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The medicinal plants of Myanmar
expand article infoRobert A. DeFilipps, Gary A. Krupnick§
‡ Unaffiliated, Washington, United States of America
§ National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, United States of America
† Deceased author
Open Access

Abstract

A comprehensive compilation is provided of the medicinal plants of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma). This contribution, containing 123 families, 367 genera, and 472 species, was compiled from earlier treatments, monographs, books, and pamphlets, with some medicinal uses and preparations translated from Burmese to English. The entry for each species includes the Latin binomial, author(s), common Myanmar and English names, range, medicinal uses and preparations, and additional notes. Of the 472 species, 63 or 13% of them have been assessed for conservation status and are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2017). Two species are listed as Extinct in the Wild, four as Threatened (two Endangered, two Vulnerable), two as Near Threatened, 48 Least Concerned, and seven Data Deficient. Botanic gardens worldwide hold 444 species (94%) within their living collections, while 28 species (6%) are not found any botanic garden. Preserving the traditional knowledge of Myanmar healers contributes to Target 13 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

Keywords

Myanmar, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge, ethnobotany, checklist, conservation

Introduction

In many parts of the world traditional knowledge and biodiversity still play an import role in health care, culture, religion, food security, environment, and sustainable development. Moreover, many widely used plant-based medicines are derived from traditional knowledge. Preserving, protecting, and promoting (if scientifically supported) traditional knowledge is of key importance. The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) calls for the sustainable and equitable use of plant diversity (CBD 2002). GSPC’s Target 13 aims for an increase in indigenous and local knowledge innovations and practices associated with plant resources to support customary use, sustainable livelihoods, local food security, and health care. It is with this aim that we compiled a list of plant species and their medicinal uses in Myanmar based on published accounts. The information contained in this compilation comes from popular knowledge and was not scientifically tested in terms of the efficacy of the uses of the plants listed.

History of published accounts of Myanmar medicinal plants

Some of the earliest literature concerning the medicinal plants of Myanmar includes:

• Mason F (1850) The Natural Productions of Burma; or, Notes on the Fauna, Flora, and Minerals of the Tenasserim Provinces and the Burman empire. Moulmain.

• Lace JH, Roger A (1922) List of Trees, Shrubs, and Principal Climbers, etc., recorded from Burma. Rangoon.

• Rodger A (1951) A Handbook of the Forest Products of Burma. Rangoon.

• Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Indigenous System of Medicine (1951) Rangoon.

• Sawyer AM, Daw Nyun (1955) Classified List of the Plants of Burma. Rangoon.

• Hundley HG, U Chit Ko Ko (1961) Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Principle Climbers, etc. Rangoon.

In 1948, when the Union of Burma first gained its independence from the United Kingdom, the first Burmese government began to build a pharmaceutical factory, the Burma Pharmaceutical Industry (B.P.I.). B.P.I. was “large enough to cover the production of all essential medicines” for the population. This factory officially opened in 1958. Initially they had to depend almost entirely on imported raw materials. However, in 1955 the B.P.I. Raw Material Project was set up with the objective of providing as much of the raw material as possible from indigenous sources.

In 1957, Arnold Nordal was appointed as a United Nations advisor to assist the B.P.I. Raw Material Project with its work. From 1957 to 1961, Nordal studied the possible utilization of the medicinal plants in the Myanmar flora. For his study, Nordal contacted those he considered the most important representatives of the indigenous system of medicine. These included Buddhist monks, medicine men, and drug traders. Books and written sources were also used during his research resulting in the compilation of his 1963 publication, The Medicinal Plants and Crude Drugs of Burma. In the course of his work, he also built a herbarium of these medicinal plants, created a collection of the corresponding crude drugs, and collected as much information as possible on the medicinal tradition connected with the plants.

Subsequent work includes the following:

• Mya Bwin D, Sein Gwan U (1967) Burmese Indigenous Medicinal Plants. Burma Medicinal Research Institute, Rangoon.

• Perry LM (1980) Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses. 620 pp. The MIT Press, Cambridge and London.

Agricultural Corporation (1980) Burmese Medicinal Plants. 501 pp. Rangoon: Agricultural Corporation. (In Burmese).

• Department of Traditional Medicine (No date [199-]) Medicinal Plants of Myanmar. Monograph. Ministry of Health, Myanmar. Accessed from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/m/abstract/Js20298en/.

Forest Department (1999) Medicinal Plants of Popa Mountain Park. 18 pp. Yangon, Myanmar: Ministry of Forestry.

• Kress WJ, DeFilipps RA, Farr E, Daw Yin Yin Kyi (2003) A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.

• Thein Swe, Sein Win (2005) Herbal Gardens and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Myanmar. 5 pp. World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia. Pyongyang, DPR Korea.

• Tun, U Kyaw, U Pe Than et al. (Update 2006) Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database.

The Ministry of Health in Myanmar established the Department of Traditional Medicine in 1989, and it was upgraded and reorganized in 1998 (Thein Swe and Sein Win 2005).

Traditional medicine is widely practiced in Myanmar by the majority of the population either as an alternate or as a supplement to modern medicine (Thein Swe and Sein Win 2005). The social groups and traditional communities that have generated the knowledge of traditional medicine in Myanmar include Buddhist monks, sesayas (local doctors), ambulating medicine men, traders in the local drug bazaars, ambulating drug traders, and professional drug collectors (Nordal 1963). Old Burmese scriptures that contain medical traditions and health problems in addition to religious matters are written in a Burmese alphabet and language than can only be translated with special training. Buddhist monks have translated these scriptures, often written on palm leaves (Corypha umbraculifera L.) or on bamboo covered with the sap of the black-varnish tree (Melanorrhoea usitata Wall.), into ordinary Burmese and English (Nordal 1963). Sesayas are practitioners of local medical traditions whose knowledge has been handed down through their ancestors. Sesayas and their helpers prepare medicines in laboratories in their own homes. Ambulating medicine men are free lancers that travel from place to place accompanied by an apprentice. Drug traders of the local open-air bazaars are often prepared to share knowledge about the properties of their goods. Ambulating drug traders are mostly Ghurkas (people originating from Tibet) who would spread their products in the streets for display. Professional drug collectors make their living collecting crude drugs for the drug bazaars and for the sesayas, and they often have extensive and reliable knowledge of the medicinal local flora (Nordal 1963).

History and knowledge of the Myanmar flora

Botanical exploration of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma), which spans both tropical and subtropical biomes, began in the 1880s when the country was under the rule of the British (Kress et al. 2003). The botanical study of the British colonial system, including India and parts of Asia, resulted in partial plant lists of Myanmar such as Kurz’s The Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) and Hooker’s Flora of the British India (1894). Botanical investigations of the region sharply decreased soon after World War II. Myanmar is exceptionally rich in plant diversity, but very few new plant collections had been made in this area during the second half of the 1900s (Kress et al. 2003). The first list of plants specifically for Myanmar was compiled in 1922 by J.H. Lace and published in the List of Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Principal Climbers, etc., recorded from Burma. The original edition includes 2,483 species, and the last published edition of 1987 has about 7,000 species. Kress et al. (2003) provided a more comprehensive list based on an inventory of specimens from select herbaria, advice from taxonomic specialists, and records from regional floras. The treatment lists over 11,800 species. The knowledge of the flora is still growing, as the native status of many species is incomplete.

The geology, climate, and vegetation types of Myanmar

Myanmar occupies an area of 678,033 sq. km in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal on the west, China to the north and northeast, Laos and Thailand to the east, and the Andaman Sea to the south. With the exception of the centrally located Ayeyarwady valley and delta, the most populated area, the terrain is generally hilly and mountainous.

The climate is mostly monsoonal, with cloudy, rainy, hot humid summers (June to September, southwest monsoon) and less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during the winter (December to April, northeast monsoon). Local climate, which has a major influence on the diversity and distribution of plant species, is determined by the combination of temperature, rainfall, and elevation. Geology and the resultant soils are major controlling factors in the local distribution of forest types and of individual species, although to some extent climate and soil counteract one another (Stamp 1925).

The vegetation consists of tropical lowland evergreen rain forest, primarily in the south; tropical hill evergreen rain forest and temperate evergreen rain forest above 900 m in the east, north, and west; semi-evergreen rain forest in a narrow belt bordering an arid central plain; mixed deciduous forest with teak (Tetona grandis) and dry dipterocarp forest centrally; coniferous forests in Shan and Chin States, with Pinus khasya between 1200–2500 m on dry slopes; oak and rhododendron forests on wetter slopes; and dry forest and scrub formations where average annual rainfall is below 100 cm. Additionally, large tracts of bamboo forest are scattered throughout the country.

As recently as 1931, Myanmar was nearly three-quarters forested (Murphy 1931). The Myanmar forest department estimates that closed and degraded forest together currently constitute 343,767 km or approximately 51% of the total area of the country. Myers (1988), quoting Forest Department figures, stated that about 1420 sq. km per annum of primary forest is transformed by shifting cultivation, while Kyaw Tint and Tun Hla (1981) have estimated that open forest increases annually by approximately 278,000 ha per year.

Bringing Burmese text to an English reading audience

The information presented here was compiled utilizing data from written sources and databases on Asian and Myanmar medicinal plants; the Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar (2003), which up-dates the largely unavailable earlier checklists with a more complete treatment of the grasses, orchids, and herbs; and, importantly, the English translation (provided by Thi Thi Ta) of Burmese Medicinal Plants (Agricultural Corporation 1980), an important and extensive book on Burmese medicinal plants, how they are utilized, and their specific preparations.

The families, genera, and species are arranged alphabetically under the following categories: Ferns, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Under each genus, the species are listed under the Latin binomial followed by the author(s) and synonyms, English and Myanmar common names, global range and approximate distribution in Myanmar (including if cultivated), uses in Myanmar (for the many species from the newly translated Burmese publication, preparation is also included as well as detailed uses), notes, and references. If the species is listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2017), the conservation assessment of the species is included as well.

The family and genus names utilized here are in accordance with those given as taxa accepted in Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Stevens 2017) and The Plant List (2013). Synonyms are included when the synonym is used in the original referenced texts.

Myanmar distributions presented here are those given by Kress et al. (2003). The distributions should only be considered approximate since, “due to lack of comprehensive herbarium collections of Myanmar plants, accurate determinations of the geographic distribution of taxa are still problematic” (Kress et al. 2003). Distributions are based on data from the original list, existing specimens, and estimates from taxonomic specialists. If the taxon is known to be common, the distribution is designated as “wide”. Common names given here come from the various sources, but most are those given in Kress et al. (2003).

Conservation and sustainability of medicinal plant species

This list contains 123 families, 367 genera, and 472 species of medicinal plants. Of the 472 species, only 63 (13%) have been assessed for conservation status in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2017) (Figure 1). Two species are listed as Extinct in the Wild: Brugmansia arborea (L.) Steud. and Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J.Presl. Both species survive only in cultivation, and thus the size of wild populations of these species is zero. Four species are deemed threatened: Coptis teeta Wall. and Cupressus goveniana Gordon are listed as Endangered, and Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. and Santalum album L. are listed as Vulnerable. Exploitation, unregulated collection, and forest degradation are the primary threats to these species. Two species are listed as Near Threatened (Cycas rumphii Miq. and Dimocarpus longan Lour.), 48 species as Least Concerned, and seven species as Data Deficient.

Figure 1. 

IUCN conservation assessments of the medicinal plant species treated in this study (IUCN 2017).

According to Botanic Gardens Conservation International’s ThreatSearch database (BGCI 2017), which is a comprehensive list of threatened plant species at the global, national, and regional scales using both IUCN and non-IUCN methodologies, over 75% (355 species) of the medicinal plants listed here have been assessed for conservation status at one or more scales. These assessments include those listed in the Red Lists of Canada & the United States (NatureServe 2017), Central Asia (Eastwood et al. 2009), China (Wang and Xie 2004), Jordan (Taifour and El-Oqlah 2014), Luxembourg (Colling 2005), South Africa (SANBI 2017), and others, as well as preliminary assessments of the Lesser Antilles (Carrington et al. 2017), the Philippines (Fernando et al. 2008), Puerto Rico (Miller et al. 2013), and individual taxonomic treatments. Of the 355 species that have received national and global assessments, 101 species were deemed threatened (15 Critically Endangered, 31 Endangered, 55 Vulnerable), 66 Near Threatened, 257 Least Concerned, and 29 Data Deficient (totals do not add as most species received multiple assessments and were placed in multiple threat categories). Just under 25% (117 species) have not been assessed at any scale.

According to BGCI’s PlantSearch database (BGCI 2017), a comprehensive list of the botanic garden accessions, 444 species (94%) of the medicinal plants listed here are held within the living collections of botanic gardens worldwide, while 28 species (6%) are not found any botanic garden (Figure 2). The median number of botanic gardens a medicinal plant species is found in is 18 gardens. Eighteen species are found in only one botanic garden, while 125 species are found in 2–10 botanic gardens. The species found in the greatest number of gardens is Taxus baccata L., which is found in 212 botanic gardens, while Salvia officinalis L. is found in 192 botanic gardens worldwide. Of the threatened species listed in the IUCN Red List, the Endangered species Coptis teeta is found in three botanic gardens and the Endangered Cupressus goveniana is found in 45 botanic gardens. The Vulnerable Aquilaria malaccensis is found in five gardens while the Vulnerable Santalum album is found in 22 gardens.

Mounce et al. (2017) argue for targeted strategies to enhance the value of living collections at botanic gardens, including a focus on under-represented phylogenetic lineages, environmental niches, life histories, and medicinal, ethnobotanical, and crop plants. Further, to reduce the pressures of harvesting plants from wild resources, there are calls for conservation strategies (e.g., in situ and ex situ conservation and cultivation practices) and resource management (e.g., sustainable use practices) to sustain wild populations of medicinal plant species (Schippmann et al. 2002, Chen et al. 2016).

Figure 2. 

The number of botanic gardens worldwide that have digitally recorded accessions of each of the 472 medicinal plant species treated in this study.

References cited in Introduction

Agricultural Corporation (1980) Burmese Medicinal Plants. Agricultural Corporation, Rangoon. [In Burmese]

BGCI (2017) ThreatSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond. http://www.bgci.org/threat_search.php [accessed 29.08.2017]

Carrington CMS, Krupnick GA, Acevedo-Rodríguez P (2017) Herbarium-based preliminary conservation assessments of Lesser Antillean endemic seed plants reveal a flora at risk. The Botanical Review 83(2): 107–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-017-9182-5

Chen SL, Yu H, Luo HM, Wu Q, Li CF, Steinmetz A (2016) Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: problems, progress, and prospects. Chinese Medicine 11: 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-016-0108-7

Colling G (2005) Red List of the Vascular Plants of Luxembourg. Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, Luxembourg. https://ps.mnhn.lu/ferrantia/publications/Ferrantia42.pdf

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2002) Decision VI/9, Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 2002–2010. Sixth Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 6). The Hague, The Netherlands. http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7183

Eastwood A, Lazkov G, Newton A (2009) The Red List of Trees of Central Asia. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge. https://www.bgci.org/files/Worldwide/News/red_list_of_trees_of_central_asia.pdf

Fernando ES, Co LL, Lagunzad DA, Gruezo WS, Barcelona JF, Madulid DA, Lapis AB, Texon GI, Manila AC, Zamora PM (2008) Threatened plants of the Philippines: A preliminary assessment. Asian Life Sciences Suppl. 3: 1–52.

IUCN (2017) IUCN Red List of threatened species. IUCN, Gland. http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [accessed 01.08.2017]

Kress WJ, DeFilipps RA, Farr E, Daw Yin Yin Kyi (2003) A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1–590. http://botany.si.edu/pubs/CUSNH/vol_45.pdf

Kurz S (1877) Forest Flora of British Burma. Supdt., Government printer, Calcutta.

Kyaw Tint, Tun Hla (1991) Forest Cover of Myanmar, the 1988 Appraisal. National Forest Management and Inventory, FAO: MYA/85/003. Rome.

Miller SJ, Krupnick GA, Stevens H, Porter-Morgan H, Boom B, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Ackerman J, Kolterman D, Santiago E, Torres C, Velez J (2013) Toward Target 2 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: an expert analysis of the Puerto Rican flora to validate new streamlined methods for assessing conservation status. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 99(2): 199–205. https://doi.org/10.3417/2011121

Mounce R, Smith P, Brockington S (2017) Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world’s botanic gardens. Nature Plants 3: 795–802. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-017-0019-3

Murphy M (1931) The geography of Burma. Journal of Geography 30: 17–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221343108987159

Myers N (1988) Threatened biotas: “Hotspots” in the tropical forestry. Environmentalist 8: 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02240252

NatureServe (2017) NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://explorer.natureserve.org [accessed 29.08.2017]

The Plant List (2013) Version 1.1. Published on the Internet. http://www.theplantlist.org/ [accessed 29.08.2017]

SANBI (2017) Red List of South African Plants version 2017.1. http://redlist.sanbi.org/index.php [accessed 29.08.2017]

Schippmann U, Leaman DJ, Cunningham AB (2002) Impact of cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants on biodiversity: Global trends and issues. In: FAO (Eds) Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. FAO, Rome, 142–167. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/AA010E/AA010E00.HTM

Stamp LD (1925) The Vegetation of Burma from an Ecological Standpoint. Research Monograph No. I. Thacker, Spink and Co., Calcutta.

Stevens PF (2017) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/ [accessed 29.08.2017]

Thein Swe, Sein Win (2005) Herbal Gardens and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Myanmar. 5 pp. World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia. Pyongyang, DPR Korea.

Taifour H, El-Oqlah A (2014) Jordan Plant Red List. Jordan Royal Botanic Garden, Amman. http://royalbotanicgarden.org/sites/default/files/files/Jordan%20Plant%20Red%20List%20(email)%20-%20Vol%201.pdf

Wang S, Xie Y (2004) China Species Red List. Vol. 1 Red List. Higher Education Press, Beijing, China.

Ferns

Dennstaedtiaceae (Bracken Fern family)

1. Pteridium Gled. ex Scop

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

Names

Myanmar: boktaung, wetkyein. English: brake, braken, hog-pasture brake, pasture brake.

Range

Cosmopolitan.

Use

Stem: Rhizome used as an anthelmintic.

Notes

Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, and New Guinea.

Reported constituents include hydrocyanic acid, catechuic tannins, antivitamin B, antivitamin K, and pteridine. The rhizome contains filicic acid, essential oil, resin, some tannin, filicotannic acid, fatty oil, wax, aspidinol, sugar, gum, and starch (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Equisetaceae (Horsetail family)

1. Equisetum L

Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. debile (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Hauke (= Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher)

Names

Myanmar: myet-sek. English: weak horsetail.

Range

Europe from Loire, southern Bavaria and central Russia southwards, in isolated localities in Brittany (France), the Netherlands and northern Germany; Asia; Africa; and America.

Use

Whole plant: Used to treat gonorrhea.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used for gonorrhea and as an abortifacient (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the species is used internally to treat dysentery; also to improve eyesight (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In Malaysia it is used for pain, especially arthritic pain; in Indonesia it is used externally to treat bruises, fractures, and arthritis; and in Korea, China, Taiwan, and Indo-China it is used internally to treat dysentery (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents of Equisetum include fatty oil, silicic acid, linoleic acid, equisetonine, equisetic acid, and equisetine (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Gleicheniaceae (Forking Fern family)

1. Dicranopteris Bernh

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. (= Gleichenia linearis (Burm.f.) C.B.Clarke)

Name

English: savannah fern.

Range

Malay Peninsula to Sumatra.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as an antipyretic, antiasthmatic, and anthelmintic.

Notes

In Indo-China the plant is considered to be anthelmintic. On the Malay Peninsula crushed leaves are applied as a poultice for fever, a decoction is used as an embrocation, or an infusion may be drunk (“large and strong doses are apparently injurious”) (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Gymnosperms

Cupressaceae (Cypress family)

1. Cupressus L

Cupressus goveniana Gordon

Name

English: California cypress.

Range

California, in North America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Endangered [EN B2ab(ii,iii,v)] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Plant used for medicinal purposes (exact uses not given in Nordal 1963).

Notes

A member of this genus, Cypressus funebris, is used in China to dispel colds; the leaves are antiperiodic and provide a remedy for bleeding piles, hematuria, and menorrhea. In Indo-China another member of the genus, Cypressus hodginsii, is known to have vaso-constrictory and astringent properties (Perry 1980).

The monocyclic sesquiterpene fokienol is a reported chemical constituent of Cypressus hodginsii Dunn (= Fokienia hodginsii (Dunn) Henry & Thomas) (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Cycadaceae (Cycad family)

1. Cycas L

Cycas rumphii Miq.

Names

Myanmar: mondaing. English: cycad.

Range

Northern Australia and Malay Archipelago. In Myanmar, found in Taninthayi and Yangon.

Conservation status

Near Threatened [NT] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Male bracts: Used as aphrodisiac, narcotic, and stimulant. Fruit or Seed:

Applied to ulcers, wounds (including malignant and varicose), skin lesions, and used for various skin diseases.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Admiralty Island, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands are discussed in Perry (1980). The application may be the poisonous juice of the fruit, the raw seed grated or macerated, or roasted, powdered and mixed with coconut oil (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Taxaceae (Yew family)

1. Taxus L

Taxus baccata L.

Names

Myanmar: kyauk-tinyu. English: yew.

Range

Europe, North Africa, western Asia. In Myanmar found in Chin and Shan.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Leaf, Fruit: Used as an antispasmodic, sedative, and as an emmenagogue.

Notes

In India the leaf and fruit are used as an antispasmotic, sedative, and emmenagogue (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The leaf is also used as an aphrodisiac; to treat epilepsy, asthma, indigestion, and bronchitis. Other medicinal uses for this species include expectorant, pectoral, sedative, stomachic, tonic; abortifacient, antifertility (chemical found in plant shown to be effective for this purpose), contraceptive; for headache, bilious, calculus, for cancer, carminative, cyanogenetic, epilepsy, lithontriptic, medicine Tacholm; giddiness, nerves, spasm; poison, vermifuge, insecticide (Duke 2009).

The leaves and seeds of Taxus species contain the alkaloid taxine which is poisonous, “and while Taxus is sometimes used as medicine this also has caused instances of poisoning” (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Angiosperms

Acanthaceae (Acanthus family)

1. Acanthus L

Acanthus ilicifolius L.

Names

Myanmar: kaya-chon, kha-yar, kha-yar-chon. English: holly-leaved acanthus, sea holly.

Range

India to Polynesia and Australia. In Myanmar, found in Ayarwady, Rakhine, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Shoot: Used to treat snakebite. Leaf: Used for rheumatism.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: Stem- anti-cancer; root- also anti-cancer, and for chronic fever. Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

Reference

Perry (1980).

2. Andrographis Wall. ex Nees

Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees

Names

Myanmar: sega-gyi, se-khar-gyi, hsay-kha gyi, ngayoke kha. English: creat, creyat root, king of bitters.

Range

Subcontinent of India. In Myanmar, found in Kachin, Kayin, Magway, Mandalay, and Sagaing.

Uses

Cool and bitter in taste, controls phlegm and gall bladder function, stimulates appetite, reduces fever, and is particularly good as a remedy for children. Whole plant: Made into medicines that reduce fever, aid digestion, and give strength. The liquid from boiling the plant is used to treat headaches, indigestion, loose bowels, dysentery, shooting pains from gas in the intestines, and fevers; can also be mixed with powdered zee-hpyu, hpan-khar (Terminalia chebula) and thit hseint (Terminalia bellirica) to remedy edema, abdominal swelling, leprosy, headaches, stiff neck, and dizziness. Leaf: Used in medicines that lower fever, neutralize poisons, and treat the gall bladder, as well as in making of shar-put-hsay (commonly used traditional medicine in form of grayish brown powder rolled into nuggets). Leaf and Root: Used as febrifuge, stomachic, tonic and anthelmintic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

3. Avicennia L

Avicennia officinalis L.

Name

English: gray mangrove.

Range

Maritime. South and southeastern Asia, northern Australia, and East Africa.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Root: Considered to be an aphrodisiac. Seed: Used in poultices.

Notes

In Taiwan the fruit, mixed with butter and made into a paste, is smoothed on to prevent the bursting of smallpox pustules; in Indo-China the bark is used to heal cutaneous affections, especially scabies; in Indonesia a resinous substance exuded from the bark “acts as a contraceptive, and apparently can be taken all year long without ill effects”; and in the Philippines the seeds are a maturative and a cicatrizant of ulcers, also resin from the sapwood is applied locally to snakebites (Perry 1980).

The bark contains tannin and lapachol (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

4. Barleria L

Barleria prionitis L.

Names

Myanmar: leik-su-ywe, leik-hsu shwe, leik tha-shwe war. English: barleria, porcupine flower.

Range

Tropical Asia, Africa, and India. In Myanmar, found in Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Yangon, especially in fields and pastures.

Uses

Bitter and astringent in taste, highly beneficial for skin and blood diseases. Whole plant: Crushed, cooked with sesame oil and applied to itches, ringworm and boils. Whole plant, Leaf: Used as diuretic in dropsy and as febrifuge. Stem and Leaf: Crushing the leaves together with the stems and branches, stewing them in a mixture of one part sesame oil to two parts water and straining the mixture provides an oil that can be applied to long-standing sores. Leaf: Made into an ash and taken with fermented rice washing water to bring down swelling from edemas and dropsy; mixed with butter and applied to longstanding sores, to help them heal quickly. Leaves boiled to make a strong tea, and the mixture held in the mouth to strengthen loose teeth. Juice from crushing leaves- applied to scorpion sting will neutralize the poison, also used to treat inflamed areas; mixed with either honey, sugar, or warm water and given to cure children with coughs, fever and bronchitis; also used to treat chronic cough. Juice from grinding the leaves applied to treat fungus infections on the soles of the feet and between the toes. Roots: Ground and applied to bring down inflammation and infection in swellings, bumps, and sores.

Note

In India the root is placed on boils and glandular swellings; the bark is used for dropsy; and the leaf for toothache and rheumatism (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

5. Hygrophila R.Br

Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine (= Asteracantha longifolia Nees; Hygrophila spinosa T. Anderson)

Names

Myanmar: le-padu, su-padang. English: hygrophila.

Range

Wet places in Indo-China, Myanmar, Bangla Desh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan Punjab, and Tropical Africa. In Myanmar, found in Bago.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Leaf: Used in treating jaundice. Leaf, Root, Seed: Used as expectorant, and diuretic in dropsy. Root: Used to treat rheumatism. Seed: Employed as an aphrodisiac.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The whole plant is used for malarial fever; the leaf and seed as a diuretic, for jaundice, cough, dropsy, rheumatism, and urogenital diseases; the seed as an aphrodisiac; and the bulb for tubercular fistula, sores, skin cancer, dropsy, and swelling of the face and body. Primarily the leaves are used for poulticing fresh wounds, sprained limbs, swellings, abscesses, boils, and headaches (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents in species belonging to this genus include an alkaloid; various enzymes; and linoleic, oleic, and ricinoleic acids (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Hygrophila phlomoides Nees

Names

Myanmar: hsay-dan, meegyaung-kun-hpat, migyaung-kunbat. English: Burma linseed.

Range

Temperate Asia: China and Tropical Asia: Indian subcontinent. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Uses

Seed: Used for making medicines to cure sore eyes, for flatulence, and for discoloration and fungal infections of the skin. Crushed and used as a poultice over festering and long-standing sores.

Notes

In India the leaf is used for boils and headache (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

In East and Southeast Asia, primarily the leaves are used for poulticing fresh wounds, sprained limbs, swellings, abscesses, boils, and headache (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

6. Justicia L

Justicia adhatoda L. (= Adhatoda vasica Nees)

Names

Myanmar: my-yar-gyi, ye-magyi, htingra-hpraw (Kachin), hla brairot (Mon). English: adulsa, Malabar nut tree.

Range

India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Myanmar. Cultivated in the tropics. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Whole plant: Used in medicine to remove phlegm, and for excessive menses. Leaf: Astringent and bitter, the leaves have cooling properties that regulate phlegm and bile, ease diarrhea, alleviate coughing and coughing up blood, and relieve chronic asthma. They also alleviate coughing with fever, bad breath, and swellings in the lower extremities. To relieve pain and urinary infections, three tablespoons of liquid from boiling leaves, reduced to one-third starting volume, are ingested. Leaves dried in the shade, converted to ash, and ground to a fine powder can be pressed onto gums and teeth for toothaches, bleeding gums, and loose teeth. Leaves are also used to make medicines for eye ailments. Stewing the leaves and taking the liquid used to treat dysentery; also, for dysentery, male-related weaknesses, and excessive menstruation, liquid from boiling a handful of leaves in water reduced to one-third the starting volume is taken three times a day. The juice of crushed young leaves with either wine or honey is used to treat whooping cough. Leaf extract is antiseptic. Flower: About one tablespoon of the juice squeezed from the flowers and leaves can be taken with a moderate amount of rock sugar to for bile problems and for vomiting and otherwise passing blood. Fruit: For vomiting and otherwise passing blood, three tablespoons of liquid from kyazu (Terminalia citirina) fruit soaked in leaf juice can be taken. Root (or Leaf): To treat asthma and coughs, one tablespoon of juice from the crushed roots or leaves mixed with moderate amounts of rock sugar and rock salt can be taken. Black mu yargyi (probably Adhatoda vasica = Justicia adhatoda) root can be made into a paste with cold water and rubbed onto scorpion sting to neutralize the venom. The root is also a component in insecticides.

Notes

In India the species is used in Ayurvedic medicine as a blood purifier and antispasmodic, as well as a treatment for bronchitis, asthma, tuberculosis, coughing, and intestinal worms (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

“Reported constituents of the leaves are a very small amount of essential oil, vasicine (an alkaloid), and adhatodic acid. The first two have therapeutic properties. The alkaloid produces a slight fall in blood pressure followed by a rise to the original level, an increase persistent broncho-dilator effect.” Antiseptic and insecticidal properties are attributed to it (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

7. Peristrophe Nees

Peristrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nees

Name

English: panicled peristrophe.

Range

Tropical Africa, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Malaya, and Indo-China. In Myanmar, found in Bago.

Use

Whole plant: Used as an antidote for snake-poison.

Note

In India the whole plant, macerated in rice (Oryza sativa), is used as an antidote to snake poison (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

8. Strobilanthes Blume

Strobilanthes auriculatus Nees

Names

Myanmar: hmaw-yan, paung-thaung, saingnan. English: Mexican petunia.

Range

Tropical Asia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as an antidote for snake poison. Leaf: Used to treat intermittent fever.

Note

In India “Pounded leaves are rubbed onto the body during the cold period of an intermittent fever.” (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

9. Thunbergia Retz

Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T. Anderson

Names

Myanmar: kwa-nyo. English: black-eyed Susan vine, bush clock-vine.

Range

Tropical and southern Africa. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Use

Leaf: Used for treating bile disorders.

Note

In India the leaf is used as an ingredient of headache poultices (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Forest Department (1999).

Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.

Names

Myanmar: kyi-kan-hnok-thi, kyini-nwe, new-nyo, pan-ye-sut-nwe. English: laurel clock vine, laurel-leaved clockvine, laurel-leaved thunbergia, purple allamanda.

Range

Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Use

Flower: Said to be a good medicine for the eyes.

Notes

In India leaf juice is placed in the ear to treat deafness and is drunk for menorrhagia (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the leaves are used as a remedy for excessive mensus and are also applied to wounds and ulcers. On the Malay Peninsula juice from crushed leaves is taken and used in a poultice applied to cuts and boils; the juice is also put in the ear to treat deafness (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Achariaceae (Acharia family)

1. Hydnocarpus Gaertn

Hydnocarpus kurzii (King) Warb.

Names

Myanmar: kalaw, kalaw-so. English: chaulmoogra.

Range

Tropical Asia. Found growing in natural gullies and mountain slopes of Myanmar, including in Chin, Kachin, Kayin, areas around Pyinmana, and other evergreen forests.

Conservation status

Data Deficient [DD] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bark, Fruit, and Seed (oil): (bitter and hot) have healing properties. Can be used to induce vomiting and neutralize poisons, as well as to alleviate aches, indigestion, flatulence, and infections. Bark: An ingredient in medicines to reduce fever. Fruit: Eaten as a remedy for leprous sores, boils, and vomiting. Applied topically for aches and pains; the oil is known for its blood-purifying properties. As the oil has heat, it can kill germs and is most commonly used to treat leprosy and other skin infections.

Notes

In India the bark is used for fever, the oil of the seed for leprosy (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The species is a source of chaulmoogra oil.

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Ministry of Health (2001).

Acoraceae (Sweet-Flag family)

1. Acorus L

Acorus calamus L.

Names

Myanmar: lin-ne, lin-lay. English: calamus, flagroot, sweet flag.

Range

Northern Hemisphere. Temperate and tropical Asia; found growing around ponds and streams in cool climates. In Myanmar, grows wild and is also cultivated for use in home medicinal remedies.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Of the two varieties of this species, the larger is used in traditional medicines. Rhizome: Preparations made from the rhizome are used to promote urinary flow, relieve constipation, and cleanse impurities from the body. The stewed rhizome is given for fever, coughs, and poisoning. A mixture of the rhizome that has been roasted until charred with oil is used as a rub applied topically to ease stomachaches and bloating in children. A mixture of the rhizome with cashew oil is used as a rub to relieve swollen joints and sore muscles. A mixture of equal amounts of the dried rhizome with samone hpyu (Trachyspermum ammi) is burned to create smoke for inhaling as a cure for hemorrhoids. The rhizome powder is taken with warm milk for sore throat. A mixture of the rhizome with hsay-khar-gyi (Andrographis paniculata) is given to reduce fever. To expel worms, a mixture of equal amounts of the rhizome with baked shein-kho (Gardenia resinifera) is given to children. A mixture of the rhizome powder with dried ginger powder and honey is taken for partial paralysis of the mouth, chin, and cheek. A mixture of the rhizome powder with honey is licked as a cure for epilepsy and to treat loss of sanity.

Notes

The medicinal uses of his species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Adoxaceae (Moschatel family)

1. Sambucus L

Sambucus javanica Blume

Names

Myanmar: pale-ban. English: Chinese elder, elderberry, Javanese elderberry.

Range

Japan, Taiwan, southeastern Asia, Malaysian Archipelago. In Myanmar found in Chin, Kachin, Sagaing, and Shan.

Uses

Leaf, Flower: Diuretic, purgative.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the whole plant is decocted for ague, bone ache, dropsy, spasms, swellings, and traumatic injuries; the leaf is used for pain and numbness, diseases of bones, and rheumatic problems; the fruit is employed as a depurative and purgative, and a decoction is used for injuries, skin disease, and swelling; the root is used for numbness, pain, rheumatic difficulties, and bone diseases.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Altingiaceae (Sweet-gum family)

1. Altingia Noronha

Altingia excelsa Noronha

Names

Myanmar: nantayok. English: Burmese storax.

Range

India and Myanmar to Java; also cultivated. In Myanmar, it is found in Kachin and Taninthayi.

Use

Stem: Resin used as remedy for orchitus.

Notes

In India the resin is used on leucoderma and scabies; also for an antiscorbutic, carminative, stomachic, and expectorant (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China it is used as a tonic, and liquid storax is used in a tonic and stimulant, considered especially good for chest complaints. On the Malay Peninsula it is mixed with other drugs, and used as a tonic. In Indonesia the natives use the leaves for medicinal purposes (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents include essential oil, vanilline, cinnamic acid, styrolene, naphthalene, and caoutchouc (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Amaranthaceae (Cockscomb family)

1. Achyranthes L

Achyranthes aspera L.

Names

Myanmar: kyet-mauk-pyan, kyet-mauk-sue-pyan, naukpo. English: devil’s horsewhip, prickly chaff.

Range

China, Taiwan, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. In Myanmar, found in Magway and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf, Flowering Spike, Seed: Used as an emetic and antiasthmatic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The whole plant is used for cough; an infusion of the leaf in alcohol is used for leucoderma; leaf also used as an antidote for snakebite. The seed is emetic for hydrophobia. The root (applied with the roots of Heteropogon contortus) is used for caries of teeth, atrophy, emaciation, cachexy (mixed with roots of three other species); rheumatism (ground with roots of Solanum surattense and pills of this mixture smoked), strangulation of the intestine (ground with the roots of Randia uliginosa, betel (Piper betle) leaf and catechu, mixed with spirit, and administered); scabies (with other ingredients); syphilis sores (cooked with in oil with fruit of Datura and applied); childbirth complaints (ground with flowers of Artocarpus heterophyllus); tiger and snakebite; diuretic; abortifcient, stops bleeding after abortion; bark of root use for malarial fever.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Aerva Forssk

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. (= Aerva persica (Burm.f.) Merr.)

Names

Myanmar: on-hnye. English: aerva, kapok bush, snow bush.

Range

Widespread in drier parts of the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, from Myanmar, India and Sri Lanka westwards through Southwest Asia, across North Africa to Morocco and south to Cape Verde island and Cameroun Uganda and Tanzania to Madagascar. Introduced in Australia and elsewhere.

Use

Root: Paste made and applied to acne-like conditions of the face.

Notes

The species is used as a uricant (Burkill 1985); also to treat kidney stones and for inflammation (Zafar et al. 2006). The medicinal uses of another member of the genus Aerva in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The whole plant is used for albumin in the urine; infant diarrhea; cholera; and dysentery. The leaf is used for earache; and the root is used for snakebite.

Reference

Perry (1980).

3. Alternanthera Forssk

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

Names

Myanmar: pazun-sar, pazun-za. English: dwarf copperleaf, joyweed, sessile joyweed.

Range

Native range Australia, Northen Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Palau, the Philippines, Soloman Islands, and Singapore. Now very widespread in the tropics and subtropics of both the Old and New Worlds, especially in damp or wet locations. In Myanmar, found in Yangon.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Leaf, Juice: Used as a galactagogue.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The root is used for hazy vision and night blindness (in combination with four other species); postnatal complaints (ground with seeds of two other species and roots of a third); prolapsus and fistula ani (roots and leaves mixed with rice and salt); diarrhea (roots, bark, and fruit pulp of three other plants and some lime from shells); fever with intense thirst (in combination with other components); dog, jackal and lizard bite (with other plants); also, an unspecified plant part is used for dysentery. In China a broth of the plant is cooked with meat and taken for tuberculosis; a decoction with wine is used for internal injuries (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

4. Amaranthus L

Amaranthus cruentus L. (= Amaranthus paniculatus L.)

Names

Myanmar: hin-nu-nwe. English: prince’s feather, purple amaranthus, red amaranthus, spiny amaranthus.

Range

Original habitat is obscure, probably tropical America. Thought to have originated from A. hybridus (most probably in cultivation in Central America); also found in North and South America. As a spontaneous weed it occurs in Asia eastward from Malaya (Indonesia, New Guinea, the Philippines, etc.) and in tropical Africa. It is found throughout the warmer regions of the word as an ornamental, and in some regions it is grown as a grain crop. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf, Seed: Used as laxative, blood purifier, diuretic, and soporific.

Note

In India the root of the species is used for dropsy (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Names

Myanmar: hin-nu-new-subauk, khar-grope (Mon). English: pigweed, soldier-weed, spiny amaranthus, spiny pigweed, thorny amaranthus.

Range

Pantropical.

Uses

Whole plant: Leaves, roots, and whole plant used as a laxative, blood purifier, diuretic, and soporific. Taking the crushed and squeezed juice from the plant will neutralize the venom in snake bites. Boiling the plant and taking it will keep help prevent miscarriages. Leaf: Cure nose bleeds. Eating the leaves cooked in a curry will cure pain in urination and kidney stones. Juice squeezed from leaves can be licked with honey to cure vomiting and passing of blood, excessive menstruation, white vaginal discharge, gonorrhea, and sores and bumps. Root: The paste of the root made with water will neutralize the poison if applied to the site of a scorpion sting. It can also be applied onto boils to cure them. Applying either the paste of the root or using the crushed root as a poultice will cure stiffness of the muscles. The paste made with water can be strained and taken once in the morning and once at night to cure excessive menstruation.

Notes

Jain and DeFilipps (1991) discuss the medicinal uses of the species in India, including use of the root as a laxative and abortifacient, and use of the leaf as a laxative. Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

5. Celosia L

Celosia argentea L. (= Celosia cristata L.)

Names

Myanmar: kyet-mauk. English: cock’s comb, crested cock’s comb, silver cock’s comb, wild cock’s comb.

Range

Widely distributed in tropics; a common weed. Found in China, Bhutan, Cambodia, Japan, Korea, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, Russia, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam; also tropical Africa. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf, Flower, and Seed: Used as antipyretic, aphrodisiac, and vulnerary.

Notes

In India the seed is used for eye diseases, clearing the eyes, to treat mouth sores and blood diseases, as an aphrodisiac, and for diarrhea (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses of this species is China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the flowers are used for hemoptysis, metrorhagia, dysentery, hemoptysis, hemorrhoids, leucorrhea, menorrhagia; the stem for a poultice on sores, skin eruptions, swellings, and boils; the seed for diarrhea, painful micturiton, cough, dysentery; and for opthalmia. The Chinese also poultice the seeds over broken bones and use the seed and herb as an anthelmintic an vermifuge. The whole plant is used for eye and liver ailments.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

6. Chenopodium L

Chenopodium album L.

Names

Myanmar: myu. English: goosefoot, lambsquarters, pigweed.

Range

Europe, Asia, North America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Root: Paste used to treat diarrhea in children.

Notes

In India the seed is used to treat skin diseases (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China juice from the stem is applied to freckles and sunburn; leaves are applied to insect bites, sunstroke, and as a wash for swollen feet; a decoction is used as a rinse for carious teeth (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In China, in addition to the uses of juice from the fresh plant previously mentioned, the seeds are eaten as an anthelmintic. In Indo-China the plant is used to treat blennorrhea in women (Perry 1980).

Reported chemical constituents include betaine, leucien, and essential oil (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

7. Dysphania R.Br

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (= Chenopodium ambrosioides L.)

Names

Myanmar: say-my. English: Mexican tea, strong-scented pigweed, wormseed.

Range

Tropical America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as an anthelmintic, especially for roundworms but also for hookworms, as well as a remedy for intestinal amoebae.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in general, and also gives its uses in Japan, Indo-China, and the Philippines. Medicinal use, chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990).

Reported chemical constituents of the plant include volatile oil, ascaridol, geraniol, saponin, 1-limonene, p-cymene, and d-camphor (Perry 1980). The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition, and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis family)

1. Allium L

Allium cepa L.

Names

Myanmar: kyet-thun-ni oo-gyi, shakau (Kachin), kaisun (Chin), canone casaun (Mon). English: garden onion, onion.

Range

Original range unknown; now only known in cultivation. Cultivated in all parts of Myanmar with the exception of the extremely cold regions.

Uses

Root (Bulb): Used in the treatment of flatulence, dysentery, and as a stimulant, diuretic and expectorant. Sweet and hot with some heating and diuretic properties, the onion is used to control flatulence, phlegm, fever and cough. It is also used to relieve nausea, stimulate the appetite, and fortify semen. Adults eat onion bulbs raw to alleviate urine blockages, but children with the same condition have roasted bulbs applied while still warm over the body area near the bladder. Children also drink onion juice mixed with sugar and chilled as a sherbet drink for diarrhea and infections that cause burning during urination. Mixed with a bit of sugar, half a tablespoon of fresh onion juice is ingested to treat bleeding hemorrhoids. Mixed with a bit of salt, onion juice is applied as eyedrops to alleviate night-blindness. For ear infections, either the warm juice of roasted onions or the juice of unroasted onions are used as eardrops. The milky liquid from cut onions, mixed with edible lime, is applied to scorpion sting to neutralize the venom. The onion is also used in mixtures to treat trembling and weakness in men (illness not specified in Agriculture Corporation 1980), thinness and weakness in women (illness not specified in Agriculture Corporation 1980), pain from flatulence, and illnesses that cause chest pain. Seed: To increase vitality, onion seeds are crushed and ingested.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990).

Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton (1999). Traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of this species are discussed by Ross (2001). An extract of the dried plant was found to have a potent and prolonged hypoclycemic effect on artificially induced diabetes in rats and rabbits.

References

Mya Bwin and Sein Gwan (1967), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Allium sativum L.

Names

Myanmar: kyet-thun hpyu, casaun-phet-tine. English: garlic.

Range

Central Asia. In Myanmar, grown mostly in Shan State as a cultivated plant.

Uses

Root (Bulb): Garlic is used to support blood and eye health, alleviate fevers and skin disorders, increase perspiration and semen production, stimulate the bowel and the bladder, and to promote virility and longevity. A half teaspoon of garlic powder, steeped in honey and taken at bedtime, is used as a vitalizing tonic to stimulate appetite and promote healthy sleep. It is used to break up phlegm, as well as to strengthen the blood and the gall bladder. Sap from cut garlic bulbs is a remedy for skin conditions, including ringworm, scabies, eczema, freckles and similar facial skin discolorations. Garlic milk, made by boiling seven large bulbs in 40 ticals (ca. 0.5 kg) of pure milk, cooling the mixture for about 10 minutes, and boiling it a second time, is ingested daily for hypertension. A teaspoon of garlic juice mixed with a bit of water and sugar is used to treat whooping cough; garlic juice is taken for coughs, bloated stomachs, and sores on the stomach. To alleviate flatulence, garlic is soaked in sesame oil with a bit of salt and ingested before meals. Infants are given single roasted garlic bulbs for colic and indigestion. For goiter, two drops of garlic oil are applied to the throat, as well as ingested three times a day. Garlic juice mixed with salt is consumed or rubbed at the temples as a remedy for headaches. Because of its germicidal properties, garlic is used to treat lung problems, deep wounds and sores; its juice is also rubbed on the body to ease aches and pains. A mixture consisting of two cloves of garlic boiled in sesame oil is poured warm into the ear as a remedy for deafness, infections, and aches. Garlic is a component of medicines that treat incompletely healed wounds, irregular menstruation, and various malaises (term used where cause of illness not specified in Agriculture Corporation 1980) of men.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990).

The medicinal uses of garlic in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of garlic on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this species in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of garlic are given in Fleming (2000). A detailed discussion of garlic, i.e., natural history, association with humanity, antiherbivory and insect defenses, and medicinal uses (antibiotic and antitoxin actions, cholesterol regulation), is found in Kaufman et al. (1999).

Garlic prolongs elasticity of the aorta (Leigh 1998), resulting in healthy functioning of the cardiovascular system. Garlic also has antimicrobial effects on Candida albicans and Coccidioides immitis; fresh garlic juice lowers cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, which helps to prevent blood clotting and thus heart attack and strokes; garlic has free radical scavenging activity which amplifies the bodily antioxidant system; and, garlic lowers concentrations of nitrates, the precursors of the carcinogen nitrosamine, in the gastric juice of the stomach and provides protection against the development of stomach cancer (Lau 1996).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Crinum L

Crinum asiaticum L.

Names

Myanmar: koyan-gyi. English: poison bulb, tree crinum.

Range

Tropical Asia. Found in the warmer regions of Myanmar, growing naturally as well as under cultivation.

Uses

Leaf: Boiled and used as a bath, or the juice applied as a thick liquid to treat edema. The leaves are wilted over hot charcoal and wrapped around the knees for swollen knees, or placed on the back for about one hour for backaches. Leaf and Bulb: Used to neutralize poisons and regulate flatulence, phlegm, and urine. Bulb: Ground (on a stone) to make a paste for reducing the heat from swellings or for weeping sores (this paste, however, causes some itching). For instances of poisoning, it is enough to rub the tongue with the bulb, which is also used as a special ingredient in shar-put-hsay (a commonly used form of traditional medicine consisting of a grayish brown powder roughly rolled into little nuggets rolled around the tongue until dissolve into its components).

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Anacardiaceae (Cashew family)

1. Anacardium L

Anacardium occidentale L. (= Acajuba occidentalis (L.) Gaertn.; Anacardium microcarpum Ducke)

Names

Myanmar: thiho-thayet, shitkale, mak-mong-sang-yip. English: cashew nut.

Range

Tropical America. Probably originating in Brazil. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: A restorative. Bark, Leaf, Fruit: Used as an anthelmintic, also for leucoderma and other skin diseases as well as for diabetes. Fruit: The kernel (nut) is a pain reliever.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The cashew nut, a true fruit, is rich in lipids, glucosides, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin B. It further yields a fair amount of protein, mineral salts, iron and fiber. The oil is a laxative and acts powerfully against intestinal worms; it is also excellent for use to treat premature aging of the skin. The irritating oil obtained after soaking the nuts in water is viscous-brown and contains 90% anacardic acid and 10% cardol which exhibits potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. It is also used to treat sores, warts, ringworm and psoriasis (Beauvoir et al. 2001).

Used in cosmetics, the juice contains substances capable of capturing free radicals. It has value for hair conditioning due to its proteins and mucilage. Therefore it is an excellent scalp conditioner and tonic used for making lotions and scalp creams. The enlarged receptacle (cashew apple) with a waxy skin provides vitamins A, B, and C, a few amino acids, calcium and iron. It exhibits strong potential activity against Gram positive bacteria and somewhat less antifungal activity against molds. The juice made from the cashew apple cures influenza (Beauvoir et al. 2001). “Ingestion of raw cashew nuts can cause eczematous dermatitis that is generalized but especially severe on the palms” of the hands (Benezra et al. 1985).

The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995).

The receptacle (pseudo-fruit) contains vitamin C; the main phenolic components of the oil from the shells are anacardic acid and cardol, which have antibacterial, molluscicidal and anthelminic properties; the inner bark has hypoglycemic action; tannins in the bark have anti-inflammatory properties; and, the essential oil of the leaves, which is comprised almost exclusively of alpha-pinene, acts as a depressant on the central nervous system (Mors et al. 2000). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of this species are discussed by Ross (2001).

The seed of Anacardium occidentale contain anacardic acid which causes skin pustules or rashes, and also contains bilobol, which has antitumor activity (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

2. Buchanania Spreng

Buchanania lancifolia Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: taung-thayet, thayet-thin-baung, thingbaung. English: cheerojee-oil plant, chirauli nut.

Range

China, India, Laos, Malaysia (peninsular), Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam. In Myanmar, found in Rakine and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf, Seed, Root: Used as laxative. Seed: Oil used as a substitute for almond oil.

Notes

According to the Materia Medica (Latin translation of the Greek Pedanius Dioscorides’ famous 5-volume book, considered a precursor to all modern pharmacopeias), this species is used in combination with others (Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, and Acacia catechu) to soak extract of silajátu, a dark sticky unctuous substance (term applied to bituminous substances said to exude from certain rocks during hot weather; said to be produced in the Vindhya and other mountains where iron is abundant), which has been dried in the sun, to purify extract for use as tonic to treat urinary disease, diabetes, gravel, anemia, tuberculosis, cough, and skin diseases.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

3. Lannea A.Rich

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. (= Lannea grandis Engl.)

Names

Myanmar: latang, laupe, mai-hkam, nabe, taung-gwe, zun-burr. English: jail, jhingam, jhingam poma, moi, monia, poma, wodier.

Range

Sub-Himalayan tract to India, Myanmar, Assam, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman Islands; cultivated elsewhere in continental Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Kayin, Mandalay, Rakhine, Shan, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Uses

Bark, Gum: Used as an astringent. Leaf, Juice: Used for local swellings and body pain.

Notes

Reported medicinal uses of the species include: Antidote and astringent; for bruises, carbuncles, sores, swelling, and wounds; also for cholera, convulsion, diarrhea, dysentery, elephantiasis, hematuria; and rinderpest (Duke 2009).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

4. Mangifera L

Mangifera indica L. (= Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu; Rhus laurina Nutt.)

Names

Myanmar: krek, kruk, la-mung, mak-mong, ma-monton, mamung, sagyaw, shagyaw, takau, thayet, thayet-phyu, umung. English: mango.

Range

Tropical Asia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Data Deficient [DD] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bark: Used as an astringent. Fruit: Ripe fruit used as laxative and rind used as tonic. Seed: Employed as an antiasthmatic.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Benezra et al. (1985) noted that: “People eating the fruit may suffer erythemato- vesicular eruptions of the lips and the entire face and neck…and sometimes the genitals. The peel, not the juice, seems to be responsible”; such dermatitis is known as “mango poisoning.”

The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Data on the propagation, seed treatment, and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995) and Bekele-Tesemma (1993). Uses of this plant in the Upper Amazon region, where some Amerindian tribes use a brew of the leaves as a contraceptive and abortifacient, are given by Castner et al. (1998). All parts of the Mangifera indica plant contain resorcinol, an irritant to the mouth and tongue (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

5. Rhus L

Rhus chinensis Mill. (= Rhus semialata Murray)

Names

Myanmar: chying-ma, mai-kokkyi, mai-kokkyin. English: nutgall tree.

Range

Temperate eastern Asia. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Mon, Sagaing, and Shan.

Uses

Fruit: Used to treat colic. Galls: Used as astringent.

Notes

In India the flower buds are used for diarrhea; the fruit for stomachache; and the seed for stomachache and as a purgative, also on skin diseases (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Duke and Ayensu (1985) discuss the uses of the the bark, leaf, and root bark of this species in China, as well as those of the whole plant.

The chemical constituents of the species include gallic acid and penta-m-digalloyl-beta-glucose (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

6. Semecarpus L.f

Semecarpus anacardium L.f. (= Semecarpus heterophyllus Bl.; Semecarpus albescens (non Kurz) K. & V.; Semecarpus cinerea H.H.W. Pearson; Semecarpus glabrescens Heine; Melanochyla tomentosa (non Hook.f.) Engl.)

Names

Myanmar: che, chay-thee pin, thitsi-bo, mai-ka-aung (Shan). English: markingnut tree, varnishtree.

Range

Tropical Asia. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Sweet and astringent, Semecarpus anacardium has heating properties that regulate bowels, aid digestion, control phlegm and respiratory function, heal sores, alleviate leprosy, and reduce hemorrhoids, bloating, and fevers. Bark: Used as an astringent. Fruit: Serves as a laxative. Fruit: Can be crushed together with lime (the chemical) as a poultice to heal sores. Three drops of the oily sap released by the heated fruit can be taken with milk for coughing. Children can be given just two drops of this sap twice a day to alleviate phlegm and coughing. Crushed fruit can be applied to joints to relieve inflammation. An ointment of the fruit mixed with resin from the “in” tree (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus) cooked with sesame oil can be used to treat rashes, itches, and cracks on the heels and soles of the feet. A paste of ground fruit and sesame oil remedies ringworm. The fruit is also used in medicines for motor paralysis and joint inflammation. The rind is used as a tonic. Seed: Used as an antiasthmatic, also to treat leprosy. Note: The fruit is included in the list of toxic plants and, therefore, should be used only after preparing systematically.

Note

In India, the resin of this species is used for leprosy, nervous debility, skin diseases; and the fruit oil is used on warts and tumors; on cuts, sprains, piles, injuries; and for ascites, rheumatism, asthma, neuralgia, dyspepsia, epilepsy, psoriasis (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

7. Spondias L

Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz (= Spondias magifera Willd.)

Names

Myanmar: bwe-baung, ding-kok, gwe, hpunnam-makawk, mai-kawk, mai-mak-kawk. English: hog plum, wild mango.

Range

Thought probably native to Indonesia and the Philippines; found in China, sub-Himalayan tract from Chenab eastwards; widely cultivated and naturalized in Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia (peninsular), Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used for dysentery. Fruit: Used as antiscorbutic; considered a remedy for dyspepsia.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The bark is used for stomachache and as a refrigerant; the fruit as an astringent, antiscorbutic, and for bilious dyspepsia; and the root for regulating menstruation. Perry (1980) also discusses the medicinal uses of this species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia.

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Annonaceae (Soursop family)

1. Annona L

Annona squamosa L.

Names

Myanmar: awzar, awsa (Kachin), azat (Chin), sot-maroat (Mon), mai-awza (Shan). English: custard apple, sugar apple, sweetsop.

Range

New World tropics. In Myanmar, originally a cultivar primarily of the central region; now found growing wild all over the country.

Uses

Whole plant: Flowers, bark, leaves, fruit, seed, and root support vascular, respiratory, digestive, and excretory functioning, as well as alleviating fever symptoms and fever-related disorders. Bark: Tonic from the bark ingested for strength. Leaf: Crushed and consumed to expel intestinal worms, particularly threadworms; applied externally as a poultice for stiff, sore muscles; and the vapors from crushed leaves inhaled to ease dizziness and sinusitis. Flower and Fruit: Soups made from the flowers and the young fruit, combined with other ingredients, such as goat testes, pork, and/or beef, used to restore sexual functioning, strength, alertness, and wellbeing. Fruit: With binding properties, the green fruits are used to alleviate diarrhea, dysentery, and loose bowels. Seed: Pulverized into a powder and applied to sores as an antiseptic. Inhalation of the smoke from crushed and burned seeds provides an epilepsy treatment. Root: Consumption of root paste clears urinary infection and improves urinary functioning.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Pharmacognostic characters and Thai ethnomedical use of this species are discussed in Somanabandhu et al. (1986). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). The chemistry, pharmacology, history, and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). The seeds have post-coital anti-fertility activity; the most abundant free amino acids in the fruit pulp are L(+)citrulline, L(+)arginine, L(+)ornithine and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid); and, the predominant constituent of the essential oil from the bark is aromadendrene (Mors et al. 2000).

Data on the propagation, seed treatment, and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Artabotrys R.Br

Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.) Bhandari (= Artabotrys odoratissimus R.Br.)

Names

Myanmar: kadat-ngan, padat-nygan, tadaing-hmwe. English: climbing ylang-ylang.

Range

Sri Lanka and southern India; cultivated widely in the tropics. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Used in cholera. (Flower: Used in perfumery).

Notes

As a Chinese folk medicine, its root and fruit are used to treat malaria and scrofula.

Leaf extracts of this species are used for antifertility; flowers for a stimulating tea-like beverage and also to extact essential oil used in perfume. Fruits are eaten by indigenous people to maintain their health. Additional medicinal uses of this species include as an antifungal, cardiac depressor, for cholera, and as a hypotensive and weak estrogenic (Manjula et al. 2011).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

3. Cananga (DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson

Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson (= Cananga odoratum (Lam.) King)

Names

Myanmar: kadat-ngan, saga-sein, ylang-ylang. English: cananga.

Range

Southeast Asia.

Uses

Plant contains antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic compounds used in treatments for eye conditions, as well as for malaria, gout, and headache. Flower: Used in ophthalmia.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Perry (1980) discusses the uses of this species in other parts of Asia as follows: On the Malay Peninsula, a paste made from fresh flowers is prescribed to treat asthma and leaves rubbed on the skin are used as a remedy for itch; in Indonesia, the bark is used to treat scabies, dried flowers are used to treat malaria, and the seeds finely ground with other ingredients are applied to treat stomach disorders in intermittent fever; in the Solomon Islands, crushed leaves are applied to boils. Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition, and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

Steam-distilled flower petals are the source of the perfume oil known as “ylang-ylang”, made in Asia, Madagascar and the Mascarenes. Perfumes, colognes, and toilet waters containing ylang ylang oil are responsible for several cases of allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. (Benezra 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Kirtikar and Basu (1993), Duke (2009), Rahman et al. (2005a).

4. Polyalthia Blume

Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites

Names

Myanmar: arthaw-ka, lan-tama, thinbaw-te. English: false ashoka, green champa, Indian fir tree, Indian mast tree.

Range

Sri Lanka and southern India; cultivated in India, Malaya, Pakistan and Tropical East Africa. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Bark: Used as febrifuge.

Notes

Significant antimicrobial and antifungal activity of clerodane diterpenoids has been found from the seeds of this species (Marthanda Murthy et al. 2005). Methanolic extracts have yielded 20 known and two new organic compounds, some of which show cytotoxic properties (Chen et al. 2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Apiaceae (Carrot family)

1. Anethum L

Anethum graveolens L. (= Peucedanum graveolens (L.) Hiern.)

Names

Myanmar: sameik, samon nyo. English: dill, European dill, Indian dill.

Range

Indigenous to Mediterranean region, but adventive and cultivated worldwide in tropical and temperate climates. Grows naturally and is also cultivated in Upper Myanmar.

Uses

Fruit, Seed: Used as carminative, stomachic, and spasmolytic. Leaf, Seed: Hot-tasting seeds and leaves contain heating properties used to stimulate circulation and gall bladder function, as well as to alleviate fever, inflammation, and congestion. Seed: A boiled-water extract of the seeds is reduced to one-third the starting volume and taken for chest discomfort, shooting pains, and aches. The same extract is given to new mothers as a tonic for the heart and as a postnatal restorative. The roasted seeds are eaten plain or with rock sugar to stimulate lactation. Brushed with oil and roasted over a fire, the leaves are pulverized into an ointment applied to sores to reduce inflammation.

Notes

This is a common plant widely cultivated for use as an herb, and for its fruit which is used in medicine as an aromatic stimulant and carminative. The medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Apium L

Apium graveolens L.

Names

Myanmar: samut, tayokenan-nan, kum-bomb-kroke (Mon). English: celery, cultivated celery, marsh parsley, wild celery.

Range

Eurasia and worldwide. Although found growing naturally, it is cultivated all over Myanmar for use as a vegetable.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Whole plant: The watery extract of the whole plant mixed with sugar or honey is used as a remedy for hypertension. Seed: With heating properties, the easily digestible yet bitter, sharp-tasting seeds are used to support digestion, increase sperm, promote circulation, control blood pressure, ease inflammation in the breathing passages, alleviate nausea and vomiting, and treat whooping cough and dropsy. Juice from chewing- the seeds wrapped in betel (Piper betle) leaf, is held in the mouth to treat dry coughs and coughs with mucus; the seeds alone, is swallowed to stop hiccups. The powder from pulverized seeds mixed with clove buds is ingested to alleviate nausea. Seeds with roasted salt are eaten to cure stomachaches. Seeds mixed with jaggery are shaped into pellets and taken for indigestion, overeating, and stomach distention.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

In Thailand, researchers have shown that the seed extract is an effective larvicide for the dengue fever mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Tuetun et al. 2005, Choochote et al. 2004).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

3. Centella L

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (= Hydrocotyle asiatica L.)

Names

Myanmar: myin-hkwa, myin-khwar pin, ranjneh hnah (Chin), hlahnip chai (Mon). English: Indian pennywort.

Range

Throughout tropical and some subtropical parts of world. Widely distributed in Myanmar, especially in the cooler regions, and found all year near the water’s edge. Although it grows wild, it is also widely cultivated as it is much used.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Whole plant: Used to treat diabetes, and as a laxative and diuretic. Leaf: Has a sweet, bitter, sharp, hot taste. Used to control phlegm, treat skin diseases, itching, rashes, sores, and leprosy. The juice squeezed from the leaves- is drunk together with sugar and honey daily to give strength and vitality; mixed with an equal amount of kerosene and massaged into cysts that form on joints; 1 teaspoon given to children to treat colds, fevers, and it will also loosen the bowels; applying or taking it can cure skin diseases. For injuries, applying the juice will reduce the inflammation. The leaves can be made into a drink taken to treat dysentery and urine retention, painful urination, and blood in the urine. Eaten with pepper and honey, they promote health. The leaf is also used in compounds for tonics, poison neutralizers, to treat sores, and as a medicine for sore eyes. Leaves are dried and used as an herbal tea to alleviate hyper- tension, and to treat severe sore eyes and hypersensitivity to strong light. The green leaves, are crushed, wrapped in a thin cloth and used as an eye mask, or the juice is squeezed and applied as eye drops. Additionally, leaves are dried in the shade, made into a powder, mixed together with an equal amount of honey, and licked at bedtime for a good night’s sleep. To treat coughs and tuberculosis in children, leaf powder is mixed with water, warmed, and applied to the chest.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

4. Coriandrum L

Coriandrum sativum L.

Names

Myanmar: nannan, phat-kyi, ta-ner-hgaw. English: Chinese parsley, coriander.

Range

Southern Europe. Cultivated in Myanmar (found as seasonal cultivar throughout country).

Uses

Seed: Soaked in water together with zee-hypu (Phyllanthus emblica) in the early evening, strained the following morning and taken with rock candy to cure headaches; boiled with ginger and taken after meal to improve digestion; boiled with sugar, cooled and taken with rice washing water to treat symptoms of morning sickness in women, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain around heart; powder mixed with sugar and eaten to treat joint aches and pain. Seeds also chewed, and the liquid thus obtained swallowed to treat sore throat. Children can be given a mixture made with the liquid obtained from soaking the seeds and a small amount of sugar to treat bronchitis and asthma.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of the species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

5. Daucus L

Daucus carota L.

Names

Myanmar: mon-la-ni, u-wa-yaing. English: bird’s nest, devil’s plague, Queen Anne’s lace, wild carrot.

Range

Eurasia; widely naturalized. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Fruit: Used as a diuretic.

Notes

The species is used as a diuretic and to soothe the digestive tract. An infusion of the herb is employed to treat various complaints including digestive disorders, kidney and bladder disease, and to treat dropsy. An infusion of the leaves is used to counter cystitis and kidney stone formation, and to diminish already formed stones. A warm water infusion of the flowers is used in the treatment of diabetes. The grated raw root is used as a remedy for threadworms. The root is also used to encourage delayed menstruation, and to induce uterine contractions; a tea made from roots serves as a diuretic and is also used to treat urinary stones; and an infusion is used to treat edema, flatulent indigestion, and menstrual problems (Ross 2005).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

6. Eryngium L

Eryngium caeruleum M. Bieb.

Name

English: sea holly.

Range

Southern Europe to West Asia.

Uses

Root: Used to treat paralysis and as a tonic.

Notes

The chemicals in this plant have been shown to be effective in the treatment of piles, and as a tonic and aphrodisiac (Duke 2009). The root is used as an aphrodisiac and as a nervine (Chopra et al. 1986).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

7. Foeniculum Mill

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Names

Myanmar: samon-sabar, samon-saba. English: fennel.

Range

Native to the Old World. Now worldwide in tropical and temperate climates; perennial in temperate regions. Cultivated at altitudes up to 1.8 km. In Myanmar, found in Shan.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as a digestive and circulatory stimulant, to promote good heart functioning, and to treat a sluggish bowel. Leaf: Juice from the crushed leaves consumed to improve urinary functioning and for urinary tract infections. Fruit: Used as galactogogue and stomachic. Seed: Oil extracted from the seeds is an ingredient in remedies for gastrointestinal problems, including flatulence. A water extract made from fennel seeds soaked overnight in water is sipped to reduce fever; seeds are also eaten to reduce phlegm, flatulence, coughs, nausea, and vomiting. A tea made from seeds steeped in boiling water and then cooled is given to babies with colic and indigestion. Fennel crushed together with young bael (Aegle marmelos) fruits is taken for indigestion and diarrhea. A mixture of equal parts fennel and sugar is taken at bedtime as a remedy for eye infections.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

8. Selinum L

Selinum wallichianum (DC.) Raizada & H.O. Saxena (= Selinum tenuifolium Salisb.)

Name

English: Wallich milk parsely.

Range

Himalayas, in India and West Pakistan; from Kashmir to Bhutan, 2–3962 m. In Myanmar, found in Kachin.

Uses

Leaf: Has bechic, carminative, nervine, antiseptic, and anthelmintic properties. Leaf and Root: Used to regulate stomach and intestinal functions. Plant used for medicinal purposes (exact uses not given in Nordal 1963).

Note

Perry (1980) discusses the general uses of the genus, including that “the drug is prescribed for colds and diarrhea”.

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (= Carum copticum Benth & Hook. f.)

Names

Myanmar: samone hpyu, gyee baitwine (Mon). English: bishop’s weed, lovage.

Range

Worldwide in tropical and temperate climates. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Seed: With heating properties similar to the seeds of A. graveolens, the seeds of C. copticum are used to promote appetite, digestion, and gall bladder and gastrointestinal functioning. The pulverized seeds, mixed with ground with pepper, rock salt, and hot water, are ingested as a treatment for stomachaches, dysentery, and sluggish digestion. Blended with yogurt, the seed powder is consumed to eradicate intestinal parasites. A mixture of the seeds and mother’s milk is given to children to alleviate vomiting and diarrhea. A thick paste made from ground seeds and water is applied two to three times daily to quell itching and to heal burns and rashes.

Notes

The seeds of this species are considered antispasmodic, tonic, carminative, and are included in plasters to ease pain. Crushed with a variety of simples, they are prescribed as internal medicine for diseases of the stomach and liver, as well as for sore throats, coughs, and rheumatism (Perry 1980).

The seeds have been found to be an important source of thymol, “a well-known antiseptic” (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff

Names

Myanmar: kant-balu. English: wild celery.

Range

Apparently native to South India. Cultivated as a spice throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Apparently native to South India. Cultivated and adventive in China.

Use

Plant employed for culinary and medicinal purposes (exact uses not given in Perry 1980).

Note

Trachyspermum roxburghianum reported to be used as a stimulant, cardiotonic, carminative, and for dyspepsia (Duke 2009).

In the case of another species in this genus, T. ammi (which occurs is Southwest Asia, India, and Northeast Africa), the seeds are considered to be antispasmodic, tonic, a stimulant, carminative, and are included in plasters to ease pain. Crushed with a variety of simples, the seeds are prescribed as internal medicine for diseases of the stomach and liver, for sore throats, coughs, rheumatism, and as a panacea. T. ammi seeds are an “important source of thymol, a well-known antiseptic” (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Apocynaceae (Dogbane family)

1. Allamanda L

Allamanda cathartica L.

Names

Myanmar: shwe-pan-new, shewewa-pan. English: common allamanda, golden trumpet.

Range

Origin probably in northern South America, but now widespread in tropical America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Hydragogue in ascites. Leaf: Cathartic (in moderate doses).

Note

In India the bark is used as a hydragogue for ascites; the leaf as a cathartic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Alstonia R.Br

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.

Names

Myanmar: letpan-ga, taung-mayo, taung-meok. English: devil tree, dita bark.

Range

China, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; also Tropical Australia and Africa. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Shan, Taninthayi, and Yangon. Grows naturally in the plains and on low hills, particularly in Lower Myanmar.

Conservation status

Lower Risk/least concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bark: Used to treat asthma, heart disease, for chronic ulcers, and other ailments. The powder mixed with ginger is given to new mothers the first day after birthing to cleanse the blood and promote lactation. Bark paste is applied to boils and other sores to minimize inflammation and hasten healing. A bark extract made with boiling water and then mixed with Cinnamomum obtusifolium seed powder is sipped to expel intestinal parasites, such as threadworms and roundworms. Reduced to one-third the starting volume, a boiled-water bark extract is consumed to treat lung disease, sour stomach, paralysis, cerebral palsy, heart disease, asthma, fever, shooting pain, and stomachache. Remedies made from the components of the Devil’s tree are known for stimulating the circulatory and respiratory systems, promoting weight gain, and controlling heart disease, asthma, and skin conditions. Latex: Applied locally to ulcers, sores, yaws, the hollow of an aching tooth, to mature abscesses or boils, to kill maggots in wounds of cattle, and to draw out thorns and splinters. Sap: Applied to sores to stimulate healing; mixed with sesame oil and swabbed inside the ear to treat earache. Bark, Sap, Leaf: Used in treatments for fever, weakness, paralysis, sores, aches, pains, and gastric problems including dysentery. Leaf: Used in poultices; green leaves applied to back or dried leaves burned under beds to induce lacteal secretion; infusion of young leaves taken in the morning helpful in cases of beri-beri; leaf tips are taken with roasted coconut to treat stomatitis. Tender leaves are wilted over heat, crushed, and applied to infected sores to accelerate healing.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The bark is a bitter tonic, alterative, anthelmintic, and galactagogue; it is also used for fever, diarrhea, dysentery (powdered and mixed with honey), snakebite and skin diseases, heart disease, leprosy, leucoderma, tumors, rheumatism, cholera, bronchitis, and pneumonia; the juice is used on ulcers and for rheumatic pains; and the root for an enlarged liver. Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Reported constituents include the following alkaloids: echitamine (also called ditain), ditamine, echitenine, alstonamine, echitamidine (Perry 1980).

Investigators have reported activity against the snail vector, Lymnaea acuminata, of the parasitic flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica (Singh and Singh 2005), as well as anti-cancer activity in human cancer cell lines (Jagetia and Baliga 2006) and antibacterial activity (Khan et al. 2003).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

3. Asclepias L

Asclepias curassavica L.

Names

Myanmar: shwedagon. English: blood flower, butterfly weed, red milkweed.

Range

Native of New World, from Florida to South America and West Indies. Widely introduced and cultivated elsewhere.

Uses

Leaf: Juice pressed from the leaves for use as a vermifuge, sudorific, and anti- dysenteric. Leaf and Flower: Pounded leaves and flowers used as a dressing for wounds and sores. Flower: Decoction of the flowers is styptic. Root: Employed as a purgative, emetic and anthelmintic. Also, in the form of a powder or decoction, used as an emetic and purgative, also as an astringent in dysentery.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). The listed medicinal uses of the root are the same for China, Indo-China, the Philippines, and Guam as they are for Myanmar; on the Malay Peninsula the flowers are crushed in cold water and used in a poultice for headache (Perry 1980). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997).

The leaves contain a triterpinoid and an alkaloid. The active glycoside, asclepiadin, is poisonous, causing paralysis of the heart, and death (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

4. Calotropis R.Br

Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. (= Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br. ex Schult.)

Names

Myanmar: mayo. English: crown flower.

Range

Tropical Asia, including Myanmar.

Uses

Sap: Used in treating leprosy and as a purgative. Bark: Used as an anthelmintic. Bark and Latex: Used to treat skin diseases and as a vermifuge. Flower: Used as an antiasthmatic. Root: Root bark has been substituted for ipecac, especially to treat dysentery; also used in treating skin disease.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). In China, the bark of the species is used as a medicine for the treatment of neurodermatitis and syphilis, and the leaves are employed as a poultice (Li et al. 1995).

The latex contains caoutchouc, resins, water soluble matter, and a residue. It yields digitalis-like principles (uscharin, calotropin, and calotoxin), and a nitrogen and sulphur-containg compound, gigantin, which depresses the heart. Calcium oxalate, traces of glutathione, and a proteolytic enzyme similar to papain have also been found (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.

Names

Myanmar: mayoe. English: swallow-wart.

Range

Tropical Africa and Asia. In Myanmar, along the banks of streams and rivers and along sand bars.

Use

Root: Crushed root with water and pressed into aching tooth to cure toothaches. Crushed with the root of the cotton plant to neutralize snake venom. Either the seeds or the root can be made into a paste with water to neutralize scorpion venom. Crushed, slightly warmed and rubbed to cure stiff and aching thighs and calves. Powdered root together with honey will cure skin diseases and leprosy. The root is used as an inhaler for treating epileptic fits. Flower: Crushed with milk and taken everyday to cure kidney stones. Stir fried with sesame oil to regulate menstruation. The flowers are used in making medicines to cure cholera. Latex: Rubbed and massaged on aching and stiff knees. Crushed with the bark of hsu-byu (Thevetia peruviana) and applied around the navel and over the bladder to cure retention of urine. Made into a paste with turmeric to treat face discolorations. The latex and the sap of thanat-taw (Garcinia heterandra) can be made into a paste can reduce swelling of hives and other bumps on the skin. A paste made with shein-kho (Gardenia resinifera) can reduce unbearable pain. Stem: Used as medicine to treat internal hemorrhoids. The dried branch can ignited and the fumes inhaled to cure headaches and stiffness in the neck and back. Leaf: The juice from crushing the can be put into the ears to cure earaches. The juice from the crushed leaves taken with a bit of salt will reduce phlegm, asthma, stomach disorders, and distended stomach. Making up ointments to treat paralysis and strokes, and inflammation of joints.

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

5. Carissa L

Carissa spinarum L. (= Carissa spinarum Lodd. ex A.DC.)

Names

Myanmar: khan, khanzat, taw-khan-pin. English: natal plum.

Range

India and Sri Lanka to Myanmar. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Root: Used as antiseptic and purgative.

Notes

In India the root is an ingredient of purgatives (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

A tribe in India grinds the roots and uses them in combination with the roots of some other medicinal plants to treat rheumatism. The roots are also a strong purgative (a large dose may prove fatal). Additionally, roughly ground root powder is mixed with water and poured into holes of snakes to serve as a repellant (Parmar and Kaushal 1982).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

6. Cascabela Raf

Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold (= Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.)

Names

Myanmar: hset-hnayarthi, mawk-hkam-long (Shan), payaung-pan, sethnayathi, set-hnit-ya-thi. English: exile oleander, lucky nut, Peruvian yellow oleander, yellow oleander.

Range

South America, Neotropical. Found growing naturally throughout Myanmar; also cultivated there.

Uses

Although poisonous if consumed by itself, C. thevetia is considered effective in preparations for eye infections, as well as for fever, leprosy, and hemorrhoids. Bark: Bark preparations are used for fevers, burns, ringworm, and rashes. Bark, Seed: Bark and seeds are used for a purgative and heart tonic. Leaf: The extract from crushed leaves is mixed with water and cooked with olive oil until all of the water evaporates; the resulting oil is used to alleviate joint aches and pains. Leaf, Flower: The extract from crushed flowers and/or leaves is mixed with water and cooked with olive oil until all of the water evaporates, and the resulting oil is used to treat rashes and other skin disorders. Root: Root paste cooked with mustard oil forms an ointment to heal skin problems; mixed with water it is applied as an antifungal to the skin to clear ringworm infections.

Notes

Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997).

Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995). Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton (1999). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986). All parts of the plant contain thevetin and peruvoside which can cause cardiac arrest; peruvoside is however used in medicine for cardiac insufficiency (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

7. Catharanthus G. Don

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (= Vinca rosea L.)

Names

Myanmar: thinbaw-ma-hnyoe, thinbaw-ma-hnyo-pan, thinbaw-ma-hnyo-pan-aphyu. English: Madagascar periwinkle, periwinkle, vinca.

Range

Endemic to Madagascar (endangered), but cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics of both hemispheres, sometimes extending to the subtropics. Found growing naturally around Myanmar; also cultivated.

Uses

This plant is known for neutralizing poisons, facilitating digestion, and promoting weight gain. Whole plant: Used to treat diabetes. A boiled water extract of the five parts used to treat diabetes. Leaf: Drinking the aqueous extract of leaves alleviates hemor-rhaging during menstruation.

Although there are two kinds of plants – with white or reddish brown flowers – only the plant with the reddish brown flowers is used.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: A tea made of the whole plant is used for chitis. The leaf is used for menorrhagia (infusion), wasp stings (juice), and diabetes. The root is used as a purgative and for hypertension; also for leukemia, and is considered anti-cancerous. Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the plant is used as an astringent, bechic, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue; also as an anti-cancer agent.

The species contains the alkaloid serpentine which, like reserpine, is hypotensive, sedative, and tranquilizing (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Catharanthus roseus compounds have been used to develop anticancer drugs, including vinblastine and vincristine (van der Heijden et al. 2004, Ram and Kumari 2001). Duke and Ayensu (1985) extensively discuss the chemical constituents of the plant that are considered valuable in treating various cancers, noting that “More than 50 alkaloids have been identified from this major medicinal plant,” and the species contains several hypo-glycemic alkaloids (catharanthine, leurosine sulphate, lochnerine, tetrahydro- alstonine, vindoline, and vindolinine) used in treating various cancers.

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

8. Dregea E.Mey

Dregea volubilis (L.f.) Benth. ex Hook.f.

Names

Myanmar: kway-tauk nwai, gwedauk-nwe. English: giant swallowart.

Range

China, Bagladesch, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kashmir, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Grows naturally over Myanmar.

Uses

Known for its bitter taste and heating properties, D. volubilis is an ingredient in preparations given to regulate bowels, strengthen blood, promote virility, and stimulate appetite, as well as to alleviate sore throat, gonorrhea, asthma, and conditions caused by ingestion of rat poison. Leaf: Fire-roasted until limp and placed on sores and boils to reduce swelling, drain pus, and induce healing; given to alcoholics cooked with chicken to purge accumulated toxins. In soups or fried leaves are eaten to relieve flatulence and improve urine flow. The juice of crushed leaves is applied to herpes sores, and also used in a poultice to eliminate bumps and tumors. Pulverized with sugar they are applied to alleviate a stiff neck and similar problems. Fried with duck eggs (traditionally used more commonly than chicken eggs since considered more medicinally potent), they are consumed for strength and vitality. Root: Used in remedies for rabies as well as in emetic and in expectorant preparations.

Note

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

9. Holarrhena R.Br

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don. (= Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) Wall. ex A.DC.)

Names

Myanmar: dangkyam, danghkyam kaba, maiyang, mai-hkao-long. English: rosebay, tellicherry bark.

Range

Tropical Africa and in Southeast Asia, from Pakistan to Malaysia.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Bark: Used in stopping the bleeding related to internal piles. The paste of the bitter bark made with the liquid from yogurt can be taken to treat gall stones. Powered bark stirred into water can cure fever. Boil bark with a small amount of salt and shein-kho (Gardenia resinifera) to treat stomach pains. Crushed bark with milk will cure pain in passing urine and retention of urine. To cure earaches and ear infections, a small amount of powdered bark can be tipped into the ear followed by liquid droppings from crushed or squeezed leaves. Roasted powdered bark taken with honey and butter can cure muscle pains, knotted muscles, dysentery, and cholera. Root: A paste made with hot water can be taken twice a day to cure bloated or distended stomach. A paste made with alcohol and taken with salt can cure blood in the stool associated with smallpox. For sore throat associated with smallpox, the root must be crushed with salt and kept in the mouth. The powder of root and zawet-thar (Dillenia indica) can be taken with milk to cure gall stones. A paste made with water and taken with a bit of eik-mwei (Embelia tsjeriam-cottam) fruit can act as a de-worming medicine. Flower: Can facilitate digestion, and control flatulence, phlegm, bile, leprosy and infections.

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

10. Ichnocarpus R.Br

Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T. Aiton

Names

Myanmar: taw-sabe, twinnet, twinnet-kado. English: black creeper, kalisar, red sarsaparilla, sariva, sarsaparilla.

Range

China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; also Australia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Sagaing, Shan, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf: Antipyretic. Root: Tonic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Some of the uses follow: The bark is used for bleeding gums; the leaf for fever and headache. The root is used to purify blood; also to treat coughs (with linseed), haematuria, convulsions, night blindness, and ulcers on the tongue (with roots of Michelia champaca or Celastrus species) and palate; additionally, to treat sunstroke, atrophy, cachexy, enlarged spleen, sores, syphilis, dysentery, cholera, animal bites (with other plants), and smallpox.

References

Nordal (1963), Forest Department (1999).

11. Kopsia Blume

Kopsia fruticosa (Roxb.) A.DC.

Names

Myanmar: kalabin, mai-lang, thinbaw-zalut, zalut-ni, zalut-panyaung. English: shrub-vinca.

Range

Malay Peninsula. Native to Myanmar; now widely cultivated. Cultivated in Myannmar.

Uses

Root: Pounded root employed as poultice. Nordal (1963) lists species as having medicinal value, but exact uses not given.

Notes

. The species is used medicinally for sores and syphilis; also cholinergic (chemical found in plant shown to be effective for this). Kopsia fruticosa contains latex used in arrow poison (Duke 2009).

A very poisonous alkaloid is found in the bark, leaves, and seeds. The alkaloid kopsine has been isolated from the leaves of plants of this species growing in India. Other alkaloids are also present (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

12. Nerium L

Nerium oleander L. (= Nerium indicum Mill.; Nerium odorum Soland.)

Names

Myanmar: nwei thargi. English: oleander, rose of Sharon.

Range

From Mediterranean to the Arabian Peninsula, Ethiopia, Niger, Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq to India and central China. Found all over Myanmar; naturalized, also cultivated as an ornamental plant.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

This plant is poisonous if ingested; it can be applied externally only.

Leaf: Powder from pulverized leaves used for ringworm, itchy skin, and other external inflammations; alternatively, the boiled water extract of leaves is used to alleviate inflammation. Liquid from crushed leaves is applied to snakebites to neutralize the venom, as well as to bites or stings from other venomous animals. Root: The root powder is applied to the skin to alleviate headache and neutralize poisons from scorpion and snakebites. Mixed with water, the root powder is applied as an ointment for skin cancer, ringworm and other fungal conditions, earache, infected lesions, and leprosy.

Notes

Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

In India the leaf is used as a cardiotonic and oil from the root bark is employed for skin diseases (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

The bark contains glycosides with digitalis-like activity (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). N. indicum bark extract has activity against the snail vector, Lymnaea acuminata, of the parasitic flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantic (Singh and Singh 1998), as well as antiviral activity against influenza and herpes simplex (Rajbhandari et al. 2001).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

13. Plumeria L

Plumeria rubra L. (= Plumeria acutifolia Poir.; Plumeria acuminata W.T. Aiton)

Names

Myanmar: mawk-sam-ka, mawk-sam-pailong, sonpabataing, tayoksaga-ani tayok-saga (red form). English: frangipani, pagoda tree, red plumeria.

Range

Mexico, Central America, South Asia. Found growing naturally all over Myanmar except in very cool mountainous areas; also cultivated.

Uses

Known to promote digestive, excretory, respiratory, and immune functioning, with activity against leprosy, infections, and stomach ailments. Sap: The milky sap from the branches and bark is used as a laxative; also in remedies for stomachache and bloating. Bark and Leaf: Used as laxative and for gonorrhea and venereal sores. Leaf and Flower: The leaves can be eaten, the flowers can either be boiled in water and eaten or boiled in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) juice and made into a salad to promote regular bowel movements and urine flow, as well as to control gas and phlegm. Flower: Used for treatment of asthma.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). Perry (1980) discusses the species’ medicinal uses in Indo-China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Palau.

Researchers report cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines (Kardono et al. 1990), as well as molluscicidal and antibacterial activity (Hamburger et al. 1991).

Reported chemical constituents include agoniadin, plumierid, plumeric acid, cerotinic acid, and lupenol; the stem contains the alkaloid, triterpinoid. A new antibiotic, fluvoplumierine, which inhibits growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has also been found (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

14. Rauvolfia L

Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz

Names

Myanmar: bommayazar, bomma-yaza. English: Indian snakeroot, serpent wood.

Range

India to Java. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Chin, Kayin, Mandalay, Mon, and Yangon.

Uses

This astringent, sharp, and bitter plant is used to improve digestion, relieve gas, and stimulate taste buds, as well as to alleviate paralysis, trembling, male-related disorders leading to excessive semen, and gonorrhea. It is also used for other venereal diseases, hypertension, anemia, heart palpitations, impotence, and lack of semen. Leaf: Fresh juice used in medicines for eye conditions. Leaf, Root: Used as sedative. Root: Remedies made from the root are well known for reducing blood pressure, especially in young people with anxiety-related palpitations and hypertension. Root remedies are also used as a tranquilizer to calm aggression, restlessness, and excitability in patients with mental disorders. In addition, the root is used in tonics, sleeping aids, carminatives, fever reducers, and poison neutralizers. Pulverized root, in equal amounts with shein-kho (Gardenia resinifera), eikthara-muli (Euonymus kachinensis), and hsay-dan (Hygrophila phlomoides), is either crushed with one betel (Piper betle) leaf or mixed with sesame oil and applied all over an infant’s body (with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet) as an inhaled therapy to relieve bronchitis and vomiting. Alternatively, the powder on a person’s warmed hands is applied as a chest rub for children. It is noted that following use of medicine made from this plant, the patient should eat foods with heating properties and bathe regularly.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). The species has been used for centuries in Indian Ayurveda medicine to treat snakebite and insanity. Ayurveda uses of R. serpentina (“sarpagandha”) are discussed in Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999).

Rauvolfia serpentina is the source of the first modern plant-derived antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug, reserpine, used in psychiatry and for lowering blood pressure (Shah 1995). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of R. serpentina are given in Fleming (2000) and Duke (1986). Medicinal properties of this species are discussed by Blackwell (1990).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

15. Tabernaemontana L

Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (= Ervatamia coronaria (Willd.) Stapf)

Names

Myanmar: lashi, taw-zalat, zalat, zalat-seikya. English: Adam’s apple, crape gardenia, crape jasmine, East Indian rosebay, linwheel flower, moonbeam.

Range

Thought to be a native of India, but now cultivated throughout Continental and Southeast Asia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Root: Emmenagogue and tonic.

Notes

In India the stem bark serves as a refrigerant; the leaf’s milky juice is used in the treatment of eye diseases; and the root is applied locally an anodyne, as well as chewed to relieve toothache (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Perry (1980), noting that the species’ uses in each geographical division are diverse, discusses its uses in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and Amboina.

Reported chemical constituents (alkaloids from the bark of the stem and root) are tabernaemontanine, coronarine, coronaridine, and dregamine; alkaloids also occur in all of the vegetative parts (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

16. Vallaris Burm.f

Vallaris solanacea (Roth) Kuntze

Names

Myanmar: khinbok, nabu-nwe. English: bread flower.

Range

India and Sri Lanka. In Myanmar, found is Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Use

Juice: Applied to sores.

Notes

In India the bitter bark is employed as an astringent; the latex, an irritant, is applied on wounds and sores (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Indo-China the bark is used as a febrifuge (Perry 1980).

The plant has been found to contain cardiotonic glycosides (Perry 1980).

References

Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

17. Wrightia R.Br

Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb. (= Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Schult.)

Names

Myanmar: danghkyam-kaii, lettok-thein, mai-lang, mai-yang-hka-oaun, taung-zalut. English: woolly dyeing rosebay.

Range

China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. In Myanmar, found in Ayeyarwady, Bago, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Use

Bark: Administered for renal complaints.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The bark is used as a substitute for Holarrhena bark, for stomachache and colic; the root is used for fever, dysentery (with root of Cissampelos); and an unspecified plant part is used for tumors. In Indo-China the species is used as an astringent and alexiteric (Perry 1980).

Tests for the presence of alkaloids in this species were negative (Perry 1980).

References

Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Araceae (Arum family)

1. Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (= Amorphophallus campanulatus Decne.)

Names

Myanmar: wa-u-bin, wa-u-pin. Japanese: shinasoo. English: elephant yam, cobra plant.

Range

Paleotropics. Found only in Myanmar’s temperate regions; grows naturally.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Tuber: Used to prevent sagging belly in women and enlargement of the bladder. They are also used to trim the body and clear the complexion, to prevent palpitations in older people, and to stop the formation of excess fat and solidified fatty deposits in the body.

Note

In its genus, this species is considered one of the most effective medicinally and subsequently one of the most desired by international buyers.

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Colocasia Schott

Colocasia antiquorum Schott

Names

Myanmar: mahuya-pein, pein, pein-u. English: taro, kalo, dasheen, eddo.

Range

Java. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Juice, Corm: Skin irritant.

Notes

In India the tuber is hemostatic on injuries, cuts, burns, and honey bee stings (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

3. Pothos L

Pothos scandens L.

Names

Myanmar: pein-gya. English: pothos.

Range

Widespread from Madagascar, through India and the Himalayas to southwestern China, south through Indochina; also in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, and the Philippines. In Myanmar, found in Shan, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Use

Leaf: Used as antiasthmatic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The root is fried in oil and applied on abscesses; the stem is smoked with camphor to treat asthma; and the leaf is powdered and used on smallpox pustules and fractures.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

4. Typhonium Schott

Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott

Name

English: Bengal arum.

Range

Temperate China; tropical Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka; Indo-China; Malaysia. Naturalized elsewhere. In Myanmar, found in Yangon.

Uses

Root: Acrid tubers applied in poultices as a counter-irritant, and also to destroy maggots in sores on cattle.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The root is used to treat snakebite, and is externally applied and orally administered (at the same time);, the root, eaten with bananas, is used to treat stomach complaints; also used as a stimulant, and as a remedy for piles. Perry (1980) gives medicinal uses for the species in Thailand and Indonesia.

Reference

Perry (1980).

Araliaceae (Ginsing family)

1. Schefflera J.R.Forst. & G.Forst

Schefflera venulosa (Wight & Arn.) Harms

Names

English: rubber tree, starleaf, umbrella tree.

Range

Native to China, India, Myanmar, and Indo-China.

Uses

Leaf: Infusion used for many internal diseases.

Notes

The species is reported to be employed for toothache (Duke 2009). A decoction of the plant is used in Indo-China the first 15 days of puerperium (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Perry (1980), Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Arecaceae (Palm family)

1. Caryota L

Caryota mitis Lour.

Names

Myanmar: minbaw, tamibaw. English: clustered fishtail palm, fishtail palm, wine palm.

Range

Southeast Asia, from Myanmar to the Philippines.

Use

Fruit: Irritant (poisonous).

Notes

In Indo-China the fibers from the axils of the leaves are applied in the form of moxas for cauterization of bites of poisonous animals or insect stings; on the Malay Peninsula the fruits may be put into juice, mixed with bamboo hairs and toad-extract, and used to poison food. Even the fruit’s pulp causes skin irritation (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Aristolochiaceae (Birthwart family)

1. Aristolochia L

Aristolochia indica L.

Names

Myanmar: eik-thara, eik-tha-ra-muli, thaya-muli. English: Indian birthwort.

Range

Native of India and eastward; sometimes cultivated in Indo-China. In Myanmar found in Bago, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: For children, a mixture of equal amounts of the leaf juice and the juice squeezed from the crushed five parts is given to heal throat blisters, mouth blisters, and canker sores. Leaf: For edema and dry coughs, the juice squeezed from the crushed leaves is taken with a small amount of salt once in the morning and once in the evening. The strained juice, made from two or three of the leaves crushed finely together with eight to ten peppercorns, is given at 15-minute intervals for venomous bites from snakes and scorpions, as well as from other sources. This medicine is also used to revive and stimulate circulation in patients who have severe colds, who have lost consciousness, or who have poor circulation. Leaf and Root: Medicines made from the roots and leaves are used to treat poisoning, coughs, heart disease, intestinal disorders in children, indigestion and gas problems, swollen and aching joints, irregular menstruation, blood irregularities, and dizziness. Root: The paste is applied topically to neutralize poison from snake, scorpion, and other venomous bites; a small amount is rubbed onto the tongue to alleviate fever from stomach upset in children and infants; and orally or rubbed on the tongue, used to quell delirium from high fevers and to alleviate heaviness of the lips, jaw, cheeks, and tongue. Root powder mixtures with black pepper powder, raw salt, and warm water, used to regulate menstruation and promote menstrual bloodflow; with equal parts of wheat ash and salt, taken orally with hot water or applied topically to swollen parts of the body to soothe aches, pains, and inflamed joints; and two parts of the root powder and one part ginger powder is given twice daily for dysentery or indigestion. The root is also used in preparations to ease childbirth, clear menstruation-related skin discolorations, and reduce fevers.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The whole plant is used for snakebite; leaf juice is used for snakebite, breast pain and suppuration, as an abortifacient; the seed is used for inflammation, joint pains; the root is used as a stimulant, emetic, emmenagogue, for fever, leucoderma (powdered and mixed with honey); to promote digestion, regulate menstruation (in small doses); on wounds, for diarrhea (paste), and for snakebite. An unspecified plant part is used to stimulate phagocytosis; also for cholera. In Indo-China the plant is used as a remedy for intermittent fever, dropsy, and loss of appetite; the root is used for the same purpose (Perry 1980).

The essential oil contains a trace of camphor, and sesquiterpenes, ishwarene, ishwarone, and ishwarol The roots contain an alkaloid, aristolochine, a yellow bitter principle, isoaristolochic acid, and allantoin (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Aristolochia tagala Cham.

Names

English: Dutchman’s pipe, Indian birthwort.

Range

China, Taiwan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam; Soloman Islands and Queensland in Australia. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kayin, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: Used for bowel complaints. Fruit: Used as a laxative and tonic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The whole plant is used for bowel complaints; the fruit is used for rheumatism (paste applied and massaged in), malaria, dyspepsia, snakebite, toothache (paste applied); the uses of the root are the same as those of the fruit.

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Asparagaceae (Asparagus family)

1. Agave L

Agave sisalana Perrine

Names

Myanmar: nanat-gyi, na-nat-shaw, thinbauk-nanat. English: sisal, sisal hemp.

Range

Eastern Mexico. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Whole plant: Juice used as purgative.

Notes

A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Agave vera-cruz Mill.

Names

Myanmar: thin-baw-na-nat. English: blue aloe.

Range

Mexico. Introduced into southern Europe, northwestern Africa, Mauritius, India, and Sri Lanka. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Juice: Used as purgative.

Note

In India the whole plant is used as a purgative (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Asparagus L

Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Names

Myanmar: ka-nyut. English: fern asparagus.

Range

India and China. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Shan.

Conservation status

Data Deficient [DD] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Root: Used as diuretic and anthelmintic.

Notes

In India the root is used as an astringent and tonic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the root is used as an antipyretic, bechic, diuretic, expectorant, nervine, stimulant, and tonic; also for constipation, cough, hemoptysis, dry throat, pertussis (Yunnan); and cooked with pork for a tonic (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Perry (1980) notes the medicinal use of this species in Yunnan. She also states that the species has uses similar to A. cochinchinensis.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Asparagus officinalis L.

Names

Myanmar: kannyut, sani kamat (Mon). English: asparagus.

Range

Europe, Asia, North Africa. Not common in Upper Myanmar. Found in humid locations; cultivated in hilly and cooler regions.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Whole plant: Has cooling properties and a sweet taste. Leaves, stems, shoots, roots and fruits are all beneficial for humans. The plant is considered especially beneficial for new mothers, to fortify the blood and help prevent anemia. It is used to break up phlegm, as well as to control the gall bladder, external hemorrhaging, and vomiting of blood. Shoot: Eaten to eliminate gas and to strengthen the body. Shoot and Root: Considered especially useful for extra strength, either cooked on their own or incorporated into rice pudding with milk. Root: Bulbous, can be boiled to make a paste for external application as a remedy for inflamed joints, aches, and flatulence disorders. For urinary tract disorders and various liver and gall bladder diseases, the juice of the roots mixed with honey and/or milk is ingested. The juice mixed with an equal amount by weight of milk is consumed as a cure for long-standing kidney stones and gallstones. It is also taken as a cure for diseases caused by poisoning.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Medicinal uses of asparagus are also discussed in Perry (1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

3. Dracaena L

Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: dan-la-ku, dandagu, dantalet.

Range

India and South China to the Solomon Islands. In Myanmar, found in Mandalay, Mon, and Sagaing.

Use

Leaf: Used as a blood purifier.

Notes

In the Philippines the roots are chewed, and the saliva swallowed as a remedy for centipede bites; additionally, a decoction of the roots is ingested to treat stomach problems. In the older literature, the medicinal uses of this species are listed as follows: A decoction of the leaves is ingested to treat dysentery, leucorrhea, and blennorrhea; also considered to be a galactagogue. A decoction of the roots along with Tectaria crenata (Aspidium repandum) is taken twice a day for a week to treat gonorrhea (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Asphodelaceae (Asphodelus family)

1. Aloe L

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

Names

Myanmar: men-khareek-leck-chuck (Mon), sha-zaung-let-pat. English: aloe, bitter aloe.

Range

Canary Islands and Arabian Peninsula.

Use

Leaf: Used to treat menstrual disorders. The inner gelatinous flesh can be eaten sprinkled with a little salt obtained from making an ash of the five parts of the pauk plant (Butea monosperma), to cleanse the menstrual blood. Used against boils, edema, liver diseases, skin diseases, fevers, asthma, leprosy, jaundice, and bladder stones. Used as a powerful and effective as an ointment. If the inner flesh is used as a poultice against the stomach, it will draw out internal myomas and tumors. The inner gel can be placed on the eyes to cure eyes that are sore or ache. Squeezing out the inner gel, pouring it into the ear after warming it will cure earaches speedily. If a person suffering from jaundice eats the inner gel, it will give good bowel movements and encourage urination, curing the condition. If the inner gel is scraped off, soaked in rice washing water, and added to sugar, it can be taken to cure urinary disorders.

Notes

Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). Details of the chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986). Medicinal properties of this species are discussed by Blackwell (1990). Aloe vera leaves contain barbaloin, which is poisonous (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Asteraceae (Sunflower family)

1. Ageratum L

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.

Names

Myanmar: kado-po, kadu-hpo. English: goatweed, tropical whiteweed.

Range

New World Tropics. In Myanmar found in Mandalay, Shan, and Yangon.

Use

Leaf: Serves as an antiseptic for skin diseases and leprosy.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). A pharmacognosti-cal profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Artemisia L

Artemisia dracunculus L. (= Artemisia glauca Pall. ex Willd.)

Names

Myanmar: dona-ban. English: estragon, false tarragon, French tarragon, green sagewart, silky wormwood, tarragon.

Range

Origin thought to have been Central Asia, probably Siberia. Current range southern Europe, Asia, United States, west to the Mississippi River.

Uses

Root: Used as tonic, antiseptic, and antiasthmatic.

Notes

The leaves and young shoots of the species are said to be of particular value for their beneficial effect on digestion. In addition to stimulating the digestive system and uterous, the leaves, and an essential oil obtained from them, lower fevers and destroy intestinal worms; they also serve as an antiscorbutic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypnotic, odontalgic, stomachic, and vermifuge (Bown 1995). An infusion is used to treat indigestion, flatulence, nausea, and hiccups; and a poultice is employed to relieve rheumatism, gout, arthritis, and toothache. (Phillips and Foy 1990). Also, the plant is mildly sedative as is used to aid sleep (Chevallier 1996). The root is used to treat digestive and menstrual problems (Bown 1995). The medicinal uses of eight other members of the genus in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). These too have many valuable uses as well as an important chemical composition.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

3. Blumea DC

Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.

Names

Myanmar: bonmathane-payoke, hpon-mathein, phon-ma-thein. English: dog bush, nagi camphor, shan camphor.

Range

South and southeastern Asia, China, and Taiwan. Widespread in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used as an expectorant, stomachic, antispasmodic, and antiseptic. Used to treat infantile illnesses. Bathing the body with water in which the leaves have been soaked gets rid of edema. Apply an ointment made by mixing the leaves with alcohol, rose water and lime juice to alleviate and cure muscles spasms and tics, paralysis of limbs, heaviness of limbs due to poor circulation of blood, and aches and pains in the body. Sap: Used in curing toothaches. Root: Used in treating colds.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985) as follows: The whole plant is used as a stomachic, sudorific, tonic, expectorant, diaphoretic, anticatarrhal; also considered a potential antifertility plant. Juice from fresh leaves, or decocted dry leaves, is used for itch, sores, and wounds. In India a decoction of the whole plant is used as an expectorant; a warm infusion as a sudorific (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

The reported chemical composition includes cineole and limonene; also palmitic acid, myristic acid, sesquiterpemne alcohol, dimethly ether, and pyrocaechic tannin (Perry 1980). Herbal extracts are phototoxic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. “The aqueous extract is said to be efficacious as a vasodilator, sedative and hypotensive. Since it inhibits the sympatheric nervous system, it is used to relieve excitement and insomnia.” It is thought that the essential oil may be nearly pure borneol, or 75% camphor and 25% borneol (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

4. Carthamus L

Carthamus tinctorius L.

Names

Myanmar: hsu pan. English: false saffron, safflower, wild saffron.

Range

Origin thought to be the eastern Mediterranean. Currently known only in cultivation and as escapes. Found as a cultivar in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Considered bitter and sweet, with heating properties, can cause loose bowels but are known for promoting good vision, digestion, gall bladder function, and phlegm discharge. The leaves are consumed in a sour soup (fish or shrimp stock base, tamarind, and vegetables) to promote the flow of urine and to give vigor. Flower: Juice from the crushed flowers is taken to neutralize snake and scorpion venoms. Pulverized dried flowers are used as a remedy for jaundice. A mixture of crushed flowers and sugar is given to cure hemorrhoids and kidney stones. The boiled water extract of flowers is used to treat inflammation of nasal passages, as well as joint and muscle aches. A mixture of the flowers crushed with dan-gyi (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) leaves is applied to the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands to cure kidney stones. Seed: Known for imparting strength and energy. Pulverized to a powder, they are taken with milk to cure madness, as well as itches and rashes. The ash from burning a combination of the seeds and the bark from hsu byu (Thevetia peruviana) is mixed with jasmine oil and applied to the hair to promote growth and healthy texture. Root: Can be used as a diuretic.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

5. Chromolaena DC

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (= Eupatorium odoratum L.)

Names

Myanmar: bezat, bizat, jamani-chon, taw-bizat. English: buttefly-weed, jack in the bush, siamweed.

Range

New World subtropics and tropics- Florida, Texas; Mexico; and West Indies. Pantropical weed. Widespread in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Used to treat dysentery.

Notes

In India the leaf is used to treat dysentery; also applied on fresh cuts and wounds to stop bleeding (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). A pharmacological profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993).

An aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves of C. odorata were found to have antifungal activity. Chemical analysis of the extract and fractions showed the presence of biologically active constituents including some coumarines,flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and sterols. No toxic effect was noticed in the mice treated. (Ngono Ngane et al. 2006). Ethanol extracts of leaves of this species also showed antibacterial activites, inhibiting the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The extract also was shown to reduce parasite number: antiprotozoal and cytotoxicity assays were done against Trichomonas vaginalis and Blastocystis hominis. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the chemical compositon of the extracts to contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroids (Vital and Rivera 2009).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

6. Cyanthillium Blume

Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H. Rob. (= Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.)

Names

Myanmar: kadu-pyan. English: little ironweed.

Range

East, West-Central, West, and South tropical Africa; temperate and tropical Asia; and Australasia. Widely naturalized elsewhere. Widespread in Myanmar.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as tonic and antiasthmatic.

Note

In India, the whole plant is used as a diaphoretic “to remedy bladder spasms and strangury,” and in a decoction for promoting perspiration in fevers; plant juice is given for piles; the flower is used for conjunctivitis; the seed for as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic; and the root is used for dropsy (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

7. Eclipta L

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (= Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk)

Names

Myanmar: kyate-hman, kyeik-hman. English: eclipta, false daisy, white eclipta, white heads, swamp daisy, yerba de tago.

Range

North America (where flowers nearly year round, mostly summer to fall); Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; introduced in Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Australia, and Europe. Found growing naturally throughout Myanmar, rampantly like a weed in areas with much rain.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Promotes vitality, health, and circulation; stimulates strong hair growth; used for respiratory illnesses, as well as for inflammation of eyes and other parts of the body. Whole plant: Used for asthma. Juice used as a tonic; in medicines for coughs, headaches, hepatitis, and inflammation of joint; in a poultice for skin disorders and sores; and as a black hair dye. Mixed with honey, the juice is given to children for coughs and colds. Leaf: Powder used to treat headaches, frontal baldness, boils and cysts, and venereal diseases. They are boiled with jaggery added to water, are reduced to one-third of the starting volume and taken to regulate menstrual periods. A mixture of the pulverized leaves and juice from Vitex trifolia is used to promote burn healing, prevent new scar tissue formation, and eliminate old scar tissue; mixed with milk they are consumed daily to improve vision and, it is said, to allow mute people to gain their voices, cause deaf people to hear, and stabilize shaky teeth; mixed with mother’s milk, they are given for intestinal worms, diarrhea, smallpox, chickenpox, and measles. A mixture of leaves with pulverized black sesame seeds is taken as a tonic to protect against diseases, promote longevity, and darken hair. Leaves crushed together with those from Acalypha indica and Gardenia resinifera are applied to the head to relieve congestion in children.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species (syn.: E. prostata) in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

8. Elephantopus L

Elephantopus scaber L.

Names

Myanmar: ka-tu-pin, ma-tu-pin, sin-che. English: cucha cara, elephantopus, soft elephant’s-foot, yerba de caballo.

Range

Tropical Africa, Eastern Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Australia. In Myanmar, found in Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, and Yangon.

Uses

Stem and Leaf: A decoction made from these parts is used for menstrual disorders. Root: Used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and tonic.

Notes

In Indian the leaf is used on cuts and to control vomiting; the root is used to check vomiting, for fever in children, on pimples, as an abortifacient, also for urinary problems, amoebic dysentery and other digestive disorders (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses in other Asian countries follows: In China the plant is used to treat indigestion and swollen legs; in Taiwan the root is used to relieve pain in the chest; on the Malay Peninsula a decoction of the leaves is drunk to cure venereal diseases in women; in Indonesia the roots, either pounded in water or in decoction, are used as a remedy for leucorrhea, anemia in women and children, and during parturition; in the Philippines a decoction of the roots and leaves is used as an emollient, and leaves are heated and rubbed on the throat to relieve a bad cough; and in Guam the plant is used as a remedy for asthenic fever. Also, in Indo-China, Indonesia, and the Philippines, the plant is considered a diuretic and febrifuge; an infusion is taken to relieve anuria and blennorrhea and administered at parturition; a decoction of the whole plant is bechic, cleansing, and used to treat pulmonary diseases and scabies (Perry 1980).

The leaves contain a bitter principle; the plant has no alkaloid, but a white crystalline substance, apparently of glycoside nature, has been extracted. Also, an extract of the leaves has been shown to have antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

9. Emilia Cass

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex DC.

Names

English: lilac tasselflower, red tasselflower.

Range

Old World tropics; naturalized in southern Florida. In Myanmar, found in Mandalay and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as febrifuge, for eye diseases, and as an anthelmintic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The leaf is used on wounds, bruises, and eye diseases; the root for diarrhea and gangrene (with leaf also). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the plant is use as a detoxicant, diuretic, febrifuge, refrigerant, and sudorific. The whole plant is decocted for abscesses, boils, colds, dysentery, eneteritis, influenza, larengitis, numbness, pharyngitis, scales, snakebites, and traumatic injuries. The leaf is used for dysentery.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

10. Enydra Lour

Enydra fluctuans Lour.

Names

Myanmar: kana-hpaw. English: marsh herb, water cress.

Range

Occurs in both hemispheres from the Philippines, Indochina, and tropical Africa to Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Ecuador and Columbia. Introduced into Mexico. Found growing naturally at freshwater edges throughout Myanmar, except in very cold areas.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Whole plant: All parts are used, but particularly the leaves. For edema, the plant’s five parts are boiled and eaten. The juice is given for pox-like diseases, skin problems, and disorders of the marrow and synovial fluids. A mixture of the juice with honey is taken for smallpox. To alleviate weak liver, the broth from the whole plant boiled together with rice, water, mustard oil, and a bit of salt is ingested. Leaf: Used in a steam bath. Preparations made from the leaves are also given for leprous sores, other skin disorders, coughing, and fever. Their juice can be taken with either cow’s or goat’s milk for urinary tract infections and associated limb heaviness.

Note

In India the leaf is used as a laxative, demulcent, and is antibilious; it is also used for nervous conditions and the skin (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

11. Grangea Adans

Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir.

Names

Myanmar: taw-ma-hnyo-lon, ye-tazwet. English: madras wormwood.

Range

Widespread in tropical and subtropical Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. In Myanmar, found in Bago and Yangon.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Leaf: Used as anthelmintic, antipyretic, and antispasmodic.

Note

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The leaf is used as an infusion and electuary for obstructed menses and hysteria, for anodye and antiseptic fomentations; also an antispasmodic, stomachic and deobstruent.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

12. Senecio L

Senecio densiflorus Wall.

Names

English: butterweed, yellowtop.

Range

China, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used as emollient and maturant in boils.

Notes

In India plant used in treating skin afflictions as follows: leaves ground and applied as paste on boils; decotion of aerial parts used as wash for burning sensations and gonorrhea (Begum and Nath 2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

13. Sigesbeckia L

Sigesbeckia orientalis L.

Names

English: divine herb, Indian weed, sigesbeckia, yellow crown-head.

Range

Africa, Asia, Australasia/ Pacific, naturalized in Madagascar. In Myanmar, found in Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Shan.

Uses

Whole plant: Used for treating skin diseases and as a stimulant.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: A tincture of the (whole) plant with glycerine is used for ringworm and other skin disease, ulcers, and sores; as a diaphoretic and cardiotonic; also for renal colic and rheumatism. Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the whole plant is used for arthritis, a bad back, boils, dermatitis, hemiplegia, hypertension, leg ache, rheumatism, side ache, sciatica, and weak knees. It is ground and taken alone or with other plants for convulsions, paralytic stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used for insect, dog, tiger, and snakebites, and ulcers. Additionally, it is decocted for malignant tumors, malaria, and numbness. The root is used externally for abscesses.

The plant has a hypoglycemic property (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The root contains an essential oil, a substance suggesting salicylic acid, and a bitter glycoside (darutosdie). Also, extracts are said to have antiviral, hypoglycemic, and insecticidal properties (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

14. Tagetes L

Tagetes erecta L.

Names

Myanmar: dewali-pan, kala-pan. English: African marigold, Aztec marigold, marigold.

Range

Mexico and Central America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used as an analgesic and antiseptic.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The leaf is applied to carbuncles ad boils; leaf juice is used for earache; the flower is used as a remedy for eye diseases and ulcers; flower juice is used for bleeding piles; flowers are also taken as a blood purifier. Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the leaf is used to treat sores and ulcers; the flower heads are decocted for colds, conjunctivitis, cough, mastitis, mumps, and sore eyes; they are also cooked with chicken liver to improve vision.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

15. Tanacetum L

Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Sch. Bip. (= Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Vis.)

Names

Myanmar: hsay gandamar. English: dancing daisy, pyrethrum.

Range

Subtropical, temperate. In Myanmar, prefers temperate climates and can be cultivated at up to 1065–2135 m in altitude; thrives in Chin State, Shan State, Kachin State, Kokang area, Wa area, Naga hills, Mogok, Kyatpyin and Pyin Oo Lwin.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Stimulates appetite and heart functioning. Leaf: Crushed and mixed with black pepper, they are taken for urination problems. They are also used to treat cracked lips, gonorrhea, vomiting, and bleeding. Flower: Antiparasitic; used in pesticides and repellents effective against the mosquito vectors of dengue hemorrhagic fever and vectors of other infectious diseases.

Notes

The species is used as an insecticide. The old Chinese use of the genus Chrysanthemum was to treat “liver weakness”, clarify vision, and act as a circulatory tonic. The present use is to “benefit the blood”; treat minor infection; and for digestive, circulatory, and nervous disorders as well as for menstrual disorders and night blindness (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Basellaceae (Malabar Spinach family)

1. Basella L

Basella alba L. (= Basella rubra L.)

Names

Myanmar: kin peint, ginbeik. English: Indian spinach.

Range

Asia and Africa. Found growing naturally in Myanmar’s hot regions (such as Bago and Mandalay).

Uses

Whole plant: A decoction is used to alleviate labor during childbirth. Flower: Used as an antidote to poisons. Leaf: Juice and paste from the crushed leaves is applied to sores to promote healing. The juice is also ingested to relieve diarrhea, fever, and urinary tract infections. Root: Boiled in water and consumed to alleviate vomiting associated with the gall bladder problems.

Note

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Duke and Ayensu (1985), Forest Department (1999), Manandhar and Manandhar (2002).

Berberidaceae (Barberry family)

1. Berberis L

Berberis nepalensis Spreng.

Names

Myanmar: khaing-shwe-wa, khine-shwe-war. English: mahonia.

Range

Eastern Asia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Fruit: Berries used as diuretic.

Notes

In India the fruit is employed as a diuretic and demulcent, also edible; the root “extract yields a product ‘rasaut’ with the same properties as Berberis.” (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). A decoction of the bark is used for eyedrops to treat inflammation of the eyes (Manandhar and Manandhar 2002). The fruit is used in the treatment of dysentery (Chopra et al. 1986).

Berberine, present in the rhizomes, has been shown to have a marked antibacterial effect and is used as a bitter tonic. It is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. Berberine has also been shown to have antitumor activity (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Betulaceae (Birch family)

1. Alnus Mill

Alnus nepalensis D.Don

Names

Myanmar: hyang, mai-bau, nbau, ning-bau, yang-bau. English: alder.

Range

Eastern Himalayas and western China. In Myanmar, found in Chin and Kachin.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Bark: Used as an astringent.

Notes

In India, the bark is used to treat dysentery and stomachache; the leaf is employed on cuts and wounds; and the root is used for diarrhea (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Bignoniaceae (Catalpa family)

1. Markhamia Seem. ex Baill

Markhamia stipulata (Wall.) Seem.

Names

Myanmar: kwe, ma-hlwa, mai-kye, mayu-de, pauk-kyn. English: Asian markhamia.

Range

China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Plant used as a cure for psora.

Note

Phenolic glycosides have been found in this species as follows: five verbascoside derivatives (markhamiosides A-E) and one hydroquinone (markhamioside F) were isolated together with 13 known compounds from the leaves and branches of this species (Kanchanapoom et al. 2002).

Reference

Perry (1980).

2. Mayodendron Kurz

Mayodendron igneum (Kurz) Kurz

Names

Myanmar: egayit, egayit-ni, hpun-hpawk, mai-pyit, sumhtung, sumtungh-kyeng. English: peepthong.

Range

China, Taiwan, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Bark: Used as antidote in alcohol poisoning.

Notes

An ethanal extract of the leaves of this species was found to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activites (Hashem et al. 2007).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

3. Oroxylum Vent

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz

Names

Myanmar: kyaung shar, sot-gren-itg (Mon), maleinka (Mak) (Shan). English: Indian trumpet flower.

Range

Subtropical and tropical. Found from India to tropical China, south into Southeast Asia. Found growing naturally throughout Myanmar up to 1220 m altitude.

Uses

Bark: A mixture of the bark powder with the juice of ginger and honey is given for asthma and bronchitis. The filtered liquid made from this powder is soaked in hot water for 2 hours and taken morning and night for chronic indigestion. The water from soaked bark is used as a mouthwash to relieve dry throat and cracked skin around the mouth. Bark of trunk and root used as an astringent and a tonic in dysentery, diarrhea, and rheumatism. Leaf: The juice is taken as a remedy for opium toxicity. Leaves are boiled and eaten to stimulate bowel movements. Fruit: Boiled or roasted, it is taken for indigestion, goiter, flatulence and hemorrhoids. It is eaten in a salad to alleviate boils on the skin. A mixture of fruit cooked with chicken is eaten to cure asthma. Consuming the fruit cooked with banded snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) is considered a cure for cholera that gives vitality as well as curing indigestion and diarrhea. As a remedy for palpitations or fatigue brought on by a weak heart, a mixture of fruit cooked with prawns is eaten. To reduce edema, increase weight, and strengthen a weak heart, a mixture of the fruit and hilsa fish (Hilsa ilisha) is eaten. A combination of the fruit cooked with the fish nga-mway-toh (Mastacembelus armatus) is ingested to cure dysentery associated with weakness in men and menstruation in women, as well as hemorrhoids. Root: A paste formed from grinding is applied to treat sores that continue to fester even though the skin has healed. Root bark is used to treat fever, joint pain, stomach bloating, and stomach pain.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

In Indo-China and the Philippines the bark of the trunk and root are used in the same way as in Myanmar. On the Malay Peninsula the bark is used for dysentery. A decoction of the leaves is drunk for stomach disorders, rheumatism, and wounds; and is made into hot fomentations to treat cholera, fever, and rheumatic swellings. The cooked leaves are used as poultices for various ailments during and after childbirth; also for dysentery, and to relieve headache and toothache. In Indonesia the bitter bark serves as a remedy for stomach problems, and also as a tonic and appetizer. Additionally, the bark is chewed as a depurative, especially after parturition. The flowers are used as a remedy for inflammation of the eyes. The pith serves as a styptic. In the Philippines the juice from the crushed bark is rubbed on the back to relieve the ache accompanying malaria (Perry 1980).

Oroxylin, isolated from the bark and seeds, has been found to be a mixture of three flavones, baicalein, 6-methylbaicalein, and chrysin. Oroxylin-A consists of phtalic and benzoic acids, and phloroglucinol (Perry 1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

4. Millingtonia L.f

Millingtonia hortensis L.f.

Names

Myanmar: mai-long-ka-hkam, sum-tung-hpraw, htamone-chort. English: jasmine tree, Indian cork tree.

Range

Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; commonly cultivated throughout India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, occasionally naturalized. Found growing naturally all over Myanmar, except in cold areas.

Use

Leaf: Boiled in water and eaten, or made into a stir-fry, for menstruation and hypertension. Flower and Shoot: Drinking a soup made with the flowers or eating the shoots will cure hypertension and heart palpitations. Root: Taking the paste of the root after adding salt or sugar will cure heart palpitations and dizziness; drawing circles around the eyes with a paste made from the root and bark will cure sore eyes; applying a paste made from the root will cure gas disorders; drinking the liquid in which the fresh root has been boiled with jaggery will cure vitiligo; rubbing a paste of the root or bark onto the tongue will cure alcoholic intoxication.

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

5. Stereospermum Cham

Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC.

Names

English: fragrant padri-tree, padri, yellow snakeroot.

Range

India to the Malay Peninsula.

Use

Leaf, Flower, and Root: Used as a febrifuge.

Notes

In India the bark is tonic, diuretic; used for stomachache, cholera, malaria, and liver problems. The root is used for chest and brain afflictions, also intermittent and puerperal fevers (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The leaves, flowers, and roots are used as a febrifuge in Indo-China (except Vietnam) (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Stereospermum colais (Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn) Mabb. (= Stereospermum tetragonum DC.)

Names

Myanmar: hingut-pho, hingut-po, kywe-ma-gyo-lein, sin-gwe, thakut-pho, thakut-po, thande, than-tat, than-tay. English: trumpet flower, yellow snake tree.

Range

China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. Widespread in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf, Flower, Root: Used as febrifuge.

Note

In India the leaf is used for dyspepsia; the root for asthma, cough, and excessive thirst (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

6. Tecoma Juss

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (= Tecomella stans Seem)

Names

Myanmar: sein-takyu. English: trumpet-bush, yellow-bells, yellow-elder, yellow trumpet-bush.

Range

New World tropics.

Uses

Bark: Utilized as an antisyphilitic and as an antidote in alcohol poisoning. Leaf: Used for hypoglycemic properties.

Notes

Reported uses of the species include stomachache, alcoholism, atony, biliousness, diabetes, diuretic, dysentery, gastritis, inappetence, indigestion, intoxicant, pain, stomachic, syphilis, tonic, and vermifuge (Duke 2009). In India the root is used to treat scorpion sting; also snake and rat bite (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Pods of T. stans have been shown to contain tecomine and tecostanine, which have the effect of lowering blood sugar levels (Lan et al. 1998). Research has provided evidence that the main antidiabetic effect of the aqueous extract is due to intestinal a-glucosidase inhibition by decreasing the postprandial hyper-glycaemia peak. Additionally, the aqueous extract sub-chronic administration was found to reduce triglycerides and cholesterol without modifying fasting glucose (Anguilar-Santamaría et al. 2009).

References

Nordal (1963), Mya Bwin and Sein Gwan (1967).

Bixaceae (Annatto family)

1. Bixa L

Bixa orellana L.

Names

Myanmar: thinbaw-tidin. English: achiote, annatto, lipstick-tree.

Range

Tropical America.

Uses

Seed: Used as a febrifuge and astringent.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity, and dosages, are discussed by Germosèn-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). The red dye from the seed arils contains a mixture of stereoisomers of bixin, a C-24 diapocarotenoid [having purgative action (Lan et al. 1998)]; and, the leaf-oil is a rich source of numerous terpenes (Mors et al. 2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Boraginaceae (Heliotrope family)

1. Cordia L

Cordia dichotoma G.Forst.

Names

Myanmar: hpak-mong, kal, kasondeh, thanat, thanut, tun-paw-man. English: Sebastian tree.

Range

Southern China, Taiwan south to northeastern Australia and New Caledonia. In Myanmar, found in Mandalay, Shan, and Yangon.

Uses

Fruit: Cooling, anthelmintic, diuretic, purgative, and expectorant. Bark: Used to treat catarrh.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The leaf is used for cough, cold, fever, and ulcers; the fruit as an expectorant, and for stomachache, lung and urinary disease. Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China, Hainan, Indo-China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Cordia myxa L.

Names

Myanmar: taung-thanut, thanat. English: Assyrian plum, clammy cherry, Indian cherry, sapistan, Sebesten plum, selu.

Range

India to Australia. In Myanmar, found in Mandalay, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf: Used in manufacture of “Burmese cheroots.”

Notes

The fruit of this species is used throughout its range for its sticky mucilaginous pulp which is eaten to suppress cough, for chest complaints, to treat a sore throat, and as a demulcent; also applied as an emollient to mature abscesses, to calm rheumatic pain, and as an anthelmintic. In Tanzania the fruit pulp is applied on ringworm. In Mali and the Ivory Coast the leaves are applied to wounds and ulcers. A macerate of the leaves is taken to treat trypanosomiasis, and is externally applied as a lotion to tse-tse fly bites. In the Comoros the powdered bark is applied to the skin in cases of broken bones before a plaster is applied, to improve healing. Bark powder is used externally in the treatment of skin disease; bark juice, together with coconut oil, is taken to treat colic.

Chemical screening of both leaves and fruits shows that pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, and sterols are present. The principle fatty acids in the seed are palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, oleic, and linoleic. Petroleum ether and alcoholic extracts shows significant analgesic, anti-inflammatoroy, and anti-arthritic activities is tests with rats. Four flavonoid glycosides, a flavonoid aglycone, and two phenolic derivatives were isolated. Ethanol extracts from fruits and leaves show significant antioxidant activities due to the carotenoids, but no antidmicrobial activity against bacteria (Oudhia 2007).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Heliotropium L

Heliotropium indicum L.

Names

Myanmar: sin-hna-maung, sin-let-maung. English: Indian heliotrope, turnsole.

Range

Pantropical. In Myanmar, found in Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as diuretic. A decoction used in treating gonorrhea; one is also used for the treatment of diabetes by Kawkareik inhabitants. Leaf: Applied to boils, ulcers, and wounds.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used for ulcers, boils, insect bites, and throat infection; the leaf for insect and reptile bites (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the plant is widely used for poulticing, boils, carbuncles, and herpes; also anti-cancer (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines.

The species contains an important anti-cancer ingredient, indicine-N-oxide, which shows significant activity against the P388 leukemia. “It is also active against the B16 melanoma, L1210 leukemia, and Walker 256” and “in 1976, no negative histopathologyic findings indicative of the heptotoxicology usually associated with pyrrolizidine alkaloids, had been demonstrated for indicine-N-oxide.” Also, acetyl indicine, indicinine, and indicinine have been reported for this species (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Mya Bwin and Sein Gwan (1967), Perry (1980).

Brassicaceae (Mustard family)

1. Brassica L

Brassica oleracea L.

Names

Myanmar: kobi-dok. English: cabbage, kohlrabi, wild cabbage.

Range

Native to western Europe; cultivated worldwide.

Conservation status

Data Deficient [DD] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Leaf: Used in the treatment of skin diseases as well as in diuretic and laxative preparations. Seed: Used to promote appetite and digestion; also used as a diuretic and laxative.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature for this plant are given in Fleming (2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Sinapis L

Sinapis alba L. (= Brassica alba (L.) Rabenh.)

Names

Myanmar: chying-hkrang-ahpraw, antamray, rai baitine. English: Chinese mustard, white mustard.

Range

North Africa, Europe, Southwest and Central Asia; widely introduced. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Hot and bitter in taste with heating properties, effective, aids digestion, calms the phlegm, cures vomiting of blood, passing of blood, leprosy, itching and rashes. Seed: A paste made from mixing the seeds together with kunsar-gamone (Alpinia galanga) can be rubbed on to cure inflammation of the joints. Oil: A small amount of the oil can be poured into the ear to cure earaches. Cook oil, the juice from mayoe (Calotropis procera) leaves, and some turmeric rhizome together and filter out the oil, which can then be rubbed on to cure skin diseases like ringworm, and itching. Cooking oil with menthol will produce a rub to use for children getting stomachaches, catching chest colds, and coughs and colds. The oil can be rubbed on directly to afflicted areas to cure enlarged spleen, cysts and tumors, edema, hemorrhoids, flatulence and shooting abdominal pains. Applying a small amount of the oil into the nostrils at bedtime will cure sinusitis. The oil can be applied on the nape of the neck to cure a stiff neck or across the bridge of the nose and along the brow line to cure aching eyes. An ointment can be made by mixing one part of mustard oil and one part of sesame oil with mountain goat or wild goat lard, which can be used to cure numbness, muscular spasms, and cramps.

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Burseraceae (Gumbo Limbo family)

1. Garuga Roxb

Garuga pinnata Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: chinyok, mai-kham, sinyok, taesap. English: garuga.

Range

China, East Pakistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaya, and the Philippines. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Mandalay, and Rakhine.

Use

Juice: Used to treat asthma.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: Juice from the stem is used in an eye-drop for opaque conjunctiva; leaf juice mixed with honey is used for asthma; the fruit is used as a stomachic. In Indo-China the bark is used with honey to treat asthma (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Calophyllaceae (Calophyllum family)

1. Calophyllum L

Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Names

Myanmar: ponenyet. English: Alexandrian laurel, Indian laurel, laurel-wood.

Range

Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia, and Pacific. Found growing naturally in lower Myanmar, but also thrives well in coastal areas with hot and wet climates. It is cultivated in some areas.

Conservation status

Lower Risk/least concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Whole plant: Preparations made from the five parts used to regulate bile and phlegm, as well as to bind the blood. Leaf: Water from soaking the leaves is used for eye drops to alleviate burning. Bark: Liquid from boiling the bark is taken to relieve constipation and to stop hemorrhaging. Sap extracted from the bark is used to compound medicines for treating wounds and sores. Seed: Oil extracted from the seeds is used to make remedies for aches, pains, gonorrhea, leprosy, and other skin diseases.

Note

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Mesua L

Mesua ferrea L.

Names

Myanmar: guntgaw, gau-gau, maiting (My) (Kachin), kaw-ta-nook (Kayin), ar ganui (Mon), jai-nool (Mon), kam kan (Mai) (Shan). English: Ceylon ironwood, cobra’s saffron, Indian rose-chestnut, ironwood tree.

Range

Tropical Asia, India. Found throughout Myanmar, but especially in Tanintharyi Division, growing naturally in tropical evergreen forests up to altitudes of 1065 m; also grown in gardens for ornamental purposes.

Uses

Whole plant: Flowers, stamens, seeds, roots, bark and oils are made into preparations to support digestion, improve complexion, cure blood disorders, reduce edema, neutralize poisoning, and alleviate heart and bladder pains. Leaf: Used to treat snakebites. Bark, Root: Used in tonics taken for strength. Flower: Used as an astringent. A mixture of the flowers with butter and sugar is taken for burning sensations in the body and for hemorrhoids. Flowers are used in medicines that neutralize toxins for cases of poisoning and for venomous bites and stings; dried, they are used in treatments for coughs, stomach problems, and excessive perspiration and phlegm. The anthers are used in remedies for fevers and excessive menstrual bleeding. A mixture of crushed anthers and rock sugar rolled with top oil (liquid that rises to top when slow-cooking substances, such as butter, etc.) is used to treat hemorrhoids and cracked skin on the soles of the feet. Ground together with thanakha (Hesperethusa crenulata) they form a paste used topically on boils and other skin conditions. Seed: Their oil is used as an ointment to treat inflammation of joints and as a remedy for scabies, eczema, and other skin problems, including infected sores.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of this species on the Malay Peninsula and in Indonesia.

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Ministry of Health (2001).

Cannabaceae (Hemp family)

1. Cannabis L

Cannabis sativa L.

Names

Myanmar: bhang, se-gyauk. English: grass, gallow grass, marihuana, pot, red-root, soft hemp, true hemp.

Range

Asia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Whole plant: Intoxicant, analgesic, sedative, and anodyne.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Perry (1980) discusses the general uses of the species in eastern and southeastern Asia (including Myanmar). Especially in China and Indo-China, all parts of the plant are used. The seeds are used as tonic, alterative, emmenagogue, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, anththelmintic, narcotic, and anodyne; also they are prescribed in fluxes, for post partum problems, obstinate vomiting, and used externally on eruptions, ulcers, wounds, and favus. The plant is also “considered of great value in treating tetanus. It is a true sedative of the stomach, used to treat dyspepsia with painful symptom, cancers, ulcers; also to treat migraine, neuralgia, and rheumatism. After special preparation, the seeds are prescribed for uterine prolapse, to aid parturition, and as a febrifuge.”

The flowering twigs contain an essence of sesquiterpene, cannabin, solid alcohol, and hydrate of cannabin. Contents of the seeds include protein, lipids, choline, trigonlline, xylose, inosite, many acids and enzymes, phosphates, and phytosterols. Two active substances found in the resin are cannabinol and cannabidiol, both toxic (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Cannaceae (Canna family)

1. Canna L

Canna indica L.

Names

Myanmar: budatharana, ar-do, adalut. English: canna, Indian shot, Queesland arrowroot.

Range

Tropical America. Found growing throughout Myanmar; also cultivated.

Uses

Sap: Aids in regulating bowels and healing sores. Rhizome: Employed as a diaphoretic, demulcent, and to treat fever and dropsy. Thinly sliced, dried, made into a preserve with jaggery (sugar made from juice of the toddy palm, Borassus flabellifer, inflorescence), and stored in a glass jar after adding the powder of five kinds of spices (names not specified in Agricultural Corporation 1980); then ball the size of a betel (Piper betle) nut eaten every morning and evening to treat male and female disorders, imbalance in the blood, diarrhea, menopause symptoms, insufficient blood circulation, hemorrhoids, impotence, poor complexion, loss of strength, backache, general aches and pains, and jaundice. About half a cup of the liquid in which the rhizome has been boiled together with raw sugar, taken once in the morning and one at night, used to treat menstrual disorders, stiffness in the ligaments and tendons, bloated stomach, and urinary tract disease. Flower and Fruit: Young flowers and fruits, lightly boiled in water and eaten with a dip or in a salad, used to treat too little urine and difficulty in passing urine; also to treat a fever. Eating a curry into which liquid from boiling the flowers has been added during cooking is used to treat a stiff neck, stiffness in the fingers and toes, and backache, as well as mucus in the stool, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Root: Taking about a quarter cup of the liquid in which the roots have been boiled after adding some roasted salt, used to treat fever, sore throat, and mucus in the respiratory system; about a half cup of liquid in which the roots have been boiled together with jaggery, used to treat edema, body aches, and sharp spasmodic pain in the bowels.

Note

Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Capparaceae (Caper family)

1. Capparis L

Capparis flavicans Kurz

Names

Myanmar: saungkyan, saung-chan. English: caper bush.

Range

Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. In Myanmar, found in Magway, Mandalay, and Sagaing.

Use

Leaf: Used as a galactagogue.

Reference

Perry (1980).

Capparis zeylanica L.

Names

Myanmar: mai-nam-lawt, mani-thanl-yet, nwamni-than-lyet. English: Ceylon caper.

Range

India to Indo-China, East Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and the Philippines. In Myanmar, found in Magway, Mandalay and Shan.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat cholera. Leaf: Used as a counter-irritant. Root: Applied to sores. Root Bark: Used to as a stomachic.

Notes

In the Philippines the leaves are used as a counter-irritant; additionally, the leaves (rubbed with salt and sometimes pounded) are used on the forehead and/or the temples as a remedy for headache. In Indo-China the plant is used for the same stimulant properties as the Cruciferae, also used as an antiscorbutic and for gastritis (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents include alkaloid, phytosterol, mucilaginous substance, and water-soluble acid (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

2. Crateva L

Crateva religiosa G.Forst.

Names

Myanmar: lè-seik-shin. English: sacred garlic pear.

Range

India to Indo-China and the Ryukyus, south through Moluccas and New Guinea, east to Polynesia. Reported from Myanmar.

Use

Bark: A paste from grinding the bark together with paranawar (Boerhavia diffusa) root is taken to cure chronic sores and boils. Leaf: Crushed, mixed with water and warmed, is applied to areas with aches and pain. The juice from the crushed leaves can be mixed in equal amounts with crushed betel (Piper betle) leaves and butter and the mixture is taken to cure inflammation of the joints. The leaves can be pickled and eaten with a fish paste or fish sauce dip or as a salad to cure gas and digestion problems. Flower: Pickled and eaten as a stomachic. Root: Boiled in water until reduced to one fourth, and taken to treat diabetes and kidney stones. If cane sugar is added to this liquid and drunk, it can cure inflammation of the bladder and kidney stones. Also used to treat high fevers.

Notes

In China the leaf is used as a tonic, stomachic, resolvent; also used for dysentery, headache, and stomachache (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In Taiwan a decoction of the stem and leaves is used to treat dysentery, headache, and stomachache; in China the leaves are considered to be stomachic; in Indo-China the leaves are used as a tonic and resolutive; in the Soloman Islands the liquid from the bark macerated with water is used to treat constipation and heated leaves are applied as a remedy for earache (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents of the bark include lupeol (a triterpene) and beta-sitosterol. (Perry 1980, Duke and Ayensu 1985). The leaves contain calcium, phosphorus, iron, beta-carotene equivalent, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Caricaceae (Papaya family)

1. Carica L

Carica papaya L.

Names

Myanmar: thinbaw, sang-hpaw, shanghpaw, shang hap-wsi (Kachin), mansi (Chin), crot-kyeei, hla-crote kyee (Mon), mak-sang-hpaw (Shan). English: papaw, papaya, pawpaw.

Range

Tropical America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Data Deficient [DD] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Known for binding and heating properties, the fruit, seeds, sap, leaves, and roots are used. Leaf: A mixture of the juice from crushed leaves and a small amount of opium is used to relieve muscle stiffness. Leaves blanched in hot water or wilted over heat are applied to affected body parts to relieve aches and pains of menstruation. Roasted leaves with a fish paste or fish sauce dip are prepared in a lepet [tea leaves steamed, pressed, fermented, mixed with oil (usually peanut oil); this added to salad] salad to alleviate buzzing in the ear and other ear problems. Fruit: Sweet and easily digestible ripe fruit stimulates hunger, facilitates digestion, promotes healthy urinary function, increases phlegm, benefits the heart, cleanses the blood, calms the bile, and protects against urinary diseases and gallstones. It promotes health and longevity, and protects against diseases. Soaking the fruit in water and taking the liquid three times daily alleviates enlargement of the spleen; eating the ripe fruit also alleviates enlargement of the spleen, as well as enlargement of the liver and hemorrhoids. Nearly ripe but still firm fruit is eaten cooked or in a salad to encourage healthy bowel and urinary functioning. A small amount of powder made from the dried, young fruit is used to alleviate chronic diarrhea. Juice from cut green fruit is applied to scorpion sting to neutralize the poison. The young fruit dipped in salt is eaten as a remedy for diphtheria. Children are given a small amount of the fruit sap together with milk or for indigestion. The milky sap from the green fruit is applied to relieve itching, rashes, ringworm, and other skin problems, including sores caused by venereal disease. The sap, which is also considered the best medicine for improving the function of many parts of the body, such as bone, marrow, and muscle, is used to treat stomach and intestinal pains from ulcers and other conditions. Seed: Ingested in amounts proportionate to the patient’s age, used for deworming. Root: Preparations made from the roots are used to regulate menstruation.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). A pharmacog- nostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

The latex of Carica papaya contains chymopapain, an enzyme which does not produce fever (non pyrogenic), and which dissolves protein (proteolytic). In modern medicine, the drug “chymodiactin”, obtained from the chymopapain-containing latex of the plant, is administered as an injection into the center of a protruding disk in the spine, in order to relieve the symptoms of pressure from “herniated lumbar intervertebral disks”, i.e., to relieve the symptoms of pressure on nerve ends in the lower back. The latex of Carica papaya also contains another proteolytic enzyme, papain. It is used as a prominent ingredient in “panafil” ointment, a pharmaceutical preparation which helps to debride a wound (to digest dead and infected tissue, while leaving healthy tissue unaffected) and maintain a clean wound base, and to promote healing. In the preparation, the papain is combined with urea, which activates its digestive function (Bertran 1997).

The leaves contain an alkaloid, carpaine, which in small doses slows down the heart and reduces blood pressure, whereas in higher doses produces vasoconstriction; and that carpaine has spasmolytic action on smooth muscle, as well as being a strong amoebicide (Mors et al. 2000). Seeds and leaves of Carica papaya also contain glucotropaeolin, a bound toxin (Lan et al. 1998). Uses of this plant in the Upper Amazon region, including the eating of its grated unripe fruit with aspirin to induce an abortion, are given by Castner et al. (1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family)

1. Vaccaria Wolf

Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert (= Saponaria vaccaria L.)

Names

English: cowcockle, cowherb, cow soapwort.

Range

Asia and Europe.

Use

Leaf: Used to treat skin diseases.

Notes

In China the fruits and seeds are considered to be vulnerary, discutient, styptic; anodyne to treat cuts, to draw thorns from wounds, to apply to boils and scabies; and, used internally, a galactagogue. The shoot, leaves, flowers, and root have the same properties as the seeds (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents as of the seeds include saponin and a carbohydrate, lactosin (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Casuarinaceae (Casuarina family)

1. Casuarina L

Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Names

Myanmar: kabwi, pinle-kabwe, pinle-tinyu. English: Australian pine, beefwood, casuarina, common ironwood.

Range

Tropical Asia to Australia and Oceania. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat chronic diarrhea and dysentery.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Celastraceae (Staff-tree family)

1. Celastrus L

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Names

Myanmar: hpak-ko-suk, myin-gaung-nayaung, myin-gondaing, myin-lauk-yaung, new-ni. English: black oil plant.

Range

India to southern China south (not in Borneo) to Australia and New Caledonia. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf: Used as an opium antidote. Seed: Used as a stimulant.

Notes

In India the bark is used for wounds, cough, colds, and fever; the leaf and root for headache; and the seed for piles and digestive trouble (oil), rheumatic pain, and as a stimulant (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Indo-China the oil from the seeds is used to treat beri-beri; in Indonesia the leaves are used in treating dysentery; and in the Philippines the pulverized seeds are employed as a nerve stimulant, and to treat rheumatism and paralysis (Perry 1980).

Reported chemical constituents include phytosterol, celastrol, a resinous substance in the aril of the seed, and a semi-solid fat. Two alkaloids, celastrine and paniculatin, have been isolated from the oil cake, but were not found in the oil expressed from the seeds (Perry 1980).

References

Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

2. Euonymus L

Euonymus kachinensis Prain

Names

Myanmar: mashawt pin. English: winterberry.

Range

Temperate Asia. Grows naturally in Myanmar; most abundant in Kachin state.

Uses

Leaf: Used as stimulant. Eaten after consumption of questionable foods to neutralize toxins instantly. They are also eaten immediately after bee stings or bites from venomous snakes and scorpions to prevent the venom from reaching the heart. Pulp from the chewed leaves is applied as a poultice to bites and stings. To promote healing of broken bones, the leaves are eaten rather than applied topically because topical application in the case of broken bones is thought to cause “retraction of bad blood”, pain, and infection. However, for bleeding injuries, a poultice of the masticated leaves is applied in a circle around or directly over the wound to stimulate healing. Note: Eating the leaves in the absence of need is thought to lead to lethargy and heaviness of the body.

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Chloranthaceae (Chloranthus family)

1. Chloranthus Sw

Chloranthus elatior Link (= Chloranthus officinalis Blume)

Names

Myanmar: thanat-kha, yuzara. English: chloranthus.

Range

Southeastern Asia to as far south as New Guinea. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Used as stimulant.

Notes

The species is an aromatic. On the Malay Peninsula the dried crushed leaves or roots are used to make a tea for use as a sudorific and a febrifuge; also, after boiling, the roots are powdered and rubbed on the body to treat fever. In Indonesia little packets (stem with root and leaves) are used as a valued remedy for fever and as a restorative in some phases of venereal diseases. The plant is a stimulant; additionally, mixed with the bark of Cinnamomum, it is used as an antispasmodic during parturition (mostly a decoction of the crushed roots is used, but an infusion of the leaves in also mentioned) (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Cleomaceae (Cleome family)

1. Cleome L

Cleome gynandra L. (= Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq.; Gynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC.)

Names

Myanmar: caravalla, gangala, hingala, taw-hingala. English: spiderflower, spiderwisp.

Range

300 m; Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka, east to China and Malaysia. Widespread in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Rubefacient and vesicant. Seed: Febrifuge.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used for scorpion sting; the leaf for rheumatism, neuralgia, stiff neck, diseases of the ear, pyorrhea, skin diseases, also vermicidal; the seed is used for cough; and an unspecified plant part is used for asthma and fever (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Clusiaceae (Garcinia family)

1. Garcinia L

Garcinia × mangostana L.

Names

Myanmar: mingut. English: mangosteen.

Range

Malay region; cultivated in the tropics. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark, Fruit: Either bark or pericarp (fruit rind) used to treat diarrhea and dysentery.

Notes

Most parts of the tree are astringent, but the powdered rind of the dried fruit is the most efficacious. In India, Indo-China south including Indonesia and the Philippines, the bark and fruit (pericarp) are used in the same ways as they are in Myanmar. On the Malay Peninsula a decoction of the root is given for irregular menstruation, and a decoction of the leaves with unripe bananas and benzoin is applied externally to wounds such as those of circumcision. Additionally, in Indonesia the external application of the prepared peicarp is as in a clyster and a sitz bath, and is also used to treat atonic ulcers and swollen tonsils (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.f.

Names

Myanmar: daungyan, dawyan-ban, hmandaw, madaw. English: garcinia.

Range

Western Himalayas, northern India. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Fruit: A preparation of the fruit is given to treat bilious conditions, diarrhea, and dysentery.

Notes

An extract from the bark of this species was found to stimulate the growth of neurons or nerve tissues in culture studies (Chanmahasathien et al. 2003). Research has also been conducted on the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves, which were found to contain high levels of xanthones, reported to possess antibacterial and antimalarial properties (Pal et al. 2005).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Colchicaceae (Colchicum family)

1. Gloriosa L

Gloriosa superba L.

Names

Myanmar: hsee mee-tauk. English: climbing lily, flame lily, superb lily.

Range

Tropical Africa and Asia. Grows naturally all over Myanmar, but more common in the temperate regions.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bitter, astringent and sharp in taste with heating properties, this plant is used to control flatulence and phlegm, promote urine production, treat bladder conditions, poisoning, leprosy, hemorrhoids, bloating and lung problems. Leaf: Powdered leaves are applied to wounds and sores to kill germs and promote healing. They are also ingested with jaggery to expel roundworms and threadworms. Mixed with lime juice, the leaf powder is used as a swab for the inside of the ear or as drops for earaches and ear infections. Root: The tuber serves as an abortifacient, and is used to treat ulcers, leprosy, and piles. Washed thoroughly, the tubers are crushed together with water, and the resulting mixture is applied to the navel and over the uterus area to induce fast and easy labor in childbirth. Tuber paste is also applied to relieve bruises and inflammation. The liquid from powdered tubers soaked in water is ingested to cure gonorrhea. (Note: Because the tubers contain a powerful poison, they should be used only under the direction of experienced and able physicians).

Note

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Combretaceae (West Indian Almond family)

1. Combretum Loefl

Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps (= Quisqualis indica L.)

Names

Myanmar: dawe-hmaing-nwe, tanah-pacow-kawaing angine (Mon), mawk nang-nang, nang-mu (Shan). English: Chinese honeysuckle, Rangoon creeper.

Range

Southeast Asia to the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Grows naturally in the hot and humid areas of Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Effective against dysentery. Utilized in the treatment of diabetes; lightly boiled in water, eaten in a salad to quickly alleviate dysentery with mucus or blood. Liquid from boiling leaves is taken to relieve indigestion and shooting pains. Seed: Two or three are crushed and taken with honey for deworming. They are also eaten as a remedy for severe illness accompanied by diarrhea.

Notes

In China the fruit is primarily used as a vermifuge; also for abdominal distention, dyspepsia, and marasmus, leucorrhea; macerated in oil, it is applied to skin ailments due to parasites; the ripe seed is roasted and used to treat diarrhea and fever (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In India the seed is used as an anthelmintic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Dagar and Singh (1999) describe indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).

Extracts show antitumor and cathartic activity (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Terminalia L

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: hroirwk, mai-hen, mai-mahen, mai-naw, makalaw, tawitho, thiag-riang, thit-seint. English: belleric, myrobalan.

Range

India to Indo-China south through Indonesia. In Myanmar found in Bago, Magway, and Mandalay.

Uses

The flowers, bark, fruit, and seed kernel are used in medications to relieve constipation, treat heart disease, cure eye infections, strengthen hair, protect the voice from deterioration, and clear blood irregularities, as well as to relieve sore throat and coughing. However, ingesting too much is known to cause vomiting and dizziness. Flower: Liquid from boiling the flowers is taken for spleen enlargement, excessive bowel movements, and chest pains. Bark: Made into a paste, it is applied topically as a remedy for vitiligo and taken orally for anemia. Liquid from boiling the bark is held in the mouth to relieve toothaches and gum inflammation. Fruit: Dried and used to treat cough and eye diseases. Applied topically to circles under the eyes, the fruit paste is used to relieve aching. A mixture of honey and the paste made from the fruit skin is licked to cure asthma and coughs. Powdered fruit mixed with cane sugar is taken daily for impotence. The fruit itself is eaten as a tonic to give strength and as a remedy for hemorrhoids, edema, leprosy, diarrhea, shooting stomach pain, and headaches. Seed: A paste made from the seed kernel mixed with alcohol is taken to relieve pain from urination and from kidney stones. The warmed kernel paste is applied topically to reduce swelling and to relieve aches and pains caused by injuries.

Notes

In India the bark is used as a diuretic; also for high fever, cold dysuria, sunstroke, cholera (with the bark of two other species), snakebite (with the bark of one other species); the resin is used for cramps; the gum is a demulcent, purgative, and soothes itches. The fruit is used as an astringent, brain tonic, for measles (with plant parts from two other species), cough, asthma, stomach and liver disorders, piles, leprosy, dropsy, fever; also, half-ripe fruit is purgative, but ripe fruit has the opposite property. The oil is used on rheumatic pain; fruit pulp (with honey) is used on opthalmia; and the seeds are used for gastric problems (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Indo-China the species is used as an astringent and tonic, as a purgative when green, and as a narcotic (in large doses). In Indonesia the ripe fruit, with seed removed, is roasted and powdered, then used to protect the navel after the umbilical cord has fallen off, also part of a complicated medicine to treat women’s illnesses (Perry 1980).

The fresh fruit yields glucose, tannin, and three glycosidal fractions (Perry 1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Terminalia catappa L.

Names

Myanmar: badan, banda. English: Indian almond, Malabar almond, tropical almond, West Indian almond.

Range

Tropical Asia to Northern Australia and Polynesia, and cultivated in many places. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Whole plant: Astringent, also used in treating dysentery. Nordal lists this plant as having medicinal value, but does not give use(s).

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of the species in East and Southeast Asia are discussed in Perry (1980). Some of these uses follow: In Indonesia the leaves are used as a dressing for swollen rheumatic joints; in the Philippines, the red leaves are used as a vermifuge, sap of the young leaves is cooked with oil from the kernel to treat leprosy, leaves mixed with oil is rubbed on the breast to relieve pain, or heated and applied to rheumatic an numb parts of the body; in the Solomon Islands leaves are used to treat yaws, bark and root bark are used for bilious fevers, diarrhea, dysentery, and as remedy for sores and abscesses; in Indonesia, the plant it is used as a mild laxative and a galactagogue for women.

Unripe fruits of T. catappa contain tannin and terminalin, which are toxic to cattle and sheep when eaten, causing kidney necrosis (Lan et al. 1998). The bark is rich in tannin; oil from the kernel contains olein, palmitin, and stearin; from fruit grown in Puerto Rico, myristic and linoleic acids were extrated; also, the leaves show some antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Names

Myanmar: hpan-khar-thee, mai-mak-na, mai-man-nah, mana, panga, phan-kha, thankaungh. English: myrobalan.

Range

Native to India, Indo-China, Myanmar, and Thailand. Cultivated and imported elsewhere. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Fruit: Used as astringent, antidysenteric, laxative, and tonic. After soaking crushed fruit in water overnight, the clear liquid is used as an eye drop to cure aching eyes. Drinking the fruit powder dissolved in milk daily promotes longevity. Seed: Made into a paste to treat pimples. Leaf: Used to cure eye problems and to make laxatives, carminatives, and thway-hsay (literally means “blood medicine”), the traditional blood purification mixture. Used to treat various male and female related disorders, and to treat hemorrhoids. Bark: Boiled and the liquid taken to treat diarrhea and dysentery. Crushed and used as a poultice to prevent excessive bleeding.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Perry (1980) discusses uses of the species in East and Southeast Asia. In China, it is used as a laxative and tonic, deobstruent, carminative, astringent, expectorant, and as a remedy for salivating and heartburn; in Indo-China, the fruit is used as a purgative; on the Malay Peninsula, in addition to the uses listed above, the fruits (imported from India) are considered to be antidiarrheic, styptic, antibilious, and antidysenteric; and in Indonesia the unripe and half-ripe fruit (also imported) and galls from this plant are used as an astringent; the flowers are used in a large number of remedies for dysentery.

Reported constituents include oil, tannin, and chebulic and ellagic acids (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: kya-su, hpan-kha-ngai. English: black chuglam, citrine myrobalan.

Range

From India to the Philippines. Found growing naturally all over Myanmar, especially in Taninthayi.

Uses

Fruit: Of its five tastes - sour, astringent, bitter, savory, and hot - astringency is the strongest. Eaten raw, it stimulates bowel movements and can cause diarrhea; eaten boiled, it can cause constipation. The juice is consumed to promote longevity; it is also used for treating sore eyes and is considered good for the voice. A mixture of powder made from the fruit and honey is licked to cure gas. Pounded it is smoked in a pipe as a remedy for asthma; consumed in a blanc mange-like confection, it alleviates intermittent diarrhea and diarrhea caused by indigestion. For burns, a mixture of ground fruit, water, honey and sesame seed oil is applied topically. The powder can be used as a toothpaste to whiten teeth and cure tooth diseases. Liquid from boiling the fruit with sha-zay (resin from Acacia catechu) is used as a mouthwash to strengthen the teeth; liquid from boiling it in water until the water is reduced to one-fifth the starting volume is given with honey to for various disorders of the mouth and palate; and liquid from fruit boiled with water and reduced to one-fifth the starting volume is used to wash flesh-eroding sores. Crushed fruit is applied to the head for migraine headaches. Liquid from soaking it in water overnight is used the following day as a rinse to cool the eyes and strengthen vision. Fruit powder is rolled with juice from mu-yar gyi (Adhatoda vasica = Justicia adhatoda) leaves to form seven pellets, which are dried in the sun; the pellets are then rolled in honey and licked to stop vomiting and bleeding. The powder licked with honey, or rolled together with jaggery into pellets, is taken as a remedy for acid stomach. Boiled in cow urine, fruit is given as a cure for anemia and other debilitating diseases.

Note

In Indonesia a decoction made from this species and “adaspoelasari” is taken as a treatment for abdominal illness; in the Philippines, the fruit is considered an astringent, and a decoction is used in treating thrush and obstinate diarrhea (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn.

Names

Myanmar: dap, mai-hok-hpa, merokwa, paung, taukkyan, tauk-kyant. English: beddome.

Range

India, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Widespread in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat diarrhea; also as an astringent, diuretic, and cardiotonic.

Note

Perry (1980) notes that this is one of the less medicinally useful species in the genus and lists the uses of six other members of the genus in East and Southeast Asian countries.

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Commelinaceae (Dayflower family)

1. Commelina L

Commelina paludosa Blume (= Commelina obliqua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don)

Name

English: dayflower.

Range

Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Root: Used to treat vertigo, fevers, and bilious afflictions.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Tradescantia L

Tradescantia spathacea Sw. (= Rhoeo discolor (L’Hér.) Hance)

Names

Myanmar: mi-gwin-gamone. English: boat lily, Moses in a cradle, oyster plant.

Range

Southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and West Indies. Grows throughout Myanmar; cultivated.

Uses

Whole plant: One teaspoon of the liquid obtained from pounding the plant mixed with a little sugar (taken three times a day) used to cure coughs and loosen mucus. Stem and Leaf: Liquid obtained from boiling crushed stems and leaves down to 1/3, together with a little raw sugar (1 tablespoon taken three times a day), used to treat vomiting of blood. Leaf: Used to remedy burns, scalds, and dysentery.

Notes

In China the plant is used as a poultice on swellings and wounds; the flower is used to treat dysentery, enterorrhagia, and hemoptysis (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory family)

1. Convolvulus L

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Names

Myanmar: kauk-yoe nwai, kauk-yo-nwe, tike-tot-grine (Mon). English: deer’s foot, field bindweed, morning glory.

Range

Mediterranean Europe native; temperate and dry subtropical climates. Found growing naturally around lakes, ponds, streams, and in cultivated fields. In Myanmar, found in Magway and Mandalay.

Uses

Whole plant: Known for a bitter and sweet taste, as well as heating properties, all five parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) used in preparations to support urinary function, increase libido, alleviate chronic anemia and coughs, and treat a swollen penis. To relieve bone and joint aches, all five parts are mashed, wrapped in cloth, and placed on the painful areas. For mouth sores, liquid from boiling the five parts is held in the mouth; the liquid is also used as a wash for old sores. Leaf: Mashed and applied with a bandage to bumps, cysts, and other skin sores. The juice is used for rashes and itching. Root: Used in laxative medicines.

Notes

In Indonesia all parts of the plant are used as a purgative, and the roasted seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, and antibilious; on the Malay Peninsula a poultice is applied to the head in cases of jungle fever; and in the Philippines a decoction of the roots is used as a mouthwash for toothache (Perry 1980). The medicinal uses of the species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Cuscuta L

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: shwe-new, shwe-nwe-pin (Hsay). English: dodder, giant dodder.

Range

Afganistan, throughout northern India to Yunnan China, Java, and Sri Lanka. Found growing naturally in upper Myanmar, Pyin Oo Lwin, and in the upper Chindwin area.

Uses

Sweet-tasting; used to treat diseases of the bile as well as to increases strength and the sperm count; also considered to promote longevity. Whole plant: The liquid from boiling it is either drunk or rubbed onto the abdomen to treat inflammation and hardening of the liver. Equal parts of the powdered plant mixed with dried ginger powder are mixed with butter and applied to longstanding sores to heal them. After crushing the plant and making a paste with water, it is applied to cure itches and rashes. The plant is also used to treat irregularities of the blood. Used as a shampoo, it cools the scalp, clears the brain, and cures dandruff and head lice.

Note

In India the whole plant is used to reduce swellings and for headaches; the stem is used for jaundice and wounds (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

3. Evolvulus L

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

Names

Myanmar: kyauk-hkwe-pin. English: slender dwarf morning-glory, speedwell.

Range

Florida, tropical America. In Myanmar, found in Mandalay and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf, Root: Used as a tonic, anthelmintic, and antiasthmatic.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used as a febrifuge and vermifuge; the leaf is used to treat asthma and bronchitis (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In the Philippines an infusion of the species is used to treat certain bowl irregularities; it is also used as a vermifuge and febrifuge (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

4. Ipomoea L

Ipomoea alba L. (= Ipomoea bona-nox L.)

Names

Myanmar: kyahin, kyan-hin pin, hla-kanin kyam (Mon), nwe-kazun-phyu. English: Indian jalap, moon flower, tropical white morning-glory, turpeth root.

Range

Central and southern China; Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa; Australia; Carribbean Territories; North America; South America; amd Pacific Islands. Found growing naturally all over Myanmar; also cultivated.

Uses

Sweet, bitter, and astringent, with heating properties; used to expel and cure flatulence disorders, as well as to treat leprosy. Whole plant: Shoots are made into a soup with chicken bones or din-gyi (Oroxylum indicum) for urinary problems. The juice is consumed with milk and sugar for kidney stones. It is also used to make medicines to treat eye diseases, flatulence, and chest pain. Root: Bark from the root is crushed, mixed with milk, and taken as a laxative. A mixture of roots, ginger, and black pepper is given for leprosy, edema, and male diseases.

Notes

The medicinal use of this species in India is discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). In Indo-China an infusion of the roots and seeds is used as a purgative (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.

Names

Myanmar: kazun-galay, kazun yoe-n, kazun-ywet, ye-kazun. English: Chinese waterspinach, rabbit greens, swamp morning-glory, waterspinach.

Range

Native to central and south China. Widespread in Myanmar, where it is found growing in freshwater ditches, streams, ponds, and paddy field; and is also grown as a cultivated plant.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Leaf: Sweet with cooling properties, stimulates lactation, protects against germs found in water, works as an expectorant, and neutralizes poisons. Leaves are used to treat burning, thirst, and fevers associated with urinary diseases, as well as to treat wounds caused by burns. For dysentery, they are cooked and eaten. Crushed together with equal amounts of gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) leaves, tamarind (Tamarindus indica) leaves, and fine rice powder, they are used to make a poultice placed above the pubic region to induce urination in cases of difficulty urinating when the bladder is full; the same poultice is used to stop excessive menstrual bleeding. Together with gourd leaves, they are soaked in water and applied to chronic sores. Liquid from the boiled leaves is taken for diarrhea and indigestion; boiled together with ripe tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit and salt, they are given as a cure for kidney stones, as well as for all other urinary diseases.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Perry (1980) covers the medicinal uses of the species in China and Indonesia.

The leaves are considered a good source of minerals and vitamins, especially carotene. Hentriacontane, sitosterol, and sitosterol glycoside have been separated from the lipoids (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Ipomoea hederifolia L. (= Ipomoea coccinea L.)

Names

Myanmar: mat-lay. English: red morning-glory, star ipomoea.

Range

Native range the Americas. In Myanmar, found in Yangon.

Use

Root: Sternutative.

Notes

In India the root is a sternutatory (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In the Philippines an infusion of the species is used to treat certain bowl irregularities; it is also used as a vermifuge and febrifuge (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br.

Names

Myanmar: pinle-kazun. English: beach morning glory, goat’s foot creeper.

Range

Pantropical; seashores. In Myanmar, found in Ayeyarwady, Bago, Rakhine, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf: Serves as a laxative and emetic. Decocted leaves are applied as a poultice to treat colic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, the northwestern Solomon Islands, Palau, New Guinea, and the Philippines are covered in Perry (1980).

No alkaloids were found, but there was 1.2% resin content. Magnesium, potassium, iron, and calcium were found in the ash. A volatile oil was also found (0.048%) (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Coriariaceae (Coriaria family)

1. Coriaria Niss. ex L

Coriaria nepalensis Wall.

Name

English: mussoorie berry.

Range

China, Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan. In Myannmar, found in Kachin and Shan.

Uses

Leaf: Laxative (poisonous).

Notes

Species belonging to the genus Coriaria have little or no medicinal value in East and Southeast Asia, but both the leaves and fruit are poisonous; and, since the fruits are attractive, children are poisoned by eating them (Perry 1980).

Reported chemical constituents of the seeds include tutin, pseudotutin, and coriamyrtin. Coriamyrtin is considered to be “a violent convulsive poison” (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Costaceae (The Costus family)

1. Cheilocostus C.D. Specht

Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D. Specht (= Costus speciosus (J.Koenig) Sm.)

Names

Myanmar: palan-taunghmwe. English: Indian spiral ginger, crepe ginger.

Range

Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Taninthayi, Yangon.

Use

Stem: Rhizome used as laxative.

References

Nordal (1963), Forest Department (1999).

Crassulaceae (Air Plant family)

1. Bryophyllum Salisb

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (= Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb.; Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.)

Names

Myanmar: ywet-kya-pin-bauk. English: air plant, floppers, leaf of life, life plant.

Range

Old World tropics; exact origin unknown. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Used to treat alopecia. Apply leaf juice to areas affected by impetigo, erysipelas and boils to treat sores. Roasted and stuck on the wound to stop the flow of blood and to promote healing. Roasted and stuck onto contusions to alleviate and heal inflammation. Crushing one or two leaves together with a bit of pepper and taking the mixture orally will treat retention of urine and other symptoms caused by hemorrhoids and venereal diseases. Crushing the leaf and taking the resulting juice will help treat cholera. Applying the juice of the leaf will heal dislocations, knotted muscles, and burns. Crushed and placed over eyes to treat eye ailments. Juice from the leaf together with rock sugar to treat blood in the urine and dysentery. Juice from the leaf can be ground together with salt and pressed into a scorpion bite to neutralize the poison.

Notes

Crushed leaves are cooling and used as a disinfectant by indigenous cultures. From southern China to Guam, they are used on suppurating boils, wounds, skin diseases, burns, scalds, corns, and also (with friction) for rheumatism, neuralgia, and pain. Leaves are placed on the forehead for headaches, and on the chest for cough and pain. They are mixed with leaves from other species for a poultice applied to the abdomen for bowl troubles. Similar uses are recorded from the Philippines. Juice from heated leaves and stems is squeezed on body areas infected with scabies (Perry 1980). In India the leaf is used for acidity and other gastric trouble; also on wounds and insect bites (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). Mors et al. (2000) discuss the immunosuppressive effect of extracts of this species in the form of an inhibitory action on human lymphocyte proliferation. The “active constituent is bryophylline, a substance used to treat intestinal troubles caused by bacteria” (Perry 1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Cucurbitaceae (Melon family)

1. Benincasa Savi

Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. (= Benincasa cerifera Savi)

Names

Myanmar: kyauk-pha-yon, lun-tha, pora-mat. English: ash pumpkin, wax gourd, white gourd.

Range

Tropical Asia. Cultivated all over Myanmar up to altitudes of 1220 m.

Uses

Known for a sweet and slightly salty taste, giving strength and controlling bile, the flowers, seeds, roots and especially the fruits are used in medicinal preparations. Flower: Crushed and ingested as a cure for cholera. Fruit: Has restorative properties important in the treatment of weaknesses from lung disease. The ripe fruit promotes bowel movements, cleanses the bladder, and alleviates diseases of the blood. The juice is used to stop bleeding, vomiting of blood, and otherwise excreting blood, and it is given for epilepsy, strokes, and in the treatment of insanity. It is also given, together with a small amount of shein-kho (Gardenia resinifera) and wheat ash (obtained from burning grains in closed receptacles so more of the structure is retained), to alleviate bladder inflammation and dissolve kidney stones. Seed: Used for deworming. Root: A mixture of root powder and hot water is taken for coughing, bronchitis, and asthma.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). The medicinal uses of the species in China, Indonesia, and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

Reported constituents include fixed oil, starch, the alkaloid cucurbitine, an acid resin, proteins (myosin and vitellin), and sugar (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

2. Coccinia Wight & Arn

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (= Cephalandra indica (Wight & Arn.) Naudin; Coccinia indica Wight & Arn.)

Names

Myanmar: kinmon, kin pone, hla cawi bactine (Mon), taw-kinmon. English: ivy gourd, wild snake gourd.

Range

Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific. Found growing wild throughout Myanmar; found growing up trees and hedges.

Uses

Of the two kinds of kin pone, bitter and sweet, the bitter kind is the most used in medicines. All five parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) are employed. Whole plant: The liquid from the whole boiled plant is well-known as an effective expectorant. Fruit: The bitter fruit, known for cooling and laxative properties, is considered good for phlegm and bile. Leaf: The astringent and bitter leaves stimulate nerves and promote growth. The green leaves are stir-fried and eaten by diabetics. Leaves boiled with equal parts of coriander seeds are used in deworming preparations and as a laxative. They are also used in medicines to treat bile problems and lung ailments. The juice is applied frequently on cold sores to cure them. Fruit: Used to promote lactation in new mothers, to alleviate gas and blood diseases, and to treat asthma and bronchitis. Root: Can be used to reduce fever and to treat diarrhea.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of this species in Indo-China and Indonesia.

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

3. Cucumis L

Cucumis sativus L.

Names

Myanmar: tha-khwar-thi. English: cucumber.

Range

Southern Asia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Fruit: Used as an anthelmintic. Seed: Used as diuretic.

Notes

In India the fruit is used as a demulcent and the seed as a diuretic, tonic, and coolant (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Korea, the stalk of the unripe fruit is used as a remedy for dropsy, nasal disorders, epilepsy, and cough, also as an emetic; the fruit is used for cooling and as a diuretic; a cucumber soup is used to relieve retention of urine; a salve is used for skin disorders, scalds, and burns; a decoction of the dried roots is used as a diuretic and to treat beri-beri; juice from the crushed leaves is used as an emetic in acute indigestion of children. In Indo-China young fruit cooked in sugar is prescribed for children with dysentery. In Indonesia fruit and juice are considered beneficial for sprue and to treat gallstones; fruit and seeds are cooling, used both externally and internally (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents include a small amount of saponin, a proteolytic enzyme, and glutathione (Perry 1980),

Reference

Nordal (1963).

4. Luffa Mill

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem. (= Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.)

Names

Myanmar: kawe-thi, tawbut. English: luffa, sponge gourd, smooth loofah, vegetable sponge.

Range

Old World tropics. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Fruit: Employed as a laxative and also used in the treatment of leprosy.

Notes

In India the seed is used as a cathartic and emetic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Perry (1980) discusses the species’ medicinal uses in China, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and in general.

Reported constituents include a bitter principle, saponin, mucilage, xylan, mannan, galactan, lignin, fat, and protein (Perry 1980). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and use of this species as a hunting poison and medicinal plant in Africa are discussed by Neuwinger (1994). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage, and pharmacological literature are given in Fleming (2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

5. Momordica L

Momordica charantia L.

Names

Myanmar: kyet-hinga, kyet-hin-kha, gaiyin (Kachin), sot-cawee-katun (Mon). English: balsam-apple, balsam-pear, bitter cucumber, bitter gourd, bitter melon, wild balsam apple.

Range

Tropical Asia. Cultivated throughout Myanmar; a small variety grows naturally.

Uses

Bitter, rather hot and sharp, with cooling properties, and easily digested, this plant is considered good for bowel movements. It is used to defeat germs, control bile and phlegm, and stimulate hunger, as well as to alleviate anemia and eye, venereal, and urine-related diseases. Whole plant: Both the fruit and the whole plant are used in the treatment of diabetes. In folk medicines, the root, seeds, and fruits are used as a cathartic, abortive, aphrodesiac, analgesic, antipyretic, antirheumatic, emetic, digestant, anti-ulcerogenic, and anti-malarial. Leaf: Has the property of controlling fevers. Juice from crushed leaves is ingested as a remedy for stomach germs. A mixture of the juice and ground hpan-kar (Terminalia chebula) fruit is taken for jaundice and hepatitis. The juice is used as an emetic and purgative, given for bile problems, and also used as a cure for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Additionally, it is ingested as an antidote to rabid dog bites, and is also applied as a poultice on the bite and as a rinse for the area around the bite. A mixture of the leaves with salt and jaggery, boiled in water to one-third the starting volume, is taken for ague, chills, and fever. Crushed leaves are inhaled to cure giddiness. Also used as a laxative and an anthelmintic; to induce abortion (the fruits can cause severe vomiting and may be lethal) . Leaf and Fruit: Used in deworming preparations, as well as in medicines for piles, leprosy, and jaundice. Fruit: Used as a laxative, anthelmintic, and for diabetes. Dried and stone-ground to make a paste applied to the throat to treat goiter. A mixture of the juice and oil is taken for cholera, whereas a mixture of the juice with honey is used to alleviate edema. The juice from young fruits is warmed and applied to the joints to soothe inflammation. Root: Used as an astringent and also in preparations for hemorrhoids.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995).

The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and use of this species as a hunting poison and medicinal plant in Africa are discussed by Neuwinger (1994). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

This plant is a well known traditional anti-diabetic remedy, its hypoglycemic properties based on peptides and terpenoids in the fruit juice (Marles and Farnsworth 1995). A polypeptide of molecular weight 11,000 is the basis of the blood sugar lowering properties of the fruit (Mors et al. 2000). Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton (1999).

References

Nordal (1963), Mya Bwin and Sein Gwan (1967), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.

Names

Myanmar: hpak-se-saw, samon-nwe, taw-thabut, tha-myet. English: Chinese bitter-cucumber, Chinese-cucumber, spiny bitter-cucumber, spiny bittergourd.

Range

Temperate and tropical Asia, from China to the Moluccas; Australia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Rakhine, and Yangon.

Uses

Fruit: Used as a laxative. Seed: Used to treat chest problems and in parturition.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in East and Southeast Asian countries as follows: In China, where the seeds are used for abdominal illnesses, liver and spleen disorders, and hemorrhoids as well as bruises, swellings, skin trouble, ulcers, lumbago, chronic malaria, breast cancer, abscesses, and as a resolvent, and the root is used as an expectorant; Indo-China, where the seeds are ground and soaked in alcohol and water, then used as a resolvent of furuncles, abscesses, buboes, and mumps, and also in the treatment of edema of the legs and a kind of rheumatism; the Malay Peninsula, where “the Chinese living there use the plant in same way as in China”; Indonesia, where the juice the leaves is put in fresh palm wine, or the leaves are cooked in wine and used as remedy for weary, swollen legs; and in the Philippines, where the seeds are used as a pectoral, and the root as a substitute for soap and also to kill head lice.

Medicinal uses in the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) are discussed in DeFilipps et al. (2004).

Reported chemical constituents include momordin, a-spinasterol, and sesquibenihiol. The seeds have a fixed oil comprised of stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and ricinoleic acids, and also trehalose, resinous, and pectic substances; and that the root contains momordine (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

6. Trichosanthes L

Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. (= T. palmata Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: kyee-arh pin. English: creeper.

Range

Eastern Himalayas, India, east to China, Japan, Malaysia, tropical Australia. Found growing naturally all over Myanmar, except in cold areas.

Uses

Fruit: Known for its bitter and slightly sweet taste, can be harmful to the heart. A mixture of crushed fruits boiled with coconut oil is used as an eardrop and nasal drop preparation. The juice stimulates bowel movements. Crushed dried fruits are mixed in smoking cheroots and pipes with tobacco to treat asthma. The fruit is also used for throat problems, indigestion, coughing, and leprosy, as well as chronic and gastric diseases. Root: Ground to form a paste rubbed onto the tongue to reduce phlegm. Tubers boiled and taken with honey for urinary disorders.

Notes

In Indo-China the species is used as a strong purgative and emetic; on the Malay Peninsula the leaves are used to poultice boils; in Indonesia the leaves are one ingredient in a group of fresh plant parts from which the juice is extracted and used for medicines, the leaf juice is also drunk by children to treat diarrhea (Perry 1980). The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Cyperaceae (Sedge family)

1. Cyperus L

Cyperus scariosus R.Br.

Names

Myanmar: nwar myay yinn, wet-myet-nyo. English: Annie’s lace.

Range

Damp and marshy places in temperate zone. Also reported from Myanmar.

Uses

This astringent plant, sharp in taste with cooling properties, induces perspiration, urination (and constipation). Root: Tubers used for phlegm, bile, fever and bowel problems. Their use protects against loss of appetite, thirst, burning sensation, and asthma. Tuber paste given orally or applied externally provides a remedy for venomous snakebites. The paste is also used for nausea, gastric ailments, sour stomach, swollen limbs, itching, leprosy, herpes, and scabies. Combined with a bit of salt, the paste is used as an antidote for poisoning caused by ingesting the wrong medicines or foods. Tuber paste is brushed onto a thu-nge-sar banana (smaller and shorter variety of banana than “standard banana” found in the United States), which is roasted and given to children with high fevers. Boiled by itself, the tuber is taken as a cure for gonorrhea; boiled together with oo-pat thagar (Butea monosperma), it is a component of a syphilis remedy. Tuber powder is used to relieve the swelling caused by scorpion venom. Drinking the milk made by stewing tubers in milk and water until only milk is left provides a cure for dysenteric stomachaches with discharge of mucus or diarrhea with of bits of blood.

Notes

The species is used in the treatment of abdomenal tumors (Duke 2009). Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Anti-inflammatory activity of the oil isolated from C. scariosus has been noted (Gupta et al. 1972).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Dilleniaceae (Dillenia family)

1. Dillenia L

Dillenia indica L.

Names

Myanmar: thabyu, maisen (Kachin), khwati (Kayin), haprut (Mon). English: elephant apple.

Range

Temperate and tropical Asia. Found growing naturally in lower Myanmar, along woods, hills, and especially stream banks.

Uses

Fruit: The green fruit is used in preparations to regulate phlegm, reduce fevers, and alleviate shooting chest pains and fatigue. The fruit is mixed with rock sugar to make a cordial used to relieve coughs, bring down high fevers, and cleanse the bowels. The juice from the squeezed fruit is given as a remedy for epilepsy and rabies.

Note

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Dioscoreaceae (Yam family)

1. Dioscorea L

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Names

Myanmar: kway, ah-lu-thi, putsa-u. English: aerial yam, air potato, potato yam.

Range

Tropical Africa and Asia. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Mon, Sagaing, and Shan.

Use

In Upper Myanmar, the plant is considered to be a galactagogue.

Notes

In China the tubers are considered cooling and antidotal; used internally and externally as remedies for sore throat, boils, swelling, and poisonous snakebites In the Philippines the powder obtained from scraping the axial fruit (bulblets) is rubbed on the abdomen (Perry 1980). Medicinal uses of this species in China are also discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). Medicinal uses of the species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997).

The tubers contain tannin, saponin, and alkaloids (poisonous); also, both the bulblets and the tubers contain a toxic principle removable by repeated washings and cooking (Perry 1980). The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and use of this species as a hunting poison and medicinal plant in Africa are discussed by Neuwinger (1994). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997).

References

Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Names

Myanmar: kyway-u, put-sa-u. English: five-leaved yam.

Range

Widespread- China, including Taiwan; Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan (Okinawa), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam; Africa, Australia, Pacific islands. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Use

Root: Tuber used to reduce swellings.

Notes

The species can be made edible by prolonged washing alternately in salt and fresh water and then cooked, or by prolonged boiling with ashes of wood. The plant is also used for some medicinal purposes (exact uses not listed in Perry 1980).

Tubers of the genus contain tannin, saponin, and alkaloids, some in greater, some in less quantity than others (the alkaloids are poisonous, but may be washed out in a long tedious process) (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Ebenaceae (Ebony family)

1. Diospyros L

Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. (= D. embryopteris Pers.; D. glutinosa J.Koenig ex Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: bok-pyin, yengan-bok. English: Indian persimmon, mountain ebony.

Range

India to Indonesia. In Myanmar, found in Ayeyarwady, Mon, and Taninthayi.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat diarrhea and chronic dysentery, and greatly diluted extract used as injections for vaginal discharge. Fruit: Unripe astringent fruit used for same purposes as bark. Juice of the fruit is used to treat sores and wounds.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The bark is an astringent, used for intermittent fever and dysentery; the fruit astringent, infusion of fruits is gargled for sore throat and aphthae, the juice is applied to ulcers and wounds; oil from the seed is used as a remedy for dysentery and diarrhea. Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China and Indo-China as similar to those in Myanmar.

Reference

Perry (1980).

Diospyros mollis Griff.

Name

Myanmar: te.

Range

Myanmar and Thailand. In Myanmar, found in Bago and Mandalay.

Use

Fruit: The fresh fruit, or an extract of the fruit is used as an anthelmintic.

Notes

Perry (1980) discuses the uses of the fruit in Thailand and Indo-China, and the seed in Cambodia.

Reported chemical constituents of this species are tannins, sterols, organic acids, aphrogenic principle, invertine, emulsine, a hydroquinonic principle, and diospyroquinone. The vermicidal property of the fruit is due to the presence of diospyroquinone (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Ericaceae (Heath family)

1. Rhododendron L

Rhododendron moulmainense Hook.

Names

Myanmar: zalat-pyu. English: Westland’s rhododendron.

Range

Southern China, northeastern India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. In Myanmar, it is found in Mon.

Use

The plant has narcotic properties.

Notes

Perry (1980) discusses several other members of the genus that are used for various medicinal purposes in East and Southeast Asian countries, including Korea, China, and the Philippines. She notes that honey collected where Rhododendron moulmainense is abundant is sometimes stupefying.

Reference

Perry (1980).

Euphorbiaceae (Spurge family)

1. Acalypha L

Acalypha indica L.

Names

Myanmar: kyaung-yo-thay pin, kyaung-se-pin, kyaung-yo-the. English: Indian acalypha, copperleaf.

Range

Old World tropical regions. Found growing on plains all over Myanmar, except in cold mountainous regions.

Uses

Leaf: A mixture of the juice and that of the leaves from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) acts as an expectorant and is given for bronchitis, diarrhea, and vomiting. Cooked leaves are eaten to alleviate asthma, hypertension, impurities in the blood, and to treat various illnesses in infants. Other preparations are taken to relieve inflammation of the joints, fevers caused by chest colds and infections, asthma, and a burning sensation in the windpipe. A decoction is used as an emetic to cure pleurisy, cleanse and clear breathing passages, and alleviate swelling of the windpipe, as well as to cure asthma, hypertension, and skin problems caused by impurities in the blood. The juice is considered a remedy for ringworm, scabies, and rashes; a mixture of the juice and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil is used for various skin diseases that cause itching. A mixture of the leaves and castor oil is applied to relieve joint aches. Leaf juice is also used as eardrops for ear infections, earaches, and other ear problems. Crushed and applied as a poultice, leaves are used to heal sores. Stir-fried, they are eaten with large prawns to alleviate exhaustion and fatigue but with dried nga-mway-toh (Mastacembelus armatus) fish to prevent inflammation of the appendix; the same mixture is used to alleviate constipation, diarrhea, and nagging stomachaches. Boiled leaves made into a salad are eaten to treat lung disease, neurological disease, ringing in the ear, earache, gastric pain, and stomach-ache.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Perry (1980) lists the uses of the species in India, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

A cyanogenetic glucoside, triacetonamine, and quebrachitol have been islolated from South African material of this species (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Acalypha wilkesiana Müll. Arg.

Names

Myanmar: saydan-kya. English: copperleaf, Jacob’s coat, firedragon.

Range

Pacific Islands, the exact origin is unknown. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

The species has medicinal uses in Myanmar, but Nordal (1963) does not list them.

Notes

The species has medicinal uses for ache, swelling, as a testicle altschul, and as a bacterioside (chemical found in plant shown to be effective for this purpose) (Duke 2009).

Gallic acid, corilagin, and geraniin were isolated from an ethnol extract of the leaves of this species. These compounds were found to be responsible for the observed antimicorbioal activity (Adesina et al. 2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

2. Chrozophora Neck. ex A.Juss

Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng.

Name

Myanmar: gyo-sagauk.

Range

Tropical Africa to northern South Africa, Egypt, Syria, Palestine and western Arabia. In Myanmar, found in Bago and Mandalay.

Uses

Whole plant: Decoction taken for gonorrhea.

Reference

Perry (1980).

3. Claoxylon A.Juss

Claoxylon indicum Hassk. (= C. polot Merr.)

Name

English: claoxylon.

Range

China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Thailand, and Vietnam. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine, and Taninthayi.

Uses

Bark and Leaf: Finely ground and smeared on the chest to treat tightness. Leaf: Used as a purgative.

Notes

In China a decoction of the leaf is taken internally for various ailments. From Hainan and Myanmar to Sumatra the leaves are used as a purgative, and the finely ground bark mixed with macerated leaves is rubbed onto the chest for congestion (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Perry (1980).

4. Croton L

Croton persimilis Müll. Arg. (= C. oblongifolius Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: thetyin-gyi, casauboh (Mon), ha-yung, mai-sat-lang (Shan), umawng (Kachin). English: croton.

Range

Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, southern China, and Indo-China. In Myanmar, found growing naturally throughout the country.

Uses

Hot and bitter in taste, used to control flatulence, regulate bowels, and cure diarrhea, clotting of blood, dysentery and boils. The plant, either taken orally or as an external application, is also considered very useful for inflammation. Bark: Used to treat edemas with attendant fever. Made into paste to treat snakebites. Also used to treat enlarged liver, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, pyexia, and considered excellent antidote for snakebite. Bark, Seed, and Root: Used as a purgative, for liver disease, and high blood pressure. Leaf: Hot fomentations made and applied to relieve inflammation; crushed and applied as a poultice over old and rotting sores with pus; also used for scabies. Boiling the tender leaves and eating them with a dip used to regulate gas and bowels, and to treat stomachache associated with dysentery and stomachaches in general. Fruit and Seed: Both used as a purgative. Seed: Used for diarrhea and edema. Root: Used in making medicines for flatulence and disorders of phlegm. Can be soaked together with jaggery, and the liquid taken daily to regulate gas and bowels. It can also be used to cure alcoholism and protect against disease. Root and bark taken internally or used externally as a rub for inflammation or enlargement of the liver as well as for inflammation, edema, and pain in the joints. A paste made of the root and lime juice is taken for male related disorders and hemorrhoids. The root bark is employed for pneumonitis, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, and arthritis.

Notes

Perry (1980) discusses the uses of the species in Indo-China. She also notes that C. robustus has medicinal uses in Myanmar, but does not specify what they are.

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Croton tiglium L.

Names

Myanmar: kanakho, mai-hkang.

Range

Temperate and tropical Asia. Can be cultivated in the hot and humid parts of Myanmar, to altitudes of 610 m.

Uses

Seed: Bitter, used to stimulate appetite; correct imbalances in phlegm and gas; prevent jaundice, fainting, and facial paralysis; also taken as a laxative to rid the body of impurities. Ground seed paste is applied to scorpion stings to neutralize the venom. A mixture of oil from the seeds and ginger juice is used as medicine for whooping cough in children. One part of their oil is mixed with eight parts of coconut oil and used as a rub for aching joints. The oil can also be used for stomach disorders, hypertension, fevers, inflammation, infections, and diseases of the throat and ear.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). The species is important medicinally and economically since the seeds yield croton oil, a powerful purgative (Bailey and Bailey 1976). Perry (1980) discusses the uses of the species on the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and in the Himalayas. She also notes that all parts of the plant are somewhat poisonous; especially the seeds and oil, which are also used in a fish and arrow poison.

Chemical work done on the seeds and oil “reveals two active principles, one purgative but with non-irritant properties, the other (resin) irritant or vesicant”. The oil also contains oleic, linolic, arachidic, myristic, stearic, palmitic, acetic and formic acids, with traces of lauric, tiglic, valeric and butyric acids. The kernel, in addition, contains two toxic proteins, croton-globulin and carton-albumin; sucrose; and a glycoside, crotonoside. “The glycoside, at least in small doses, has no harmful physiological action.” The leaves contain hydrogen cyanide and a triterpinoid (Perry 1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

5. Euphorbia L

Euphorbia antiquorum L.

Names

Myanmar: kun, tazaung-gyi, tazaung-pyathat. English: milkhedge, fleshy spurge.

Range

Native of Southeast Asia, especially India. Widespread in Myanmar.

Uses

Stem: Branch sliced, dried, powdered, and administered to check profuse lochial discharge; Sap: Latex applied to warts. Root: Root bark used as a purgative.

Notes

In India the whole plant used for skin infections; latex, for dropsy, as nerve tonic, and for bronchitis (with ginger and bulb of Thysanolaena); pith for syphilis, dropsy, anasarca; bark (in combination with bark of two other species) on venereal sores; and the leaf for deafness (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the whole plant is used in a decoction to treat bladder inflammation; raw plant tissues are used internally for cholera; the stem latex is applied to warts, and the stem is compressed onto large boils (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Perry (1980) discusses the uses of this species in China, Indo-China, and the Malay Peninsula, as well as Myanmar.

Chemical constituents of the plant include cycloartenol, epifriedelanol, euphol, euphorbol, friedelan-3alpha-ol, friedelan-3beta-ol, taraxerol, and taraxerone (Duke and Ayensu 1985). The therapeutic use of this species is about the same as E. neriifolia (see below), but it is somewhat more poisonous; it is also used as a fish poison. This species and E. neriifolia appear to contain the same elements and have similar poisonous properties. Reported constituents of the latex are euphorbon, resin, rubber, malic acid, and gum (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Euphorbia hirta L.

Names

Myanmar: kywai-kyaung min hsay, kywai-kyaung min thay, hsay min kyaung, kanah-tanow pryin (Mon). English: Australian asthma weed, milk weed, Queensland asthma herb.

Range

Pantropical weed. Widely distributed throughout Myanmar, growing naturally.

Uses

Whole plant: A decoction is given for asthma and bronchitis. New mothers eat it any way they like to promote lactation. In a salad or with fish paste or fish sauce dip, it is consumed to alleviate stomach pains from heat stroke, as well as to strengthen nerves and blood vessels along the breathing passages. Juice from crushing the five parts (stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and root) is used to treat fatigue in asthmatics, is taken with water after every meal to promote digestion, and is considered beneficial for the heart and the air passages. It is used to treat vomiting of blood, loose stools, and chest pain. Sap: Described as sweet, bitter, sharp and salty, with heating properties, it is known to increase semen and stabilize pregnancy, as well as to alleviate fevers, coughs, colds, and runny noses. Applied topically, it is used to clear pimples and scabies. Leaf: Sweet and astringent, used to control heat, and also applied topically for ringworm, scabies, itching, and other skin disorders. The juice is used widely to treat mucus within the chest in, inflammation of air passage, and coughs in children. A decoction of the leaves is mixed with a large amount of sugar and ingested to alleviate bleeding dysentery.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in South China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and Indo-China are discussed in Perry (1980).

Reported chemical constituents of the species include quercetin, triacontane, phytosterol, phytosterolin, jambulol (now identified as ellagic acid); melissic, gallic, palmitic, linolic, and oleic acids; euphosterol; also an alkaloid, xanthorhamnine. The plant also contains hydrogen cyanide and a triterpinoid, an extract of which “has some antibiotic activity on Staphylococcus” (Perry 1980). A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Euphorbia neriifolia L.

Names

Myanmar: shazaung-myin-na, ta-zaung, zizaung. English: hedge euphorbia, Indian spurgetree, oleander-leaved euphorbia.

Range

India; perhaps also East Indies. Cultivated in Myanmar and elsewhere.

Use

Leaf: Used to treat asthma.

Note

Perry (1980) discusses the uses of the species in Taiwan, the Malay Peninsula, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

Reference

Forest Department (1999).

6. Jatropha L

Jatropha curcas L.

Names

Myanmar: thin-baw-kyetsy, kyetsi-gyi, kyet-su-gyi, makman-yoo, siyo-kyetsu, thinbaw-kyetsu, tun-kong. English: Barbados nut, physic nut, purging nut, wild oil nut.

Range

Tropical America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used as a galactagogue. Fruit and Seed: Employed as an anthelmintic. Seed: Aperient.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and use of this species as a hunting poison and medicinal plant in Africa are discussed by Neuwinger (1994).

A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986). Seeds of Jatropha curcas contain curcin, a poisonous chemical constituent which can cause death if ingested; plant sap can cause irritating dermatitis (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

Names

Myanmar: kyetsu-kanako, taw-kanako, thinbaw-kanako. English: physic nut, bellyache bush.

Range

Mexico to South America; West Indies. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used to treat skin diseases. Root: Used as a purgative.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986). This species produces jatrophone, a macrocyclic diterpenoid with tumor inhibiting properties (Mors et al. 2000).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Jatropha multifida L.

Names

Myanmar: bein-hpo, semakhan. English: coral bush, physic nut.

Range

Tropical and subtropical America. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Whole plant: Latex used for treating granulation. Unspecified plant part used in treatment of fractures, to improve union of bones. Decoction taken orally for fractures, external application with resin.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: Latex from the stem is applied to skin ulcerations and wounds; the leaf is used for scabies; the seed is used as an emetic and purgative; and the seed-oil is used internally and externally as an aborifacient. Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are discussed by Dagar and Singh (1999).

References

Forest Department (1999), Ministry of Health (2001).

7. Mallotus Lour

Mallotus nudiflorus (L.) Kulju & Welzen (= Trewia nudiflora L.;)

Names

Myanmar: setkadon, ye-hmyok. English: petari.

Range

China, South and Southeast Asia. Naturalized in Myanmar.

Use

Root: Used to treat gout.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used to remedy bile, phlegm, and swellings; a decoction of the root is applied to rheumatic areas and gout, as well as drunk to relieve flatulence (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The species is used in other countries as well for the previously cited reasons. It is also used as a carminative (Duke 2009).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg.

Names

Myanmar: hpadawng, hpawng-awn, mai-hpawng-tun, palannwe, po-thi-din, taw-thi-din. English: Indian kamala, kamala tree.

Range

From southern China to New Guinea and Australia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Chin, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Uses

Fruit used as an anthelmintic and laxative.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The glandular hairs on the fruit used as a purgative. They are said to destroy tapeworms, and are also employed on ringworm, scabies and other skin diseases. Additionally, they have been found to reduce fertility in experimental animals. The fruit is used for dysentery and constipation; the root as tonic for pregnant women. Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Perry (1980) discusses the species uses in China, India, the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines. She especially notes that, in the Philippines, the glands of M. philippensis are mixed with the charred bark and flowers of Pterospermum diversifolium, and employed in smallpox to cause suppuration.

Research has shown that the dye from this species is an antioxidant; rottlerin is an antifertility factor, isorottlerin less active; the fruit extract is bactericidal; and the seeds contain 18.5–20% protein, 23.7–25.8% fat (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In the Philippines an extract of kamala (the powder), the active principle of which is rottlerin, and hexachlorethane “gave encouraging results in treating fascioliasis (liver fluke infestation) in cattle and Indian buffaloes, with the conclusion that the effect of the drug deserved further study” (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

8. Ricinus L

Ricinus communis L.

Names

Myanmar: kyet-hsu, kyetsu, thinbaw kyet-hsu, kyet-hsu yoe-ni, shapawing (Kachin), tanah toung (Mon), toon (Mon), mai-kong-leng (Shan). English: castor bean, castor oil plant, wonder-tree.

Range

Tropical Africa. Although found wild in nature, now cultivated widely for the extraction of oil from the seeds. In Myanmar, does well in Sagaing, Mandalay, and Shan; prefers a warm temperate climate, but can also thrive in hot and dry areas. Found growing naturally on the banks of rivers, lakes and streams.

Uses

Sweet and rather bitter with heating properties, the plant is considered difficult to digest but generally effective at increasing sperm, regulating bowel movements, and controlling flatulence and phlegm. Leaf: Used in remedies for headaches and in poultices for sores and wounds. A decoction of leaves reduced to one-third the starting volume is ingested to alleviate strong gas and phlegm; also used for testes enlargement, bladder aches and pains, sore throat, and bile problems. Seed: They and their oil (lethal in their natural form) are used in oral medications after detoxifying. The detoxified, ground seeds are applied as a paste to neutralize venom from scorpion stings. They are also employed in anthelmintic remedies; and in medicines for flatulence, fever, cough, stomach bloating, liver disease, shooting abdominal pains, dysentery, back and bladder conditions, head-aches, asthma, leprosy, edema, and a general weakening malaise in men. Detoxified seed oil is additionally used to make laxative preparations, as well as to facilitate childbirth, and to strengthen hair.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). Traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of this species are discussed by Ross (2001). The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of this plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995) and Bekele-Tesemma (1993). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000).

The plant and its seeds can cause skin irritation (contact dermatitis). “The pomace (residue after extracting the oil from castor beans) can cause asthma, urticaria, and dermatitis among castor oil extractors…(Castor oil used in) lipstick can also be the source of contact dermatitis resulting in cheilitis…Cases of allergy to castor oil, contact dermatitis of the face due to a makeup remover and contact dermatitis due to sulfonated castor oil have recently been described…Ricinoleic acid has been claimed to be the agent causing lipstick dermatitis.” The seed contains a poisonous substance, the protein “ricin”, which is not present in castor oil, but is “probably responsible for certain allergies related to the plant” (Benezra et al. 1985).

It has been reported that “Ricin”, a white crystalline compound isolated from castor beans (Ricinus communis), is listed by the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation, USA) as the third most poisonous substance known, behind plutonium and the botulism toxin. Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton (1999). Ricin and ricinine contained in the seeds and leaves make this one of the most toxic plants known, and as noted by Lan et al. (1998): “A single seed of 0.25 g contains a lethal dose. The toxins are stable to proteolytic enzymes and hence are not destroyed when taken orally.”

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Fabaceae (Bean family)

1. Abrus Adans

Abrus precatorius L.

Names

Myanmar: chek-awn, ywe, ywe-nge, ywe-nwe, ywenge. English: chicken eyes, crab eyes, jequirity, red bean vine, rosary pea.

Range

Pantropical; widely naturalized. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

(Whole plant: poisonous). Leaf: Used to cure a sore throat. Seed: Emetic and purgative. Root: Employed as an expectorant. After being crushed with water and steamed, the distillate is taken with sugar to treat hemorrhoids. Soaked in water overnight, filtered through a cloth, and the filtered liquid taken once in the morning and once in the evening to treat white vaginal discharge. Leaf: Crushed together with mustard oil and used either by rubbing on, or tied around as a poultice, to cure swollen joints and stiff muscles. Crushed with oil and rubbed on to treat aches and pains. Juice from squeezing the leaves together with milk can treat excessive urination in diabetics. Seed: Made into a powder and inhaled to cure severe headaches. Making the seeds and root into a powder and taking the mixture with coconut water can treat hemorrhoids.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Since the broken seed is conventionally known to be poisonous due to the necrotic action of its constituent chemical “abrin”, care must be taken in its use. Symptoms of the poisoning (which can happen, for example, from chewing or sucking on a necklace made of the beads) appear after a latent period which can vary from three hours to two days, whereupon severe gastroenteritis with diarrhea, cramps and vomiting occurs. Bleeding from the retina (of the eye) and serous (mucous) membranes is a characteristic symptom of the poisoning. In this connection it is notable that the seeds, under the name “semen jequirity”, were formerly used in medicine, especially ophthalmology, to cause inflammation of mucosa (Frohne and Pfander 1984). Frohne and Pfander (1984) further advise that: “On the other hand, intact seeds, because of their hard testa (seed coat), when swallowed whole are harmless.”

“The seeds are poisonous, but it is said that, if boiled, their toxic principle (toxalbumin) is destroyed. After this precautionary measure the seeds have been (known to be) boiled again in milk (which is used) as a tonic [in Dominica].” (Honychurch 1980). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999).

A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). The toxic properties, symptoms, treatment and beneficial uses of the plant, parts of which are poisonous, are discussed by Nellis (1997). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986). In connection with this plant’s usage in ophthalmology, a seed infusion was formerly used in Brazil to treat trachoma and corneal opacity, but the use of it was abandoned since it was too dangerous, sometimes leading to loss of eyesight (Mors et al. 2000). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton (1999).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

2. Acacia Mill

Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.

Names

Myanmar: mung-ting, nya, sha, shaji, tun-sa-se. English: black cutch, catechu, cutch, wadalee-gum tree.

Range

West Pakistan to Myanmar. In Myanmar, found in Magway and Mandalay.

Uses

Bark used as an astringent. Wood: An extract is used to treat ulcers and chest problems.

Notes

In India the bark is used to treat sores in the mouth, chest pain, strangulation of the intestine, and to facilitate childbirth. The heartwood is applied in a thick decoction for cancerous sores (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the resin is used as a febrifuge, sialogogue, stimulant, styptic, antiphlogistic, astringent, corrective, and expectorant (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Perry (1980) also discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China.

The species contains tannin and catechin (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Reported chemical constituents also include catechutannic acid, acacatechin, catechu red, and quercetin. In research on vitamin P, “the isomer 1-epi-catechin is reported to be especially active even in minute doses.”, and is “The most important source of this substance in the heartwood of A. catechu” (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC.

Names

Myanmar: hpah-ha (Kachin), hing-hang (Chin), hla pruckkha (Mon), sot lapoot (Mon), janah lapoot (Mon), hpak ha (Shan), sum-hkawn (Shan), kin-pun chin, kinmun-gyin. English: soap pod.

Range

Tropical and temperate Asia. Grows naturally throughout Myanmar, but most commonly in tropical evergreen forests; also cultivated.

Uses

Leaf: Sour, with heating properties. Used to treat symptoms of heat stroke and to relieve diarrhea. The liquid from lightly boiling the leaves in water is used to treat malaria, as well as constipation and bloating. A mixture made with salt, tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit, and chili pepper, crushed together with the young leaves that have soaked in black pepper water, is taken to alleviate symptoms of jaundice and gall bladder disease. The young leaves are also soaked in water overnight and taken to cure maladies that cause fatigue and bloating. Additionally, they are crushed and applied externally to alleviate symptoms caused by a swollen liver. Flower: With cooling properties, the sweet flowers are used to reduce phlegm. Fruit: Bitter and with cooling properties, used to treat skin infections and promote digestion as well as to alleviate constipation, gastric disease, stomachaches caused by gas, and circulatory problems. The ripe fruit is used as detergent for washing hair. Leaf and Fruit: A decoction of leaves and fruits is taken for constipation. A decoction of fruit is used in shampoo to strengthen the hair. Crushed fruit, applied topically as a remedy for skin problems, is also an ingredient in preparations used to neutralize venomous snakebites. One cup of liquid from the fruit decoction is used to induce vomiting to save those who have attempted suicide by ingesting arsenic and lime juice.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). The medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.

Names

Myanmar: nan-lon-kyaing, mawk-nawn-hkam (Shan). English: cassie, sponge-tree, sweet acacia, West Indian blackthorn.

Range

Subtropical and tropical America; now pantropical. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Sharp and bitter with heating properties. Effective against poisons and beneficial in treating abnormalities in the blood, itching and sores. Liquid from boiling the bark in water down to half used as mouthwash or held in the mouth to treat toothaches, inflammation, infections and bleeding of the gums. Also, bark boiled and a small amount of the liquid taken to treat severe diarrhea. Sap: Said to give vitality and increase virility. Leaf: Crushed tender leaves are made into balls and taken, one in morning and one at night, to treat gonorrhea. Root: A paste is made and applied to the hooves of cattle to kill or prevent an attack of parasites.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

The essence contains alcohol, sesquiterpene, and farnesol (Perry 1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd.

Names

Myanmar: tanaung. English: white-barked acacia.

Range

Western Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Siam, Indonesia, and Java. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Magway, Mandalay, and Shan.

Use

Bark: Used as an astringent.

Note

In India the bark is used as an astringent (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile (= A. arabica (Lam.) Willd.)

Names

Myanmar: babu, babul, subyu. English: babul, gum-arabic, Indian gum tree, suntwood.

Range

Tropical Africa; widely naturalized in India. Naturalized in Myanmar.

Use

Bark: Used as an astringent.

Note

In India the bark is employed as an astringent (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.

Names

Myanmar: hsu bok gyi, htaura (Kachin), hangnan (Chin), hla-pruck-hka-hnoke (Mon), hpak-ha-awn (Shan), suboke-gyi, suyit. Thai: cha-om.

Range

In Asia, found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam; also Indian Ocean- Andaman Islands. In Myanmar, found growing naturally throughout the country, but also cultivated.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat asthma and bronchitis. Mixed with other medicinal ingredients to neutralize snake venom. Leaf: Ingested to prevent formation of calluses and to control gas, as well as to treat indigestion and bleeding gums. Leaf and Root: Bitter and astringent, they are employed to correct irregularities in the blood, treat gas and bile problems, relieve coughs, stimulate appetite, and alleviate female disorders. Root: Made into a paste, together with the gall bladder of a python, and used to cure tongue sores or roughness. Also, an ingredient in medicines used to treat urinary disorders and enlargement of the testicles.

Note

In India the bark is used for dandruff and as an antidote to snake poison (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

3. Adenanthera L

Adenanthera pavonina L.

Names

Myanmar: mai-chek, ywe, ywe-gyi, ywe-ni. English: bead tree, coral pea, coral wood, red sandalwood.

Range

Southeastern Asia- primarily in India, southeastern China and Malasia to the Moluccas. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Seed: Used for poulticing.

Notes

Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species on the Malay Peninsula, in Indonesia, and in the Philippines.

“An alcoholic extract of air-dried leaves showed an alkaloidal substance” (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

4. Albizia Durazz

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

Names

Myanmar: anya-kokk, kokko. English: woman’s tongue.

Range

India and Southeast Asia.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat dysentery and boils. Leaf and Seed: Used for ophthalmia.

Notes

In India the bark is used for diarrhea and dysentery; the leaf for night blindness; the flower is put on boils, carbuncles, swellings; the seed is used for plies, diarrhea, and gonorrhea; and the root is placed on spongy, ulcerated gums (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). In Indo-China the bark and seeds are used to treat dysentery, diarrhea, and hemorrhoids; the flowers are emollient, and applied in poultices to boils (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Albizia odoratissima (L.f.) Benth.

Names

Myanmar: mai-kying-lwai, mai-tawn, meik-kye, taung-magyi, thit-magyi. English: Ceylon rosewood.

Range

Sri Lanka and India to Thailand. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Considered a remedy for ulcers; Leaf: Used to treat coughs.

Notes

In India the bark, externally applied, is considered a good remedy for leprosy and for persistent ulcers; the leaf is applied as a poultice for ulcers (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

The bark is rich in tannin (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

5. Alysicarpus Desv

Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.

Names

Myanmar: than-manaing-kyauk-manaing.

Range

Paleotropics. Found naturally in Myanmar, especially in the hot regions.

Use

Has binding properties, brings down edema, causes dullness, cures diarrhea, dysentery, kidney stones and inability to pass urine. It also draws out the pus from sores. Leaf: Giving children the juice (squeezed from the leaves) in milk will cure them of dull stomach pains. Taking the dried leaves soaked in water will cure such disorders as diarrhea, dysentery, passing of blood, and white vaginal discharge. Whole plant: The juice from the plant can be boiled or the dried parts taken as tea to cure urinary disorders and gallstones. Fresh plant can be mixed in equal amounts with cooked rice, crushed and applied as a poultice to cure breast sores as it will draw out the pus.

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

6. Amherstia Wall

Amherstia nobilis Wall.

Names

Myanmar: thawka, thawka-gyi. English: pride of Burma, queen of flowering trees.

Range

Endemic to Myanmar (temperate southeastern Asia). Found in southern Myanmar, in Kayin and Taninthayi.

Uses

Plant used for medicinal purposes (exact uses not given in Nordal 1963).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

7. Arachis L

Arachis hypogaea L.

Names

Myanmar: myay-pe. English: earth nut, grass nut, groundnut, monkey nut, peanut.

Range

Southern Brazil. Now widely cultivated throughout the tropics. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Seed: Used for production of peanut oil. Oil aperient, emollient.

Notes

In India the fruit is used as an astringent (its oil is also astringent to the bowels), an aperient, and an emollient; also, unripe nuts are used for a lactagogue (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). These include the use of the seed for an oil aperient, emollient, and for gonorrhea (given in milk); applied externally for rheumatism; considered demulcent, pectoral, and peptic. “ In China this widely cultivated species is considered to be nutritive, peptic, demulcent, and pectoral (Perry 1980).

“The oilseed cake is a good source of the amino acid arginine … and glutamic acid, which is used in treating mental deficiencies” (Perry 1980). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton (1999).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

8. Archidendron F. Muell

Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C. Nielsen (= Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.)

Names

Myanmar: tanyin, danyin. English: dog fruit, ngapi nut.

Range

Believed to have originated, and is widely distributed in Indonesia, Malaysia and southern Thailand; also in Bangladesh. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Seed: Used to treat diabetes; eaten, but poisonous in any quantity.

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

9. Bauhinia L

Bauhinia acuminata L.

Names

Myanmar: mahahlega-phyu, maha-hlega-byu, palan, swe-daw. English: dwarf white bauhinia.

Range

India, Myanmar, China, Malaysia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Flower: Used as a laxative.

Notes

Root extract used as a poultice.

The rhizomes and root have been used for their insecticidal properties and have shown antifungal activity as well. Chemicals found in this species have been shown to be effective in the treatment of cold, cough, and sore throat; also for cataplasm and ulcers (Duke 2009).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Bauhinia purpurea L.

Names

Myanmar: maha-hlega-ni, maha-hlega-byu, swe-daw, swedaw-ni. English: butterfly tree, camel’s foot tree.

Range

India, Myanmar, China, Malaysia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bark: Astringent. Flower: Employed as a laxative.

Note

In India the bark is used as an ingredient in medicine for dropsy, scorpion sting and insect bites, rheumatism, convulsions, stomach tumors, and as an antidote to certain toxins and poisons; the flower is used for indigestion (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

10. Butea Roxb. ex Willd

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (= B. frondosa Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: paukpin, shagan changgan (Kachin), pawpan (Kayin), tanom khapore (Mon), kao mai, kikao, maikao (Shan). English: bastard-teak, flame-of-the-forest.

Range

Tropical Asia. Found growing naturally throughout Myanmar, with the exception of the mountainous areas; grows most commonly by the sides of streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes.

Uses

The parts are used in preparations stimulating digestion, increasing sperm production, promoting repair of broken bone, and improving urinary flow. Bark: Knobs are powdered, rolled in honey, and formed into pellets that are taken for strength and longevity. Sap: Fresh sap is applied topically as an ointment to relieve sores, rashes, and bumps. It is also used to make remedies taken orally for diarrhea. Gum and Leaf: Used as an astringent. Leaf: Used to make tonics. Flower: Liquid from soaking flowers overnight in cold water is mixed with sugar and taken orally to alleviate anal pain, blood in the urine, and nosebleeds. Flowers stewed in water are applied to the navel area while still warm to ease bladder inflammation and promote urination. The dried flowers are brewed into a tea taken to relieve fatigue, as well as to cleanse the blood and body systems. The flowers are also used in remedies for urinary infections and leprosy. Seed: An ointment made from the crushed seeds mixed with lime juice is used for ringworm. After soaking in water and removing the seed coats, the inner seed kernels are dried and powdered; the powder is given twice daily for four days, and a laxative is also given on the fourth day to expel intestinal worms. Seed and Bark: Used in remedies for neutralizing snake venoms.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). In addition to Myanmar, medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China and Indonesia are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Butea superba Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: kao-hko, kosot-lot, pauk-new, paw-tohkaw.

Range

East Indies. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Mandalay, and Yangon.

Uses

Bark: Used as a remedy for snake and other bites.

Notes

In Indo-China a decoction of the stem and leaves is used in a local bath to treat hemorrhoids; also considered sedative in a large bath and sprinkled over the body of a person with convulsions. It is also used for erectile dysfunction (Perry 1980). Additionally, the species has been reported as used to treat diarrhea and dysuria (Duke 2009).

Reference

Perry (1980).

11. Caesalpinia L

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. (= Poinciana pulcherrima L.)

Names

Myanmar: daung-sok, sein-pan-gale. English: Barbados flower, dwarf poinciana, pride of Barbados.

Range

Original range variously ascribed to tropical America or tropical Asia.

Uses

Bark: Used as an astringent. Leaf: Used as a purgative and emmenagogue.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

12. Canavalia DC

Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.

Names

Myanmar: pe-dalet, pe-dama. English: horse bean, jack bean, sword bean.

Range

Pantropical.

Uses

Fruit: Used as tonic and digestive.

Note

Fresh immature seeds are considered poisonous.

Notes

In China, the whole plant is pounded and applied to boils; the seed is used as a bechic, stomatic, and tonic, also to strengthen the kidney (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

13. Cassia L

Cassia fistula L.

Names

Myanmar: mai-lum, ngu, ngu-shwe, ngushwe-ama, ngu pin, gawhgu (Kachin), ka-zo (Kayin). English: golden shower tree, Indian laburnum, pudding pipe tree, purging cassia.

Range

India, Sri Lanka. Grows naturally all over Myanmar; prefers a hot and humid climate but also does well in hot and dry climates; can be found and cultivated up to 1220 m altitude; also grown as ornamental trees.

Uses

Whole plant: The five parts – roots, bark, fruit, flower, and leaf – are mixed with water to form a paste and applied to ringworm, scabies, and skin disorders stemming from impurities in the blood. Leaf: Sweet yet bitter with a strong taste, act as a laxative. The tender leaves can be made into a soup and taken for constipation. Heated leaves are used as a poultice over swollen joints. Liquid from leaves stone-ground with vinegar is applied to treat leprosy and other skin diseases. Juice from crushed leaves is applied liberally as a remedy for herpes facialis. Fruit: Used as a laxative. Stimulates the tastebuds, alleviates leprosy, and controls phlegm. The pulp is taken either alone or mixed with an equal amount of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit pulp to promote regular bowel movements. Paste from pulp is applied around the navel of infants to alleviate colic and bloated stomach; for others, the pulp paste is rubbed onto the navel to treat urinary disorders, pain around the urethra and during urination, and blood in the urine. Liquid from boiling the pulp is used as eardrops to clear infections. Root: Used as a purgative. Milk in which roots have been boiled is taken as a remedy for flatulence.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

The chemistry, pharmacology, history, and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta (1995). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage, and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). C. fistula bark, leaves and seeds contain chrysarobin, an irritant and allergen (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

14. Chamaecrista (L.) Moench

Chamaecrista pumila (Lam.) K. Larsen (= Cassia pumila Lam.)

Names

Hawaiian: chota aura

Range

Tropical Asia, tropical Africa and Australia. In Myanmar found in Yangon.

Use

Seed: A laxative.

Note

The medicinal use of this species, as well as those of several other members of the genus, is noted in Perry (1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

15. Clitoria L

Clitoria ternatea L.

Names

Myanmar: pe-nauk-ni, aug-mai-hpyu, aung-me-nyo. English: blue pea, butterfly pea.

Range

Origin uncertain, probably tropical Africa or Asia. In Myanmar, found in Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: The powder and the powder of eikthara-mooli (Aristolochia indica) can be mixed and taken to neutralize snake venom. Leaf: Crushed and placed on abscess on the tip of the finger and bound with moist bandage to treat infection. Root: Mixed with roots from other medicinal plants to make medicines to treat edema. Roasted, made into a powder and taken with warm water to treat inflammation of the liver, inflammation of the spleen and general edema. Used in making medicines to prevent miscarriage, and to treat lumps on the throat, passing and hemorrhaging of blood, vitiligo, and cataracts. Juice from the male root is taken with cold milk to treat chronic coughing. Bark, Root: Used as purgative and diuretic. Flowers: Crushed together with milk and the juice used to paint circles around the eyes to treat sore eyes associated with infantile diseases. Fruit: Juice from the green fruit can be tipped into the nostrils to cure headaches that affect only one side of the head. Seeds: Used to treat inflammation of the testes, and hiccups.

Notes

In India the leaf is used on swellings, the seed as a laxative, the root for goiter and leprosy, and an unspecified part for snakebite (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Perry (1980) discusses the uses of the species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia. She notes that medicinal use of the species is primarily in Java and India.

Perry (1980) lists the chemical constituents of the species.

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

16. Cullen Medik

Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik. (= Psoralea corylifolia L.)

Names

Myanmar: babchi, nehle. English: prairie turnip, scuffy pea.

Range

Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, China, Arabia, Somomali Republic, Socotra. In Myanmar, found in Magway and Mandalay.

Uses

Fruit, Seeds, Root: Used as diuretic, antiasthmatic, and laxative.

Notes

In India the leaf is used for diarrhea; the seed as an anthelmintic, diuretic, deobstruent; for stomach problems, skin diseases, leucoderma, leprosy, scorpion sting, and snakebite (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the fruit is used as an aphrodisiac and tonic to the genital organs. The seed is used as an aphrodisiac, stimulant, and tonic in arthritis, dysmenorrhea, enuresis, fever, impotence, leprosy, leucoderma, leucorrhea, lumbago, polyuria, premature ejaculation, spermatorrhea, and splenits. It is used externally for callosities, vitiligo, and other skin ailments such as leucoderma, leprosy, and psoriasis. The root is used for caries (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Medicinal uses of the seeds in China, Indo-China, and the Malay Peninsula are discussed in Perry (1980). She notes that, from the literature, it appears the seeds of this species are an ancient Hindu medicine.

In India, oleorsin extract is used locally on leprosy (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). According to one study, a 30% alcohol extract of the seeds applied to spots of leucoderma showed “enough improvement to justify further study”. Others have observed that the essential oil has a powerful effect against cutaneous streptococci. The seeds contents are reported to include fixed oil, essential oil, oleoresin, psoralen, isopsoralen, and psoralidin (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

17. Cynometra L

Cynometra ramiflora L.

Names

Myanmar: myinga, ye-minga. English: cynometra.

Range

India, Indo-China, and Malesia. In Myanmar, found in Ayeyarwady, Rakhine, and Taninthayi.

Uses

Leaf: Used as an antiherpetic. Root: Employed as a purgative.

Notes

Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of this species in East and Southeast Asia. Duke (2009) notes use the species for dermatosis, scabies, and leprosy. In India the leaf is boiled in cow’s milk and mixed with honey into a lotion, then applied externally for skin diseases, scabies, and leprosy; oil from the seed is applied externally for the same afflictions; and the root is used as a purgative and cathartic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Perry (1980).

18. Delonix Raf

Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf.

Names

Myanmar: jaw-gale, seinban. English: flamboyant, gold mohur, royal poinciana.

Range

Seasonally dry areas of western and northern Madagascar. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Nordal (1963) lists this species as having medicinal properties, but the plant parts and uses are unspecified.

Notes

The bark of this species is employed as a febrifuge in Indo-China. The gum which oozes from it “is similar to gum arabic” (Perry 1980).

The leaves contain saponin and alkaloid (Perry 1980).

Data on the propagation, seed treatment, and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995) and Bekele-Tesemma (1993).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

19. Entada Adans

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.

Names

Myanmar: do, gon-nyin. English: sword bean.

Range

Pantropical. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Seed: Used as an emetic and febrifuge; also as a fish poison.

Notes

In China the plant is considered anti-cancer; also used for splenititis with high temperature and as a wash for itch, pityriasis, and wounds. The seed is used to treat hemorrhoids in children (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In India the juice from the bark and wood is applied externally for ulcers and the stem is used as an emetic; the seeds are used as an anthelmintic, tonic, antiperiodic, and emetic; a paste made from them is locally applied to inflamed glandular swellings (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses of the species in additional East and Southeast Asian countries follow: In Mongolia the plant is used to treat illnesses with a high temperature in the spleen; on the Malay Peninsula ashes of pods are applied to the abdomen for severe internal complaints; in Indonesia the pounded roots are rubbed on, and the juice from the stem is drunk to treat a feverish abdomen and dysentery, roasted seeds are eaten by women as a depurative in post partum and are administered in small doses for stomachache, as an emetic, and are a component in some compound medicines; and in the Philippines a decoction of the roots is drunk to treat a rigid abdomen and smashed seeds are used to poultice abdominal complaints, such as colic of children (Perry 1980).

The seeds contain oil with palmitic-, stearic-, lignoceric-, linoleic-, and oleic acid, raffinoe, traces of alkaloid, and steroids; the seed, stem, and bark contain saponin A and B; and the stem and root bark contain HCN. Also, the seed has entagenic acid, a saponin active against a type of carcinosarcoma in rats (Duke and Ayensu 1985). “Much of the medicinal use of the species is due to the presence of saponin in the bark, wood, and seeds.” Seeds are edible after proper preparation: “They must be roasted until the seedcoat bursts, washed in water for 24 hours, and boiled before eating.” Reported chemical constituents include saponins and a heteroside, also a poisonous alkaloid. “Two saponins, nearly alike in chemical and pharmacological properties, have a strong hemolytic action on human red blood cells; stem, seeds, and bark are poisonous” (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

20. Erythrina L

Erythrina variegata L. (= E. indica Lam.)

Names

Myanmar: kathit, in-kathit. English: Indian coral tree.

Range

Tanzania to India, Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands (var. orientalis).

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bark: Used as an antipyretic and, in a decoction, to treat liver problems. Bark, Leaf, Root: Used to treat dysentery and inflammation.

Notes

In India the bark is used for convulsion and for paralysis of the tongue (given with roots of two other plants); also for pimples, cough and cold, and snakebite (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the leaf is used as an anthelmintic, antisyphilitic, diuretic, emmenagogue, lactagogue, and laxative; leaf juice for earache, toothache, and worms. Stem-bark is employed as an analgesic for arthritis, neuralgia, and rheunmatism; also as a febrifuge, cholagogue, expectorant, ophthalmic, hepatic, and vermifuge (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Perry (1980) notes that the bark and leaves are the parts most often used. She discusses the uses of the species in Indo-China, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands.

Chemical constituents include hydrocyanic acid in the stems, leaves, fruit, and roots; and two alkaloids, erythraline and hypaphorine, in the seeds. Resins, fixed oils, fatty acids, hypaphorine, betaine, choline, potassium chloride, and potassium carbonate are present in the bark (Perry 1980). The poisonous alkaloid fraction shows anti-convulsive activity, inhibits neuromuscular activity, weakens the smooth muscles, and paralyzes the central nervous system; HCN occurs in most parts of the plant. The bark is bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus aureus (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

21. Flemingia Roxb. ex W.T. Aiton

Flemingia chappar Buch.-Ham. ex Benth.

Names

Myanmar: bahon, gyo-pan, kyabahon, se-laik-pya.

Range

Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand.Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Root: Used as a sedative and analgesic.

Notes

This species has been studied for its anti-cancer and antiviral activities (Rastogi and Dhawan 1990). Rao (1990) has reviewed root flavonoids, including those of this species, as a source of pharmaceuticals. Adityachaudhury and Gupta (1973) have found a new pterocarpan and coumestan in the roots of F. chappar. They briefly discuss the antimicrobial activies and biosynthetic pathways of these compounds.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Flemingia strobilifera (L.) W.T. Aiton (= Moghania strobilifera (L.) J. St.-Hill.)

Names

Myanmar: se-laik-pya, thingu-gyat. English: wildhops.

Range

India to the Philippines. In Myanmar, found in Ayeyarwady and Yangon.

Use

Root: Used to treat epilepsy.

Note

On the Malay Peninsula and in the Philippines, a decoction of the root of this species is administered as a post partum protective medicine, and the leaves are employed at the same time to wash the body; also used in a lotion to treat rheumatism., Additionally, in the Philippines a decoction or infusion of the leves and flowers is prescribed for tuberculosis (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

22. Glycine Willd

Glycine max (L.) Merr. (= G. hispida (Moench) Maxim.; G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.)

Names

Myanmar: ber-hrum, hsan-to-nouk, ngasee, pe-bok, pe-ngapi. English: soja bean, soy bean, soya bean.

Range

Southeast Asia. Now widely cultivated in the Orient and elsewhere. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Seed: used as a tonic and carminative.

Notes

The seeds are regarded as a tonic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antidote. Also, the seeds in combination with other drugs are used to treat a large number of ailments. “It was observed many years ago that natives in the Orient ate infested meat products without ill effects, if soy sauce was a part of the meal” (Perry 1980).

The species is said to assist the flow of digestive juices, increase the assimilation of high protein foods, and to be a source of riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, panthotheic acid, and choline. An antibiotic, canavalin, has been found in the plant, which is useful in treating certain pneumococci. Results of research by the Soya Corporation of America have lead to the production of an “edible antibiotic that counteracts various types of harmful bacteria through implantation of beneficial intestinal flora”. Raw soybeans contain a toxic principle with hemolytic activity which is destroyed by heat (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

23. Indigofera L

Indigofera cassioides DC. (= I. pulchella Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: kan-tin, mawk-kham, taw-mevaing. Hawaiian: sakina. English: kathu.

Range

Pakistan, India, Myanmar, China, Siam, and Indochina. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Chin, Mandalay, and Shan.

Use

Roots: Used for coughs.

Notes

In India the powdered root of this species is externally applied for chest pain; a decoction of the root is used for coughs. Medicinal uses for several other species belonging to this genus are also discussed (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses of the species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985); and medicinal uses in South China, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

24. Lablab Adans

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet (= Dolichos lablab L.)

Names

Myanmar: nwai-pe. English: Bonavista bean, Egyptian bean, hyacinth bean, Indian bean, lablab bean, lubia bean.

Range

Probably Old World; now widespread.

Uses

Seed: Used as a febrifuge, stomachic, and antispasmodic.

Notes

In India the seed is used for a febrifuge, an antispasmodic, a stomachic, and an aphrodisiac (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the whole plant is decocted for use in alcoholic intoxication, cholera, diarrhea, globefish poisoning, gonorrhea, leucorrhea, nausea, and thirst. The stem is used for cholera. The flower is used for leucorrhea, menorrhagia, and dysentery; as an antivinous, alexiteric, and carminative; and for “summer heat disorders”. Fruit juice is employed for inflamed ears and throats. The “white seeds” are taken with vinegar for cholera morbus; also as an anthelmintic, astringent, digestive, and stomachic. It is further noted that the seeds are reportedly alexiteric, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, febrifuge, stomachic, and used for menopause (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Perry (1980) discusses the species medicinal uses in China, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia.

Reference

Nordal (1963).

25. Leucaena Benth

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (= L. glauca Benth.)

Names

Myanmar: aseik-pye, aweya, bawzagaing, baw-sagaing. English: lamtoro, leucaena, wild tamarind.

Range

Tropical America, Asia. Found in Upper Myanmar, in Mandalay, Sagaing, and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: The five parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) are used to make antidotes for poisons. A mixture of the crushed five parts, or the roots with butter, is used as an ointment applied topically to aching areas around a snakebite to neutralize the venom. Bark: Taken to treat internal aches and pains. Leaf: The heating properties are known to stimulate the blood, as well as control gas and neutralize poison; also made into a paste and applied to poisonous bites and stings. The tender leaves and pods (without the seeds) are boiled and eaten with fish paste or fish sauce as dip to regulate bowels and cure aches related to male disorders. Seed: Used in medicines for aches, pains, and edema. Root and Bark: Decoction used in preparations to prevent miscarriages.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of the species in Indonesia and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

26. Millettia Wight & Arn

Millettia pachycarpa Benth.

Names

Myanmar: mi-gyaung-nwe, nhtau-ru, semein, hon. English: fish poison climber, millettia.

Range

China; Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal; Myanmar, Thailand. In Myanmar, found in Kachin, Mandalay, and Taninthayi.

Use

Root: Used as fish poison.

Notes

In China the whole plant is used as a tonic and to induce the growth of red blood cells (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Medicinal uses of the species in East and Southeast Asia include as an antianemic, a tonic, and to induce growth of red blood cells. It is also employed as an insecticide and to stun fish (Perry 1980).

Millettia pachycarpa contains the antitumor compound rotenone (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

27. Mimosa L

Mimosa pudica L.

Names

Myanmar: hi-ga-yone, tikayon, kaya (Kachin), hta-muck (Mon), nam ya-hai-awn (Shan). English: mimosa, sensitive plant, shame weed, touch-me-not.

Range

Pantropical, originating in the Neotropics (thought probably native to South America). Grows naturally all over Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Whole plant: Bitter and astringent in taste with cooling properties, the five parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) are known to “calm” (reduce) phlegm and bile. A mixture of the crushed plant and water is applied topically to reduce edema. The liquid extracted from the whole plant is applied to treat inflamed sores; also used to make tonics and medicines to treat vomiting of blood, hemorrhaging, and asthma. The whole plant is also employed as a diuretic and antiseptic. Leaf: Crushed and applied as a poultice over the pubic region to treat excessive urination. A mixture of the powdered leaves and milk is taken for hemorrhoids. Root: Paste is applied topically to heal sores. A root decoction is given to dissolve gall stones and to promote urinary function.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999).

Seeds of M. pudica contain L-Djenkolic acid which if consumed in sufficient quantities can lead to acute kidney malfunction, and also contain L-Mimosine which may impart goitrogenic effects (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

28. Mucuna Adans

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (= M. prurita (L.) Hook.)

Names

Myanmar: gwin-nge, hko-mak-awa, khwele, khwe-ya, khwe-laya, to-ma-awn, pwekonclaw (Mon), ra, yan-nung (Chin), hko-ma-awn (Shan). English: common cowitch, cowhage, cowitch, velvet bean.

Range

Himalyas, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and Malaysia. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Chin, Kayin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, and Yangon.

Uses

Known for a bitter-sweet taste, cooling properties, and control of flatulence and gall bladder. Leaf: Boiled, eaten with fish paste or fish sauce as a dip, is used as a remedy for male maladies; it is also given to mothers to increase lactation, prevent vomiting, and stop bleeding. Fruit: Used as a de-worming medicine; also pulverized and mixed with water, then ingested as a remedy for urination problems. Seed: Used in a tonic. The seeds and seed cases are used in preparations to increase sperm, stimulate lactation, improve circulation, promote vitality and weight gain, expel intestinal worms, and strengthen the senses. Seed cases are rubbed on affected areas to alleviate numbness. Stir-fried or otherwise cooked young seeds are eaten to stop vomiting and bleeding. Fried in butter, they are given to promote strength and weight gain. Crushed seeds are used to make a poultice applied to scorpion and centipede bites. They are also used in medicines to increase strength and vitality, to cure venereal diseases and paralysis, and to stimulate formation of new tissue in the healing of sores and wounds. A mixture of powdered seeds and milk is used to increase sperm and stimulate lactation, and one of equal amounts of the pulverized seeds, root, and sugar is taken for health and vitality; it is also considered extremely beneficial for the vitality of semen. Root: Serves as an emmenagogue, tonic, aphrodisiac, and purgative. Boiled in water and reduced to one-third the starting volume, given with honey for cholera. With diuretic properties, they are used in preparations to strengthen the blood vessels. Root powder mixed with water is taken for dysentery. To treat edema in the abdominal area, crushed root is rubbed onto the stomach; to reduce edema in the joints of fingers and toes, it is formed into pieces and tied to the affected areas; the juice can be taken daily to cure paralysis and atrophied arms. Filtered oil from cooking root powder is rubbed onto affected areas to alleviate enlargement and hardening from elephantiasis.

Notes

In India the root is used as a tonic, diuretic, purgative; for nervous and renal diseases, dropsy; and for elephantiasis. The hairs on the pods are employed for stomach worms; the seed is used for impotency, urinary calculus, tonic, and as an aphrodisiac (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Pakistan the root is also employed to remedy nervous disorders, and delirium (Neptune-Rouzier 1997). In China, Guam, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia the uses of this species are noted as being similar to those of the other species in the genus (Perry 1980).

The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999), who notes that the chemical compound mucunaine, found in this species, is an irritant causing pruritus. The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and use of this species as a hunting poison and medicinal plant in Africa are discussed by Neuwinger (1994). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

29. Phyllodium Desv

Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv. (= Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth.)

Names

Myanmar: bahon, pan-letwa, se-leik-pya, tabyetse, taung-damin. English: tick clover, tick trefoil.

Range

China, Japan, Taiwan; India, Nepal, Sri Lanka; Indo-China; Malesia; Australia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Bark: Used as an astringent and in eye diseases.

Notes

In China the root is used for burning sensation in the abdomen (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In South China the plant is used to for rheumatic fever, convulsion in infants, and to treat rheumatism, toothache, dissolve blood clots, “build new red blood cells”, and aid digestion; on the Malay Peninsula, a decoction of the roots is used as a post partum protective medicine; and in Indonesia and the Philippines, the leaves are applied to pocks and ulcers (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

30. Pithecellobium Mart

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

Names

Myanmar: kala-magyi. English: manila tamarind, guaymochil.

Range

Mexico to northwestern South America. Introduced and cultivated in India and Pakistan. Introduced into Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used as an abortive and as a digestive.

Note

In India the bark is used in a decoction as an enema (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

31. Saraca L

Saraca indica L.

Names

Myanmar: thawka, thawka-po. English: asoka tree, sorrowless tree.

Range

India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaya. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used as anthelmintic and astringent. It is also used to treat menorrhagia.

Notes

Medicinal use of the species in East and Southeast Asia are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

32. Senna Mill

Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (= Cassia alata L.)

Names

Myanmar: beeda khutdai, sok (Mon), hpak-lam-mon-long (Shan), mezali-gyi, pwesay-mezali, thinbaw-mezali. English: candle bush, empress candle plant, ringworm cassia, ringworm shrub.

Range

Tropical America; now pantropical. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Powder can be mixed with honey and licked to promote weight gain and increase strength and vitality. Skin disorders such as scabies, ringworm and eczema can be cured by rubbing them with the leaves twice a day over a period of time. Crushed and applied as a poultice over the bite to poisonous or venomous animals to neutralize the poison. Crushed and squeezed juice of leaves applied to visible symptoms of venereal disease. Boiled down to make a strong potion which when kept in the mouth while warm cures gum boils and inflammation of the gums. Mixed with mu-yar-gyi (Adhatoda vasica = Justicia adhatoda) leaves, chewed and kept in the mouth or the juice swallowed to cure dry coughs. Crushed with lime juice and applied to cure eczema. Pounded, mixed with the juice of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, and applied to cure ringworm and leprosy. Drinking the liquid obtained from boiling the buds and the leaves will cure inflammation of the breathing passages and asthma, cause loose bowels, encourage urination and discharge of mucus in the stool). Flower: Crushed fine and applied as a rub to cure skin diseases. Seed: Astringent, can cure itching, coughs, asthma, ringworm, skin disorders, kills disease causing germs, promote good urination and cure leprosy. Root: Made into a paste, mixed with boric acid powder and hpan-kar (Terminalia chebula) fruit powder and applied to cure ringworm.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The whole plant is an anti-inflammatory (excluding the root); the twig is used on eczema sores; the leaf is used for ringworm (leaf-juice with lime juice), also as an insecticide, abortifacient, anthelmintic, taenifuge, snakebite, and diuretic (decoction); decoctions with flowers and leaves are used for bronchitis, asthma, and (in a wash) for eczema; the seed is used as a vermifuge; the root is used as a purgative and for rheumatism; an unspecified part is used for snakebite, ascariasis, ringworm, and leprosy. Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Here the stem wood is used for hepatitis, loss of appetite, urticaria, and rhinitis; the leaf is used much as it is in India, also poulticed onto boils and ulcers; the flower is purgative; and the seed is taken internally for skin ailments. The plant is considered anti-cancer. Perry (1980) gives its medicinal uses from India east to Indo-China, south through southeastern Asia to Guam and Palau.

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999).

The plant contains chrysarobin, and chrysarophanic acid; rhein in the leaf; and oxymethyl anthraquinone in the fruit; sometimes with HCN (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Senna alexandrina Mill. (= Cassia acutifolia Delile; Cassia angustifolia M. Vahl)

Names

Myanmar: pwe-gaing, thinbaw-mezali. English: Alexandrian senna, Arabian senna, Indian senna, tinnevelly senna.

Range

Egypt, Sudan to Nigeria. Cultivated in India and Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Used in treating dull stomach pain, liver disease, dropsy, bile, indigestion, leprosy, coughing with phlegm, and aches and pains in the joints. Taking the leaves with the liquid from boiling dried ginger root will cure indigestion. If the leaves are taken with the juice from zee-hpyu fruit (Phyllanthus emblica), it will cure leprosy and edema. One tablespoon of the liquid in which it has been boiled rather strongly can be mixed into a cup of milk and taken in order use as a laxative.

Notes

The leaflets of this species contain cassic acid or “hein,” an antibiotic substance effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (= Cassia auriculata L.)

Names

Myanmar: peik-thingat. English: avaram, mataran tea, Tanner’s cassia, Tanner’s tea.

Range

Pakistan Madhya Pradesh and Western Peninsula, India, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used as an astringent. Leaf and Pod: Sometimes an adulterant of senna. Seed: Used as a refrigerant.

Notes

In India a decoction of the whole plant is used for diabetes and diuresis; the bark is astringent in skin diseases, also used for sore throat (gargle); the leaf and fruit are anthelmintic; a decoction of the flower buds, or whole plant, is used for diabetes and diuresis; the seed is used for ophthalmia, diabetes and chylous urine, as well as for conjunctivitis (finely powdered decorticated seeds as dusting powder); and the root is astringent (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Senna italica Mill. (= Cassia obtusa Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: dangywe, kathaw-pok, nawnam, shan-kazaw. English: golden cassia.

Range

Native to Chile. Widespread in Myanmar.

Use

Leaf: Used as a laxative.

Note

This species is used in East and Southeast Asian countries as a laxative (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia siamea Lam.)

Names

Myanmar: mai-mye-sili, mejari, mezali, taw-mezali. English: kassod tree, Siamese cassia.

Range

Southeast Asia and East Indies. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf, Flower, Fruit: Made into a soup which is drunk as a tonic and to relieve stomach pains.

Notes

In Indonesia a decoction of the young leaves is used to treat malaria. In a number of Asian countries, stem wood is an ingredient in recipes used to make a decoction to treat liver trouble, urticaria (nettle rash), loss of appetite from gastrointestinal trouble, and rhinitis (Perry 1980).

Chemical research has revealed the presence of a poisonous alkaloid (Perry 1980).

References

Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Senna sulfurea (Collad.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia glauca Lam.)

Names

Myanmar: pyiban-nyo, pyidban-shwe, yong (Mon). English: smooth senna.

Range

Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Bitter and astringent in taste with cooling properties, promotes urination and cures gonorrhea. If the liquid obtained from squeezing the leaves is taken with milk and sugar, it will cure pain in passing urine and gonorrhea. Eating a salad made from the boiled leaves with dried prawns will cure many gas problems such as flatulence and shooting pains, as well as fevers, diabetes, and gonorrhea. Taking the powder made from the leaves will cure gas problems, illnesses due to heat, and pain in passing urine. Consuming a clear soup with the leaves added can cure passing mucus with the stool, dysentery, illnesses caused by gas, indigestion and degeneration of bile, and will also give strength.

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (= Cassia tora L.)

Names

Myanmar: dangywe, dant-kywei, dinghkri, myay-pe-naw-nam, ngusat. English: metal seed, sicklepod.

Range

West Indies, Central and South America, and parts of North America. In Myanmar, found in Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Yangon.

Uses

Leaf: Used as a laxative and vermifuge.

Notes

In India the leaf is used for skin diseases, as a laxative (decoction), on cuts, for eczema (paste) and bone fracture (leaves pounded with egg albumen, and applied as plaster), as a vermicide (infusion), and for indigestion (powder); also, young leaves are eaten to prevent skin disease; the seed is used for skin diseases, ringworm, and for eczema (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China old leaves are used for ringworm; the fruit is used for dysentery, opthalmia, several eye ailments (cataracts, conjunctivitis, glaucoma), headache, hepatitis, herpes, furnunculoid sores, and arthritis. The seeds are used for boils, and as an external and internal medicine for eye diseases (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

The species contains aloe-emodin (antitumor), aurantio obtusin, chrysophanol, emodin, obtusin, physcion, rhein, rubrofusarin, torachryon, toralactone. Also, due to unnamed glycosides, aqueous and ethanol seed extracts possess hypotensive and bradycardiac actions (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

33. Sesbania Scop

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.

Names

Myanmar: pauk-pan-byu. English: scarlet wisteria tree, vegetable humming-bird, West Indian pea tree.

Range

Tropical Asia; naturalized in southern Florida and the West Indies; and widely cultivated in the tropics. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used for anemia. Leaf: Used in medicines to treat stomach bloating, tumors, fevers, sores, diabetes, skin irregularities caused by blood problems, and throat ailments, as well as to protect against colds, leprosy, spleen inflammation, and germs. They are also used in remedies to neutralize venom from scorpion stings; and eaten to ease constipation, clear the mind, alleviate shooting pains, neutralize poisons, and prevent lung and heart disease. Preparations containing the leaves are taken to cleanse the blood. The juice from crushed leaves, mixed in equal amounts with dried ginger, peik-chin (Piper longum), and cane sugar, is inhaled to ease restlessness. For fever or influenza, the stir-fried leaves and onions are eaten. A mixture of the liquid from the leaves and the seed kernels from kyee-ni thee (Barringtonia acutangula) is eaten as a cure for impotency; a mixture of the crushed leaves and cow urine is inhaled as a cure for epileptic seizure. Leaf and Flower: For headaches on one side of the head, the juice from crushed flowers and leaves is inhaled through the nostril on the affected side. Flower: Boiled and given orally for night blindness. The juice from the crushed flowers is used as an eye drop solution for dim vision and watery eyes. Remedies made from the flowers are given to reduce fever. Root: For joint inflammation, a warmed root paste is applied topically.

Notes

Uses of this species in India, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (= S. aegyptiaca (Poir.) Pers.)

Names

Myanmar: ye-tha-gyi. English: common sesban, Egyptian rattlepod.

Range

Old World tropics; tropical Asia. In Myanmar found in Sagaing.

Uses

Bark: Used for skin conditions, liquid from the crushed bark is given orally, and the seed paste is applied topically. It is also used to clear infections, promote new tissue formation, and heal chronic sores. Leaf: Used in maturative poultices. Leaf also used to treat poisoning, edema, and eye infections; to purify breast milk, open blocked mammary glands, and increase lactation. New mothers eat the leaves in a variety of forms, including in clear soups, boiled lightly, in salad, fried as fritters, or pickled. Juice from the crushed leaves is used as an eye drop solution to clear infection and to reduce fever. For swollen joints, aches, and pains, the liquid from boiled leaves is taken orally. Powder from the dried leaves is taken with honey or in sweet liqueurs as a tonic for strength and vitality. Seed: Component of remedies for irregular menstrual periods, liver inflammation, and lung infections. Root: Used in medicines to treat stomach bloating, tumors, fevers, sores, diabetes, skin irregularities caused by blood problems, and throat ailments, as well as to protect against colds, leprosy, spleen inflammation, and germs. They are also used in remedies to neutralize venom from scorpion stings.

Notes

In India the leaf is used in a poultice for suppuration of boils and rheumatic swelling. The seed is employed as a stimulant and astringent emmenagogue; also for diarrhea, spleen enlargement, and in ointments for skin eruptions (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Extracts from the flower of this species show antifertility activity (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

34. Spatholobus Hassk

Spatholobus parviflorus (DC.) Kuntze (= S. roxburghii Benth.)

Names

Myanmar: da-ma-nge, labanru, nwe-ni, pauk-nwe, rubanru. Hawaiian: maula, maulu.

Range

Asia: China; Indian subcontinent, including Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka; Indo-China, including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Leaf: Used for medicinal purposes (exact uses not given in Perry 1980).

Notes

In Indonesia two other members of the genus are used medicinally: 1. S. ferrugineus is drunk to treat colic; and, after childbirth, a decoction of the pounded stem, leaves, or the sap is ingested as a remedy for faulty menstruation and uterine hemorrhage. 2. An infusion of the sap of S. littoralis is drunk, and the feet are washed with it as a remedy for difficulty in moving the legs (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

35. Tadehagi H.Ohashi

Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H.Ohashi (= Desmodium triquetrum (L.) DC.)

Names

Myanmar: lauk-thay, moko-lanma, shwe-gu-than-hlet, thagya-hlandin. English: begar’s-tick, tick clover, tick trefoil.

Range

Asia- Bhutan, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, Ryukyu Island, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan; Australasia; Indian Ocean Islands; Pacific Ocean Islands. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kachin, Kayin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, and Yangon.

Use

Root: The liquid from stewing the root with a bit of pepper can cure blood in the urine. Leaf: Eating leaves can cure dysentery, bloated stomach, stomachache in children due to worms, and feeling of fullness and indigestion. Taken as a tea, the leaves can cure urinary and skin disorders. The leaves of the plant and the leaves of the dawai-hmaing (Combretum indicum) can be lightly boiled in water to cure urinary disorders, dysentery, bleeding hemorrhoids, and hemorrhaging during menstruation. The dried leaves of the plant and the dried leaves of hpalan-taung-mwei (Cheilocostus speciosus) can be mixed in equal amounts, made into a powder, dissolved in coconut oil, and kept in the sun; the clear top oil can then be used as ear drops to cure ear infections with pus and earaches; if used as an ointment, the oil can cure scabies, impetigo, erysipelas, open sores and seborrhoeic dermatitus of the scalp. If the leaves are mixed with dried flowers of saga-sein (Cananga odorata), steeped in sesamum oil and the oil used as hair oil, it will cure headaches, fever, dandruff, itching of the scalp, and head lice. Plant: Used to kill worms.

Notes

In India the leaf is used for cough, cold, and abdominal pain; the root for snakebite (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the plant is applied to abscesses; used as a tonic for dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, and infantile spasms; and also employed as an insecticide and vermicide (Duke and Ayensu 1985). In South China the species is used as a medicine for infantile spasms, a tonic for dyspepsia, an application against abscesses, a remedy for hemorrhoids, and as a vermicide and insecticide; in Indonesia, an infusion of the dried and powdered leaves is taken or sometimes the powder is made into pills, the leaves are used externally to treat lumbago and internally (with the pods) as a diuretic in treating gravel (Perry 1980).

The leaves have been found to contain tannin, silicic acid, and potassium oxide (Perry 1980).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

36. Tamarindus L

Tamarindus indica L.

Names

Myanmar: beng-kong, magyeng, ma-gyi, mai-kyaing, mak-k yeng, manglon. English: tamarind.

Range

Origin unknown, possibly tropical Asia or Africa. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Use

Root: Used in treating gonorrhea, urinary diseases, hemorrhoids, jaundice, and shooting or dull pains in the stomach. Bark: The entire bark can be made into an ash and taken with water after meals to cure vomiting and gastic problems. The bark ash can be mixed with honey to cure shooting or dull stomach pains. Indigestion can be cured if the outer bark is baked until burnt, made into a powder, and taken with warm water. Applying a paste made from the bark with water will cure sore eyes, sores, and bites of venomous creatures. Leaf: The juice from the leaves can be cooked with sesame oil and a small amount applied into the ear to cure earaches. Taking one tablespoon of the juice squeezed from the crushed leaves to cure urinary disorders. The juice squeezed from crushed leaves can be applied to heat rashes. One part of the juice squeezed from the leaves can be mixed with two parts of rock salt to neutralize snake venom. The leaves can be eaten with kalain (Caesalpinia crista) seeds to cure excessive perspiration and body odor. Fruit: The pulp of the fruit is used in making up laxatives and tonics. Equal amounts of old tamarind fruit, garlic that has been soaked in yogurt liquid, and chay-thee (Semecarpus anacardium) is to be mixed and ground up, made into pellets and dried in the shade; taking one pellet together with one teaspoon of garlic juice every 15 minutes will cure cholera. Seed: Soaked in water overnight, outer skin discarded, kernel crushed and taken with milk to cure white vaginal discharge and excessive urination. A seed kernel paste can be taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery, and can be applied to a scorpion bite to neutralize the venom. The skin of a mature seed can be mixed with cumin and rock sugar, made into a powder and taken to cure dysentery.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of the species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Pharmacognostic characters and Thai ethnomedical use of this species are discussed in Somanabandhu et al. (1986). Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995) and Bekele-Tesemma (1993). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). The fruit yields some potassium tartrate, gelatin, citric acid, malic acid and glucides. All parts of the T. indica plant contain cyanogenic glycosides which cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested in large quantities (Lan et al. 1998).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

37. Tephrosia Pers

Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.

Names

Myanmar: me-yaing. English: bastard indigo, wild indigo.

Range

Southern Asia, Australia, tropical Africa, south to Natal; introduced in tropical America. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: Used as an anthelmintic and antipyretic.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used as a tonic for impotency and gonorrhea; a decoction, employed as a vermifuge, is made from the fruit. Oil obtained from the seeds is used for scabies, itch, eczema, and other skin diseases. The root is used for dyspepsia, diarrhea, rheumatism, fever, snakebite, asthma, urinary disorders, colic; also as a liniment on elephantiasis. An unspecified plant part is used as a tonic, laxative, and diuretic; also for bronchitis, febrile effects, bleeding piles, boils, and pimples (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

38. Xylia Benth

Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. (= X. dolabriformis Benth.)

Names

Myanmar: hpat, mai-salan, pkhay, praing, pran, prway, pyin, pyinkado. English: Burmese ironwood, irul.

Range

Native to Bangladesh, Cambodia, eastern India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Introduced into Africa, Philippines, Singapore. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used as an astringent. Seed: Oil used to treat rheumatism.

Notes

In India the bark is used to treat gonorrhea, diarrhea, stop vomiting, and as a vermifuge (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Gentianaceae (Gentian family)

1. Exacum L

Exacum tetragonum Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: pa-deing-ngo. English: bicolor Persian violet.

Range

India and China south to New Guinea. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Chin, Kachin, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Use

Whole plant: Used in a tonic for fever.

Note

In India the whole plant is used as a tonic for fevers and as a stomachic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Perry (1980).

2. Swertia L

Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex C.B.Clarke

Names

English: bitter stick, clearing nut tree, Indian gentian.

Range

Eastern Asia - Himalayas.

Uses

A bitter. Plant [part(s) not given] used as an aperient and as a tonic. Dried plant imported to Indo-China and Malaya where it is used as a febrifuge. Used with success in a majority of fevers, especially typhoid.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used as a bitter, stomachic, anthelmintic, febrifuge, as well as for malarial fever, asthma, and liver disorders. Also taken with sandalwood in a paste to heal internal hemorrhage of stomach. A decoction of the root (with root of Acorus calamus) is used as a remedy for intermittent fever, leprosy, leucoderma, scabies and other skin diseases. An unspecified plant part is used for gravel in urine, atrophy, bronchitis, consumption, gonorrhea, bleeding gums, emaciation, puerperal fever, and also cooling, and curing thirst, biliousness, and inflammation (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reported constituents include chiratin, chiratogenin, ophelic acid, resin, and tannin (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Hydroleaceae (Waterleaf family)

1. Hydrolea L

Hydrolea zeylanica (L.) Vahl

Name

English: Ceylon hydrolea.

Range

Tropical America, Africa, and southeastern Asia. In Myanmar, found in Bago and Yangon.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Leaf: Beaten to a pulp to make a dressing for foul ulcers (thought to have antiseptic and cleansing properties).

Notes

In Cambodia, India, Sri Lanka, and elsewhere, leaves are used for intestinal disorders; macerated leaves are applied as poultice to callous difficult ulcers for soothing and healing properties; also said to possess some antiseptic properties (Kham 2004).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Hypericaceae (Hypericum family)

1. Cratoxylum Blume

Cratoxylum formosum (Jacq.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Dyer (= C. prunifolium Dyer)

Names

Myanmar: bamachet, ma-chyangai, mye-mu-se, sa-thange-ohnauk. Thai: tiu khon tree.

Range

Tropical Asia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Lower Risk/least concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Bark, Leaf, Root: Given as a protective remedy to a women after childbirth.

Notes

Several species in the genus Cratoxylum appear to have some medicinal use. In Indo-China, the species C. pruniflorum is thought to have “marked digestive properties”, and, in combination with with Artemisia leaves, is administered to women in parturition (Perry 1980).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Lamiaceae (Mint family)

1. Callicarpa L

Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl

Names

Myanmar: daung-satpya, kyun-nalin, lahkylk, mai-hpa, mai-put, makpa nakeching, pebok, sigyi, tawngto-nao. English: beautyberry.

Range

China, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka. Thailand, and Vietnam. In Myanmar, found in Chin, Kachin, Kayin, and Sagaing.

Use

Bark: Provides a medication for skin disease. Root: Used as a stomachic.

Note

On the Malay Peninsula the pounded leaves are used to poultice sores and a decoction is drunk to relieve stomachache; in China this species is used by herbalists to treat influenza in infants (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

2. Clerodendrum L

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze (= C. siphonanthus R.Br.)

Names

Myanmar: ngayant patu, nygayan-padu. English: tubeflower.

Range

Temperate and tropical Asia; grows naturally all over Myanmar; especially reported from Kachin and Magway.

Uses

Resin: Used to treat syphilitic rheumatism. Leaf: Remedies made from the leaves are used for fevers and respiratory problems, including coughs; they are also used to improve menstrual flow and cleanse residual menstrual discharge. Boiled leaves made into salads are eaten to promote regularity. The leaves are also used to make de-worming medicines. Leaf and Root: Used in preparations to stimulate circulation, as well as to treat leprosy and female disorders; also for asthma and fever. Seed: Preparations are used to treat joint inflammation related to sexually transmitted diseases. Root: The paste mixed with ginger powder is ingested for lung infections. The root is also used as a component in medicines for male disorders, gonorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, aches, and pains.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Clerodendrum infortunatum L.

Names

English: hill glory bower.

Range

South and southeastern Asia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf and Root: Used as a febrifuge.

Notes

In India the leaf is used for headache; also ground with leaves of Commelina bengalensis and applied as a plaster for sores on head. The flower (ground with fresh shoots of Bombax ceiba, made into pills, and these smeared with cream from cow milk) is used for ulcers of the palate. The root is used for rheumatism; ground with black pepper and used for involuntary cramps; and ground with leaves, roots, bulb, and bark of various other species, and given to drink with refuse of molasses for gravel (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Indo-China this species is used in a decoction as a remedy for leucorrhea (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents of the leaves of this species include clerodin (anthemintic property); glycerides of linolenic, oleic, stearic, and lignoceric acids; a sterol; a proteinase; and a peptidase (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f.

Names

Myanmar: tike-pan, taik-pan-gyi. English: bag-flower, bleeding-heart vine, glory tree, tropical bleeding heart.

Range

West and West-Central tropical Africa. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Plant used for medicinal purposes (exact uses not given in Nordal 1963).

Notes

Other members of the genus are reported as used medicinally in India, China, Thailand, Korea, and Japan for the treatment of such diseases as syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice, and hypertension (Shrivastava and Patel 2007).

Major chemical compounds have been reported from this genus. These include phenolics, steroids, di- and tri-terpenes, flavonoids, volatile oils, etc. (Shrivastava and Patel 2007).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

3. Colebrookea Sm

Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm.

Names

Myanmar: chying-htawng-la. English: Indian squirrel tail, opposite-leaf drysophylia.

Range

China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand. In Myanmar, found in Chin and Kachin.

Uses

Root: Used to treat epilepsy and as an antiseptic.

Note

In India the stem is used for cough; the leaf to treat wounds and eye problems (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

4. Gmelina L

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: mai-saw, thebla, thun-vong, yemane. English: gmelina, gumhar, Malay bush-beech.

Range

From India to southeastern Asia.

Uses

Leaf: The juice is used as a treatment for ulcers. Root: Used as a stomachic.

Notes

In India the bark is used for cholera, swelling and choking in the throat (with garlic), rheumatism, epilepsy, dropsy, and anasarca, convulsion (with bark of Bauhinia purpurea), syphilis (with shoots, leaves and roots from a combination of species), bronchitis (with many plants), intoxication or stupor, bites of poisonous insects and other animals (with bark of two other plants), and diarrhea; the leaf is a carminative; and the root is used as a tonic, laxative, and for rheumatism (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China are discussed in Perry (1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

5. Leucas R.Br

Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.

Names

Myanmar: pin-gu-hteik-peik. English: gumma.

Range

Eastern Asia: Himalayas from Afghanistan to western China. In Myanmar, found in Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Kayah, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan, Taninthayi, and Yangon.

Uses

Whole plant: Used to treat bronchitis, asthma, dyspepsia, and jaundice. Headaches can be cured by brushing the forehead with the liquid from crushing all plant parts with a bit of pepper. The liquid can also be mixed with honey to cure coughs in children. The liquid from the plant boiled with one or two cloves will bring down fever. For jaundice and inability to produce semen, the plant can be utilized in several ways such as being boiled and taken; the liquid from crushing the plant taken; the root made into a paste or crushed and taken; the leaves, flowers and fruits eaten with a fish sauce dip, in a salad, or cooked. Leaf: Liquid from crushed leaves taken orally or poured into the nose will neutralize snake bite venom and cause its effects to wane. A little bit of the liquid from crushing the leaves mixed with peik-chin (Piper longum) fruit powder can be taken to cure inflammation of joints, tendons and ligaments. Use juice from crushed leaves as an ointment to cure itching.

Notes

In India the whole plant is used as a diaphoretic and stimulant; the juice for scabies. The leaf is used to treat dysentery and diarrhea; the flower for cough syrup and fever. A twig with flowers and seed is pounded in mustard oil and 2–3 drops are put in the ear to stop pus formation (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

6. Mentha L

Mentha arvensis L.

Names

Myanmar: payoke-aye, pusi-nan, budi-nan. English: corn mint, field mint, japanese mint, wild mint.

Range

Europe and Asia. Cultivated throughout Myanmar, but thrives most in temperate climates.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Sharp and efficacious in taste with fragrant smell. Whole plant: Five parts of the plant are used to control phlegm, help menstrual blood to descend, strengthen the kidneys, treat asthma, for liver and spleen diseases, and for inflammation of the joints. When the whole plant is dried, prevents thirst and fevers, aids digestion and promotes urination. The plant is used in making medicines to treat gas disorders, distended and bloated stomach, fevers, and muscle twitches. It cal also be boiled and taken to cure stomachaches. Leaf: Liquid obtained from leaves can be mixed with honey and licked to cure loose bowels. They can be boiled and taken to cure inflammation and aching joints, sore throat, and coughing. Boiled with dried ginger, they are used to treat colds. Crushed young leaves are used as an inhaler and to treat a dazed dizzy feeling, and also to clear the brain. Liquid from the leaf is rubbed on like an ointment to relieve aching eyes. Liquid from distilling them can be given to cure stomachaches in children and to treat hypertension. They can be chewed and pressed onto a cat’s bite to disinfect it. Adding leaves to an anti-nausea medicine will speed its action. The solid obtained from their oil is used as an additive in toothpaste and soap in order to augment their properties.

Notes

The medical uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985).

References

Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

7. Ocimum L

Ocimum americanum L. (= O. canum Sims)

Names

Myanmar: pin-sein, pin-sein hmway. English: hoary basil.

Range

Tropical and subtropical. Asia, tropical Africa. Found naturally all over country, especially in the hot zone. Grows up to 915 m altitude. Cultivated.

Uses

Can control gas and phlegm, congestion, and indigestion; can degrade bile. Plant also used as a diuretic. Whole plant: Used to treat skin diseases and as a febrifuge. Soaked in water and the steam inhaled to treat paralysis due to strokes and inflammation of the joints. Monkey meat can be roasted, and together with many basil leaves, used to treat lung disease, impotency, eye diseases, coughing, and asthma. Leaf: The juice obtained from crushing them used for coughs, skin disease, loss of appetite, and stomach pain due to gastritis. Leaves crushed and squeezed until liquid comes out and this brushed onto the temples and forehead to cure headaches. They can be stir fried with dried ngagyi chaul (Heteropneustes fossilis, a small freshwater catfish) to treat vomiting, fatigue in women, a prolapsed uterus, blockage of milk glands, itching of the body and limbs, pain in passing urine, and infections occurring after childbirth. To neutralize very venomous snake and other venomous bites, equal amounts of the leaves and pyin-daw (Clausena sp.), and basil leaves are crushed together and made into balls taken as pills, also crushed leaves are made into a poultice to place on the bites. Slightly smoked basil and betel (Piper betle) leaves crushed together with some tumeric powder are used as an ointment to treat children with hot foreheads. Seed: Equal parts of basil, sesame seeds, and jaggery are ground together and mixed with honey, made into balls the size of betel nuts, then swallowed twice a day to give relief from and cure diseases that occur in the intestine, heart, and kidney, as well as diseases producing excess gas and phlegm, toothaches, inflammation of the gums, hemorrhoids, too little urine, and skin diseases such as ringworm, scabies, and eczema. Seed: Dried, slightly crushed seeds, taken together with milk and sugar are used to treat urinary diseases and menstruation with coagulated blood. The seeds can be soaked in water and added to soft drinks to treat hepatitis, promote urination, and ease fatigue.

Note

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (= O. sanctum L.)

Names

Myanmar: kala-pi-sein, pin-sein-net. English: holy basil, sacred basil.

Range

Old World tropics. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used as an expectorant and stomachic; also, in a decoction, as a mild febrifuge and carminative for infant diarrhea. Seed: Used to treat kidney diseases. Root: Employed as a diaphoretic.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991) as follows: The leaf is used as a stimulant, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, expectorant; also for fever, hemiplegic, constipation, liver disorders, cough (with black pepper and rice), diarrhea, and colds; the oil for antibacterial and insecticidal purposes. An infusion is used for digestive problems. Also used locally for ringworm and earache. The seed is used as a demulcent, laxative, and for urinary problems. The root is used for sudden collapse and in a decoction for malaria as a diaphoretic. Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

Reported constituents of the volatile oil of O. tenuiflorum include methyl chavicol, cineole, linalool, methyl homo-antisic acid, caryophyllene, eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, and carvacrol. The mucilage contains hexuronic acid, pentoses, and ash; also, after hydolysis, xylose (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

8. Orthosiphon Benth

Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (= O. stamineus Benth.)

Names

Myanmar: hsee-cho, thagyar makike, si-cho. English: cat’s whiskers, Java tea, kidney tea plant.

Range

Temperate and tropical Asia, Australia. Found cultivated throughout Myanmar.

Uses

This plant is most well-known as a diuretic and as a medicine for diabetes.

Leaf: Prepared as a herbal tea to alleviate kidney disorders, bladder diseases, and urinary problems as well as to treat aching joints.

Notes

In India the leaf is used as a diuretic, for nephrosis, and for edema; also used in an infusion for kidney and bladder diseases and rheumatism (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). The medicinal uses of the species from Taiwan south to Palau, in the Philippines, and on the Malay Penisula are discussed in Perry (1980).

Reported chemical constituents include a glucoside and orthosiphon. The leaves contain volatile and essential oils; both the leaves and stems have a high potassium content, urea, and ureids (Perry 1980). An extract of the leaf has been found to lower blood sugar (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

9. Pogostemon Desf

Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (= P. patchouli Pellet.)

Names

Myanmar: thanat-pyit-see. English: patchouli.

Range

Native of southeastern Asia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used to treat kidney and bladder diseases. Used in making diuretics and medicines to cure shooting pains in the stomach. Juice taken with small amount of marijuana leaves when there is blood in the urine. Juice taken to relieve pain during menstruation.

Notes

In India an infusion of the leaf is used for menstrual troubles (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the whole plant is used for abdominal pain, cold, diarrhea, halitosis, headache, and nausea (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Medicinal uses of the species in China, on the Malay Peninsula, and in the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

The species has been used in China for 100 years. The branches and leaves of P. cablin (introduced into China) are used as drug which is considered superior to the commercial drug consisting of dried aerial parts of Agastache rugosa (cultivated in China). The drug is considered carminative, stomachic, antivinous, antiemetic, and depurtive. It is useful in treating influenza and colds, headache, indigestion, fever, cholera, and the nausea of pregnancy (Perry 1980).

The whole plant is antiseptic and the oil is bactericidal (Duke and Ayensu 1985). The chemical constituents of its volatile oil include patchouli alcohol, cadinene, coerulein, benzaldehyde, and eugenal (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

10. Premna L

Premna amplectens Wall. ex Schauer

Names

Myanmar: sagale-amauk, yinbya-byu, wee-ek, hpak-si-so. English: surfacea, tatea.

Range

Pakistan and Sri Lanka to Myanmar. Now also in other Southeast Asian countries. Reported from Myanmar.

Uses

Root: Used as a decoction after childbirth.

Notes

Most members of this genus are employed in the treatment of fever; also headache, stomachache, and toothache. Other frequent uses are as a diuretic and laxative, for cold and cough, and also for boils (Duke 2009).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Premna mollissima Roth (= P. latifolia Roxb.)

Names

Myanmar: kyetyo, kyun-nalin, seiknan-gyi. English: black plum.

Range

China, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Use

Root: A paste of the root is used for a local application after parturition.

Notes

In India the stem-bark is used for ringworm and blisters in the mouth; the leaf as a diuretic and for dropsy; and the root for syphilis and gonorrhea (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses of this species in China, Indo-China, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solmon Islands are discussed in Perry (1980).

The bark of the trunk contains two alkaloids, premnine and ganiarin. Premnine has bee found to lessen the force of heart contraction and dilate the pupils of the eyes (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Premna serratifolia L. (= P. integrifolia L.)

Names

Myanmar: kywe-thwe, taung-tangyi.

Range

Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), India. In Myanmar, found in Mandalay, Rakhine, Taninthayi.

Uses

Whole Plant: Decoction used to treat fever, neuralgia, and rheumatism. Root and Stem Bark: Used as laxative, carminative, stomachic. Root: Used to treat diabetes and liver complaints.

Note

In India the leaf is used as a carminative, galactagogue, and in a decoction for flatulence and colic; the root is used as a laxative, stomachic, tonic, and is a component of the Ayurvedic drug dasmula used for fever (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Forest Department (1999).

11. Rotheca Raf

Rotheca incisa (Klotzsch) Steane & Mabb. (= Clerodendrum macrosiphon Hook f.)

Names

Myanmar: ngayan-padu. English: tubeflower.

Range

Tropical Africa. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used in treating venereal diseases.

Notes

In Africa, leaf-sap and a root-decoction are drunk as an anti-malarial (Burkill 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (= Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon)

Names

Myanmar: bebya, begyo, yinbya, yinbya-net, prang-gadawn (Kachin). English: blue fountain bush.

Range

South and southeastern Asia, and eastern Africa. Found growing naturally throughout the country, but especially in Upper Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Boiled lightly in water, the leaves are eaten in salads to relieve female-related disorders. New mothers eat the boiled-leaf salads to support healing, increase strength, and promote lactation. Leaf and Root: Used in preparations for fever, asthma, coughs, colds, and infected sores. They are also used to stimulate the appetite, improve digestion, and expel uterine leiomyomas. Root: For fevers and colds, they are crushed and brewed with water; used in a decoction after childbirth. Oil from cooking the roots is filtered and applied around the eyes to treat inflammation, itching, and infections. A mixture of- the roots with equal amounts of dried ginger and coriander seeds is boiled to half the starting volume and the reduction is ingested in the mornings and evenings to relieve bloating and nausea; one part powdered roots with 12 parts yogurt is boiled to half the starting volume and taken in small amounts in the mornings and evenings to alleviate edema; equal amounts of the powdered roots and powdered, dried ginger is taken with fresh ginger juice for colds, asthma, whooping cough, and bronchitis. To treat internal inflammations, such as those caused by diphtheria, and cysts arising from other conditions, a paste made from the powdered roots and rice washing water is applied externally at frequent intervals. Note: The powdered roots must be consumed only in very small amounts ranging from ~1.0 g to ~3.0 g.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). The plant’s medicinal uses in Indo-China, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

12. Salvia L

Salvia officinalis L.

Names

English: common sage, garden sage, kitchen sage, sage.

Range

Northern and central Spain to West Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Species used as a topical antiseptic and orally as a carminative and spasmolytic. Leaf: Used as a diaphoretic and stomachic.

Notes

The species is astringent, a stimulant, and is put into a gargle for sore throat (Perry 1980). In India the species is used for thrush and gingivitis; an infusion is used as a gargle and diaphoretic (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

The leaf and tops of young shoots yield an oil, which is carminative (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

13. Tectona L.f

Tectona grandis L.f.

Names

Myanmar: kyun, kyun-pin, mai-sak (Kachin), pahi (Kayin), klor (Chin), mai-sa-lan (Shan). English: teak.

Range

Asia: India and Myanmar to Java, occasional on other islands. Species grows naturally throughout Myanmar below 915 m altitude.

Uses

Bark: Used as an astringent. Water from soaking the bark overnight is given for white vaginal discharge. Liquid from soaking bark powder in warm water is ingested for chronic diarrhea. A paste made from ground bark is applied topically to relieve bloating and edema related to gall bladder problems. A second paste, made from ground bark powder mixed with cashew nut oil, is also applied topically to relieve inflammation. A third paste, made from the ground bark, ground charcoal, and rice cooking water, is applied repeatedly to treat herpes. Bark, Wood, Fruit: Components of medicines used to reduce phlegm, cure gonorrhea, treat leprosy, alleviate bloating, and stop hemorrhaging. Wood: Pul-verized and used on swellings. Fruit: A paste, made by grinding the fruit with cooking oil, is used to alleviate itching and rashes. A second paste, made by grinding the fruit with rice washing water, is applied topically to clear clogged milk glands. Finely crushed fruit is cooked, applied as a poultice over the navel, and bound there with a cloth to treat urinary problems. Oil of fruit is used as a remedy for skin diseases. Root: Used to treat urinary discharges.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of this species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines (where introduced) are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).

14. Vitex L

Vitex glabrata R.Br.

Names

Myanmar: mak-lok-kaing, panameikli, tauksha, thauk-kya. English: blackberry tree, smooth chastetree.

Range

Bangladesh, India; Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore; Australia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere. Reported from Myanmar.

Use

Bark and Root: Used as an astringent.

Note

In India the bark and root are used as an astringent (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Vitex negundo L.

Names

Myanmar: kyaungban-gyi. English: five-leaved chaste tree, Indian privit.

Range

Southeastern Africa, Madagascar, eastern and southeastern Asia, Philippine Islands, Guam; naturalized in Florida.

Use

Fruit: Used as a sedative.

Notes

In China the stem-twigs are decocted for burns and scalds, and a twig infusion is used for anxiety, convulsions, cough, headache, and vertigo; the leaf is astringent, sedative, used for cholera, eczema, and gravel; the fruit for angina, cold, cough, deafness, gonorrhea, hernia, leucorrhea, and rheumatic difficulties; the root for colds and rheumatic ailments. The plant is also said to prevent malaria, and is used for bacterial dysentery and chronic bronchitis (Duke and Ayensu 1985). The medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Palau are discussed in Perry (1980).

The leaves are bactericidal and insecticidal, and yield essential oil with aldehydes and ketones, phenolic derivatives, and cineol (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Vitex trifolia L.

Names

Myanmar: kyaung-pan. English: Indian wild pepper.

Range

Asia to Australia. Found growing in warmer parts of Myanmar, up to 915 m altitude.

Uses

Leaf: Used to treat skin infections, disorders of the spleen, and rheumatism. Also used in preparations to regulate menstruation and bowel function, stimulate healing of sores, control fevers, neutralize poisons, and promote vitality. The crushed leaf juice and stir-fried leaves are used to treat varicose veins and other circulatory conditions. The leaf juice is applied topically to heal chronic sores; mixed with a bit of sesame oil and honey, and swabbed inside the ear to alleviate earaches and to clear ear infection; taken by itself for skin conditions and together with the juice from ground roots of thet-yin-gyi (Croton persimilis) for bloating and edema. Water from boiling the leaves is ingested for weakness and weight loss, malaria, menstrual problems, and conditions related to birthing, as well as for coughs and colds in infants and young children. A salad of the leaves mixed with garlic is eaten to relieve bloating, indigestion, and dysentery. Pillows stuffed with the dried leaves are used for insomnia and brain conditions. Leaf and Flower: Used as febrifuge and emetic. Root: Ground, and a paste made from them is given to children for ingesting or inhaling to reduce fever and treat cooking fume-related sickness.

Notes

The medicinal uses of the species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of the species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu (1985). Perry (1980) covers the medicinal uses of the species in the Malay Peninsula, Korea, China, and Indo-China, and Mongolia.

The essential oil of this species yields camphene, and pinene, terpenylacetate; the leaves contain aucubin, agunuside, casticin, orientin, isoorientin, and luteolin-7-glucoside; and the fruit contains vitricine. Leaf extracts have been found to inhibit the tuberculosis organism and also show anti-cancer activity (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

15. Volkameria L

Volkameria inermis L. (= Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn.)

Names

Myanmar: kywe-yan-nge, pinle-kyauk-pan. English: garden quinine, glory bower.

Range

Seacoast. South and southeastern Asia, Australia, and Pacific Islands. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf and Root: Used in fumigation after childbirth and for asthma and fever; also for scrofulous and venereal infections.

Notes

In India the fruit is used for infertility; the root for venereal disease (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the leaf is used as a depurative, a wash for skin diseases, and as a decoction for beri-beri; the seed is employed as an antidote for poisonous fish, crabs, etc. The plant is used in Guam and Samoa for fever, headache, hematemesis, pneumonia, stomachache, and wounds; and in the Solomon Islands, fumes from the steaming leaves are used to treat eye ailments, including blindness. Elsewhere the species is used for opthalmia and rheumatism (Duke and Ayensu 1985). Medicinal uses of this species in South China, Taiwan, Palau, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Solomon Islands are discussed in Perry (1980).

The leaves contain an alkaloid-like compound, sterols, an aliphatic alcohol, an aliphatic ketone with glucose, fructose, sacccharose, resin, and gum (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Lauraceae (Laurel family)

1. Cinnamomum Schaeff

Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet (= C. obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees)

Names

Myanmar: na-lin-gyaw, maza (Kachin), nakzik (Chin), hman-thein, lulin-gyaw, tauku-ywe, thit-kyabo. English: wild cassia.

Range

Tropical and temperate Asia. Grows naturally throughout Myanmar, with the exception of the hot zone; especially found in Bago, Mandalay, and Sagaing.

Uses

Note: The interaction of the bark powder with jaggery can be fatal. Use of the bark powder for any treatment requires avoiding consumption of jaggery and all other sweet foods. Bark: Both the tree and root bark “open up vapors” and have cooling properties with activity against toxins. The ground bark is mixed with water and a small amount of salt to make a paste applied topically to deliver vapors of the medicine to alleviate scorpion stings and spider bites, aching body parts, areas of inflammation, and itchy patches. The paste is also applied externally or taken orally for other conditions, including exposure to detrimental cooking fumes, illnesses caused by persistent sores, and high fever with delirium. The paste with added salt is ingested for constipation. Bark, formed into balls with cooked rice, is toasted and soaked in water; the water from soaking is then used to make bark paste, which is taken for stomach bloating and distension, as well as for diarrhea. Bark paste made with water is given as a treatment for diphtheria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, severe diarrhea, female malaise, weakness, and fatigue. Bark paste made with commercially available menthol balm is applied topically or taken orally for problems experienced by those over the age of 50, including limb heaviness, aches and pains, tingling of the knees from excessive movement, pins and needles from sitting too long, and fatigue from exertion. Liquid from boiled bark is used as a wash for to accelerate healing of sores caused by threadworm infections. The paste is applied topically, in a circle around the eyes, as a remedy for aching eyes and dimming vision. A mixture of the powder and lemongrass powder is applied topically to alleviate soreness of breasts and taken orally to heal inflammation in the liver, lungs, and intestines. Bark powder is also inhaled to clear stuffy noses and sinus infections. A mixture of bark powder and water reserved from washing rice is used as a remedy for gonorrhea, intestinal and urinary infections, heart irregularities, dry lips, and dry throat.

Note

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Names

Myanmar: payuk, payoke-pin. English: camphor, camphor tree.

Range

China, Taiwan, Japan. Cultivated all over Myanmar; also, grows naturally in the temperate northern parts of the country.

Uses

Wood and Leaf: Serve as an antispasmodic, diaphoretic, and stimulant. Leaf: Oil extracted from leaves is mixed with shein-kho (Gardenia resinifera) and made into pellets taken during an asthma attack. The oil is also used in making medicines to treat dizziness, aches and pains, and various male and female related disorders. Camphor is placed on the teeth to relieve toothaches. It can be crushed with water and applied on scorpion sting; and, soaked in rose water, it is given orally to treat arsenic poisoning.

Notes

Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985). The medicinal uses of the species in Korea, China, and Indo-China are discussed in Perry (1980).

Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm.

Names

Myanmar: thit-jaboe. English: Ceylon cinnamon.

Range

Himalayas, in Bhutan, India, Nepal, and West Pakistan. In Myanmar, a cultivar that thrives in Tanintharyi Division, upper Chindwin, northern Shan State, Bamaw, and Rakhine State.

Use

Bark: Effective against disorders of bile, diarrhea, excessive bleeding, sweating, vomiting, nausea and motion sickness. Taking the bark powder together with Acacia catechu cures diarrhea. A paste of the bark is mixed with other medicines and given to patients to cure influenza, coughing, lack of semen, and dysentery. Boiled and drunk, it can cure dysentery. Oil: Pressed into an aching tooth to cure the pain. The oil can be used as ear drops to treat earaches. Up to 2–4 drops of the oil can be taken to treat bloated stomachs. About 2 drops of the oil can be given two to three times a day to treat typhoid.

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (= C. zeylanicum Blume)

Names

Myanmar: hmanthin, thit-kyabo. English: cinnamon.

Range

Sri Lanka and southwestern India. Found growing naturally not only in evergreen tropical forests, but also in other places around Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used as a digestive and aphrodisiac. Seed: A paste made from the seeds used around the eyes to treat eye disorders. The paste taken with a liquid such as yogurt for seven days is used to treat chronic diarrhea. Taken with milk, it is used to treat gonorrhea. Paste made with distilled water can be taken to control excessive urination. A small amount of seed ash together with sugar is used for hemorrhoids.

Notes

Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and India are discussed in Perry (1980),

The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage, and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000). Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition, and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke (1986).

“The bark is official in many modern pharmacopeias.” and the species has been used in medicine and as a spice since ancient times. Reported constituents of its volatile oil include cinnamic aldehyde, hydrcinnamic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, cuminic aldehyde, nonylic aldehyde, eugenol, caryophyllene, 1-phellandrine, p-cymene, pinene, methyl-n-amyl ketone, and 1-linalol (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Laxmanniaceae (Laxmannia family)

1. Cordyline Comm. ex R.Br

Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A. Chev. (= C. terminalis (L.) Kunth)

Names

Myanmar: zawgyi taung whay pin, zawma, kone-line, kun-linne. English: boundary mark, dragon’s blood, ti plant.

Range

Eastern Asia, East Indies and South Pacific Islands to Hawaii. Found throughout Myanmar, especially Mandalay and Shan; cultivated.

Uses

Whole plant: The plant’s five parts are stewed with sugar and taken to restore regular menstruation; boiled, mixed with the water from boiling kazun-ywet (Ipomoea aquatica) leaves with sugar, and taken daily for lung ailments; or crushed for juice, which is mixed with ginger and jaggery syrup in equal parts to make a tonic taken by women to treat menopausal symptoms, clear the complexion, and for stamina and overall health. Leaf: The leaves of the plant, an astringent with cooling properties, are boiled in water and taken for vomiting of blood, passing of blood, and hemorrhaging. To regulate the bowels, the leaves are stewed with sugar and ingested, or water from boiling the roots is taken. For intestinal and liver inflammation, the leaves are stewed with jaggery. Tender young leaves are eaten as a remedy for dysentery or as a bowel regulator. Boiled with human milk, the leaves are taken for lung, liver, and kidney infections. For chest pains, leaves are boiled with cow’s milk. Root: As treatment for nosebleeds and sinusitis, the roots are made into a paste and inhaled. A root paste is also used for wet and dry scabies, as well as for sores and cracks in the groin; mixed with a bit of salt, the root paste makes an ointment to heal tongue sores. Stem: Rhizome used in diarrhea and dysentery.

Note

In India the rhizome is eaten with betel (Piper betle) nut to cure diarrhea (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Lecythidaceae (Brazil-nut family)

1. Barringtonia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst

Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn.

Names

Myanmar: kyi, kyi-ni, ye-kyi. English: Indian oak.

Range

India to northern Australia. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Leaf: Used to treat dysentery and diarrhea. Fruit: Used for blood diseases. Seed: Used to treat opthalmia. Root: An aperient.

Notes

In India a decoction of the bark is used as a mouthwash for toothache and gum pain; the stem is used for toothache; leaf juice is used for diarrhea; the fruit is used for nasal catarrh; the seed for liver problems; and an unspecified part, in a mixture with herbs, is used to treat cholera (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Medicinal uses of the species in Indo-China and the Philippines are discussed in Perry (1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

2. Careya Roxb

Careya arborea Roxb.

Names

Myanmar: bambwe, hou-no, mai-pinngo, sangawn-gmawt, thelaw. English: patana oak, slow match tree, tummy wood.

Range

Myanmar to the Malay Peninsula. Widely distributed in Myanmar.

Uses

Bark: Used to treat snakebite. Leaf: Used to treat ulcers.

Notes

In India the bark is used for snakebite; the flower for prolapsus ani and fistula ani, also in preparations for cold and cough (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Indo-China the bark is an ingredient in an emollient embrocation utilized as an antipyretic and antipruritic during the eruption of smallpox and chickenpox (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Liliaceae (Lily family)

1. Fritillaria L

Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don (= F. roylei Hook.)

Names

Myanmar: gamone-kyet-thon-phyu, gamon-kyeethun-phyu, machit oo, machyit (Kachin). English: fritillaria.

Range

Eastern Asia - Himalayas. Cultivated in Myanmar. Found abundantly in Kachin State and other northern parts covered in ice; plants live under the ice and emerge only with melting of the ice.

Uses

Root (Bulb): With a bitter yet savory taste, the bulbs are said to promote longevity. They are considered very important to humans, and help to increase waning body heat. The plant is used to prevent and alleviate sores, asthma, anemia, dry coughs, cysts, problems with blood vessels and varicose veins; also aching joints, urination problems, chronic illnesses, and fevers. To cure asthma and leprosy, the bulb is powdered, boiled together with orange (tangerine) skin, and ingested. One teaspoon of a mixture of bulb powder soaked in half a large bottle (most likely 750 ml) of honey is taken (once in the morning and once at night) for male-related conditions. The bulb powder is also used to promote good sleep, appetite, and longevity.

Notes

The species has been recorded as medicinally useful for abcess, snakebite and as a scorpion and spider antidote; as an expectorant and for cough, asthma, fever, eye, viscera; labor, lactogogue; rheumatism, dysuria, hemorrhage, marrow, cancer, tuberculosis, syphilis; poison (Duke 2009). In China there are at least seven species of Fritillaria, all used in the same way. The bulbs are considered to be “especially good for the lungs” and to dissolve phlegm; they are also used to treat swollen throat (Peritonsillar abscess) (Perry 1980).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Linaceae (Flax family)

1. Linum L

Linum usitatissimum L.

Names

Myanmar: bi-thawar, hnan-kyat, migyaung-kumbat, paiksan. English: flax, linseed.

Range

Probably Asia; an ancient cultigen, widely grown in temperate regions for fiber, and seed for linseed oil. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Seed: Used to treat ulcers and for production of linseed oil; oil used as a base for ointments.

Notes

In India the bark and leaf are used to treat gonorrhea; the flower is a cardiac tonic and nervine; dried ripe seeds are used as a demulcent poultice for rheumatism and gout, as well as employed internally for gonorrhea and urinogenital irritations; and the seed’s oil is mixed with limewater and applied to burns (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the whole plant and its oil are used in making medicines; the seed is used for emollient cataplasm and catarrh; and oilseed cake is used to treat mental deficiencies in adolescents (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

The oilseed cake contains the amino acid arginine and 4% dry weight glutamic acid. L-glutamic acid is used in its free state in the treatment of metal deficiencies in infants and adolescents (Perry 1980). The genus Linum contains the anti-cancer agents 3’-demethylpodophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin, and beta-sitosterol (Duke and Ayensu 1985).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

Loganiaceae (Strychnine family)

1. Strychnos L

Strychnos potatorum L.f.

Names

Myanmar: khabaung yay-kyi, mango-taukpa-tit (Mon). English: clearing nut tree, water-filter nut.

Range

Tropical Africa, tropical Asia, especially eastern India and eastern Myanmar. Found growing naturally not only in evergreen tropical forests, but also elsewhere around the country.

Uses

Note: This plant can cause blindness; caution is required to avoid contact with the eyes when using it to treat eye disorders and other conditions.

Seed: Astringent and sweet, the easily digestible seeds are known to clarify water (similar to alum) and to relieve thirst and heat, neutralize poison, alleviate eye infections, and kill germs. A paste made from the ground seeds is applied topically in a circle around the eyes to treat eye disorders, improve vision, and clear blood spotting from the whites of the eyes; combined with honey it is applied topically in a circle around the eyes for cataracts. A mixture of seed paste with liquid yogurt taken for seven days is considered a cure for chronic, treatment-resistant diarrhea. A mixture of milk and seed paste is given as a remedy for gonorrhea. A mixture of seed ash and sugar is taken to alleviate bleeding hemorrhoids. The paste made with distilled water is used to treat excessive urination. Powdered seed coats are used to induce vomiting and treat dysentery.

Note

In India a paste made from the root is applied locally to painful areas (mainly due to internal injury); the seed is used for a tonic, demulcent, stomachic, sedative, emetic and also for diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and eye troubles (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Agricultural Corporation (1980).

Strychnos wallichiana Steud. ex A.DC. (= S. cinnamomifolia Thwaites)

Name

Chinese: chang zi ma quia.

Range

China, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. In Myanmar, found in Bago and Mandalay.

Uses

Root: Used to treat elephantiasis and epilepsy.

Note

In India a decoction made from the root is used for elephantiasis, ulcers, rheumatism, epilepsy, and fever (Jain and DeFilipps 1991).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Lythraceae (Henna family)

1. Lagerstroemia L

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.

Names

Myanmar: pyinma-ywetthey. English: queen’s crape myrtle.

Range

India to Southeast Asia and Australia.

Uses

Bark and Leaf: Purgative. Leaf: Used to treat diabetes. Seed: A narcotic. Root: Astringent.

Notes

In India the bark and leaf are used as a purgative; the fruit is applied locally for aphthae of the mouth; the seed is used as a narcotic; and the root as a febrifuge, stimulant, and astringent (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In Indo-China the root and bark are used as an astringent, and the leaves and fruit have hypoglycemic properties in treating diabetes mellitus. On the Malay Peninsula a decoction of the bark is ingested to treat abdominal pain and dysentery; the leaves are made into poultices to treat malaria and cracked feet. In Indonesia a cold infusion of the bark is used to treat diarrhea. In the Philippines the leaves are pounded or rubbed with salt and applied to the forehead and temples as a remedy for headache; a decoction of the old leaves and ripe fruit, taken orally, is considered to be the best antidiabetic part of the plant (if not available, younger and mature leaves can be used as a substitute); a decoction of the bark is drunk for hematuria, and that of the roots is drunk for jaundice as well as during puerperium (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents of leaves include tannin, glucose, and an antidiabetic principle; also an unnamed alkaloid has been found in the seed (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

2. Punica L

Punica granatum L.

Names

Myanmar: thale. English: pomegranate.

Range

Southeastern Europe to South Asia. Also naturalized, and widespread in cultivation.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Fruit: Used as an anthelmintic and astringent.

Notes

The plant is widely cultivated for its edible fruit and medicinal uses: The bark is used in a gargle for sore throat, bad breath, and as a wash for nosebleed (for the first two illnesses a decoction of the rind is used); a decoction of tender leaves serves as a gargle and another of the leaves and roots is drunk as a remedy for irregular menses; a plaster of the crushed leaves is applied to itch; crushed stem is similarly used; the fruit is rich in tannin (and thus astringent); a decoction of the rinds or fruit is used for diarrhea and dysentery and may also be applied as a wash or an injection against hemorrhoid and leucorrhea; the buds, flowers, and bark of the flowers mixed with sesame oil makes a dressing for burns; the fruit is both bechic and laxative; the root bark is used throughout the East as a specific for tapeworm, and is also anthelmintic against other intestinal worms (Perry 1980).

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Medicinal uses of the species in China are discussed by Duke and Ayensu (1985).

Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor (1990). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999).

The bark contains the alkaloids pelletierine, isopelletierine, methylpelletierine, pseudopelletierine, and considerable tannin; it has also been reported that the plant has a bacteriostatic effect (Perry 1980). Seeds and leaves of Punica granatum contain the hepatotoxic compound punicalagin, an oestrogenic chemical known as oestrone, and a form of pelletierine which is used for the expulsion of tapeworms (Lan et al.1998).

The chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and traditional medicinal uses of this plant on a worldwide basis are discussed in detail by Ross (1999). A pharmacognostical profile including medicinal uses of this plant in Africa is given in Iwu (1993). Data on the propagation, seed treatment and agricultural management of this species are given by Katende et al. (1995). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000).

References

Nordal (1963), Perry (1980).

3. Woodfordia Salisb

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

Names

Myanmar: pan-le, panswe, pattagyi, yetkyi. English: fire-flame bush, loosestrife, woodfordia.

Range

Southeast Asia, including Madagascar, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, China, and Indonesia. In Myanmar found in Chin and Mandalay.

Conservation status

Lower Risk/least concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Use

Flower: Used to treat bowel complaints.

Notes

On the Malay Peninsula the species is as an ingredient of a preparation to make a barren women fertile, a powder spread on a mother’s abdomen, and a drink given at the time of childbirth. In Indonesia the charred and pulverized fruit-bearing twigs provide an astringent powder sprinkled on wounds, and on the navel cord of newborn babies; the flower, leaf and fruit are used as an astringent to treat dysentery and sprue, as a diuretic against rheumatism, and also in treating dysuria and hematuria (Perry 1980).

Reported constituents include a tannin and a red pigment (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Magnoliaceae (Magnolia family)

1. Magnolia L

Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre (= Michelia champaca L.)

Names

Myanmar: saka-wah, chyamka, laran (Kachin), kyom par (Mon), sam lung, mawk (Shan). English: golden champak, michelia, yellow champak.

Range

Temperate and tropical Asia. Plant grows naturally in Myanmar.

Conservation status

Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).

Uses

Plant sweet and astringent with cooling properties, the flowers, leaves, fruits, bark, and roots are employed in medicines to increase sperm, promote heart function, and control bile and phlegm, as well as in preparations to alleviate vomiting and hemorrhaging of blood, urethral pain, leprosy, poisoning, itching, rashes, and sores. Bark: Used as an antidote, anthelmintic, and diuretic; to treat intermittent fever; also used in medicines to treat leprosy. The powdered bark is mixed with honey and licked to cure dry coughs. A decoction of bark is used as a remedy for chronic gas disorders and inflammation of the joints. Leaf: Used to treat colic. Water from soaking the young leaves is used as eye drops to cleanse the eyes and strengthen vision. A mixture of the juice from the crushed leaves and honey is given to ease chest pain and expel parasites, including threadworm and roundworm. Flower: Used to treat leprosy. A mixture of the crushed flowers and cold water is used as a diuretic and as a remedy for urinary tract and bladder problems. A decoction of the flowers is taken for gastric pain, gas disorders, kidney conditions, and gonorrhea. Fruit: The skin of the fruit is used in medicines to treat leprosy. Fruit, Seed: A paste made with water and either the fruits or the seeds is applied to heal cysts and boils on the thighs. Root: A mixture of yogurt with the crushed dried root or bark is applied as a poultice to heal sores.

Notes

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991). Perry (1980) gives the medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia.

Reported chemical constituents of the species include volatile oil, cineole, isoeugenol, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, p-cresol methyl ether, and alkaloid (alkaloid of the bark tested and found to not be poisonous) (Perry 1980).

References

Nordal (1963), Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980), Forest Department (1999).

Malpighiaceae (West Indian Cherry family)

1. Hiptage Gaertn

Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz

Names

Myanmar: bein-nwe, nwe-nathan-gwin. English: hiptage.

Range

Sri Lanka, southeastern Asia, Philippine Islands, Taiwan. From Myanmar to Timor. Cultivated in the tropics.

Uses

Bark: A bitter. Leaf: Used as a remedy for skin diseases.

Notes

In Indonesia the pounded bark is applied to fresh wounds (Perry 1980).

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps (1991).

A glycoside-like substance, hiptagin, has been found in this species (Perry 1980).

Reference

Perry (1980).

Malvaceae (Mallow family)

1. Abelmoschus Medik

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (= Hibiscus esculentus L.)

Names

Myanmar: yonbade. English: lady’s finger, wild okra.

Range

Tropical Asia. Cultivated in Myanmar.

Uses

Fruit: Used as stomachic and emollient.

Notes

In India the root is used in a decoction for impotency (Jain and DeFilipps 1991). Indigenous medicinal uses of this species in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) are described by Dagar and Singh (1999). Perry (1980) discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, and the Philippines.

Medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997).

Reference

Nordal (1963).

Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.

Names

Myanmar: balu-wah<