The Cuito catchment of the Okavango system: a vascular plant checklist for the Angolan headwaters
expand article infoDavid J. Goyder§, Nigel Barker|, Stoffel P. Bester#, Arnold Frisby|, Matt Janks¤, Francisco M.P. Gonçalves«»
‡ National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project, Luanda, Angola
§ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom
| University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
¶ North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
# South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa
¤ GroundTruth, Hilton, South Africa
« University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
» Herbarium of Lubango, Lubango, Angola
Open Access


This paper aims to provide a baseline for conservation planning by documenting patterns of plant diversity and vegetation in the upper catchment of the Cuito River. 417 species are recorded from this region. Nine of these are species potentially new to science. Ten species are newly recorded from Angola, with an additional species only recorded previously within Angola from the northern enclave of Cabinda. The 108 new provincial records for Moxico clearly indicate the lack of collections from Angola’s largest province. We note the existence of extensive peat deposits in the Cuito river system for the first time and suggest that one of Barbosa’s vegetation types in the area needs to be reassessed.


Angola, Botswana, Cuando Cubango, Moxico, peat deposits, Namibia


Internationally famous for its wildlife, the Okavango Delta wetland in northern Botswana was the 1000th World Heritage Site to be designated by UNESCO and is surrounded by desert. The hydrology and ecology of the Delta are dependent entirely on rainfall in the highlands of central Angola, and the flow of water south and east through the Okavango’s two principal tributaries, the Cuito and Cubango rivers. The Cubango system has been studied extensively in recent years (Oldeman et al. 2013), but little attention has been paid to biodiversity or conservation of the Cuito drainage.

Central and eastern Angola is overlain by deep Kalahari sands formed from uplifted and reworked deposits of an ancient palaeo-lake. The upper catchment of the Cuito and Cuanavale rivers falls mostly within Moxico Province where the plateau lies at an altitude of around 1500m, and the rivers have cut down to an elevation of around 1350 m. The landscape receives rainfall of approximately 1250 mm a year in the headwater lakes region, dropping to around 750 mm at the southern limits of the core study area which is marked by the Menongue – Longa – Cuito Cuanavale road in Cuando Cubango Province. The rainy season lasts from November to April and soils are highly leached. In consequence, they support very little agriculture (Diniz 1973).

Barbosa (1970) assigned the vegetation of the region stretching from just east of Camacupa [General Machado] to Luena [Luso] and south to Longa to vegetation type 17A. This he described as dense, high, mixed (Zambesian and Congolian) miombo woodland with “chanas” or geoxylic-rich grasslands. According to Barbosa, these woodlands comprise Brachystegia species (B. spiciformis Benth. and B. longifolia Benth.) and Julbernardia paniculata (Benth.) Troupin, with some Guibourtia species, Cryptosepalum species and Marquesia species. Around Longa, the vegetation transitions into Barbosa’s vegetation type 24, which he describes as a mosaic of savanna, woodland and dry forest with characteristic woody vegetation containing Brachystegia bakeriana Hutch. & Burtt Davy and Burkea africana Hook.

White (1977) drew attention to the high rainfall highly leached Kalahari sand system and its peculiar flora in a seminal paper on the underground forests of Africa, extrapolating from his knowledge of similar habitats in north-west Zambia. But detailed surveys of the flora of this region are lacking.

Angola is the least intensively inventoried country in southern Africa for plants (Goyder and Gonçalves in press) – this can be seen graphically in the paucity of plant distribution records for the country (Fig. 1) at the start of the National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project series of expeditions in 2015. Not only is the whole country under-recorded in terms of plants, but the eastern half of the country has very little geo-referenced specimen data (Marshall et al. 2016, Stropp et al. 2016, Sosef et al. 2017). Early collectors such as the Austrian botanist Friedrich Welwitsch collected along the coast, and along routes into the interior as far as Malange Province in the north and the Huíla Plateau in the south, but no further east (Albuquerque 2008, Goyder and Gonçalves in press). Swiss botanist John Gossweiler collected in all of Angola’s provinces over the course of fifty years but spent very little time in central and eastern parts of the country apart from surveys of the Dundo area, Lunda Norte, in 1946 and 1948 funded by the diamond concession DIAMANG (Cavaco 1959, Figueiredo and Smith 2008). In addition, many of Gossweiler’s collections are difficult to localise with outdated place names, and duplicates in herbaria accessible to the authors frequently omit locality data altogether. Slowly, as Angola has become more accessible following the end of the civil conflict in 2002, botanical surveys have resumed in areas of high endemism or conservation concern along the western escarpment (Hind and Goyder 2014, Gonçalves and Goyder 2016, Gonçalves et al. 2016), but the large eastern provinces of Moxico and Cuando Cubango remain poorly documented.

Figure 1. 

Plant distribution records for southern Africa. Raw data from GBIF ( Note the absence of records for the Upper Cuito River.

The only major expedition to study parts of the Cuito catchment botanically was the Kunene-Sambesi Expedition led by Pieter van der Kellen, and that covered only the area either side of the present-day Menongue – Longa – Cuito Cuanavale road. The expedition was in the Cuito system from 17th December 1899 to around 4th March 1900, and again between 4–18th April 1900. The botany of the expedition was written up by Warburg (1903) and summarised by Figueiredo et al. (2009) who included notes on the botanist Hugo Baum and on the itinerary. Collections which form the basis of the many species described by predominantly Berlin-based botanists in Warburg (1903) and by subsequent authors were made from the Longa, Cuiriri and Cuito rivers. The area was revisited by Mendes whose 1959–1960 expedition covered the area between Kuvango [Artur de Paiva], Menongue [Serpa Pinto] and Cuito Cuanavale. Prior to the start of the Okavango Wilderness Project many species were known only from this area, and the surveys offered the chance to see if they occurred more widely.

Material and methods

The core study area is located to the south of Munhango (Figs 2, 3), and fieldwork was centred initially around the source lakes of the Cuito and Cuanavale rivers (Fig. 4), with excursions radiating from these points to the area south of Tempue and to nearby headwater lakes of other river catchments. In addition, more southerly tributaries such as the Longa (Fig. 5), Luassingua and Cuiriri river valleys were accessed from the Menongue – Cuito Cuanavale road. The darker green area towards the top left of Fig. 2 corresponds with the elevated and dissected plateau covered with moist miombo woodland which formed our core study area.

Figure 2. 

The Okavango Basin and its two principal tributaries the Cuito and Cubango rivers. The core study area is in the more elevated darker green zone of the upper Cuito river.

Figure 3. 

Locations visited during 2015 and 2016 surveys.

Figure 4. 

Cuito River source lake, Moxico Province. Extensive moist miombo woodland on the plateau with a few partially cleared areas on the slopes, peaty marsh surrounding the source lake and a narrow strip of fire-maintained grassland between the marsh and the miombo. Photograph D. Goyder.

Figure 5. 

Upper Longa River valley at the southern end of the study area, Cuando Cubango Province. Moist miombo woodland on the plateau with a much broader valley containing more extensive peaty wetlands and fire-maintained grassland zones. The river is fast-flowing in deep sinuous channels with bare sandy bottoms. Photograph D. Goyder.

Botanical surveys were conducted at four different seasons to maximise recording of plant diversity – May–June 2015 (dry season), February–March 2016 (height of the rainy season), October–November 2016 (early rainy season) and April 2018 (late rains/early dry season). DG took part in all four surveys and focussed principally on the higher rainfall zones of the catchment between the headwaters and the Menongue – Cuito Cuanavale road (Barbosa vegetation type 17A and its transition to vegetation type 24). FG participated in the third of these surveys, and AF focussed on the Longa and Cuiriri river valleys (transition zone between Barbosa 17A and 24 vegetation types), which were the core of Baum’s study in 1899 and 1900, and which had proved to be of particular botanical interest in earlier surveys. NB, SB and MJ surveyed the Longa area and the catchment south of the Menongue – Cuito Cuanavale road in June 2015.

Plant diversity was mostly assessed through walk-over surveys of each habitat in turn. But for grasses specifically, plots were set up in February-March 2016 following the methodology of Vorontsova et al. (2016) in order to feed into wider continental assessments of natural and anthropogenic grassland diversity. One plot was set up in undisturbed valley grassland near Tempué, a second in grassland possibly cleared from plateau woodland, but apparently long established, above the Cuito source lake, and the third plot was placed in open miombo woodland on the slope immediately adjacent to the Cuito source lake.

The major vegetation types generally form discrete, readily observable units in different parts of the landscape and were categorised informally.

Herbarium collections were made in sets of four where possible and deposited in two Angolan institutions (the National Biodiversity Institute of the Ministério do Ambiente in Luanda and the Lubango Herbarium (LUBA) at ISCED-Huíla), one in the UK (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)) and one in South Africa (the SANBI Herbarium in Pretoria (PRE)). Plants covered by CITES regulations (Aloe, succulent Euphorbia, Orchidaceae) were deposited only in Angolan institutions, and identified from photographs. Plants were dried on a frame over a gas burner, using aluminium corrugates to transmit heat and dry air through the press. Collections were identified principally by DG at Kew by reference to the unrivalled tropical African collections and literature held there. Expert opinion was sought from specialists in particular plant groups: Gill Challen – Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthaceae; Phillip Cribb – Orchidaceae; Iain Darbyshire – Acanthaceae, Linderniaceae, Orobanchaceae; Sebsebe Demissew – Asparagus; Peter Goldblatt – Gladiolus; Nicholas Hind – Compositae; Isabel Larridon – Cyperaceae; Gwylim Lewis – Leguminosae; Mike Lock – Xyridaceae, Zingiberaceae; Inger Nordal – Crinum; Jorge Paiva – Polygala; Alan Paton – Lamiaceae; Sylvia Phillips – Eriocaulaceae; Brian Schrire – Indigofera; Andre Schuiteman – Orchidaceae; Maria Vorontsova – Gramineae; Kaj Vollesen – Acanthaceae; Martin Xanthos – Cyperaceae, Gramineae.

Angiosperm classification and nomenclature follows APG IV (2016) at family level, and the African Plant Database (version 3.4.0) or the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP 2016) in most cases at lower taxonomic levels. Fern and lycopod names follow Roux (2009). On occasion, accepted names diverge from these resources where expert opinion suggests otherwise. Where new country or provincial records are reported, Figueiredo and Smith (2008), recent taxonomic revisions, and searchable online herbarium catalogues (principally Kew (K), the Natural History Museum, London (BM) and the Tropical Institute, Lisbon (LISC)) have been used as the baselines for comparison.

Local usage of plants was documented on 5th and 9th March 2016 thanks to the inhabitants of Samenunga village (12°56'00"S, 018°48'54"E) who explained which plants had medicinal properties, and which were used to make items such as fish traps and beehives. Several cultural artefacts were purchased and deposited in the Economic Botany collections at Kew, where some have since been put on public display. Vouchers of the relevant plants were taken for verification at Kew.


Approximately 1100 plant collections were made over the course of the four expeditions, with a further 40+ site-based observations recorded.

The principal vegetation types of the core study area are outlined below.


Moist miombo woodlands

Vast swathes of central and eastern Angola are covered in this vegetation. The most common trees we observed were Brachystegia bakeriana, B. longifolia, Cryptosepalum exfoliatumDe Wild. subsp. pseudotaxus (Baker f.) P.A.Duvign. & Brenan, Julbernardia paniculata, with frequent Pterocarpus angolensis DC., Erythrophleum africanum (Welw. ex Benth.) Harms, Baphia massaiensis Taub. subsp. obovata (Schinz) Brummitt var. obovata, Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema, Guibourtia coleosperma (Benth.) J.Léonard, Monotes dasyanthus Gilg., M. glaber Sprague, and Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.Penn. Shrubs include Bauhinia mendoncae Torre & Hillc., Bauhinia urbaniana Schinz and Copaifera baumiana Harms. Rainfall is generally between 750–1250 mm a year in the upper Cuito catchment. Where the rainfall drops below this, to the south (lower Longa valley and Cuito Cuanavale southwards), other elements such as Baikiaea plurijuga Harms come in, and by M’Pupo Falls, all elements of miombo are replaced by dry thorn-scrub.

Isoberlinia angolensis (Benth.) Hoyle & Brenan var. lasiocalyx Hoyle & Brenan and B. spiciformis are essentially absent from the Cuito catchment, occurring instead on richer substrate to the west. We only noted a single occurrence of B. spiciformis in plateau woodland in the Cuito system.

Brachystegia bakeriana is most common near the outer margins of Cuito miombo woodland, and where the miombo patches are very small, as in the “fairy forests” near the Cuanavale source, these are dominated by this species. More extensive miombo is on the slopes is usually dominated by Julbernardia paniculata, and some plateau miombo (presumably with different soil composition) by Cryptosepalum exfoliatum subsp. pseudotaxus, which can form dense, closed canopy stands of miombo forest rather than woodland. Forest lacks the flammable grass layer that is present in woodland and under Cryptosepalum we frequently observed the presence of a hummock-forming moss not generally found elsewhere. Julbernardia paniculata was seen as the principle nectar source for honey bees during our 2016 surveys.

Swamp forest

We spent a short time in a small patch of swamp forest at the source of the Rio Cuiva (Kwanza drainage). Swamp forest appears to be rare and highly localised in Moxico, unlike in Lunda Norte where extensive formations occur along tributaries of the Kasai River (Congo drainage). The Cuiva swamp forest contained species of Guineo-Congolian affinity such as Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman and Syzygium owariense (P.Beauv.) Benth.

Seasonally burned savannas

These high rainfall grasslands receive 750–1250 mm of rain a year in the upper Cuito catchment, and are on highly leached Kalahari sand. Eastern Angola contains probably 80% of this habitat, which also extends into parts of NW Zambia and western parts of the DR Congo. This habitat is fire-adapted, and is dominated by grasses or by geoxylic suffrutices, plants with large underground woody biomass and seasonal above-ground shoots. Factors governing whether grasses dominated, or geoxylic suffrutices dominated these areas were not clear. Maurin et al. (2014) argue that across Africa, fire is the evolutionary driver of such lifeforms, whereas Finckh et al. (2016) provide convincing evidence that in upland central and eastern Angola, frost also plays a principal role, with cold air pooling in valley bottoms in the winter dry season and “burning” new shoots. Proximity to the water table limits growth of trees also.

The 2016 surveys took us to several sites with significant expanses of natural or little disturbed grasslands. They were particularly extensive near the confluence of the Cuito and Calua rivers downstream of the Cuito source lake, and the equivalent confluence downstream of the Cuanavale source lake. The third notable site was the Tempué valley grasslands. Grassland diversity plots were placed at three sites – one on the plateau above the Cuito source lake, one in the nearby miombo, and one in the Tempué valley grassland. Loudetia species dominated – L. simplex (Nees) C.E.Hubb. in open areas and L. lanata (Stent & J.M.Rattray) C.E.Hubb. in the woodland. Five to seven grass species were found in each plot. Total grass diversity in the upper Cuito-Cuanavale system was 27 species, the majority (18) occurring in open grassland. Grassland diversity appears significantly higher than in the lower altitude plateau grasslands of Lunda Norte, also dominated by Loudetia simplex (Darbyshire et al. 2011, 2014). Polygala robusta Gürke seems to be associated with diverse natural grassland and could perhaps be considered an indicator of good quality habitat. Another rare species encountered in this environment was the Angolan endemic Blepharis flava Vollesen, known from just eight earlier collections. Both of these species are newly recorded from Moxico. A spectacular blue-flowered Barleria is new to science and was collected at the Cuito-Calua confluence. Also new to science is a geoxylic species of Baphia (Leguminosae), a genus of around 50 species of tree and shrub – the “underground forest” life form had not been recorded in Baphia before. This taxon was only seen in one area of the upper Lungué-Bungo catchment, in plains with a rich flora of geoxylic legume species.

Burkea africana was a common tree in savanna vegetation at the Cuanavale source lake. This was encountered much less frequently in the Cuito source region.

Further south, the upper Longa valley, despite large-scale conversion to rice cultivation, has extensive areas of burned savanna, with some extremely rare species. Orthanthera gossweileri C.Norman was known only from the type, but we recollected it in the Longa valley in March 2016, and at the Cuanavale source in October 2016 extending its range some 200 km to the north.


Wetlands tend not to be very diverse botanically, nor to have local endemics. They are however, poorly sampled in Angola.

The extensive peaty wetlands of the Cuito have a much more diverse flora than the rather limited equivalent on the Cubango, which is a much faster flowing river running through a rocky valley. Clump- or tussock-forming plants such as Eriocaulaceae and Xyridaceae are common, while plants such as Droseraceae and Lentibulariaceae are able to supplement the limited nutrients available to other plants by trapping and digesting insects or aquatic invertebrates. Sedges (Cyperaceae) are present but are not as common as preliminary palynological records might suggest (unpublished preliminary results).

The headwater lakes of the Cuito system support a wider range of open water aquatics (true water lilies (Nymphaeaceae) and other aquatics such as Nymphoides and Brasenia) than is present on the Cubango. One unusual aquatic plant encountered in the fast-flowing upper Longa river was Mayaca baumii Gürke (Mayacaceae), a near-endemic and the only old-world representative of this otherwise entirely neotropical family.

Conversely, rocky rapid specialists such as Hydrostachys triaxialis Engl. & Gilg (Hydrostachyaceae) and Inversodicraea warmingiana (Gilg) Engl. (Podostemaceae) which are present on suitable portions of the Cubango (Cheek et al. 2017) are completely absent from the Cuito.

Robust river-margin plants include Gardenia imperialis K.Schum. (Rubiaceae) are present throughout both river catchments, while plants such as Tacazzea rosmarinifolia Oliv. (Apocynaceae) with rheophyic adaptations and requiring a rocky footing are found only on the Cubango.

Many wetland species have their known distributions extended dramatically. Genlisea angolensis R.D.Good, for example, was formerly known in Angola from just Cuando Cubango and from one collection in the DR Congo – collections in both 2015 and 2016 demonstrate this species occurs throughout the catchment of the Cuito and Cuanavale rivers (Goyder 2016). Wetland species of Polygala and Eriocaulaceae show similar distributions. The photographic record of Crinum binghamii Nordal & Kwembeya from just N of Cuito Cuanavale demonstrates this also, as it was formerly known only from western Zambia (Nordal and Kwembeya 2004, Zimudzi et al. 2008). While extending the known distributions, the new limits reflect the high rainfall, low nutrient Kalahari sand ecology.

The source lakes generally have deep accumulations of unconsolidated peat at their margins. We measured these to a depth of at least five metres at the Cuito source lake. The valleys also have more consolidated peat deposits. Such deposits are rare in tropical Africa. Reiley and Page (2016), in a recent volume on tropical peatland, state that the only significant peat deposits in Angola are on the lower Cuanza River 50 km from Luanda. The upper Cuito and Cuanavale lakes and wetlands seem to have been overlooked, despite reference in the same volume to peaty deposits in the Okavango Delta in Botswana. Analysis of peat cores from these deposits in ongoing at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa – pollen trapped in different strata has the potential to shed light on changes in vegetation in the region over thousands of years.

Plant diversity

417 species of vascular plant were recorded from the core study area of the high-rainfall upper Cuito and Cuanavale drainage system. The Checklist was compiled principally from our own collections from the high-rainfall zone, but with some additional collection made by Hugo Baum in the transition zone to the south. The majority of Baum’s collections from the Cuito drainage system were, however, made in Barbosa’s drier vegetation type 24 even further to the south and are not included in this checklist. Note that Baum’s specimens citing Longa as the locality refer to the river, not to the village currently known as Longa, which is at the southern limit of our core study area, nor to Baixo Longa 100 km to the S, and outside the core study area. A further point of confusion is Warburg’s (1903) map showing the route of the Kunene-Sambesi Expedition places “Hadjon Longa” close to the confluence of the Longa and Cuito rivers even further south in the region of the present-day village of Nankova.

We report nine species from the core study area which are potentially new to science (Table 1). Ten species are newly recorded for Angola with an additional species which had only been recorded within Angola from the northerly enclave of Cabinda. Orthochilus is a new generic record for the country (Table 2). But it is the new provincial records that give the clearest indication of how poorly studied the core project area has been to date – we recorded ten new records for Bié Province, ten for Cuando Cubango, and 108 for Moxico – the largest province in Angola.

Table 1.

Species potentially new to science.

Family Species Notes
Acanthaceae Barleria sp. nov. Grassland at the Cuito-Calua confluence. Also in grasslands of upper Lungué-Bungo tributary
Compositae Vernonia sp. nov. Growing in the floating peaty mat at Cuanavale source lake
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha sp. not matched Similar to A. angustissima but dioecious. Pyrophytic grassland at head of Rio Cuanavale valley and N of Tempué
Gramineae Loudetia sp. nov. Closest to L. densispica. Grassland in Longa river valley
Lamiaceae Endostemon sp. nov. Grassland at the Cuito-Calua confluence, Moxico province
Leguminosae Baphia sp. nov. Found at a single locality in upper Lungué-Bungo catchment
Linderniaceae Crepidorhopalon sp. nov. Open sand in upper Lungué-Bungo catchment
Orchidaceae possibly sp. nov. Same site as the Barleria sp. nov. A eulophioid orchid, but generic affinities uncertain
Orobanchaceae Buchnera sp. not matched at Kew May be undescribed, or a species from DR Congo. Awaiting comment from expert
Table 2.

Species newly recorded from Angola.

Family Species Notes
Acanthaceae Justicia subsessilis Oliv. Westerly range extension
Amaryllidaceae Crinum binghamii Nordal & Kwembeya Cuanavale River N of Cuito-Cuanavale. Known also from similar habitats in western Zambia
Apocynaceae Landolphia cuneifolia Pichon Known from NW Zambia and DR Congo
Apocynaceae Secamone dewevrei De Wild. subsp. elliptica Goyder Only known previously from western Zambia.
Cyperaceae Cyperus unioloides R.Br. Widely distributed across tropical and subtropical Africa
Gramineae Schizachyrium claudopus (Chiov.) Chiov. Known from Tanzania, DR Congo and Zambia
Loranthaceae Englerina gabonensis (Engl.) Balle Congolian element, near Cuanavale source. New record for Angola excluding Cabinda
Orchidaceae Brachycorythis congoensis Kraenzl. Marsh in the Longa and Cuiriri valleys
Orchidaceae Bulbophyllum josephi (Kuntze) Summerh. Moist miombo woodland in Moxico
Orchidaceae Orthochilus aurantiacus (Rolfe) Bytebier New generic record for Angola
Rubiaceae Gardenia resiniflua Hiern subsp. resiniflua Suffrutescent form – Longa valley

Botanically, the pyrophytic grassland zone between the marsh and the miombo woodland contains most of the new and interesting species. Over 40 underground forest species (whose nearest relatives are forest trees or shrubs) were recorded from this zone and as part of the ground flora of neighbouring miombo woodlands. They include Napoleonaea gossweileri Baker f. (Lecythidaceae), Trichilia quadrivalvis C.DC (Meliaceae), and an undescribed species of Baphia (Leguminosae). The Baphia was flowering profusely at ground level in the upper Lungué-Bungo catchment, where it occurred in an assemblage of other underground forest species. Baphia is a genus of 50 species of trees and shrubs in Africa and Madagascar – this is the first record of a pyrophytic underground forest species in the genus, and it appears to be a species new to science. The diversity of rubber-producing Apocynaceae species in the grassland zone was noted – Landolphia lanceolata (K.Schum.) Pichon, L. thollonii Dewèvre, Chamaeclitandra henriquesiana (Hallier f.) Pichon, and Raphionacme michelii De Wild. were common elements and have been used as sources of natural rubber in earlier times. Other much rarer species of Apocynaceae were also recorded from this zone, including Orthanthera gossweileri C.Norman, which we found at the source of the Cuanavale river, 200 km north of its earlier known distribution. The new species of Baphia will be described separately, along with a more detailed discussion of the geoxylic suffrutex flora of the region.

Thirty-nine legume species were recorded from the upper catchment of the Cuito Cuanavale system and were found in both open and woodland habitats. Most of the miombo trees belong to this family, but there were many herbs also. Other significant elements of the flora include Rubiaceae (26 spp.), Apocynaceae (19 spp.), Lamiaceae (20 spp.) and the genus Polygala (Polygalaceae) with 14 species recorded – each habitat had its own suite of Polygala species. Monocot diversity was also substantial, with 31 grass species recorded, 17 orchids – mostly in the marsh and grassland zones – and seven species of Gladiolus (Iridaceae).

A flame lily species, Gloriosa sessiliflora Nordal & M.G.Bingham, was recorded from Angola for the second and third times ever, by the headwater team and the Longa/Cuiriri team respectively. It was described from similar marshland habitats in western Zambia in 1998.


Miombo woodland is generally regarded as Zambesian floristically. Nevertheless, we encountered a small but significant element of moist-miombo species with Guineo-Congolian affinities. These include several species of Apocynaceae, Uvaria angolensis Welw. ex Oliv. in the Annonaceae, Paropsia brazzaeana Baill. in the Passifloraceae and Englerina gabonensis (Engl.) Balle in the Loranthaceae. The small patch of swamp forest at the head of the Río Cuiva is also Guineo-Congolian in affinity with Syzygium owariense (Myrtaceae) and Zanthoxylum gilletii (Rutaceae) widely distributed in the Congo Basin and West Africa. Phylogenetically, Crinum binghamii (Amaryllidaceae), a wetland species, is closer to Congolian members of the genus than to Zambesian species (Nordal and Kwembeya 2004).

Cape elements in the flora were restricted to savanna or grassland habitats, sometimes where rocky substrate was encountered locally. Protea, Cliffortia and Erica are three genera with predominantly Cape affinities and species radiations.

Floristic links outside of Africa are demonstrated by a couple of wetland taxa. Mayaca baumii (Mayacaceae) is the only African species of an otherwise entirely neotropical genus and family. Mesanthemum glabrum Kimpouni (Eriocaulaceae) is allied phylogenetically to a species from Ecuador (Larridon pers. comm., unpublished work in progress). These distributions probably reflect historic transatlantic dispersal events involving birds.

Human population in the region is low, and the few villages we passed are far apart. The low-nutrient landscape does not support much agriculture. Nevertheless, one or two villages grew a diverse range of crops, and neighbouring miombo woodland was cleared for shifting maize and cassava cultivation. Habitat conversion is local but increasing in what is otherwise a remarkably intact ecosystem. Major human impact on the vegetation of the Cuito-Cuanavale system was only really apparent around the town of Cuito Cuanavale, and the section of the Longa valley affected by the large-scale rice project, although many of the grasslands are burned more frequently that they would be without human presence. Also, timber in the upper Lungué-Bungo valley is increasingly targeted as this area is closer to the provincial capital Luena than the rest of the core project area.

Many native plant species are used as medicines or for construction. It is mostly the most common species that are used.

The most frequent miombo tree, Julbernardia paniculata, is not only the principle source of nectar for honey bees but is also the preferred tree for the construction of beehives (Fig. 6). A cylinder of bark is removed from the tree (killing the individual), stapled together with stakes made from another legume timber (Bobgunnia madagascariensis), and tied together with stringy underbark from a third (Julbernardia paniculata, Brachystegia bakeriana or Cryptosepalum exfoliatum subsp. pseudotaxus). Internal bracing hoops come from flexible young shoots of either Diplorhynchus condylocarpon (Müll.Arg.) Pichon or Baphia massaiensis subsp. obovata, the permanent wooden cap at one end is made from Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth., while the removable cap at the other end is of woodland grasses, mostly Loudetia spp. Such traditional methods of construction are destructive but sustainable when population levels are low. However, harvesting of honey and production of beehives is becoming an industry, with some villages boasting of 300+ hives in active use.

Figure 6. 

Beehive made in Samenunga village, Moxico Province, now displayed in the Economic Botany collection of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. The body of the beehive is a cylinder of bark from the locally dominant legume tree Julbernardia paniculata. Other species are used to provide stakes, bracing hoops and endcaps. Photograph D. Goyder.

Large fish traps were constructed from saplings of Englerophytum magalismontanum, tied together with fine bark string as above. The small fishtrap was constructed from the grass Loudetia densispica (Rendle) C.E.Hubb.

Locally made bark canoes were present in most lakes and major watercourses we visited (Fig. 7). These were generally made from bark of the legume tree Erythrophleum africanum and stitched together as above with strips of stringy underbark from Brachystegia or Cryptosepalum spp.

Figure 7. 

Bark canoe (foreground) made from Erythrophleum africanum (Leguminosae) alongside a fibreglass “dugout” brought in by the National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project from the Okavango Delta. Cuito source lake. Photograph D. Goyder.

It was noted that local people have a detailed understanding of plants with active biological properties in their immediate environment and know how to use these to treat a variety of conditions in the absence of accessible western medicine.


Over 1100 plant collections were made during the course of the National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project, the majority from the core project area of the upper Cuito and Cuanavale river catchments. These form the basis of what is undoubtedly the most detailed specimen-based assessment of the vegetation and plant diversity of this region.

The flora of the upper Cuito and Cuanavale system is diverse and endemism is high, although the latter has not been analysed in detail for this study. New records extend the known geographic range of many species 200 km to the north, to the headwaters of the Cuito and Cuanavale rivers. They also underline the need for further surveys in Moxico Province where 108 new provincial records were reported, and provide evidence that the absence of plant records for eastern Angola revealed on the GBIF data map of southern Africa is real, and not a data artefact. All four Protea species collected in Moxico had never been recorded there before.

Barbosa (1970)’s vegetation type 17A needs to be critically reconsidered in the light of our findings in this area – we observed a fundamental change in composition of the miombo woodlands east of Cuemba once we moved onto the deep white sands, where several woody species drop out – no Isoberlinia angolensis (Benth.) Hoyle & Brenan was seen east of this point, and Brachystegia spiciformis occurred exceptionally rarely. Both Burkea africana and Brachystegia bakeriana are significant elements of the landscape in the headwater lakes region, not just in the transition zone around Longa. We saw no Marquesia species in the headwaters zone, but Monotes is common. Baphia massaiensis subsp. obovata, more commonly associated with dry Baikiaea-dominated woodland, was a common element of the miombo right up into the headwater region.

We also highlight the existence of extensive peat deposits in the Cuito river system. These are not as extensive as those recently reported from the Congo Basin (Dargie et al. 2017), but must be significant in terms of carbon storage nevertheless.


An annotated checklist of the upper Cuito & Cuanavale drainage system – the flora of high rainfall (annual precipitation more than c. 750 mm), highly leached Kalahari sand deposits from the headwaters to c. 15°S, based prinicipally on 2015, 2016 and 2018 field surveys (Barbosa vegetation type 17A and transition to vegetation type 24).

Family Species Habitat Vouchers New Records
Lycopodiaceae Lycopodiella affinis (Bory) Pic.Serm. Wetland Frisby 3027; Goyder 8261
Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm. Wetland sight record 38
Lycopodiella sarcocaulon (A.Braun & Welw. ex Kuhn) Pic.Serm. Wetland Goyder 8298
Aspleniaceae Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech. Humid Forest Goyder 8329
Gleicheniaceae Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. Wetland Goyder 8396
Thelyperidaceae Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H.Itô Wetland Goyder 8317 Moxico
Thelypteris confluens (Thunb.) Morton Wetland Barker et al. 139
Annonaceae Annona stenophylla Engl. & Diels subsp. nana (Exell) N.Robson Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8759; Goyder & Maiato 8843
Artabotrys antunesii Engl. & Diels Woodland Goyder 8436 Moxico
Uvaria angolensis Welw. ex Oliv. Woodland Goyder 8034; Goyder 8414; Goyder 8438
Xylopia odoratissima Welw. ex Oliv. Woodland Frisby 3067; Goyder & Maiato 8806
Xylopia tomentosa Exell Woodland Barker et al. 50; Frisby 3057; Goyder 8027; Goyder 8048; Goyder 8096; Goyder 8288; Goyder 8918 Bié
Cabombaceae Brasenia schreberi J.F.Gmel. Wetland Goyder 8295 Moxico
Lauraceae Cassytha pondoensis Engl. var. pondoensis Woodland Goyder 8104
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea heudelotii Planch. Wetland Barker et al. 44; Goyder 8259
Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. Wetland Frisby 4013; Goyder 8296; Goyder 8376
Nymphaea sulphurea Gilg. Wetland Baum 657; Frisby 3050; Frisby 3064; Frisby 3072; Goyder 8097; Goyder 8297; Goyder 8393
Alismataceae Limnophyton angolense Buchenau Wetland Frisby 3093; Goyder 8375; sight record 15 Moxico
Amaryllidaceae Boophone disticha (L.f.) Herb. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8829
Crinum binghamii Nordal & Kwembeya Wetland sight record 42
Cryptostephanus densiflorus Welw. ex Baker Woodland Goyder 8258 Moxico
Cyrtanthus welwitschii Hiern ex Baker Wetland Frisby 4023 Cuando Cubango
Asparagaceae Asparagus africanus Lam. var. puberulus (Baker) Sebsebe Grassland Goyder 8439
Chlorophytum colubrinum (Baker) Engl. Grassland Baum 611
Chlorophytum fasciculatum (Baker) Kativu Grassland Baum 683; Goyder 9495
Chlorophytum sphacelatum (Baker) Kativu Grassland Goyder 9495a
Chlorophytum sp. Grassland Goyder 8263
Dipcadi viride (L.) Moench Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8801
Sansevieria aubrytiana Carrière Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8838 Moxico
Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) Van der Merwe Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8779 Moxico
Asphodelaceae Aloe nuttii Baker Grassland Baum 698
Aloe zebrina Baker Woodland Goyder 8255
Trachyandra arvensis (Schinz) Oberm. Grassland Frisby 3062; Goyder 8494; Goyder & Maiato 8816; Goyder & Maiato 8820
Colchicaceae Gloriosa sessiliflora Nordal & M.G.Bingham Wetland Frisby 4035; Goyder & Maiato 8822 Cuando Cubango; Moxico
Gloriosa simplex L. Woodland Goyder 8425 Moxico
Commelinaceae Aneilema plagiocapsa K. Schum. Woodland Barker et al. 82; Baum 716; Goyder 8244 Moxico
Commelina africana L. var. lancispatha C.B.Clarke Woodland Goyder 8245
Commelina sphaerorrhizoma Faden & Layton Woodland Goyder 8243 Moxico
Commelina welwitschii C.B.Clarke Grassland Baum 814
Cyanotis longifolia Benth. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8832 Moxico
Costaceae Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K.Schum. Grassland Goyder 8947
Cyperaceae Abildgaardia ovata (Burm.f.) Kral Wetland Frisby 3041
Bulbostylis laniceps C.B.Clarke ex T.Durand & Schinz Grassland Goyder 8290 Moxico
Cyperus chrysocephalus (K.Schum.) Kük. Wetland Frisby 3071
Cyperus denudatus L.f. Wetland Goyder 8931
Cyperus erinaceus (Ridl.) Kük. Grassland Goyder 8334
Cyperus hensii T.Durand & Schinz Wetland Frisby 3081
Cyperus kipasensis Cherm. Wetland Goyder 8939
Cyperus margaritaceus Vahl Grassland Goyder 8335; Goyder & Maiato 8831; Goyder 8925
Cyperus pectinatus Vahl Wetland Goyder 8294
Cyperus proteus (Welw.) Bauters Wetland Barker et al. 63; Baum 627; Baum 628; Frisby 3009; Goyder 8005; Goyder 8365
Cyperus proteus (Welw.) Bauters var. bellidiflora Welw. Wetland Goyder 8936
Cyperus rhynchosporoides Kuk. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8830
Cyperus subtrigonus (C.B.Clarke) Kük. Wetland Goyder 8940
Cyperus unioloides R.Br. Wetland Goyder 8941 Angola
Cyperus sp. not matched Grassland Barker et al. 71; Barker et al. 111
Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schult. subsp. acutangula Wetland Goyder 8945
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl var. dichotoma Wetland Goyder 8942
Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Grassland Barker et al. 136; Goyder 8924
Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) J.Kern. Wetland Goyder 8938
Rhynchospora candida (Nees) Boeck. Wetland Barker et al. 62; Goyder 8302; Goyder 8368
Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale subsp. brownii (Roem. & Schult.) T.Koyama Grassland Barker et al. 65
Scleria erythrorrhiza Ridl. Wetland Barker et al. 57; Goyder 8933
Scleria griegiifolia (Ridl.) C.B.Clarke Wetland Goyder 8239; Goyder 8360; sight record 41
Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulon lanatum H.E.Hess Wetland Goyder 8202; Goyder 8369 Moxico
Eriocaulon teucszii Engl. & Ruhland Wetland Goyder 8099; Goyder 8364 Moxico
Mesanthemum glabrum Kimpouni  Wetland Baum 645; Frisby 3065; Goyder 8004; Goyder 8201; Goyder 8238; Goyder 8358 Moxico
Mesanthemum reductum H.E.Hess Wetland Barker et al. 115
Syngonanthus angolensis H.E.Hess Wetland Goyder 8237; Goyder 8359 Moxico
Syngonanthus wahlbergii (Wikstr. ex Körn.) Ruhland Wetland Goyder 8100
Gramineae Aristida nemorivaga Henrard Woodland Barker et al. 108
Brachiaria dura Stapf Grassland Barker et al. 59; Goyder 8289 Cuando Cubango
Ctenium newtonii Hack. Grassland Barker et al. 54 Cuando Cubango
Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf Woodland Goyder 8306
Diheteropogon amplectens (Nees) Clayton var. amplectens Grassland; Woodland Goyder 8274; Goyder 8285 Moxico
Diheteropogon filifolius (Nees) Clayton Grassland Barker et al. 60; Goyder 8407 Cuando Cubango
Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. Wetland Baum 693
Elymandra grallata (Stapf) Clayton Grassland Barker et al. 98; Barker et al. 105 Cuando Cubango
Eragrostis brainii (Stent) Launert Woodland Goyder 8268; Goyder 8282
Eragrostis thollonii Franch. Woodland Goyder 8284 Moxico
Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. Grassland Goyder 8272; Goyder 8404
Hyparrhenia newtonii (Hack.) Stapf Grassland Goyder 8042; Goyder 8923 Bié
Leersia hexandra Sw. Wetland Goyder 8930
Loudetia angolensis C.E.Hubb. Wetland Goyder 8264 Moxico
Loudetia densispica (Rendle) C.E.Hubb. Grassland Barker et al. 109; Goyder 8273; Goyder 8442 Moxico
Loudetia lanata (Stent & J.M.Rattray) C.E.Hubb. Woodland Goyder 8281 Moxico
Loudetia simplex (Nees) C.E.Hubb. Grassland Goyder 8228; Goyder 8269; Goyder 8403 Bié; Moxico
Loudetia sp. nov. aff. L. densispica Grassland Barker et al. 55
Miscanthus junceus (Stapf) Pilg. Wetland Goyder 8299 Moxico
Monocymbium ceresiiforme (Nees) Stapf Grassland Goyder 8275; Goyder 8405 Moxico
Panicum natalense Hochst. Grassland Goyder 8271; Goyder 8409 Moxico
Pennistetum polystachion (L.) Schult. Ruderal Goyder 8043 Bié
Phragmites mauritianus Kunth Wetland Goyder 8935
Pogonarthria squarrosa (Roem. & Schult.) Pilg. Grassland Barker et al. 97
Rhytachne robusta Stapf Woodland Goyder 8283
Schizachyrium claudopus (Chiov.) Chiov. Grassland Barker et al. 58
Sporobolus welwitschii Rendle Grassland Goyder 8291
Trachypogon spicatus (L.f.) Kuntze Grassland Goyder 8913
Tristachya hubbardiana Conert Grassland Goyder 8408 Moxico
Tristachya nodiglumis K.Schum. Grassland Barker et al. 72
Tristachya rehmannii Hack. Grassland Goyder 8270; Goyder 8406
Hydrocharitaceae Blyxa radicans Ridl. Wetland Baum 827
Ottelia muricata (C.H.Wright) Dandy Wetland Barker et al. 118
Ottelia ulvifolia (Planch.) Walp. Wetland Goyder 8929
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis canaliculata Baker Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8790
Iridaceae Ferraria welwitschii Baker Grassland Frisby 4012; Goyder 8496; Goyder & Maiato 8768 Moxico
Gladiolus atropurpureus Baker Grassland Goyder 8498 Cuando Cubango
Gladiolus benguellensis Baker Grassland Baum 632
Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel subsp. dalenii Wetland Frisby 3029; Goyder 8461 Moxico
Gladiolus gregarius Welw. ex Baker Woodland Goyder 8401
Gladiolus gregarius Welw. ex Baker – anomalous form with filiform leaves and green flowers Grassland Goyder 8499
Gladiolus laxiflorus Baker Wetland Frisby 3010; Frisby 3066; Goyder & Maiato 8793
Gladiolus magnificus (Harms) Goldblatt Grassland Baum 651; Goyder 8497
Gladiolus unguiculatus Baker Grassland Frisby 3025; Frisby 3038; Goyder & Maiato 8777; Goyder & Maiato 8778
Mayacaceae Mayaca baumii Gürke Wetland Barker et al. 117; Baum 811
Orchidaceae Brachycorythis congoensis Kraenzl. Wetland Frisby 3068
Bulbophyllum josephi (Kuntze) Summerhayes Woodland Goyder 8419
Disa caffra Bolus Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8791
Disa ochrostachya Rchb. f. Wetland Frisby 4005; Goyder & Maiato 8763; Goyder & Maiato 8796
Disa hircicornis Rchb.f. Wetland Frisby 3075
Disa welwitschii Rchb.f. Wetland Frisby 3063
Eulophia angolensis (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Wetland Frisby 3032
Eulophia horsfallii (Bateman) Summerh. Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8792 Moxico
Eulophia longisepala Rendle Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8753 Moxico
Eulophia rolfeana Kraenzl. Grassland Frisby 3095; Goyder & Maiato 8755 Moxico
Eulophia speciosa (R. Br. ex Lindl.) Bolus Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8774 Moxico
Habenaria retinervis Summerh. Woodland Goyder 8220
Orthochilus aurantiacus (Rolfe) Bytebier Grassland Frisby 4002; Goyder & Maiato 8752; Goyder & Maiato 8796 Cuando Cubango
Phaius occidentalis Schltr. Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8761 Moxico
Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H.R.Sweet Woodland Goyder 8225
Satyrium trinerve Lindl. Wetland Frisby 3080; Frisby 4001
possibly sp. nov. Grassland Goyder 8351
Smilacaceae Smilax anceps Willd. Ruderal sight record 16
Xyridaceae Xyris capensis Thunb. Wetland Goyder 8373
Xyris congensis Büttner Wetland Barker et al. 64; Goyder 8322
Xyris foliolata L.A.Nilsson Wetland Barker et al. 128
Xyris friesii Malme Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8800 Moxico
Xyris imitatrix Malme Wetland Goyder 8332
Zingiberaceae Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridl.) K.Schum. Ruderal sight record 17
Siphonochilus aethiopicus (Schweinf.) B.L.Burtt Grassland Woodland Frisby 3089; Goyder & Maiato 8769
Siphonochilus puncticulatus (Gagnep.) Lock Grassland Woodland Frisby 3076; Goyder & Maiato 8770
Acanthaceae Barleria crassa C.B.Clarke subsp. crassa Woodland Goyder 8028
Barleria sp. nov. Grassland Goyder 8343; Goyder 8952
Blepharis flava Vollesen Grassland Goyder 8277 Moxico
Blepharis glumacea S.Moore Grassland Goyder 8909
Justicia subsessilis Oliv. Grassland Barker et al. 89
Lepidagathis macrochila Lindau Woodland Baum 779; Goyder 8040; Goyder 8415 Moxico
Strobilanthopsis linifolia (T.Anderson ex C.B.Clarke) Milne-Redh. Woodland Barker et al. 107; Goyder 8026 Moxico
Thunbergia gossweileri S.Moore Woodland Goyder 8241 Moxico
Amaranthaceae Mechowia grandiflora Schinz Grassland Woodland Frisby 4010; Goyder 8112; Goyder 8385 Moxico
Anacardiaceae Lannea gossweileri Exell & Mendonça subsp. gossweileri Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8834
Ozoroa stenophylla (Engl. & Gilg) R.Fern. & A.Fern. Grassland Baum 662; Frisby 3012; Goyder 8310 Moxico
Ozoroa verticillata (Engl.) R.Fern. & A.Fern. Grassland Goyder 8287 Moxico
Rhus gracilipes Exell Woodland Goyder 8254 Moxico
Rhus kirkii Oliv. Grassland Goyder 8344; Goyder 8911
Anisophylleaceae Anisophyllea boehmii Engl. Woodland Goyder 8232
Anisophyllea fruticulosa Engl. & Gilg Grassland Barker et al. 46; Baum 808†; Gossweiler 2856; Goyder 8106; Goyder & Maiato 8765
Apocynaceae Chamaeclitandra henriquesiana (Hallier f.) Pichon Grassland Barker et al. 81; Goyder & Maiato 8766; Goyder & Maiato 8807 Moxico
Ceropegia racemosa N.E.Br. Woodland Goyder 8402 Moxico
Cryptolepis oblongifolius (Meisn.) Schltr. Woodland Barker et al. 78; Barker et al. 112; Frisby 3037; Goyder 8118; Goyder 8124; Goyder 8300
Diplorhynchus condylocarpon (Müll.Arg.) Pichon Grassland Woodland Barker et al. 52A; Frisby 3058; Frisby 3061; Goyder 8213; Goyder 8381; Goyder 8445; sight record 1; sight record 8; sight record 36
Glossostelma ceciliae (N.E.Br.) Goyder Grassland Frisby 4033; Goyder & Maiato 8789
Gomphocarpus semiamplectens K.Schum. Woodland Barker et al. 121
Landolphia camptoloba (K.Schum.) Pichon Woodland Barker et al. 49; Barker et al. 122; Baum 669; Frisby 4004; Goyder 8025; Goyder 8400
Landolphia cuneifolia Pichon Woodland Goyder 8331
Landolphia lanceolata (K.Schum.) Pichon Grassland Barker et al. 79; Goyder 8019; Goyder 8266; Goyder & Maiato 8803
Landolphia thollonii Dewèvre Grassland Goyder 8431; Goyder & Maiato 8825 [photographic record]
Orthanthera gossweileri C.Norman Grassland Frisby 3051; Goyder 8500; Goyder & Maiato 8827 Moxico
Raphionacme globosa K.Schum. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8797 Moxico
Raphionacme linearis K.Schum. Wetland Frisby 3020; Frisby 3035; Frisby 3039; Frisby 3078; Goyder & Maiato 8776; Goyder & Maiato 8856
Raphionacme michelii De Wild. Grassland Frisby 3026; Goyder & Maiato 8788; Goyder & Maiato 8809; Goyder & Maiato 8771 Moxico
Secamone brevipes (Benth.) Pichon Woodland Goyder 8330 Moxico
Secamone dewevrei De Wild. subsp. elliptica Goyder Woodland Goyder 8041; Goyder 8223
Strophanthus welwitschii (Baill.) K.Schum. Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8837
Tabernanthe iboga Baill. Woodland Goyder 8226; sight record 18
Xysmalobium holubii Scott Elliot Wetland Baum 715; Frisby 3034; Goyder & Maiato 8785; Goyder & Maiato 8853 Moxico
Campanulaceae Lobelia sp. Grassland Barker et al. 116
Wahlenbergia collomioides (A.DC.) Thulin Grassland Goyder 8906
Wahlenbergia possibly sp. B of Thulin (1975) Grassland Barker et al. 94
Caryophyllaceae Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam. Grassland Barker et al. 132; Baum 818; Goyder 8457
Celastraceae Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. Wetland Goyder 8934
Salacia bussei Loes. Grassland Goyder 8292; Goyder & Maiato 8810 Moxico
Chrysobalanaceae Parinari capensis Harv. Grassland Barker et al. 130; Goyder 8256
Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. Woodland Goyder 8444
Combretaceae Combretum dumetorum Exell Woodland Goyder 8426 Moxico
Combretum gossweileri Exell Woodland Goyder 8023
Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson Grassland Frisby 3036; Goyder 8121
Combretum psidioides Welw. subsp. psidioides Grassland Frisby 3053; Goyder 8345
Combretum sp. not matched 1 Woodland Goyder 8307
Combretum sp. not matched 2 Grassland Goyder 8346
Pteleopsis anisoptera (Welw. ex M.A.Lawson) Engl. & Diels Woodland Goyder 8418
Terminalia brachystemma Welw. ex Hiern Woodland Frisby 3011; Goyder 8378
Compositae Anisopappus chinensis Hook. & Arn. Grassland Goyder 8908
Bidens crocea Welw. ex O.Hoffm. Woodland Goyder 8253
Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC. Grassland Barker et al. 134
Crassocephalum sp. not matched Woodland Goyder 8305
Dicoma schinzii O.Hoffm. Grassland Barker et al. 85
Emilia baumii (O.Hoffm.) S.Moore Woodland Baum 707; Goyder 8252; Goyder 8910 Moxico
Erlangia misera (Oliv. & Hiern) S.Moore Woodland Barker et al. 125
Hypericophyllum gossweileri S.Moore Grassland Goyder 8948 Angola
Mikania sagittifera B.L.Robb. Grassland Barker et al. 104; Baum 679
Nidorella resedifolia DC. Grassland Barker et al. 126
Pasaccardoa baumii O.Hoffm. Grassland Frisby 3013; Goyder 8111
Pleiotaxis linearifolia O. Hoffm. Grassland Woodland Barker et al. 69; Barker et al. 120
Pleiotaxis rugosa O.Hoffm. Woodland Barker et al. 75
Pleiotaxis subscaposa C.Jeffrey Grassland Goyder 8279; Goyder 8456 Moxico
Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & B.L.Burtt Grassland Barker et al. 70; Frisby 3019
Senecio strictifolius Hiern Wetland Barker et al. 110; Barker et al. 127; Goyder 8915
Vernonia sp. nov. Wetland Goyder 8357
Vernonia sp. Grassland Goyder 8459
Vernonia gerberiformis Oliv. & Hiern subsp. gerberiformis var. gerberiformis Grassland Goyder 8109
Vernonia ornata S.Moore Wetland Frisby 3091
Vernonia poskeana Vatke & Hildebr. subsp. poskeana Woodland Barker et al. 84
Vernonia subplumosa O.Hoffm. Woodland Baum 703; Goyder 8286 Moxico
Vernonia turbinella S.Moore Woodland Goyder 8017
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea welwitschii Vatke ex Hallier f. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8828 Moxico
Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudinianus (Sond.) C. Jeffrey Ruderal; Grassland Barker et al. 119; Goyder 8086
Dilleniaceae Tetracera poggei Gilg Woodland Goyder 8021; Goyder 8214 Bié; Moxico
Dipterocarpaceae Monotes dasyanthus Gilg Woodland Goyder 8039; sight record 34
Monotes glaber Sprague Woodland Goyder 8014; Goyder 8122; sight record 20; sight record 33
Monotes gossweileri De Wild. Grassland Goyder 8338; Goyder 8951
Droseraceae Drosera affinis Welw. ex Oliv. Wetland Baum 687; Goyder 8260; Goyder 8356 Moxico
Drosera burkeana Planch. Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8794
Drosera madagascariensis DC. Wetland Frisby 4011; Goyder 8003; Goyder 8006; Goyder 8372; sight record 40; Goyder & Maiato 8786
Ebenaceae Diospyros batocana Hiern Woodland Barker et al. 142; Goyder 8029
Diospyros chamaethamnus Dinter ex Mildbr. Grassland Goyder 8901
Diospyros pseudomespilus Mildbr. subsp. brevicalyx F.White Woodland Goyder 8032; sight record 32
Diospyros virgata (Gürke) Brenan Woodland Goyder 8015
Ericaceae Erica benguelensis (Welw. ex Engl.) E.G.H.Oliv. var. benguelensis Grassland Goyder 8352
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha sp. not matched Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8802; Goyder & Maiato 8814
Maprounea africana Müll.Arg. pyrophytic form Grassland Goyder 8312
Sclerocroton oblongifolius (Müll.Arg.) Kruit & Roebers Grassland Goyder 8314; Goyder & Maiato 8844
Gentianaceae Faroa salutaris Welw. Wetland; Grassland Barker et al. 53; Frisby 4000; Goyder 8216
Neurotheca congolana De Wild. & T.Durand Wetland Goyder 8234; Goyder 8354 Moxico
Pycnosphaera buchananii (Baker) N.E.Br. Wetland Goyder 8462
Schinziella tetragona (Schinz) Gilg Wetland Goyder 8333; Goyder 8355
Gisekiaceae Gisekia africana (Lour.) Kuntze Grassland Barker et al. 124; Goyder 8233; Goyder 8949 Moxico
Hypericaceae Hypericum oligandrum Milne-Redh. Wetland Frisby 4026
Psorospermum baumii Engl. Woodland Frisby 4003; Goyder 8221 Bié
Ixonanthaceae Ochthocosmus lemaireanus T.Durand & H.Durand Woodland Barker et al. 48; Barker et al. 74; Baum 712; Goyder 8095; Goyder 8311; Goyder 8313; sight record 27 Moxico
Lamiaceae Alvesia rosmarinifolia Welw. Woodland Barker et al. 45; Baum 676; Goyder 8036
Clerodendrum baumii Gürke Grassland Baum 661; Goyder 8125; Goyder 8367
Clerodendrum buchneri Gürke Grassland Goyder 8262
Clerodendrum formicarum Gürke Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8798
Endostemon sp. nov. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8762
Haumaniastrum katangense (S.Moore) J.Duvign. & Plancke Grassland Goyder 8903
Haumaniastrum prealtum (Briq.) J.Duvign. & Plancke var. succisifolium (Baker) A.J.Paton Grassland Goyder 8341; Goyder 8454 Moxico
Haumaniastrum sericeum (Briq.) A.J.Paton Grassland Barker et al. 87; Goyder 8440
Kalaharia uncinata (Schinz) Moldenke Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8782
Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br. var. nepetifolia Ruderal Baum 822
Ocimum obovatum E.Mey. ex Benth. var. obovatum Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8787
Plectranthus betonicifolius Baker Wetland Goyder 8463 Moxico
Plectranthus gracillimus (T.C.E.Fr.) Hutch. & Dandy Grassland Goyder 8902
Plectranthus guerkei Briq. Grassland Barker et al. 86
Plectranthus mirabilis (Briq.) Launert Wetland Barker et al. 140; Baum 794; Goyder 8007; Goyder 8928
Pycnostachys gracilis R.D.Good Woodland Goyder 8441
Tinnea eriocalyx Welw. Grassland Goyder 8250
Tinnea fusco-luteola Gürke Grassland Baum 695
Tinnea benguellensis Gürke Grassland Baum 697; Goyder 8458 Moxico
Vitex madiensis Oliv. subsp. milanjiensis (Britten) F.White Woodland Frisby 3023; Frisby 3046; Goyder 8044; Goyder 8416; Goyder 8428
Lecythidaceae Napoleonaea gossweileri Baker f. Grassland Goyder 8107; Goyder & Maiato 8812 Moxico
Leguminosae Aeschynomene dimidiata Welw. ex Baker Woodland Goyder 8392 Moxico
Aeschynomene glabrescens Welw. ex Baker Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8784
Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W.Wight Woodland Goyder 8212
Baphia massaiensis Taub. subsp. obovata (Schinz) Brummitt var. obovata Woodland Frisby 3024; Goyder 8092; Goyder 8449; sight record 7; sight record 31; Goyder & Maiato 8780
Baphia sp. nov. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8772
Bauhinia mendoncae Torre & Hillc. Woodland Barker et al. 76; Goyder 8030; Goyder 8391
Bauhinia petersiana Bolle subsp. macrantha (Oliv.) Brummitt & J.H. Ross Woodland Frisby 4017
Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema Woodland Goyder 8031; Goyder 8384; Goyder 8429; Goyder 8450
Brachystegia bakeriana Hutch. & Burtt Davy Woodland Barker et al. 100; Frisby 3014; Goyder 8020; Goyder 8090; Goyder 8116; Goyder 8386; Goyder 8430; Goyder 8432; Goyder 8448; sight record 10
Brachystegia longifolia Benth. Grassland; Woodland Goyder 8011; Goyder 8328; Goyder 8921
Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. Woodland Goyder 8038
Burkea africana Hook. Grassland Goyder 8379; sight record 37; sight record 43
Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene sens. lat. Woodland Barker et al. 83
Clitoria kaessneri Harms – depauperate form Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8758
Copaifera baumiana Harms Grassland; Woodland Goyder 8018; Goyder 8113; Goyder 8224; Goyder 8388; sight record 3; Goyder & Maiato 8847; Goyder 8919
Crotalaria abscondita Welw. ex Baker Grassland Goyder 8465 Moxico
Crotalaria angulicaulis Harms Grassland Goyder 8452 Moxico
Crotalaria annua Milne-Redh. Grassland Goyder 8900
Crotalaria kambolensis Baker f. Woodland Goyder 8424
Crotalaria leptoclada Harms Grassland Baum 829
Crotalaria mendoncae Torre Woodland Goyder 8016; Goyder 8103; sight record 26 Cuando Cubango
Crotalaria stenoptera Welw. ex Baker Grassland; Wetland; Woodland Barker et al. 146; Baum 677; Goyder 8093; Goyder 8257
Crotalaria youngii Baker f. Grassland; Woodland Goyder 8218 Bié
Crotalaria cf. youngii Baker f. Grassland; Woodland Barker et al. 144; Goyder 8944
Cryptosepalum exfoliatum De Wild. subsp. pseudotaxus (Baker f.) P.A.Duvign. & Brenan Woodland Goyder 8022; Goyder 8323; Goyder 8446; sight record 4; sight record 12; sight record 24
Cryptosepalum mimosoides Welw. ex Oliv. Grassland Goyder 8337; Goyder & Maiato 8751 Moxico
Desmodium barbatum (L.) Benth. var. dimorphum (Welw. ex Baker) B.G.Schub. Grassland Baum 685; Goyder 8502
Dialium englerianum Henriq. Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8805
Entada arenaria Schinz subsp. arenaria Grassland; Woodland Goyder 8390; Goyder & Maiato 8836 Moxico
Erythrophleum africanum (Welw. ex Benth.) Harms Woodland Goyder 8010; Goyder 8380; Goyder 8389; sight record 29; Goyder 8922
Erythrina baumii Harms Grassland Frisby 4034; Goyder & Maiato 8767
Guibourtia coleosperma (Benth.) J.Léonard Woodland Goyder 8035; Goyder 8377; sight record 2; sight record 13; sight record 23; sight record 30; sight record 35
Indigofera baumiana Harms Grassland Baum 819; Goyder & Maiato 8818
Indigofera sutherlandioides Baker Woodland Goyder 8046; Goyder 8955
Kotschya strobilantha (Welw. ex Baker) Dewit & P.A.Duvign. Grassland Barker et al. 56; Goyder 8091; Goyder 8943
Julbernardia paniculata (Benth.) Troupin Woodland Goyder 8012; Goyder 8089; Goyder 8123; Goyder 8308; Goyder 8443; sight record 11; sight record 19
Macrotyloma rupestre (Welw. ex Baker) Verdc. Woodland Goyder 8247 Moxico
Pterocarpus angolensis DC. Woodland Barker et al. 52B; Goyder 8009; Goyder 8382; sight record 6; sight record 22; sight record 28
Rhynchosia procurrens (Hiern) K.Schum. Woodland Barker et al. 77
Sphenostylis erecta (Baker f.) Hutch. ex Baker f. subsp. obtusifolia (Harms) Potter & Doyle Woodland Goyder 8248; Goyder 8950 Moxico
Lentibulariaceae Genlisea angolensis R.D.Good Wetland Frisby 3073; Goyder 8120; Goyder 8315; Goyder 8371 Moxico
Utricularia gibba L. Wetland Barker et al. 44a; Goyder 8098
Utricularia spiralis Sm. Wetland Frisby 3094; Goyder 8114
Utricularia subulata L. Wetland Baum 691; Goyder 8370
Utricularia stellaris L.f. Wetland Frisby 3088
Limeaceae Limeum fenestratum (Fenzl) Heimerl Grassland Barker et al. 80; Baum 688
Linderniaceae Crepidorhopalon ?sp. nov. Grassland Goyder 8917
Loranthaceae Englerina gabonensis (Engl.) Balle Woodland Goyder 8413
Tapinanthus dependens (Engl.) Danser Woodland Barker et al. 137
Lythraceae Rotala myriophylloides Welw. ex Hiern Wetland Barker et al. 68
Malvaceae Grewia falcistipula K.Schum. Woodland Frisby 3022
Grewia sp. Ruderal Goyder & Maiato 8819
Triumfetta dekindtiana Engl. Woodland Barker et al. 133
Melastomataceae Antherotoma debilis (Sond.) Jacq.-Fél. Wetland Barker et al. 47; Frisby 4031; Goyder 8094
Dissotis brazzae Cogn. Grassland Goyder 8927
Dissotis rhinanthifolia (Brenan) A.Fern. & R.Fern. var. rhinanthifolia Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8823
Dissotis welwitschii Cogn. Wetland Goyder 8240 Moxico
Memecylon huillense A.Fern. & R.Fern. Woodland Goyder 8399 Moxico
Meliaceae Trichilia quadrivalvis C.DC. Woodland Frisby 3070; Goyder & Maiato 8839 Moxico
Menyanthaceae Nymphoides forbesiana (Griseb.) Kuntze Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8824 Moxico
Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze subsp. occidentalis A.Raynal Wetland Barker et al. 113
Moraceae Ficus pygmaea Welw. ex Hiern Wetland Barker et al. 141
Ficus verruculosa Warb. Wetland Goyder 8320
Myricaceae Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick Wetland Goyder 8914
Myrtaceae Syzygium cordatum Hochst. ex Krauss subsp. cordatum Wetland Barker et al. 145; Goyder 8319
Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC. subsp. huillense (Hiern) F.White Grassland Barker et al. 67; Frisby 3045; Goyder 8339; Goyder & Maiato 8835
Syzygium owariense (P.Beauv.) Benth. Humid Forest Goyder 8326 Moxico
Ochnaceae Brackenridgea arenaria (De Wild. & T.Durand) N.Robson Grassland Frisby 3015; Frisby 3016; Frisby 3060; Goyder & Maiato 8781; Goyder & Maiato 8804
Ochna katangensis De Wild. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8754A
Ochna manikensis De Wild. Grassland Frisby 3031; Goyder 8108; Goyder 8309 Moxico
Ochna pulchra Hook. Woodland Goyder 8013; Goyder 8383; sight record 21 Moxico
Ochna pygmaea Hiern Grassland Frisby 3059; Goyder & Maiato 8754B Moxico
Olacaceae Olax gossweileri Exell & Mendonça Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8846 Moxico
Oleaceae Olea capensis L. subsp. macrocarpa (C.H.Wright) I.Verd. Woodland Goyder 8437 Moxico
Onagraceae Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H.Raven Wetland Barker et al. 138
Orobanchaceae Buchnera prorepens Engl. & Gilg Grassland Goyder 8349; Goyder 8451 Moxico
Buchnera attenuata Skan Wetland Frisby 3086; Frisby 4021
Buchnera sp. not matched at K Grassland Goyder 8276
Buchnera welwitschii Engl. Grassland Barker et al. 93
Cycnium tubulosum (L.f.) Engl. subsp. tubulosum Grassland Frisby 4019
Gerardiina angolensis Engl. Wetland Goyder 8101
Gerardiina angolensis Engl. – unusual form with branched inflorescence Wetland Goyder 8293
Melasma calycinum (Hiern) Hemsl. Wetland Frisby 4018; Goyder & Maiato 8760
Micrargeriella aphylla R.E.Fr. Wetland Goyder & Maiato 8783 Moxico
Sopubia simplex (Hochst.) Hochst. Wetland Frisby 3083; Frisby 4024; Goyder & Maiato 8821 Moxico
Striga angolensis K.I.Mohamed & Musselman Wetland Goyder 8336
Striga bilabiata (Thunb.) Kuntze Wetland Frisby 4028; Goyder & Maiato 8795 Moxico
Passifloraceae Basananthe baumii (Harms) W.J. de Wilde var. caerulescens (A.Fern. & R.Fern.) W.J. de Wilde Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8826
Passifloraceae Paropsia brazzaeana Baill. Woodland Barker et al. 101; Goyder 8024; sight record 25; Goyder 8920
Pedaliaceae Sesamum calycinum Welw. Grassland Frisby 4022
Peraceae Clutia benguelensis Müll.Arg. Grassland Goyder 8455 Moxico
Phrymaceae Mimulus gracilis R.Br. Wetland Barker et al. 135
Phyllanthaceae Bridelia duvigneaudii J.Léonard Woodland Goyder 8423 Moxico
Hymenocardia acida Tul. Woodland Goyder 8231
Uapaca nitida Müll.Arg. Woodland Goyder 8047; Goyder 8427
Uapaca nitida Müll.Arg. – pyrophytic form Grassland Woodland Goyder 8217
Picodendraceae Oldfieldia dactylophylla (Welw. ex Oliv.) J.Léonard Grassland Goyder 8267; Goyder 8421
Plantaginaceae Limnophylla ceratophylloides (Hiern) Skan Wetland Goyder 8318 Moxico
Polygalaceae Polygala africana Chodat Wetland Frisby 4027
Polygala arenicola Gürke Woodland Barker et al. 123; Goyder 8229
Polygala dewevrei Exell Wetland Goyder 8361 (blue fls); Goyder 8362 (white fls); Goyder & Maiato 8849; Goyder 8926 Bié
Polygala gomesiana Welw. ex Oliv. Wetland Goyder 8374 Cuando Cubango
Polygala kalaxariensis Schinz Grassland Barker et al. 96
Polygala mendoncae E.M.A.Petit Woodland Goyder 8037; Goyder 8417
Polygala nambalensis Gürke Grassland Goyder 8453 Moxico
Polygala nematophylla Exell Grassland Goyder 8366 Moxico
Polygala paludicola Gürke Wetland Barker et al. 92; Frisby 3040; Frisby 3085; Goyder 8119; Goyder 8236
Polygala poggei Gürke Grassland Goyder 8278 Moxico
Polygala rivularis Gürke Grassland Barker et al. 90
Polygala robusta Gürke Grassland Baum 704; Frisby 3047; Goyder 8085; Goyder 8280; Goyder 8303; Goyder 8411 Moxico
Polygala spicata Chodat Wetland Frisby 3084; Goyder 8235; Goyder 8363
Polygala welwitschii Chodat subsp. pygmaea (Gürke) Paiva Grassland Goyder 8350; Goyder 8916 Moxico
Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen. Woodland sight record 44
Polygonaceae Oxygonum annuum S.Ortíz & Paiva Grassland Goyder 8348 Moxico
Oxygonum fruticosum Dammer ex Milne-Redh. Woodland Goyder 8008; Goyder 8105; Goyder 8954
Oxygonum pachybasis Milne-Redh. Grassland Frisby 3090; Goyder & Maiato 8799 Moxico
Proteaceae Faurea delevoyi De Wild. Wetland; Woodland Goyder 8398
Faurea saligna Harv. Woodland Barker et al. 102
Protea angolensis Welw. var. angolensis Grassland Goyder 8410 Moxico
Protea baumii Engl. & Gilg subsp. baumii Grassland Barker et al. 106
Protea petiolaris (Hiern) Baker & C.H.Wright subsp. petiolaris Grassland Goyder 8412 Moxico
Protea poggei Engl. subsp. haemantha Chisumpa & Brummitt Woodland Baum 709; Goyder 8215; sight record 14; Goyder 8956 Bié; Moxico
Protea welwitschii Engl. Grassland Goyder 8117; Goyder 8353; Goyder 8397; Goyder 8460 Moxico
Ranunculaceae Clematis villosa DC. Grassland Goyder 8912
Rosaceae Cliffortia nitidula R.E.Fr. & T.C.E.Fr. var. angolensis (Weim.) Brenan Grassland Barker et al. 103; Baum 650; Goyder 8395; Goyder & Maiato 8855; Goyder 8932
Rubiaceae Ancylanthos rubiginosus Desf. Grassland Woodland Frisby 3056; Goyder 8115; Goyder & Maiato 8775; Goyder & Maiato 8848
Bertiera sp. Humid Forest Goyder 8325
Diodia flavescens Hiern Grassland Barker et al. 99
Fadogia cienkowski Schweinf. Grassland Frisby 3018; Goyder 8501
Fadogia fuchsioides Oliv. Grassland Goyder 8340
Fadogia gossweileri Robyns Woodland Frisby 4032
Fadogia tomentosa De Wild. var. flaviflora (Robyns) Verdc. Woodland Goyder 8246
Ganguelia gossweileri (S.Moore) Robbr. Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8815
Gardenia imperialis K.Schum. Wetland Goyder 8321; Goyder 8394; sight record 39
Gardenia resiniflua Hiern subsp. resiniflua Woodland Barker et al. 143
Gardenia resiniflua Hiern subsp. resiniflua – suffrutescent form Woodland Barker et al. 51; Frisby 4007
Leptactina benguelensis (Benth. & Hook.f.)R.D.Good Woodland Frisby 4029; Goyder & Maiato 8842
Morinda angolensis (R.D.Good) F.White Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8756; Goyder & Maiato 8851 Moxico
Pavetta nitidula Hiern Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8840
Pavetta sp. 1 Woodland Goyder 8242
Pavetta sp. 2 Woodland Goyder 8249
Pavetta sp. 3 Grassland Goyder 8301
Psychotria sp. Humid Forest Goyder 8324
Psydrax gilletii (De Wild.) Bridson Woodland Goyder 8434
Psydrax sp. Woodland Goyder 8433
Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri (Sond.) Robyns Grassland Goyder & Maiato 8808; Goyder & Maiato 8811
Rothmannia engleriana (K.Schum.) Keay var. engleriana Woodland Goyder 8420
Rytigynia orbicularis (K.Schum.) Robyns Woodland Goyder 8227
Tricalysia angolensis A.Rich. ex DC. Woodland Barker et al. 73
Tricalysia sp. Woodland Goyder 8435
Vangueria sp. not matched at K Woodland Goyder 8265
Vangueriopsis cf. lanciflora (Hiern) Robyns Woodland Goyder 8422
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman Humid Forest Goyder 8327 Moxico
Santalaceae Thesium atrum A.W.Hill Grassland Goyder 8342; Goyder & Maiato 8813 Moxico
Thesium subaphyllum Engl. Grassland Barker et al. 91; Goyder 8347; Goyder 8937
Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum bangweolense R.E.Fr. Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8841
Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.Penn. Woodland Goyder 8033; Goyder 8387; Goyder 8447; sight record 5
Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.Penn. – pyrophytic form Grassland Woodland Goyder & Maiato 8854
Simaroubaceae Hannoa chlorantha Engl. & Gilg Woodland Barker et al. 66; Barker et al. 129; Baum 674; Goyder 8946 Moxico
Thymelaeaceae Craterosiphon quarrei Staner Woodland Goyder 8219; Goyder & Maiato 8845 Moxico
Gnidia gossweileri (S.Moore) B.Peterson subsp. gossweileri Wetland; Grassland Barker et al. 88
Gnidia kraussiana Meisn. Grassland Goyder 8110; Goyder & Maiato 8817
Umbelliferae Afrocarum imbricatum (Schinz) Rauschert Wetland Goyder 8957
Pseudoselinum angolense (C.Norman) C.Norman Grassland; Woodland Goyder 8045; Goyder 8251; Goyder 8953 Bié; Moxico


We are extremely grateful to the British de-mining charity The Halo Trust for logistical support and for keeping us safe. John Hilton and Steve Boyes of the Wild Bird Trust, South Africa initiated the Okavango Wilderess Project and ensured all expeditions ran smoothly. We are most grateful to the Collections Unit INBAC of the Angolan Ministry of the Environment in Luanda for facilitating permits and permission.


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