Short Communication
Short Communication
Sisymbrium linifolium and Sisymbriopsis schugnana (Brassicaceae), two new records from Xinjiang, China
expand article infoHongliang Chen§, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz|, Jipei Yue, Hang Sun
‡ Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
§ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
| Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, United States of America
Open Access


Sisymbrium linifolium and Sisymbriopsis schugnana, previously confined to western North America and Tajikistan, respectively, were discovered in Xinjiang during a recent field trip to this autonomous region of China. The identity of these two species was subsequently confirmed by extensive morphological and molecular studies. The biogeographical significance of these new floristic records is briefly addressed.


Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), China, new records, North America, Sisymbriopsis, Sisymbrium, Tajikistan


Although mainly distributed in the temperate regions, species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae / Cruciferae; authorised alternative names, Art. 18.5 and 18.6 of the ICN: Turland et al. 2018) are found in all continents except Antarctica. In total there are 341 currently recognised genera, and about 4050 species worldwide (BrassiBase:, accessed 20 July 2018; Koch et al. 2012a, 2018, Kiefer et al. 2014, DA German pers. com.). For the Flora of China, 102 genera and 412 species were recorded by Zhou et al. (2001) but these numbers are out of date due to taxonomic status changes for some taxa and discoveries of new species. These include the reduction of Desideria Pamp., Phaeonychium O.E.Schulz, and Eurycarpus Botsch. to synonymy of Solms-laubachia Muschl. (Yue et al. 2008, German and Al-Shehbaz 2010), and the merging of Neomartinella Pilger, Platycraspedum O.E.Schulz, Taphrospermum C.A.Mey., and Thellungiella O.E.Schulz with Eutrema R.Br. (Al-Shehbaz and Warwick 2005, Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006). Besides, several new genera have since been proposed, including Shangrilaia Al-Shehbaz, J.P.Yue & H.Sun (Al-Shehbaz et al. 2004), Metashangrilaia Al-Shehbaz & D.A.German, Rudolf-kamelinia Al-Shehbaz & D.A.German, and Anzhengxia Al-Shehbaz & D.A.German (Al-Shehbaz and German 2016), Shehbazia D.A.German (German and Friesen 2014), Sinoarabis R.Karl, D.German, M.A.Koch & Al-Shehbaz (Koch et al. 2012b), Sinalliaria X.F. Jin, Y.Y.Zhou & H.W.Zhang (Zhou et al. 2014), as well as new species in Solms-laubachia (Yue et al. 2005, 2008, Chen et al. 2018a), Draba L. (Al-Shehbaz 2002, 2007, Al-Shehbaz et al. 2014), Cardamine L. (Al-Shehbaz and Boufford 2008, Al-Shehbaz 2015a, 2015b, 2015c), Eutrema (Gan QL and Li XW 2014, Xiao et al. 2015, Hao et al. 2015, 2016, 2017), and new records, i.e. Cardamine bellidifolia L. (Chen et al. 2011), Pterygostemon spathulatus (Kar. & Kir.) V.V.Botschantz. [reported as Fibigia spathulata (Kar. & Kir.) B. Fedtsch. (German et al. 2012)], Rhammatophyllum erysimoides (Kar. & Kir.) Al-Shehbaz & O. Appel (German et al. 2006), and Erysimum croceum Popov (Ya et al. 2018). According to our most recent compilation, there are 101 genera and 490 species of Brassicaceae in China.

Two of the authors (H.L.C and J.P.Y) have conducted a botanical expedition to Xinjiang and Xizang from 15 June to 22 July 2017, during which we collected about 130 species of 25 genera of Brassicaceae. Subsequent molecular and morphological studies supported the addition of two species as new records to China. Sisymbrium linifolium (Nutt.) Nutt. (Figure 1) and Sisymbriopsis schugnana Botsch. & Tzvelev (Figure 2) were previously known only from western North America and Tajikistan, respectively (Figure 3).

Figure 1. 

Sisymbrium linifolium (Nutt.) Nutt. A flowering plant B fruits C habitat.

Materials and methods

Plant materials and molecular data

Collected specimens were deposited in KUN, and species identification was based on the floras of China (Zhou et al. 2001), Pan-Himalaya (Al-Shehbaz 2015d), and North America (Al-Shehbaz et al. 2010) and studies on Sisymbrium L. (Al-Shehbaz 1988, 2006, Warwick and Al-Shehbaz 2003) and Sisymbriopsis (Al-Shehbaz et al. 1999).

The nrITS sequence of Sisymbriopsis schugnana was included in our previous study on the phylogeny of the tribe Euclidieae (Chen et al. 2018b), while nrITS sequences of four individuals of Sisymbrium linifolium were generated and analysed in this study. An additional 48 sequences, representing 19 Sisymbrium species (mostly from Warwick et al. 2002) and seven sequences of five species (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Erucastrum supinum (L.) Al-Shehbaz & S.I.Warwick, Neotorularia torulosa (Desf.) Hedge & J.Léonard, Neuontobotrys lanata (Walp.) Al-Shehbaz, and Polypsecadium solidagineum (Triana & Planch.) Al-Shehbaz) were downloaded from GenBank (Appendix A). Following Mutlu and Karakuş (2015), N. torulosa and C. bursa-pastoris were used as outgroups.

DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing

Total genomic DNA was extracted from silica gel-dried leaf materials using the Plant Genomic DNA Kit (Tiangen Biotech, Beijing, China) following the manufacturer’s protocol. The ITS region was amplified with the primers ITS-18F as modified by Mummenhoff et al. (1997) and ITS-4 (White et al. 1990). All polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed in a 25 μl volume consisting of 1μl sample DNA (approx. 5–10 ng), 12.5μl Premix Taq (Takara Biomedical Technology, Beijing, China), 1μl of 10 μM stock of each primer, adjusted to 25 μl with ddH2O. The PCR protocol of the ITS region involved a hot start with 4 min at 94 °C, and 32 cycles of amplification (1 min denaturing at 94 °C, 45 s annealing at 53 °C, 60 s extension at 72 °C), and a final elongation step for 10 min at 72 °C. The sequencing primers are the same as amplified primers.

Phylogenetic analyses

Original chromatograms were evaluated with Sequencher 4.1.4 (Gene Codes Corporation, 2002) for base confirmation and contiguous sequences editing, and sequences were aligned with MAFFT v7.311 (Katoh et al. 2002; Katoh and Standley 2013) and were manually adjusted with MEGA 7.0.14 (Kumar et al. 2016). The aligned sequences were analysed with maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI).

Parsimony analysis was performed with heuristic searches of 1000 replicates with random stepwise addition using tree bisection reconnection (TBR) branch swapping as implemented in PAUP* 4.0a161 (Swofford 2018). All characters were weighted equally, and gaps were treated as missing data. For Bayesian Inference analysis, jModeltest v2.1.7 (Darriba et al. 2012) was used to select the best-fitted model of nucleotide substitution based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), and the SYM+I+G model was selected for the ITS dataset. Bayesian Inference based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (Yang and Rannala 1997) was performed using MrBayes v3.2.5 (Ronquist et al. 2012), four simultaneous Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMCs) were run for 3 million generations, and one tree sampled every 1000 generations. The first 750 trees (25% of total trees) were discarded as burn-in. The remaining trees were summarised in a 50% majority-rule consensus tree, and the posterior probabilities (PP) were calculated.


The aligned ITS dataset comprised 24 species (59 accessions) with 584 characters, of which 192 were variable and 152 (26.03%) were parsimony-informative. Four individuals of the newly collected Sisymbrium from Xinjiang have exact sequences, and sequence divergence between them and S. linifolium ranged from 0–0.2%, which was lower than that of 1.5% compared with S. polymorphum (Murray) Roth.

The generated MP trees had a very similar topology to the Bayesian tree, thus only the BI topology, which is almost as same as the result of Mutlu and Karakuş (2015), is shown. The four Xinjiang Sisymbrium clustered with S. linifolium (PP/BS = 1/97), and then clustered with S. polymorphum (PP/BS = 0.65/63) and S. loeselii L. (PP/BS = 0.78/54) (Figure 4b). Furthermore, sequences alignment revealed that the Xinjiang plants and North American S. linifolium shared several specific nucleotide residues that are different from S. polymorphum (Figure 4a), which further their identity as S. linifolium.


Sisymbrium linifolium (Nutt.) Nutt

The generic placement of Sisymbrium linifolium has long been in dispute. It was originally placed in Nasturtium W.T.Aiton (Nuttall, 1834), and then transferred to Sisymbrium (Nuttall in Torrey and Gray, 1838) and Schoenocrambe Greene (Greene, 1896). Though several authors claimed that, on aspects of habit, leaves and flowers morphology, this species is very similar to the Eurasian S. polymorphum and retained it in Sisymbrium (Payson 1922, Schulz 1924, A1-Shehbaz 1973), while others kept it in Schoenocrambe (Rollins 1982, 1993). Molecular phylogenetic study on Sisymbrium, using ITS sequence data, revealed that S. linifolium is most closely related to S. polymorphum within the Old World Sisymbrium clade of tribe Sisymbrieae, while all other New World Sisymbrium were placed in various genera of the tribe Thelypodieae (Warwick et al. 2002). These results prompted Warwick and Al-Shehbaz (2003) to propose nomenclatural adjustments for some Sisymbrium species and further delimit Sisymbrium to include only 40 Old World species, plus North American S. linifolium, instead of the 96 species previously assigned to it (Al-Shehbaz, 2006).

Based on morphology, the Xinjiang Sisymbrium material we collected could be identified as S. polymorphum, but both phylogenetic analyses and sequence alignments supported its placement in S. linifolium (Figure 4). This conclusion makes the distribution range of S. linifolium extended from North America into north-western China, with a large range disjunction (Figure 3). One possible explanation for such distribution is a recent introduction of seeds of S. linifolium from North America to China by unintentional human activities. Many weeds of the mustard family (e.g., Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense L., and Sisymbrium orientale) are invasive in both continents under preferable habitats (Zhou et al. 2007) such as farmlands, construction sites and ruins, waste places, disturbed sites, and roadsides. The Xinjiang S. linifolium was collected from a rocky hillside near the provincial road S229 in Jeminay County (Figure 1C). This locality is far from any villages or towns and, therefore, the possibility that its occurrence was the result of human activity is less likely. However, introduction with road construction material cannot be excluded as well.

Another possible explanation is that Sisymbrium linifolium actually has both North American and Central Asian distribution, and most, if not all, of its Asian populations were misidentified as the very similar species, S. polymorphum. Further molecular phylogenetic studies and crossing experiments on more populations from both continents are needed to determine whether a single species or two are in fact involved. If it turned out that the species grows on both continents, then the name for the combined species should be the earlier-published one, S. polymorphum.

Sisymbriopsis schugnana Botsch. & Tzvelev

Sisymbriopsis Botsch. & Tzvelev was originally recognised as a monospecific genus including S. schugnana as its type (Botschantsev and Tzvelev 1961). A second species, S. mollipila (Maxim.) Botsch., was transferred from Sisymbrium by Botschantsev (1966), and Al-Shehbaz et al. (1999) recognised three other species. Of the five species currently assigned to the genus, S. schugnana is endemic to Tajikistan, S. mollipila occurs in China, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and the other three species are endemic to China. However, in a molecular phylogenetic study by Warwick et al. (2004), S. mollipila and S. yechengensis (C.H.An) Al-Shehbaz, C.H.An & G.Yang were found unrelated to each other, and the former was close to some Neotorularia species, whereas the position of S. yechengensis was unresolved. In a later phylogenetic study (Warwick et al. 2007), S. mollipila was found nested within a clade containing species of the genera Desideria, Rhammatophyllum O.E.Schulz, and Solms-laubachia, whereas S. yechengensis formed a solitary clade. Based on the distant genetic position and clear morphological differentiation, Al-Shehbaz and German (2016) transferred S. yechengensis to the new genus Anzhengxia.

The material studied here was collected from alluvium of the Muztagata (also Mugtag Ata) Glacial Public Park in Tashkurgan County, Xinjiang, an area close to the borders of Tajikistan. The plant has decumbent stems, dentate and palmately veined leaves, linear and latiseptate secund fruit, and white to pink flowers (Figure 2). Our initial morphological studies failed to identify the plant using Zhou et al. (2001), but subsequent molecular sequence comparison narrowed its identity to Sisymbriopsis, and its unique secund fruits led to its recognition as S. schugnana and a new record from China. In addition, species of S. pamirica (Y.C.Lan & C.H.An) Al-Shehbaz, C.H.An & G.Yang, S. mollipila, and Anzhengxia yechengnica (C.H.An) Al-Shehbaz & D.A. German were recently included in a phylogenetic study on the tribe Euclidieae (Chen et al. 2018b). Three Sisymbriopsis species formed a monophyletic subclade embedded in the Solms-laubachia s.l. clade, and A. yechengnica was close to Pycnoplinthus uniflora (Hook.f. & Thomson) O.E.Schulz., these findings suggesting that the real identity of Sisymbriopsis is still awaiting further studies (Chen et al. 2018b).

Figure 2. 

Sisymbriopsis schugnana Botsch. & Tzvelev. A flowering plant B flowers C immature fruits.

Sisymbriopsis schugnana is narrowly distributed in the eastern Pamir (Figure 3), a dry and cold desert plateau currently subjected to severe desertification caused by extensive exploitation of dwarf shrub resources, a phenomenon termed “Teresken Syndrome” (Kraudzun et al. 2014). Discovery of the first population of S. schugnana within the poorly explored Chinese mountains bordering Tajikistan should promote further botanical explorations in similar areas of adjacent neighbouring countries.

Figure 3. 

Distribution of Sisymbrium linifolium and Sisymbriopsis schugnana. Black dots: Sisymbrium linifolium in North America (modified from Al-Shehbaz et al. 2010) and the new population in Xinjiang, China; red squares: Sisymbriopsis schugnana in Tajikistan and Xinjiang, China.

Figure 4. 

Multiple sequence alignment (a) and molecular phylogeny (b) based on ITS sequences. Bayesian posterior probability (PP) and MP bootstrap values (BS) are showed above branches in a following of PP / BS (only shown if > 50%). The newly found Sisymbrium linifolium were in grey.


We are grateful to Dunyan Tan, Yutao Wang, and Amet Kurbanjan for their help in field-work, and to Minshu Song for assistance on molecular studies. This study was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA 20050203 to H.S.), the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0505200), the Major Program of the NSFC (31590823 to H.S.), and the NSFC grant (31170181 to J.Y.).


  • Al-Shehbaz IA (1973) The biosystematics of the genus Thelypodium (Cruciferae). Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 204: 3–148.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA (1988) The genera of Sisymbrieae (Cruciferae: Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 69(3): 213–237.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA (2006) The genus Sisymbrium in South America, with synopses of the genera Chilocardamum, Mostacillastrum, Neuontobotrys, and Polypsecadium (Brassicaceae). Darwiniana 44(2): 341–358.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA, et al. (2010) Brassicaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Eds) Flora of North America north of Mexico, Vol. 7. Oxford University Press, New York, 224–746.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA (2015c) Aphragmus pygmaeus and Cardamine pseudotrifoliolata (Brassicaceae), new species from Himalayan China. Novon 24(1): 1–5.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA (2015d) Brassicaceae. In: Hong DY (Ed.) Flora of Pan-Himalaya Vol. 30. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and Science Press, Beijing.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA, Yue JP, Sun H (2004) Shangrilaia (Brassicaceae), a new genus from China. Novon 14(3): 271–274.
  • Al-Shehbaz IA, Beilstein MA, Kellogg EA (2006) Systematics and phylogeny of the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): An overview. Plant Systematics and Evolution 259(2–4): 89–120.
  • Botschantsev V (1966) De Cruciferis notae criticae, 5. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 3: 122–139. [In Russian: Бочанцев ВП (1966) Критические заметки о крестоцветных. Новости систематики высших растений 3: 122–139]
  • Botschantsev V, Tzvelev N (1961) Genus novum Sisymbriopsis nob. e familia Cruciferae. Botanicheskie Materialy Gerbariya Botanicheskogo Instituta V.L. Komarova Akademii Nauk SSSR 21: 143–145. [In Russian: Бочанцев ВП, Цвелев НН (1961) Новый род Sisymbriopsis nob. из семейства крестоцветных. Ботанические материалы гербария Ботанического института имени В.Л. Комарова Академии наук СССР 21: 143–145]
  • Chen WL, Smirnov SV, Kamelin RV, Zhang SR, Wang J, Liu JQ, Shmakov AI, German DA (2011) Some new or noteworthy plant species for China found in northwest Xinjiang. Turczaninowia 14(1): 75–80.
  • Chen HL, Al-Shehbaz IA, Yue JP, Sun H (2018b) New insights into the taxonomy of tribe Euclidieae (Brassicaceae), evidence from nrITS sequence data. PhytoKeys 100: 125–139.
  • Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D (2012) jModelTest 2: More models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9(8): 772–772.
  • German DA, Shmakov AI, Zhang XC, Chen WL, Smirnov SV, Xie L, Kamelin RV, Wang J (2006) Some new floristic findings in Xinjiang, China. Zhiwu Fenlei Xuebao 44(5): 598–603.
  • German DA, Chen WL, Smirnov SV, Liu B, Kutzev MG, Wang J, Shmakov AI, Kamelin RV (2012) Plant genera and species new to China recently found in northwest Xinjiang. Nordic Journal of Botany 30(1): 61–69.
  • Greene EL (1896) Studies in Cruciferae I.2. A proposed new genus, Schoenocrambe. Pittonia 3: 124–128.
  • Hao GQ, Al-Shehbaz IA, Wang Q, Liang QL, Liu JQ (2015) Eutrema racemosum (Eutremeae, Brassicaceae), a new tetraploid species from southwest China. Phytotaxa 224(2): 185–195.
  • Hao GQ, Al-Shehbaz IA, Liang QL, Liu JQ (2016) Eutrema tianshanense (Brassicaceae), a new species from Tian Shan Mountains of Central Asia. Phytotaxa 286(1): 23–31.
  • Hao G, Zhang C, Al-Shehbaz IA, Guo X, Bi H, Wang J, Liu J (2017) Eutrema giganteum (Brassicaceae), a new species from Sichuan, southwest China. PhytoKeys 82: 15–26.
  • Katoh K, Standley DM (2013) MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(4): 772–780.
  • Katoh K, Misawa K, Kuma K, Miyata T (2002) MAFFT: A novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Research 30(14): 3059–3066.
  • Kiefer M, Schmickl R, German DA, Mandáková T, Lysak MA, Al-Shehbaz IA, Franzke A, Mummenhoff K, Stamatakis A, Koch MA (2014) BrassiBase: Introduction to a novel knowledge database on Brassicaceae evolution. Plant and Cell Physiology 55(1): e3(1–9).
  • Koch MA, Kiefer M, German DA, Al-Shehbaz IA, Franzke A, Mummenhoff K, Schmickl R (2012a) BrassiBase: Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae – version 1.1. Taxon 61(5): 1001–1009.
  • Koch MA, Karl R, German DA, Al-Shehbaz IA (2012b) Systematics, taxonomy and biogeography of three new Asian genera from the Brassicaceae, tribe Arabideae: An ancient distribution circle around the Asian high mountains. Taxon 61(5): 955–969.
  • Kraudzun T, Vanselow KA, Samimi C (2014) Realities and myths of the Teresken Syndrome – An evaluation of the exploitation of dwarf shrub resources in the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan. Journal of Environmental Management 132: 49–59.
  • Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33(7): 1870–1874.
  • Mummenhoff K, Franzke A, Koch MA (1997) Molecular phylogenetics of Thlaspi s.l. (Brassicaceae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Canadian Journal of Botany 75(3): 469–482.
  • Mutlu B, Karakuş Ş (2015) A new species of Sisymbrium (Brassicaceae) from Turkey: Morphological and molecular evidence. Turkish Journal of Botany 39: 325–333.
  • Nuttall T (1834) A catalogue of a collection of plants made chiefly in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains or northern Andes, toward the sources of the Columbia River, by Mr. Nathaniel B. Wyeth. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 7(5): 60.
  • Payson EB (1922) Species of Sisymbrium native to America north of Mexico. University of Wyoming Publications in Science. Botany 1: 1–27.
  • Rollins RC (1982) Thelypodiopsis and Schoenocrambe (Cruciferae). Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 212: 71–102.
  • Rollins RC (1993) The Cruciferae of continental North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, Larget B, Liu L, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP (2012) MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61(3): 539–542.
  • Schulz OE (1924) CruciferaeSisymbrieae. In: Engler A (Ed.) Pflanzenreich 86 (IV. 105). Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1–388.
  • Torrey J, Gray A (1838) A Flora of North American, Vol. 1, Part 1, Wiley & Putnam, New York, 1–184.
  • Turland NJ, Wiersema JH, Barrie FR, Greuter W, Hawksworth DL, Herendeen PS, Knapp S, Kusber WH, Li DZ, Marhold K, May TW, McNeill J, Monro AM, Prado J, Price MJ, Smith GF (2018) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress, Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159: 1–254.
  • Warwick SI, Al-Shehbaz IA, Price RA, Sauder C (2002) Phylogeny of Sisymbrium (Brassicaceae) based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Canadian Journal of Botany 80(9): 1002–1017.
  • Warwick SI, Al-Shehbaz IA, Sauder CA, Harris JG, Koch M (2004) Phylogeny of Braya and Neotorularia (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal internaltranscribed spacer and chloroplast trnL intron sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany 82(3): 376–392.
  • Warwick SI, Sauder CA, Al-Shehbaz IA, Jacquemoud F (2007) Phylogenetic relationships in the tribes Anchonieae, Chorisporeae, Euclidieae, and Hesperideae (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94(1): 56–78.[56:PRITTA]2.0.CO;2
  • White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (Eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, 315–322.
  • Xiao Y, Li C, Hsieh TY, Tian DK, Zhou JJ, Zhang DG, Chen GX (2015) Eutrema bulbiferum (Brassicaceae), a new species with bulbils from Hunan, China. Phytotaxa 219(3): 233–242.
  • Yue JP, Al-Shehbaz IA, Sun H (2005) Solms-laubachia zhongdianensis (Brassicaceae), a new species from the Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, China. Annales Botanici Fennici 42(2): 155–158.
  • Yue JP, Sun H, Li JH, Al-Shehbaz IA (2008) A synopsis of an expanded Solms-laubachia (Brassicaceae), and the description of four new species from western china. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 95(3): 520–538.
  • Zhou TY, Lu LL, Yang G, Al-Shehbaz IA (2001) Brassicaceae. In: Wu CY, Raven PH (Eds) Flora of China Vol. 8. Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis), 1–193.
  • Zhou HX, Liu ED, Liu ZW, Peng H (2007) An alien species, Sisymbrium orientale (Brassicaceae), emerged in Yunnan, China. Yunnan Zhi Wu Yan Jiu 29(3): 333–336.
  • Zhou YY, Zhang HW, Hu JQ, Jin XF (2014) Sinalliaria, a new genus of Brassicaceae from eastern China, based on morphological and molecular data. Phytotaxa 186(4): 188–198.

Appendix A

Taxa and GenBank accession numbers for the nrITS sequences downloaded from GenBank and used in the phylogenetic analyses; an asterisk (*) indicates the new species record.

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (AF531561), Erucastrum supinum (L.) Al-Shehbaz & S.I.Warwick (AF531604, AF531605), Neotorularia torulosa (Desf.) Hedge & J.Léonard (AF137571), Neuontobotrys lanata (Walp.) Al-Shehbaz (AF531651, AF531652), Polypsecadium solidagineum (Triana & Planch.) Al-Shehbaz (AF531602); Sisymbrium altissimum L. (AF531559, AF531569, AF531571), S. austriacum Jacq. (AF531576, AF531577, AF531578), S. brassiciforme C.A.Mey. (AF531579, AF531580), S. burchellii DC. (AF531581), S. capense Thunb. (AF531582), S. erysimoides Desf. (AF531584, AF531585), S. heteromallum C.A.Mey. (AF531586), S. irio L. (AF531558, AF531567, AF531568), S. linifolium Nutt. (AF183088, AF183089, AF531613, KX646463), S. loeselii L. (AF531573, AF531574, AF531575, AF531587), S. luteum (Maxim.) O.E.Schulz (AF531588), S. malatyanum Mutlu & Karakuş (KJ557138, KJ557140, KJ557142), S. officinale (L.) Scop. (AF531557, AF531564, KJ557136), S. orientale L. (AF531590, AF531591, AF531592, KJ557139, KJ557143), S. polyceratium L. (AF531594), S. polymorphum (Murray) Roth (AF531595, AF531596), S. septulatum DC. (AF531600, AF531601, KJ557137), S. strictissimum L. (AF531603, AF531653), S. volgense M.Bieb. ex E.Fourn. (AF531608, AF531609, AF531610),*S. linifolium (Nutt.) Nutt. (MK419926, MK419927, MK419928, MK419929).

login to comment