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Deinostigma fasciculatum, a new species of Gesneriaceae in Yunnan, China
expand article infoYu-Min Shui§, Jian-Yong Wu|, Zhi-Yong Yu, Shi-Wei Guo#¤§, Li Chen#§, Fang Wen«, Wen-Hong Chen#»
‡ University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
§ Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
| Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing, China
¶ Fenshuiling National Nature Reserve, Jinping, China
# Karst Conservation Initiative of Yunnan, Kunming, China
¤ Yunnan University, Kunming, China
« Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, China
» Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunan, China
Open Access

Abstract

A new species of Deinostigma (Gesneriaceae) from Yunnan, China, Deinostigma fasciculatum W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui, sp. nov., has been discovered and described. In the genus, the new species is similar to D. cicatricosum (W.T. Wang) D.J. Middleton & Mich. Möller and D. cyrtocarpum (D. Fang & L. Zeng) Mich. Möller & H.J. Atkins in dark purple flowers and falcate fruit, but differs from them mainly in the inflorescences with fasciculate flowers, calyx lobes (reflexed, narrowly lanceolate and 1.2–1.3 cm long), corolla tubes (sharply contracted below middle and white outside and below throat). The above three species grow nearby non-limestone wet cliffs and geographically isolated with different distributions (the new species in Southeast Yunnan, D. cicatricosum in Eastern Guangxi and D. cyrtocarpum in Southern Guangxi and Guangdong, China).

Keywords

Deinostigma cicatricosum, Deinostigma cyrtocarpum, new species, Sino-Vietnamese border, Yunnan

Introduction

The genus Deinostigma W.T. Wang & Z.Y. Li (Gesneriaceae) was established in 1992, based on the type species D. poilanei (Pellegr.) W.T. Wang & Z.Y. Li which was transferred from Hemiboea Clarke, from South of Vietnam (Wang and Li 1992). Möller et al. (2016) enlarged this genus to 7 species, including some species in Deinostigma and previously in Primulina in South of China and Vietnam, based on molecular (ITS and trnL-F regions), morphological and cytological characters. Five Vietnamese species are in the genus and all distributed in Central Vietnam and South Vietnam, far from the border with China, viz. Deinostigma cycnostylum (B.L.Burtt) D.J.Middleton & H.J.Atkins, D. eberhardtii (Pellegr.) D.J.Middleton & H.J.Atkins, D. minutihamatum (D.Wood) D.J.Middleton & H.J.Atkins, D. poilanei (Pellegr.) W.T.Wang & Z.Y.Li, D. tamiana (B.L.Burtt) D.J.Middleton & H.J.Atkins. Up to now, two Chinese species, viz. Deinostigma cyrtocarpum (D. Fang & L. Zeng) Mich. Möller & H.J. Atkins and D. cicatricosum (W.T.Wang) D.J. Middleton & Mich. Möller are recognised as members of the genus (Wang 1981; Fang et al. 1993). Although D. cicatricosum, formerly Chirita cicatricosa W.T. Wang, was regarded as a synonym of Chirita minutihamata D. Wood from Vietnam (Wang et al. 1990, 1998; Li and Wang 2005), Möller et al. (2016) and Wen et al. (2019) still recognised D. cicatricosum in the genus.

Previous orthography of species epithets in Deinostigma has used the feminine ending (i.e., D. "cycnostyla", see Möller et al. 2016). The generic name Deinostigma is neuter however, and so all epithets have been corrected here (e.g., to Deinostigma cycnostylum) to comply with Article 62.2(c) of the ICN.

After the surveys in the Sino-Vietnamese border (Fig. 1), a new species of Deinostigma from Jinping county, Yunnan province, China, has been confirmed and described. Careful examination of the type specimens and related publications reveals that the new species is more similar to D. cicatricosum (W.T. Wang) D.J. Middleton & Mich. Möller and D. cyrtocarpum (D. Fang & L. Zeng) Mich. Möller & H.J. Atkins than the other five Vietnamese species in fruit morphology (Wang et al. 1998; Wei et al. 2010; Möller et al. 2016; Wen et al. 2019). Although the above three Chinese species are similar to each other in habit and falcate fruit, the floral morphology and geographical distribution provide evidence to identify them respectively (Figs 13, Table 1).

Figure 1. 

The distribution of Deinostigma fasciculatum W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui, sp. nov. (■), with D. cicatricosum (W.T.Wang) D.J.Middleton & Mich.Möller (●) and D. cyrtocarpum (D.Fang & L.Zeng) Mich.Möller & H.J.Atkins (▲).

Table 1.

Morphological comparison between Deinostigma fasciculatum sp. nov., D. cicatricosum and D. cyrtocarpum in China.

Characters Deinostigma fasciculatum D. cicatricosum D. cyrtocarpum
Leaf base often slightly peltate seldom peltate often slightly peltate
Inflorescences with fasciculate flowers with remote flowers with remote flowers
Calyx lobes narrowly lanceolate, 12–13 × ca. 2 mm, inside sparsely glandular villous narrowly oblong, 8–10 × 1.8–2.5 mm, inside nearly glabrous narrowly oblong, 5–8 × 1–2 mm, inside nearly glabrous
Calyx margin margin reflexed margin compacted margin compacted
Corolla tube outside white, sharply contracted below throat outside purple, slightly contracted outside purple, gradually contracted
Capsule narrowly oblong linear narrowly oblong
Locality Southeast Yunnan, China Southern Guangxi and Guangdong, China Eastern Guangxi, China
Altitude 500–850 m 300–737 m 100–200 m

Materials and method

We observed the morphology of the species and took photographs of the habitat and macro-morphological characters, both during the fieldwork in Jinping County, South-eastern Yunnan, China and at Kunming Botanical Garden. We also examined the specimens of Deinostigma in the herbaria (E, KUN, P & PE). All micro-morphological characters were observed and photographed with a Leica S8 APO stereomicroscope (Shanghai, China) and a Nikon D700 microscope camera (Tokyo, Japan).

Taxonomy

Deinostigma fasciculatum W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui, sp. nov.

Figure 2

Type

China. Yunnan province, Jinping County, Ma-an-di town, 22°58'33"N, 104°50'32"E, 11 August 2018, collected from the living plants at Kunming Botanical Garden, Y.M. Shui & S.W. Guo B2018-493 (holotype, KUN!).

Figure 2. 

Deinostigma fasciculatum W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui, sp. nov. A habit B mature fruits C frontal view of flower D leaf abaxial side E top and back view of flowers F top view of opened corolla showing the interior surface of corolla tube, stamens and staminodes G pistil and calyx, arrow showing the calyx H ovary, calyx and bract. (b = bract, c = calyx, d = disc).

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to D. cicatricosum and D. cyrtocarpum in dark purple flowers and falcate fruit, but differs from the latter two species in the inflorescences with fasciculate flowers (vs. with remote flowers), calyx lobes reflexed (vs. compacted), corolla tubes white outside and below throat (vs. purple) (Figs 2C, 3). The new species differs from D. cicatricosum in calyx lobes narrowly lanceolate (vs. narrowly oblong) and 1.2–1.3 cm long (vs. 0.8–1.0 cm), corolla tube sharply contracted below middle (vs. slightly contracted), capsule narrowly oblong (vs. linear) 2–2.5 cm long (vs. 3–4 cm long). It differs from D. cyrtocarpum in calyx lobes 1.2–1.3 cm long (vs. 0.5–0.8 cm long), corolla tube sharply contracted (vs. gradually contracted).

Figure 3. 

Photographs of Deinostigma cicatricosum (W.T. Wang) D.J. Middleton & Mich. Möller (A–H) and D. cyrtocarpum (D. Fang & L. Zeng) Mich. Möller & H.J. Atkins (I & J) A habit B adaxial surface of leaf C frontal view of flower D top view of flower E opened corolla showing the interior surface of corolla tube, stamens and staminodes, arrows showing the staminodes F stamens and staminodes, arrows showing the staminodes G pistil and calyx H bract and young flower I inflorescence of D. cyrtocarpum J lateral view of inflorescence (b = bract, c = calyx, d = disc).

Herbs perennial

Stems pendulous, 30–60 cm long, densely glandular villous. Leaves alternate near stem apex; petiole 2–3.5 cm long, densely glandular villous; leaf blade herbaceous, ovate, elliptic or cordate, 3–9 × 2.5–4 cm, base oblique, often slightly peltate, cuneate, cordate or round, apex acuminate, margin serrate, adaxially densely glandular villous, abaxially densely glandular villous; venation penninerved, lateral veins 3–5 on each side of mid-rib. Cymes axillary near stem apex, fasciculate; peduncle 1.5–11.5 cm long, densely glandular villous; bracts 2, ovate, caducous, 0.8–1.2 × ca. 0.6 cm, adaxially sparsely glandular villous, abaxially densely glandular villous; bracteoles 2, lanceolate, caducous, ca. 0.6 × 0.2 cm, adaxially sparsely glandular villous, abaxially densely glandular villous; pedicel ca. 0.5 cm long, densely glandular villous. Calyx 5-parted to the base, segments lanceolate, 1.2–1.3 × ca. 0.2 cm, apex acute, margin entire, outside densely glandular villous, inside sparsely glandular villous. Corolla funnelform, zygomorphic, 3.5–4 cm long, ca. 1 cm wide at the throat, outside dark purple, densely glandular pubescent, inside dark purple, glabrous; tube ca. 2.5 cm long; limb 2-lipped, adaxial lip 2-lobed, lobes semi-circular, ca. 0.8 cm long, 0.5 cm in diam. at base; abaxial lip ca. 1.5 cm long, 3-lobed, middle lobes orbicular, ca. 0.5 × 0.5 cm, lateral lobes orbicular, ca. 0.5 × 0.6 cm. Stamens 2, adnate to corolla tube ca. 1.5 cm from base, coherent; anthers densely villous; filaments densely villous, ca. 1.2 cm long; staminode 3, lateral 2, villous, slightly coherent with the anthers, adnate to corolla tube ca. 1.5 cm from base, ca. 0.8 cm long; middle 1, adnate to corolla tube ca. 1.5 cm from base, ca. 1 mm long. Disc ring-like, ca. 1 mm high. Pistil ca. 3.5 cm long; ovary linear, densely glandular pubescent, ca. 0.8 cm long; style linear, ca. 2.7 cm long; stigmas obtrapeziform, emarginate. Capsule obliquely narrowly oblong, 2–2.5 cm long, curved.

Phenology

Flowering is from May to August and fruiting from July to September.

Etymology

The name refers to the flowers, which are fasciculate on inflorescences of the new species.

Vernacular name

Cù Huā Qí Zhù Jù Tái (Chinese pronunciation); 簇花奇柱苣苔 (Chinese name).

Distribution and habitat

The new species only grows on the wet cliff in the valley and only occurs at the type locality, Jinping County, Yunnan province, China.

Additional examined specimens

China. Yunnan province: Jinping county, Ma-an-di town, 22°58'33"N, 104°50'32"E, in valleys, alt. 500 m a.s.l., with fruits, 22 January 2016, Y.M. Shui & W.H. Chen B2016-084 (KUN!). The same county, Ma-an-di town, Maguaitang village, on wet cliff, alt. 520–850 m a.s.l., with buds, 1 May 2019, Z.Y. Yu B2019-001 (KUN!).

Conservation state

The new species has been only observed from the type locality in the nature reserve, with ca. 30, 000 m2 area (300 m × 100 m) and ca. 160 mature individuals on the cliff. The type locality is located in a deep valley with a small power station. Occasionally, local people go there to camp. Additionally, due to the building of a road, some of the slopes may become unstable and fall, resulting in some individuals being destroyed in the future. So, we hereby assessed the new species as “Critically Endangered (CR)” (C2+a+ii or B2+b+iii). (IUCN 2012, 2017).

Note

Deinostigma cyrtocarpum is easily distinguished from D. cicatricosum and D. fasciculatum by its short calyx (Figs 1, 3J). Secondly, in D. cicatricosum and D. fasciculatum, corolla tubes are obviously contracted at the middle. As to the L/U ratio (width of lower part/width of upper part of corolla tube), the L/U ratio of D. cicatricosum is about 1/2.5 and lightly contracted, while the L/U ratio of D. fasciculatum is about 1/5 and sharply contracted (Figs 2, 3). Besides, after the careful examination of the type specimens, Deinostigma minutihamatum is distributed in Central Vietnam with 2300 m elevation and characterised by almost straight capsules instead of falcate capsules and so considerably different from the Chinese species of the genus with falcate capsules (Fig. 2B; Wang et al. 1998, Wei et al. 2010).

Acknowledgements

We thank Mr Zong-Li Liang in the Managing Department of Jinping Fengshuiling National Nature Reserve for providing the help in the fieldwork. We greatly acknowledge the support from Biodiversity Survey, Observation and Assessment Program of Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants no. 31470306, 31370228), Monitoring program of the Hekou Field Station of tropical karst ecosystem (2020-YN-06), and Guilin Science and Technology Foundation (20180107-6).

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