 28°34.05"E, 504 m elev., 21 August 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9931 (HUB!). Kütahya: from Harmancı to Tavşanlı, 39°35.45"N, 29°24.76"E, 872 m elev., 22 August 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9957 (HUB!). Uşak: between Delihıdırlı and Karahallı, 38°20.58"N, 29°33.85"E, 879 m elev., 20 August 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9927 (HUB!). Afyon: Çay, 1000 m elev., 9 August 1992, A.A.Dönmez 2905 (HUB!). Denizli: Acıgöl, rocky places, 37°49.4"N, 29°45.26"E, 845 m elev., 23 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8909 (HUB!). Isparta: Eğirdir, Akpınar village, 37°50.2"N, 30°51.18"E, 1100–1400 m elev., 1 April 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8287 (HUB!). Konya: Beyşehir, Yeşildağ village, 37°34.01"N, 31°32.21"E, 1210 m elev., 19 August 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9910 (HUB!). Ankara: Beytepe, ca. 950 m. elev. 24 September 2000, A.A.Dönmez 8092 (HUB!). Kırıkkale: Delice, Baraklı village, 17 August 1993, A.A.Dönmez 3927 (HUB!). Yozgat: Saray, 39°43.23"N, 34°42.2"E, 1100 m elev., 4 April 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8388 (HUB!). Adana: Himmetli, Saimbeyli, Davis 26652 (E!). Adıyaman: Gölbaşı, between Meydan and Hamzalar village, 37°52.81"N, 37°40.33"E, 1035 m elev., 15 September 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10126 (HUB!). Elazığ: from Elazığ to Malatya, Gülmahmut village, 38°33.78"N, 39°3.03"E, 1188 m elev., 21 April 2002, A.A.Dönmez 10518 (HUB!). Erzincan: Kemah, Eriç-Tuztaşı, ca. 800–900 m elev., 28 May 1998, A.A.Dönmez 6451 (HUB!). Malatya: Elazığ road, Kapıkaya village, 38°20.65"N, 38°33.3"E, 930 m elev., 21 April 2002, A.A.Dönmez 10515 (HUB!). Aydın: from Nazilli to Ödemiş, Hisarcık village, 38°055"N, 28°23.45"E, 380 m elev., 22 September 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10156 (HUB!). Denizli: Babadağ, Göçükoluk pasture, 37°48.16"N, 28°51.1"E, 1300 m elev., 23 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8898(HUB!). İzmir: Beydağ, Mutalar village, 38°4.4"N, 28°14.35"E, 260 m elev., 22 September 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10158 (HUB!). Muğla: from Muğla to Denizli, 37°11.09"N, 28°37.63"E, 805 m elev., 21 September 2001, A.A.Dönmez 10152. Antalya: Kaş, Lengumen village, 1100 m elev., 9 September 1992, A.A.Dönmez 2965 (HUB!). Konya: from Beyşehir to Akseki, 37°32.06"N, 31°34.45"E, 1180 m elev., 20 April 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8613 (HUB!). Mersin: Fındıkpınarı, Turunçlu, 36°49.75"N, 34°26.2"E, 570 m elev., 8 March 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8186-B. Mutlu (HUB!). Adana: Çamardı, Yelyutan village, 1300 m elev., 18 May 1993, A.A.Dönmez 3183 (HUB!). Kahramanmaraş: between Andırın and Gebez, 1300 m elev., 21 May 1993, A.A.Dönmez 3205 (HUB!). Osmaniye: Düziçi, Düldül Mt., Çitli village, 37°19.16"N, 36°29.55"E, 1012 m elev., 22 June 2004, A.A.Dönmez 12041 (HUB!). Hatay: Belen, 36°31.41"N, 36°15.26"E, 1300 m elev., 28 June 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9469 (HUB!). Mardin: from Mardin to Diyarbakır, 1000 m elev., Davis 28718 (E!). Şırnak: from Şırnak to Eruh, 37°39.28"N, 42°19.25"E, 1550 m elev., 28 September 2002, A.A.Dönmez 11138 (HUB!).

Crataegus monogyna var. lasiocarpa (Lange) K.I.Christ.

TURKEY. Edirne: İpsala, Sarpdere, 40°53.23"N, 26°24.68"E, 60 m elev., 8 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8732 (HUB!). Tekirdağ: Hayrabolu, Çarıklı village, ca. 150 m elev., 19 June 1999, A.A.Dönmez 6941 (HUB!). Bolu: between Göynük and Mudurnu, 40°26.9"N, 30°54.08"E, 1105 m elev., 7 July 2003, A.A.Dönmez 11662(HUB!). Aydın: Karacasu, 37°44.01"N, 28°37.45"E, 422 m elev., 3 March 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8332 (HUB!). Balıkesir: Susurluk, 39°46.31"N, 28°2.56"E, 300 m elev., 6 May 2001, A.A.Dönmez 8658 (HUB!). Kütahya: Sabuncu, Fındık village, 39°33.33"N, 30°13.13"E, 962 m elev., 23 August 2001, A.A.Dönmez 9984 (HUB!). Ankara: Botanik Park, ca. 1000 m elev., 06 October 2000, A.A.Dönmez 8140. Tunceli: Pülümür, Gökçekonak village, 39°23.65"N, 39°50.13"E, 1252 m elev., 1 June 2002, A.A.Dönmez 10871 (HUB!). Muğla: Fethiye, Kemer, Kayacık village, 890 m elev., 8 September 1992, A.A.Dönmez 2961 (HUB!). Antalya: Kaş, 1130 m elev., limestone, 9 September 1992, A.A.Dönmez 2967 (HUB!). Adana: Kozan, 800 m elev., 18 May 1993, A.A.Dönmez 3191 (HUB!). Osmaniye: Düziçi, Düldül Mt., Çitli village, 37°19.16"N, 36°29.55"E, 1012 m elev., 22 June 2004, A.A.Dönmez 12045 (HUB!).

Acknowledgements

We thank the curators of the herbaria cited in the text for permission to use specimens in their care during the Crataegus project of the first author. Taxonomic studies of the Turkish Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) Taxa are supported by Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAKTBAG 1958 (100 T 125). The second author also thanks S.D. University Scientific Research Unit (Project No: 3211-D2-12) and staff of the Ödemiş Forestry Management for supporting her field works.

References

  • Browicz K (1972) Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) In: Davis PH (Ed.) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 133–147.
  • Campbell CS, Evans RC, Morgan DR, Dickinson TA, Arsenault MP (2007) Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266(1–2): 119–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y
  • Christensen KI (1992) Revision of Crataegus sect. Crataegus and nothosect. Crataeguineae (Rosaceae-Maloideae) in the Old World. Systematic Botany Monographs: 35. https://doi.org/10.2307/25027810
  • Dönmez AA (2004) The Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) with Special Reference to Hybridization and Biodiversity in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 28: 29–37.
  • Dönmez AA (2013) Nomenclatural, taxonomic and biogeographic novelties in the Turkish Crataegus (Rosaceae-Maleae) taxa. Adansonia, ser 3; 36(2): 245–253. https://doi.org/10.5252/a2014n2a7
  • Dönmez AA, Oybak Dönmez E (2005) Crataegus turcicus (Rosaceae), a new species from northeast Turkey. Annales Botanici Fennici 42: 61–65.
  • Gu CZ, Spongberg SA (2003) Crataegus L. (Rosaceae). Flora of China 9: 111–117.
  • Khatamsaz M (1991) The genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae). Iranian Journal of Botany 5(1): 47–56.
  • Li QY, Guo W, Liao WB, Macklin JA, Li JH (2012) Generic limits of Pyrinae: Insights from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan), 151–164.
  • Lo EYY, Stefanovic S, Dickinson TA (2007) Molecular reappraisal of relationships between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae)–Two genera or one? Systematic Botany 32(3): 596–616. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364407782250562
  • Meikle RD (1966) Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) In: Townsend CC, Guest E (Eds) Flora of Iraq. Ministry of Agriculture Republic of Iraq, Baghdad 2: 115–118.
  • Özderin S, Fakir H, Dönmez İE (2016) Chemical Properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus L. spp.) Taxa Naturally Distributed in Western Anatolia Part of Turkey. Sumarski List 7–8(7–8): 369–376. https://doi.org/10.31298/sl.140.7-8.5
  • Phipps JB, O’Kennon RJ, Lance RW (2003) Hawthorns and Medlars. Royal Horticultural Society. Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Portland, 139 pp.
  • Pojarkova AI (1939) Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) In: Komarov VL, Yuzepchuk SV (Eds) Flora USSR. Botanicheskii Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow 9: 317–356.
  • Potter D, Eriksson T, Evans RC, Oh S, Smedmark JEE, Morgan DR, Kerr M, Robertson KR, Arsenault M, Dickinson TA, Campbell CS (2007) Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae Plant Systematics and Evolution 266(1): 5–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9
  • Riedl H (1969) Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) In: Rechinger KH (Ed.) Flora Iranica. Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 66: 49–65.
  • Sharifnia F, Christensen KI, Seyedipour N, Salimpour F, Mehregan I (2011) Crataegus grossidentata sp. nov. (Rosaceae-Pyreae), a new hawthorn from northern Iran. Nordic Journal of Botany 29(5): 534–537. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01206.x