Research Article
Research Article
Lysimachia tianmaensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Anhui, China
expand article infoYing Wang, Wen Ma§, Shoubiao Zhou, Kun Liu
‡ Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China
§ Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China
Open Access


A new species of Lysimachia (Primulaceae), Lysimachia tianmaensis K. Liu, S.B. Zhou & Ying Wang sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Jinzhai County, Anhui, China. It is endemic to Dabieshan Mountain, China. The new species has yellow flowers and belongs to the subgenus Lysimachia section Nummularia series Grammicae. It is very easily distinguishable from other related species by having alternate leaves with brown patches beneath and an auriculated leaf base.


Lysimachia , species nova, China, taxonomy


Lysimachia Linnaeus is one of the largest genera of Primulaceae s. l. and it comprises about 200 species, mainly distributed in the temperate and subtropical parts of the northern hemisphere, as well as in some tropical mountain regions (Chen and Hu 1979, Hu and Kelso 1996, Marr and Bohm 1997, Hao et al. 2004, Julius et al. 2016). On the whole, it is almost cosmopolitan, but the greatest concentration of the species occurs in China (with ca. 140 species; Chen et al. 1989, Hu and Kelso 1996). Some new species in Lysimachia are still being found (Peng and Hu 1999, Shao et al. 2004, Shao et al. 2006, Zhang et al. 2006, Yan and Hao 2012, Liu et al. 2014a, 2014b, Estes et al. 2015, Zhou et al. 2015, Baskose et al. 2016, Julius et al. 2016).

In 2007, during the course of checking specimens in the herbaria of Anhui Normal University, a specimen of Lysimachia caught the authors’ attention. This plant was collected by Shen in 1983 from Jinzhai County, Anhui Province and was not identified. This plant has alternate leaves and an obvious broadly-winged petiole with an auriculate base. It should thus represent an undescribed species, as this character combination is not known from any other species. In 2008–2009, the authors made several botanical expeditions to Tianma Nature Reserve, in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province. Many populations of this plant were found bearing flowers or fruits there. In this paper, this plant and related species were comparatively studied.

Materials and methods

Vouchers of Lysimachia tianmaensis were collected from Tianma National Nature Reserve of Anhui. Gross morphology and phenology data were obtained during the field expedition. Descriptions were collected from living plants.


Lysimachia tianmaensis K. Liu, S.B. Zhou & Ying Wang, sp. nov.

Figures 1, 2, 3


CHINA. Anhui Province: Jinzhai County, Tianma National Nature Reserve, growing at margins of mountain roads, elevation ca. 1165 m, 1 June 2009 (fl.), Kun Liu 2009042 (holotype: ANUB!; isotypes: ANUB!, IBK!).


Lysimachia tianmaensis is similar to Lysimachia grammica Hance in the alternate leaves, but differs by having a larger blade with brown patches beneath, an auriculate leaf base and subcapitate inflorescences.


Herbs perennial, 15–45 cm tall. Stems often many, erect or arcuate at base, terete, simple or short branched, with tangled multicellular hairs. Leaves alternate, occasionally opposite on lower part; petiole 3–25 mm, broadly winged, base auriculate on leaves from middle and lower part of stems and branches. Leaf blades ovate to ovate-elliptic, rarely ovate-lanceolate, 1.5–5.5 × 1.0–3.5 cm, abaxially multicellular hairs, brown patches, adaxially pubescent, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, apex acute to subobtuse; veins 2 or 3 pairs, inconspicuous. Flowers solitary, in axils of apically diminished leaves, often in shortened, nearly capitate inflorescences at apex of stems and branches. Pedicel densely covered with multicellular hairs; lowest pedicels 2–3 cm, gradually reduced in length in upper flowers, recurved in fruit. Calyx lobes ovate-lanceolate, 6–7 × 1–1.4 mm, abaxially sparsely pubescent. Corolla yellow; tube 0.5–1 mm; lobes ovate or rhomboid-ovate, 8–11 × 5–7.5 mm, transparent glandular. Filaments connate basally into a 0.5–1 mm high ring, free parts 2.5–3 mm; anthers dorsifixed, opening by lateral slits. Ovary pubescent; style 5–6 mm. Capsule subglobose, 3.5–5 mm in diam. Fl. Apr–Jun.

Figure 1. 

Lysimachia tianmaensis sp. nov. (A) the upper part in flowering period B opened corolla showing stamens C pistil and calyx. Scale bars = 1 cm.

Figure 2. 

Holotype sheet of Lysimachia tianmaensis sp. nov.

Figure 3. 

Lysimachia tianmaensis sp. nov. A plant in flowering B flower C young fruit D leaves showing winged petiole with auriculate base E blades showing brown patches abaxially F habit in flowering.

Additional collection

CHINA. Anhui Province: Jinzhai County, Tiantangzhai, ca. 650 m, 17 June 2008, K. Liu 2008056 (ANUB); Jinzhai County, Mazongling mountain, 950 m, 1 June 2009, K. Liu 2009038 (ANUB); Jinzhai County, Tiantangzhai, ca. 700 m, 1983, X.S. Sheng 1437 (ANUB); Jinzhai County, Baimazhai, 900 m, 18 May 1984, G. Yao 9004 (NAS); Jinzhai County, Baimazhai, 700 m, 23 May 1984, G. Yao 9056 (NAS); Jinzhai County, Gubeizhen, 720 m, 4 May 2016, J.W. Shao ANUB00569 (ANUB).

Distribution and habitat

Lysimachia tianmaensis is endemic to Dabieshan Mt., China (including Jinzhai County, Yingshan County etc.), growing at margins of mountain woodlands, roadsides or under broad-leaved forests at altitudes of 600–1200 m.


The epithet “tianmaensis” is derived from the type locality, Tianma National Nature Reserve, Jinzhai Xian, Anhui Province, China.

Vernacular name

China: tian ma guo lu huang.


Flowering April–June, fruiting June–August.

Conservation status

A large number of populations of Lysimachia tianmaensis were found during the extensive investigation in Tianma National Nature Reserve. This species is also distributed in other areas in Dabieshan Mt. as well as Tianma National Nature Reserve. This species often grows under broad-leaved forests above 600 m. This species is fairly common there and therefore proposed as Least Concern following the IUCN Red List Criteria (IUCN 2016).


Lysimachia tianmaensis is quite distinct from all other species in subgenus Lysimachia. Its morphological affinity is with L. grammica, L. remota Petitmengin and L. pseudohenryi Pampanini, but it can be easily distinguished by some characters (Table 1). L. remota, a member of subgenus Lysimachia, section Nummularia, series Deltoideae, is characterised by opposite leaves with sparsely transparent glandular punctate. L. pseudohenryi has opposite leaves and terminal racemes, often nearly capitate, belonging to subgenus Lysimachia, section Nummularia, series Phyllocephalae. Due to the opposite leaves in both L. remota and L. pseudohenryi, L. tianmaensis can be distinguished from them by its alternate leaves with brown patches beneath and auriculate leaf base. Taking into consideration the existence of alternate leaves and the filaments connate into a ring at base, L. tianmaensis should be a member of the subgenus Lysimachia, section Nummularia, series Grammicae, according to the classification system of the genus modified by Chen and Hu (1979). Series Grammicae is a well-defined group, so far consisting of only one species. L. grammica is a widely distributed species with its distribution centre in Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi and Zhengjiang and the new species is endemic to Dabieshan Mt. However, the new endemic species rarely, if ever, co-occurs with the widespread L. grammica in intermixed populations because of the distinct altitudes for each natural habitat (L. tianmaensis: 600–1200 m; L. grammica 0–600 m, rarely to 800 m). The new species has a larger lamina with brown patches beneath than that of L. grammica with blank glandular striates. Moreover, the leaves of the new species are characterised with an obvious auriculate base. Based on these characters, L. tianmaensis can be very readily distinguished from L. grammica.

Table 1.

Diagnostic character differences amongst Lysimachia tianmaensis, L. grammica, L. remota and L. pseudohenryi.

Species L. tianmaensis L. grammica L. remota L. pseudohenryi
Source This study Hu and Kelso (1996) Hu and Kelso (1996) Hu and Kelso (1996)
Leaf alternate, occasionally opposite on lower part; abaxially brown glandular punctate; base auriculate on middle and lower part of stems and branches opposite on lower part, alternate on upper part; black glandular stripes opposite, occasionally alternate on upper part; sparsely transparent glandular punctate opposite; sparsely transparent glandular
Blade size (cm) 1.5–5.5 × 1.0–3.5 1.3–3.5 × 0.8–2.5 1.5–3.2 × 0.7–2.0 2–8 × 0.8–2.5
Infloresecence flowers solitary, in axils of apically diminished leaves, often abbreviated, nearly capitate at apex of stems and branches flowers solitary, in axils of upper leaves flowers solitary, in axils of upper leaves, or capitate
with flowers aggregated near apex of stems
racemes terminal, abbreviated, often nearly capitate
Filament filaments connate basally into a 0.5–1.0 mm high ring filaments connate basally into a ca. 0.5 mm high ring filaments connate basally into a 0.5–1.0 mm high ring filaments connate basally into a 2–3 mm high tube
Corolla transparent glandular brown glandular stripes transparent glandular transparent glandular


This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400291) and Collaborative Innovation Centre of Recovery and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in Wanjiang City Belt, Anhui Province; College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University.


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