PhytoKeys 9: 15–179, doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.9.2279
Checklist of vascular plants of the Department of Ñeembucú, Paraguay
Juana De Egea 1,2, Maria Peña-Chocarro 1, Cristina Espada 1, Sandra Knapp 1
1 Department of Botany, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
2 Wildlife Conservation Society Paraguay, Capitán Benitez Vera 610, Asunción, Paraguay

Corresponding author: S. Knapp (s.knapp@nhm.ac.uk)

Academic editor: Susanne Renner

received 25 October 2011 | accepted 6 January 2012 | Published 30 January 2012


(C) 2012 Juana De Egea. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


For reference, use of the paginated PDF or printed version of this article is recommended.

Abstract

The Department of Ñeembucú is one of the least well-documented areas of eastern Paraguay, and the flora is composed of a mixture of forest and Chaco elements. Regions like Ñeembucú are often considered of lower diversity and interest that more forested regions; this results from both actual species richness figures and from under-collecting due to perception as uninteresting. We present here a checklist of the vascular plants of Ñeembucú, which includes 676 taxa (including infraspecific taxa and collections identified only to genus) in 100 families and 374 genera. Four hundred and thirty nine (439) of these are new records for Ñeembucú and of these, 4 are new published records for Paraguay. Synonyms, distribution details within Paraguay and a voucher specimen or literature record are provided for each taxon, and a brief analysis of the diversity and importance of the flora is presented.

Keywords

conservation, humid Chaco, Ñeembucú, new distribution records, Paraguay, wetlands

Introduction

Paraguay is a land-locked country between 19° and 28° south latitude and 54° and 63° west longitude at the heart of the South American continent, and lies entirely within the Río de la Plata drainage system, second only in size to the Amazon basin. The country is divided by the Río Paraguay into the Oriental, or eastern, region, also known as the Paraná region; and the Occidental, or western, region, also known as the Chaco, part of the Gran Chaco Americano that is shared by Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Paraguay is divided into 17 departments, 14 of which are to the east of the Río Paraguay.

The department of Ñeembucú is the southernmost tip of Paraguay and is located in the south-western corner of the Oriental region, between 57°35' – 57°55' W latitude and 25°50' – 27°19' S longitude (Fig. 1). Ñeembucú covers an approximate area of 12, 147 square kilometres (SINASIP 2009). The average annual temperature is between 22° and 23°C, and average annual rainfall is around 1500 mm (Acevedo et al. 1990). Most of this area is made up of a plain comprised of alluvial sediments from the Quaternary period, with hydromorphic soils formed from the transport of sediment by rivers and streams, and dominated by shallow hydromorphic and alluvial gley types, planosols or gley humic acids with high organic matter content (Tortorelli 1966).

Ñeembucú is partially surrounded by both the Paraguay and Parana rivers and has a number of extensive wetlands, the largest of these being the Ñeembucú and the Cambá marshes. The area is low elevation and relatively flat; altitudinal range is between 50 and 124 metres above sea level. As a result of these particular topographic and hydrographic features, Ñeembucú is usually described as one extensive floodplain; over 85% of this area is wetlands (Fogel 2000), where water is the primary factor that regulates seasonal variation and biological and ecological characteristics of the vegetation composition. The wetlands of Ñeembucú are the largest in the Oriental region and are very rich in terms of alpha and beta diversity, particularly when it comes to species of flora and fauna closely linked to water (Vogt and Mereles 2005).

Figure 1.

Map of the wetlands of eastern Paraguay; Estancia Redondo (Redondo Ranch) is located south of the Río Tebicuary at approximately 26°30’ S latitude. The complex set of marshy wetlands is the dominant feature of the angle between the Río Paraguay and the Río Paraná.

The wetlands of the Oriental region were studied by Mereles and Aquino-Shuster (1990), Mereles et al. (1992), and Mereles (1993, 2004). Vegetation of the Ñeembucú stream basin, which can be considered as representative of the department, was described in detail by Vogt and Mereles (2005), who identified two principal vegetation types; 1) those subject to permanent flooding, and 2) those linked to periodic flooding.

Vegetation that remains flooded throughout the year can be characterised as lotic or lentic. Lotic environments are typical of the extensive network of flowing waterways distributed throughout the department; common species include Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze, Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl., and several species of Persicaria. Lentic environments occur in areas where water stagnates and does not flow, or does so very poorly, as a result of geomorphological conditions. These include the lagoons and estuaries or areas of permanent inundation which harbour different types of plant communities; free-floating vegetation (with species such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Pontederia rotundifolia L.f., Pistia stratiotes L., Azolla spp., Salvinia spp.); half-submerged vegetation with plants that are submerged but not rooted and whose leaves and flowers are emergent (Myriophyllum aquaticum and Utricularia spp.); and half-submerged, rooted vegetation, with vegetative and reproductive parts of plants primarily above the water surface (Nymphaea spp., Nymphoides indica, Eleocharis spp., Typha domingensis Pers., Thalia geniculata L., Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton, Schoenoplectus californicus and Cyperus giganteus Vahl). In extreme cases masses of floating vegetation in still waters become impounded, forming floating islands of aquatic species associations which go through various stages of evolution, depending on the amount of substrate they retain. Thus, in the more advanced stages, rooted species can be found in a thick floating substrate that resembles soil.

Vegetation subject to periodic flooding includes hydromorphic savannahs and hygrophilous (riparian) forests. The vascular plant species composition of hydromorphic savannahs varies according to soil type. Palm savannahs are found on soils with a high content of clay (up to 30%) and salts, especially chlorides; the dominant species is the palm Copernicia alba Morong, sometimes associated with scattered trees of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. and Astronium balansae Engl., while the understory is dominated by marshy species; common plants include various grasses and sedges, Ludwigia, Persicaria and Ruellia. In the palaeobasins of the Río Parana, where the soils are sandy, the landscape is dominated by grasslands of Elionurus muticus and Schizachyrium spp., sometimes with the presence of scattered woody species such as Cecropia pachystachya Trécul and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong.

Riparian forests are directly or indirectly associated with water, as they are subjected to periodic flooding or waterlogging at certain times of year; these can be found along the edges of rivers, streams and lakes, or forming islands of forests surrounded by wetlands and floodplains. The edges of these forests include hygrophilous species such as Croton urucurana Baill., Microlobius foetidus (Jacq.) M.Sousa & G.Andrade subsp. paraguensis (Benth.) M.Sousa & G.Andrade, Sapium haematospermum Müll.Arg., Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng., Guadua sp., Chusquea ramossisima Lindm., Inga vera Willd. and Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The understory is dominated by Bromelia balansae Mez and there are a number of epiphytic ferns and flowering plants. As soil depth increases, the forests change from purely riparian to humid semi-deciduous, characterized by 2 to 4 layers of vegetation and a maximum canopy height of about 25 m. The dominant species in the tree layer are Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub., Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman, Gleditsia amorphoides (Griseb.) Taub., Luehea divaricata Mart., Holocalyx balansae Micheli and species of figs and Lauraceae (Acevedo et al. 1990; Vogt and Mereles 2005). These patches of forest are similar to more extensive interior Atlantic forest found in the Oriental region, now very limited in extent (Huang et al. 2009).

Although the wetlands and forests of Ñeembucú comprise physical features and species composition that are similar to the humid Chaco, such that they are regarded as intrusions of Chaco vegetation in the Oriental region (Mereles 1993, 2004), the sandy layer which emerges in many parts of the department results in the development of more diverse and transitional habitats; consequently, the vegetation Ñeembucú is a mosaic of species typical of both the Eastern and Western (Chaco) regions (Mereles 2004). Spichiger et al. (1995) described the tree flora of Ñeembucú as “a most interesting boundary zone between the Chaquenian, the Palm-Savannas, the Residual Pleistocenic Dry Seasonal, and the Paranean Floras”, i.e., an ecotone between dry forests, wet forests and savannah.

The earliest collections specifically located in the Ñeembucú area are those of the French botanist Benedict (Benjamin) Balansa, who collected in Paraguay in the late 19th century. In the early half of the 20th century Teodoro Rojas and August Gustavo Schulz, both German Argentine collectors, made significant collections in the region, but the bulk of specimens from the 20th century were made by the Swiss botanists Luciano Bernardi (1978, 1980) and Rodolphe Spichiger (1990s), the German/Argentine Teodoro Meyer (mid-20th century), and Shirley Keel and Lucio Spinzi (1988) working for the Nature Conservancy.

More recent collecting efforts have been carried out consistently but not intensively by the Paraguayan botanists Christian Vogt in 2004, Fatima Mereles in 2009, and our team between the years 2004-2006 as part of a Darwin Initiative project (see http://darwin.defra.gov.uk/). Our collections were concentrated in a single locality, Estancia Redondo (see Fig. 1), but of the 419 specimens collected, 182 were new records for the Department; this degree of novelty prompted us to compile this checklist. Estancia Redondo, with an extent of approximately 5, 959 hectares, represents a well-preserved sample of the Ñeembucú wetlands and forests, and has been declared Important Bird Area (IBA) No. 29 for Paraguay (Guyra Paraguay 2008).

The Department of Ñeembucú lacks large protected areas for the conservation of its wetlands and forests; only 361.9 square kilometres are under protection, the equivalent to only 3% of its area, which makes up part of the Ypoá National Park, shared with the Central and Paraguarí departments (SINASIP 2009) and which was designated a Ramsar Site (Number 728) in 1995. It is also worth mentioning that the Ñeembucú marsh, with an area of 800 square kilometres, was proposed by Acevedo et al. (1990) as a priority area for conservation in this department; however, it was never officially declared as a reserve. Parallel to the conservation efforts at the political level, the expanding agricultural frontier, the deforestation and the degradation of the environment which encourages the colonization of invasive alien species, all represent serious threats to the wetlands and forests of Ñeembucú. The drainage of wetlands with the purpose of gaining areas of productive land and intensive cattle ranching through the implementation of unsustainable practices that require the introduction of non-native grasses, intensive grazing, introduction of weeds and the uncontrolled burning of pastures are all activities that have caused the greatest impact in recent years (Vogt and Mereles 2005). Consequently, the shortage of protected areas, the changes in land use and the lack of alternatives for sustainable production compatible with conservation threaten biodiversity and the complex ecological systems of the Ñeembucú wetlands.

Despite harbouring significant biodiversity, Ñeembucú has been one of the least explored areas in Paraguay and few collections have been made. Zuloaga et al. (2008) record 204 taxa for Ñeembucú in the published checklist of the flora of the Southern Cone; the updated on-line version of the checklist (Flora del Conosur, http://www2.darwin.edu.ar/Proyectos/FloraArgentina/FA.asp, updated January 2009) records 15 more; total recorded vascular plant diversity for Ñeembucú was 237 taxa (including those genera recorded as sp. here) prior to our studies. Our collecting in the region (see below) resulted in significant novelty, and the checklist presented here is a first step in documenting the relatively understudied plant diversity of Ñeembucú.

Materials and methods

In assembling the checklist we revised and re-determined all historical and recent collections from Ñeembucú held in the Natural History Museum (BM) and the Facultad de Ciencias Químicas of the Universidad Nacional de Asunción (FCQ). We also reviewed the recent monographic literature for collection records from Ñeembucú, and where we have not seen a specimen of a taxon cited in these sources we include the relevant literature citation, including the page. We also include identified specimens from Ñeembucú cited in TROPICOS (http://www.tropicos.org/) and in the database of the Botanical Garden of Geneva (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/). For those records for which we have examined a specimen we only cite a single voucher, other specimens seen and additional literature citations are not included here.

Flowering plant family circumscription follows APG III (Chase et al. 2009) and the pteridophyte classification follows Smith et al. (2006) as modified by Christenhusz et al. (2011). Families are sorted alphabetically and genera are sorted alphabetically within families. For each taxon found in the Department, we present the accepted name, synonyms, habit, introduced status (all species are native except where indicated), general distribution in Paraguay and one voucher specimen (if available). We use infraspecific names only in the cases where taxa other than or additional to the typical occur. Those taxa cited to the level of genus only may represent new species or new records for the department, but we were unable to identify them to the specific level. Synonymy follows Zuloaga et al. (2008) and TROPICOS (http://www.tropicos.org/) except for Myrtaceae, where we followed the World Checklist of Myrtaceae (Govaerts et al. 2008) and for Inga (Fabaceae) where we followed Pennington (1997). For some very common weedy species with extensive worldwide synonymy we have not cited all synonyms; these can be found in Zuloaga et al. (2008) and TROPICOS (http://www.tropicos.org/). We also cite commonly encountered illegitimate names and names not validly published in the synonymy, with indications as to their status. Herbarium acronyms used in the list follow Index Herbariorum (Holmgren et al. 1990, available on-line at http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp).

New reports of taxa for the department of Ñeembucú are marked with an arrowhead (►), those taxa not cited in Zuloaga et al. (2008) or the on-line updated version of the Southern Cone checklist (Flora del Conosur 2009) for Ñeembucú but recorded in other publications or databases (the URL or bibliographic reference of each source given with the voucher specimen cited) are marked with an asterisk (*) and those that have not been cited previously as occurring in Paraguay are indicated with a circle (●).

Data resources

The occurrence data underpinning the analysis have been uploaded as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) via the Pensoft Data Hosting Center at the GBIF’s Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://ipt.pensoft.net/ipt/resource.do?r=neembucu).

In addition, three Excel spreadsheets containing the taxon checklist, the habitat description and the departmental distribution in Paraguay, generated from the original MS Word manuscript file (Remsen et al. 2012), are published as Appendix to the present paper and are available under doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.9.2279.app.

Results and discussion

Our checklist for Ñeembucú records 676 taxa in 374 genera in 100 families (8 families of ferns and fern allies). A total of 439 taxa not previously recorded for the department are included here; 254 of these are new additions for the department resulting from our studies (marked ►), 171 (marked *) have been cited in other sources but not in Zuloaga et al. (2008), and 4 taxa (marked ●) have not been cited previously as occurring in Paraguay. In total this represents a more than tripling (676 versus 254, >300%) in vascular plant records for Ñeembucú over the most recent complete published compilation of distributional records for the department (Zuloaga et al. 2008, including updates online in Flora del Conosur 2009).

Nine families have more than 20 taxa in Ñeembucú (Table 1). As one might expect for an area that is in part dominated by wetlands and grasslands, Poaceae and Cyperaceae feature prominently. Legumes (Fabaceae), composites (Asteraceae) and Malvaceae are the most taxon-rich families of eudicots and are represented by a large number of herbaceous taxa common to open habitats in the region. Herbs (including aquatic herbs) are the commonest habit class (Table 2) and are the most common new records for Ñeembucú recorded here. We suggest this is a result of the emphasis on trees in general collections for evaluation of habitats for conservation priorities (with the exception of Vogt and Mereles 2005). Future collecting in Ñeembucú should concentrate on all habit categories as all are represented by significant novelty with half or more than half of the records being new to the department; herbaceous plants, including epiphytes and aquatics will be particularly promising (e.g., see Table 2).

Table 1.

Taxon-rich families in the flora of Ñeembucú.

Family Number of taxa
Poaceae 59
Fabaceae 50
Asteraceae 37
Cyperaceae 36
Malvaceae 28
Euphorbiaceae 24
Solanaceae 24
Verbenaceae 22
Rubiaceae 20
Myrtaceae 19
Table 2.

Habit of vascular plants in Ñeembucú; numbers in parentheses are new records for the department in each habit category.

Habit Number of taxa (new records., % new to Ñeembucú)
Tree 70 (48, 66% new)
Shrubs or small trees 103 (52, 50% new)
Herbs or subshrubs 383 (269, 70% new)
Climbers 53 (32, 60% new)
Epiphytes (including parasites) 26 (26, 100% new)
Aquatic herbs 37 (28, 76% new)
Palms 4 (2, 50% new)

Priority setting in global biodiversity conservation is one way to target efforts to safeguard habitats, species and genes, all tasks required of countries signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Approaches to priority setting are quite variable –ranging from just personal interest, to taxon based approaches such as the Important Bird Areas (IBAs; ) and Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs; Stattersfield et al. 1998) or the Centres of Plant Diversity (Davis et al. 1997), to “hotspot” approaches (Myers et al. 2000), “megadiversity-country” approaches (Mittermeier and Werner 1990), ecoregional priority setting techniques (Dinerstein et al. 1995) and complementarity-based approaches (Margules et al. 2002). Species richness and endemism have been considered important by some, while others have focused more on the conservation of representative habitats or ecosystems. It is clear that multiple indices are more appropriate than a one-size-fits-all approach (Orme et al. 2005).

The mosaic of wetland and shrubland habitats of Ñeembucú do not feature as a “hotspot” in analyses using the combined richness and endemism criteria of Myers et al. (2000), nor is the area designated a priority using the ecosystems approach of Dinerstein et al. (1995). The status of the adjacent humid Chaco in the latter publication is “locally outstanding”; does this mean then that these regions are thus not important for conservation at a regional or global scale? Although part of the Oriental region of Paraguay, Ñeembucú combines many different floristic elements (Mereles 1993, 2004), making it of interest for analysis of relationships between habitat types in southern South America. The wetlands of Ñeembucú can be seen as the southernmost extension of the Pantanal, as they are connected along the drainage basin of the Río Paraguay (see Swarts 2000). Drainage of land for soybean production has not yet been an important factor in Ñeembucú, but the importance of ranching cannot be underestimated in the region. Because the various productive activities in the region involve private ownership of large tracts of land, there are many different players in the conservation equation in the region. On the one hand this could be seen as a difficulty, involving many sectors can be complicated and logistically time-consuming, but on the other hand, the broad cross-section of society involved in the region is a real opportunity.

Knowledge of the organisms present in a region is an important step for future conservation action. Although our preliminary work has greatly increased knowledge of the floristic diversity of Ñeembucú, it is clear that knowledge of the flora of the department is far from complete and future collecting and documentation will certainly add to the records presented here. With increasing habitat alteration in eastern Paraguay (see Huang et al. 2009) there is an urgent need to improve knowledge on the biodiversity of this understudied region of Paraguay, and concomitantly with these efforts, design initiatives for the strengthening protection and sustainable management of the unique and diverse wetlands and forests of Ñeembucú. Checklists of floristic diversity are a basic first step in this effort.

Checklist Lycopods SELAGINELLACEAE Selaginella sp.

Herb.

Voucher: C. Vogt 149 (CTES, FCQ).

Ferns ANEMIACEAE Anemia tomentosa (Savigny) Sw. var. anthrisifolia (Schrad.) Mickel, Iowa State J. Sci. 36(4): 424. 1962.

Syn.: Anemia anthriscifolia Schrad.; Anemia fulva auct. non (Cav.) Sw.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 706 (BM, FCQ, MO).

AZOLLACEAE Azolla filiculoides Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(1): 343. 1783.

Syn.: Azolla arbuscula Desv.; Azolla bonariensis Bertol.; Azolla caroliniana Willd.; Azolla magellanica Willd.; Azolla microphylla Kaulf.; Azolla squamosa Molina

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 39 (BM).

Azolla sp.

Aquatic herb.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2363 (BM, FCQ).

MARSILEACEAE Marsilea ancylopoda A.Braun, Monatsber. Konigl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1863: 434. 1864.

Syn.: Marsilea berteroi A.Braun; Marsilea concinna Baker; Marsilea ernestii A.Braun; Marsilea hickenii Herter; Marsilea mexicana A.Braun; Zalusianskia ancyclopoda (A.Braun) Kuntze; Zalusianskia berteroi (A.Braun) Kuntze; Zalusianskia concinna (A.Braun) Kuntze; Zalusianskia ernestii (A.Braun) Kuntze; Zalusianskia mexicana (A.Braun) Kuntze

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2346 (FCQ).

POLYPODIACEAE Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel., Gen. Fil. [Copeland] 185. 1947.

Syn.: Craspedaria cordifolia Fée; Craspedaria vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Link; Lepicystis vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Diels; Polypodium lycopodioides L.; Polypodium vacciniifolium Langsd. & Fisch.

Epiphyte.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2219 (BM, FCQ).

PTERIDACEAE Cheilanthes tweediana Hook., Sp. Fil. 2: 84. 1852.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 646 (BM, FCQ, MO).

Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn, Reisen Ost-Afrika 3(3): 19. 1879.

Syn.: Cheilanthes concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) R.M.Tryon & A.F.Tryon; Pellaea concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Baker; Pteris concolor Langsd. & Fisch.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2250 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Doryopteris pentagona Pic.Serm., Webbia 60(1): 231. 2005.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2293 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Hemionitis tomentosa (Lam.) Raddi, Opusc. Sci. 3: 284. 1819.

Syn.: Asplenium tomentosum Lam.; Gymnopteris tomentosa (Lam.) Underw.; Gymnopteris rufa auct. non (L.) Benth. ex Underw.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2353 (BM, FCQ).

Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link, Handbuch 3: 20. 1833.

Syn.: Acrostichum calomelanos L.; Ceropteris calomelanos (L.) Link, nom. superfl.; Gymnogramma calomelanos (L.) Kaulf.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: C. Vogt 146 (CTES, FCQ).

SALVINIACEAE Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2: 969. 1775.

Syn.: Salvinia rotundifolia Willd.; Salvinia hispida Kunth

Aquatic.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 364 (BM, FCQ, MO).

Salvinia biloba Raddi, Pl. Bras. Nov. Gen. 1, 1: 4. 1825.

Syn.: Salvinia herzogii de la Sota

Aquatic.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: C. Vogt 128 (CTES, FCQ).

Salvinia minima Baker, J. Bot. 4: 98. 1886.

Syn.: Salvinia rotundifolia auct. non Willd.

Aquatic.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1442 (FCQ).

THELYPTERIDACEAE Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K.Iwats., J. Jap. Bot. 38(10): 314. 1963.

Syn.: Aspidium gongylodes Schkuhr; Aspidium pohlianum C.Presl; Aspidium unitum Mett.; Cyclosorus gongylodes (Schkuhr) Link; Dryopteris gongylodes (Schkuhr) Kuntze; Goniopteris macrocladia Fée; Nephrodium gongylodes (Schkuhr) Schott; Nephrodium unitum (Mett.) R.Br.; Polypodium tottum Thunb.; Pteris interrupta Willd.; Thelypteris totta (Thunb.) Schelpe

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1478 (FCQ).

Seed Plants ACANTHACEAE *Dicliptera squarrosa Nees, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 9: 161. 1847

Syn.: Diapedium niederleinianum (Lindau) Kuntze; Diapedium tweedianum (Nees) Kuntze; Dicliptera deltica Bridar.; Dicliptera imminuta Rizzini; Dicliptera lutea Bridar.; Dicliptera niederleiniana Lindau; Dicliptera pohliana Nees; Dicliptera sericea Nees; Dicliptera suberecta (André) Bremek.; Dicliptera tomentosa Griseb.; Dicliptera tweediana Nees; Dicliptera tweediana Nees forma chacoensis Hassl.; Dicliptera tweediana Nees var. flaviflora Stuck.; Jacobinia suberecta André

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 20469 (cited in Ramella 2008: 21).

Justicia brasiliana Roth, Sp. Pl. Nov. 17. 1821.

Syn.: Beloperone amherstiae Nees; Beloperone amherstiae Nees var. debilis Nees; Beloperone amherstiae Nees var. graciliflora Nees; Beloperone amherstiae Nees var. puberula Hassl.; Beloperone amherstiae Nees var. pubescens Hassl.; Beloperone amherstiae Nees var. villosula Hassl.; Beloperone brasiliana (Roth) Bremek.; Dianthera nodosa (Hook.) Benth.; Jacobinia affinis (Rizzini) Wassh. & L.B.Sm.; Jacobinia parabolica (Nees) Lindau; Justicia nodosa Hook.; Sericographis affinis Rizzini; Sericographis cordifolia Rizzini; Sericographis parabolica Nees; Sericographis squarrosa Nees

Herb or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 721 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

Justicia comata (L.) Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 1(2): 632. 1785.

Syn.: Dianthera comata L.; Ecbolium comatum (L.) Kuntze; Justicia humifusa Sw.; Justicia parviflora (Nees) Lindau; Leptostachya comata (L.) Nees; Leptostachya martiana Nees; Leptostachya parviflora Nees; Psacadocalymma comatum (L.) Bremek.; Stethoma comata (L.) Britton; Thalestris graminiformis Rizzini

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2335 (BM, CTES).

Justicia laevilinguis (Nees) Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19 (Beibl. 48): 20. 1894.

Syn.: Dianthera laevilinguis (Nees) Durand & B.D.Jacks.; Dianthera obtusifolia (Nees) Griseb.; Dianthera paludosa S.Moore; Justicia anagallis (Nees) Lindau; Justicia ascendens Bridar.; Justicia laevilinguis (Nees) Lindau var. longifolia Nees; Justicia obtusifolia (Nees) Lindau; Justicia obtusifolia var. longispicata Hassl.; Justicia paludosa (S.Moore) V.A.W.Graham; Justicia repens (Nees) Lindau, nom. illeg.; Rhytiglossa anagallis Nees; Rhytiglossa laevilinguis Nees; Rhytiglossa laevilinguis Nees var. longifolia Nees; Rhytiglossa obtusifolia Nees; Rhytiglossa obtusifolia Nees var. hirsuticaulis Nees; Rhytiglossa repens Nees

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 692 (BM, FCQ, MO).

*Ruellia angustiflora (Nees) Lindau ex Rambo, Iheringia, Bot. 12: 23. 1964.

Syn.: Ruellia sanguinea Griseb. var. flaviflora Hassl.; Ruellia sanguinea Griseb. var. glabrescens Hassl.; Ruellia sanguinea Griseb. var. tomentosula Hassl.; Stephanophysum angustiflorum Nees; Stephanophysum quadrifarium Nees

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5326 (Ramella 2008, pp.56).

Ruellia brevifolia (Pohl) C.Ezcurra, Darwiniana 29: 278. 1989.

Syn.: Cyrtacanthus corymbosus Nees, nom. nud.; Echinacanthus dichotomus Kuntze; Ruellia amoena Nees, nom. nud.; Ruellia graecizans Backer; Ruellia longifolia (Pohl) Griseb.; Ruellia serratitheca Rusby; Ruellia ventricosa Kunth; Stephanophysum brevifolium Pohl; Stephanophysum longifolium Pohl; Stephanophysum macrandrum Bremek.; Stephanophysum ventricosum Nees

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: C. Vogt 164 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

*Ruellia bulbifera Lindau, Nat. Pflanzenfam. IV (3b): 311. 1895.

Syn.: Dipteracanthus tuberosus Nees; Ruellia loefgrenii Lindau

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5215 (Ramella 2008: 56).

Ruellia geminiflora Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 2: 240. 1817.

Syn.: Copioglossa pilosa Miers; Dipteracanthus geminiflorus Nees var. angustifolius Nees; Dipteracanthus geminiflorus Nees var. erectus Nees; Dipteracanthus geminiflorus Nees var. hirsutior Nees; Dipteracanthus geminiflorus Nees var. procumbens Nees; Dipteracanthus geminiflorus Nees var. subacaulis Nees; Dipteracanthus humilis Nees; Dipteracanthus vindex Nees; Ruellia geminiflora Kunth var. hirsutior Nees; Ruellia hirsuta Vell.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7969 (cited in Ezcurra 1993: 834).

Ruellia simplex C.Wright, Anales Acad. Ci. Med. Habana 6 (41): 321. 1870.

Syn.: Arrhostoxylum microphyllum Nees; Cryphiacanthus angustifolius Nees; Ruellia angustifolia (Nees) Griseb. ex Lillo; Ruellia brittoniana Leonard ex Fernald; Ruellia coerulea Morong; Ruellia ignorantiae Herter

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1971 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Stenandrium dulce (Cav.) Nees, Prodr. (DC.) 11: 282. 1847.

Syn.: Gerardia dulcis (Cav.) S.F.Blake; Nierembergia prunellifolia Dunal; Ruellia dulcis Cav.; Stenandrium diphyllum Nees var. exscapum Nees; Stenandrium parodii Bridar.; Stenandrium trinerve Nees

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: T. Meyer 16203 (cited in Ariza Espinar and Ferrucci, 1982: 72).

ACHATOCARPACEAE Achatocarpus balansae Schinz & Autran, Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 6. 1893.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Vera et al. 217 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

Achatocarpus microcarpus Schinz & Autran, Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 8. 1893.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Concepción, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 795 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

AGAVACEAE *Herreria bonplandii Lecomte, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 56: 346. 1909.

Syn.: Dioscorea tuberosa Rojas Acosta, nom. illeg.; Herreria linearifolia Dammer, nom. nud.; Herreria montevidensis Klotzsch ex Griseb. var. bonplandii (Lecomte) L.B.Sm.; Herreria tuberosa (Rojas Acosta) Rojas Acosta, nom. superfl.

Herb or climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 727 (BM, FCQ).

ALISMATACEAE *Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli, Monogr. Phan. [A.DC. & C.DC.] 3: 57. 1881.

Syn.: Alisma grandiflorum Cham. & Schltdl.; Echinodorus argentinensis Rataj; Echinodorus ellipticus (Mart.) Micheli var. latifolius auct. non Micheli; Echinodorus ellipticus (Mart.) Micheli var. ovatus auct. non Micheli; Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli var. ovatus Micheli; Echinodorus pellucidus Rataj

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1978 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli, Monogr. Phan. [A.DC. & C.DC.] 3: 51. 1881.

Syn.: Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli forma latifolia Chodat & Hassl.; Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli var. brevifolia Hauman

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: C. Vogt 172 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

*Helanthium bolivianum (Rusby) Lehtonen & Myllys, Cladistics 24(2): 228. 2008.

Syn.: Alisma boliviana Rusby; Alisma ranunculoides L. var. brasiliense A.St.-Hil.; Echinodorus angustifolius Rataj; Echinodorus austroamericanus Rataj; Echinodorus bolivianus (Rusby) Holm-Niels.; Echinodorus quadricostatus Fassett; Echinodorus quadricostatus Fassett var. xinguensis Rataj; Echinodorus tenellus (Mart.) Buchenau var. latifolius (Seub.) Fassett

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: C. Vogt et al. 148 (CTES, FCQ).

Helanthium tenellum (Mart.) Britton, Man. Fl. N. States [Britton], ed. 2. 54. 1905.

Syn.: Alisma tenellum Mart.; Echinodorus tenellus (Mart.) Buchenau

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1458 (FCQ).

Hydrocleys nymphoides (Willd.) Buchenau, Index Crit. Butom. Alism. Juncag. 9. 1868.

Syn.: Hydrocleys commersonii Rich.; Hydrocleys humboldtii (Rich.) Endl., nom. illeg.; Limnocharis commersonii (Rich.) Spreng.; Limnocharis nymphoides (Willd.) Michx.; Stratioides nymphoides Willd.

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 735 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2: 156. 1827.

Syn.: Sagittaria andina Phil.; Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl. forma normalis Hauman, nom. illeg.; Sagittaria multinervia Larrañaga; Sagittaria pugioniformis L. var. montevidensis (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 644 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

*Sagittaria rhombifolia Cham., Linnaea 10: 219. 1835.

Syn.: Sagittaria affinis Seub.; Sagittaria amazonica Huber; Sagittaria lagoensis Seub. & Warm.; Sagittaria pugioniformis auct. non L.; Sagittaria pugioniformis L. var. affinis (Seub.) Kuntze; Sagittaria pugioniformis L. var. platyphylla Micheli; Sagittaria pugioniformis L. var. rhombifolia (Cham.) Kuntze; Sagittaria rhomboidalis Micheli

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5285 (cited by Ramella 2008: 77).

AMARANTHACEAE *Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil. subsp. chacoensis (Morong ex Morong & Britton) Pedersen, Darwiniana 14: 440. 1967.

Syn.: Alternanthera chacoensis Morong ex Morong & Britton; Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) Sm. subsp. chacoensis (Morong ex Morong & Britton) Pedersen; Alternanthera morongii Uline; Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil. var. chacoensis (Morong ex Morong & Britton) Pedersen; Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil. var. robusta Chodat

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 697-B (FCQ).

*Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb forma angustifolia Suess., Feddes Repert. 35: 303. 1934.

Syn.: Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. lancifolia Chodat; Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. luxurians Chodat; Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq. var. linearifolia Chodat

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 105 (BM, G).

Alternanthera reineckii Briq., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 3: 151. 1899.

Syn.: Achyranthes reineckii (Briq.) Standl.; Alternanthera pilosa Moq. forma petiolata Chodat; Alternanthera pilosa Moq. var. microphylla Chodat

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 101 (BM).

Alternanthera sp.

Herb (?).

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18501 (cited in Ramella 2008: 80).

*Amaranthus hybridus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 990.1753.

Syn.: Amaranthus chlorostachys Willd.; Amaranthus hybridus L. var. hypochondriacus (L.) Rob.; Amaranthus hybridus L. var. quitensis (Kunth) Covas; Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.; Amaranthus quitensis Kunth; Amaranthus quitensis Kunth var. stuckertianus Thell.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18506 (Ramella 2008: 80).

*Gomphrena celosioides Mart. forma aureiflora (Chodat & Hassl.) Pedersen, Darwiniana 20: 272. 1976.

Syn.: Gomphrena celosioides Mart. forma grandifolia Stuchlik; Gomphrena celosioides Mart. forma parvifolia Stuchlik; Gomphrena celosioides Mart. var. aureiflora Stuchlik; Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. forma aureiflora Chodat & Hassl.; Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. var. aureiflora (Chodat & Hassl.) Stuchlik; Gomphrena hygrophila Mart. forma luteiflora Herzog

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2227 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

*Gomphrena celosioides Mart. forma celosioides, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 13: 301. 1826.

Syn.: Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. forma albiflora Chodat; Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. var. albiflora (Chodat & Hassl.) Stuchlik; Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. var. genuina Stuchlik, nom. illeg.; Gomphrena perennis L. forma ramosissima Stuchlik; Xeraea celosioides (Mart.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 697-A (BM).

Gomphrena celosioides Mart. forma roseiflora (Chodat & Hassl.) Pedersen, Darwiniana 20: 273. 1976

Syn.: Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. forma roseiflora Chodat & Hassl.; Gomphrena decumbens Jacq. var. roseiflora (Chodat & Hassl.) Stuchlik; Gomphrena hygrophila Mart. forma subecristata Herzog

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2229 (BM, FCQ).

*Gomphrena pulchella Mart., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 13: 302. 1826.

Syn.: Gomphrena pulchella Mart. forma grandifolia Stuchlik; Gomphrena pulchella Mart. forma linearifolia Stuchlik; Gomphrena pulchella Mart. var. ecristata Chodat; Gomphrena pulchella Mart. var. rosea Stuchlik, pro parte; Xeraea pulchella (Mart.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18377 (Ramella 2008: 80).

*Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(2): 765. 1806.

Syn.: Celosia paniculata L.; Iresine celosia L., nom. superfl.; Iresine celosia L. var. diffusa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Suess.; Iresine celosioides L., nom. superfl.; Iresine celosioides var. polymorpha (Mart.) Griseb.; Iresine paniculata (L.) Kuntze, nom. illeg.; Iresine polymorpha Mart.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 797 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

*Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, Darwiniana 14: 450. 1967.

Syn.: Alternanthera glauca (Mart.) Hosseus; Gomphrena glauca (Mart.) Moq.; Gomphrena luzuliflora (Mart.) Moq.; Gomphrena stenophylla Spreng.; Iresine glomerata Spreng.; Iresine luzuliflora (Mart.) Griseb.; Mogiphanes dunaliana (Moq.) Griseb.; Mogiphanes glauca (Mart.) Griseb.; Pfaffia divergens O.Stützer; Pfaffia glabrescens Suess.; Pfaffia glauca (Mart.) Spreng.; Pfaffia iresinoides (Kunth) Spreng. var. angustifolia O.Stützer; Pfaffia luzuliflora (Mart.) D.Dietr.; Pfaffia luzuliflora (Mart.) D.Dietr. forma gracilis O.Stützer; Pfaffia luzuliflora (Mart.) D.Dietr. forma virgata O.Stützer; Pfaffia luzuliflora (Mart.) D.Dietr. var. microcephala O.Stützer ex Suess.; Pfaffia luzuliflora (Mart.) D.Dietr. var. paniculata O.Stützer; Pfaffia luzuliflora (Mart.) D.Dietr. var. squarrosa O.Stützer; Pfaffia stenophylla (Spreng.) Stuchlik; Sertuernera glauca Mart.; Sertuernera luzuliflora Mart.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1993 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

*Pfaffia gnaphaloides (L.f.) Mart., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. [Martius] 2: 24. 1826.

Syn.: Celosia gnaphaloides L.f.; Gomphrena gnaphaloides (L.f.) Vahl ex Roem. & Schult.; Gomphrena lanata Poir.; Gomphrena lanata Poir. var. latifolia Seub.; Gomphrena lanata Poir. var. oblongifolia Moq.; Gomphrena lanata Poir. var. parvifolia Moq.; Gomphrena perennis L. var. brunnea Stuchlik; Gomphrena phagnaloides Griseb.; Gomphrena poiretiana Roem. & Schult.; Oplotheca poiretiana (Schult.) Mart.; Pfaffia lanata (Poir.) Gibert; Pfaffia lanata (Poir.) Gibert forma parvifolia (Moq.) O.Stützer; Pfaffia lanata (Poir.) Gibert var. discolor Suess.; Pfaffia lanata (Poir.) Gibert var. latifolia (Seub.) O.Stützer; Pfaffia lanata (Poir.) Gibert var. oblongifolia (Moq.) O.Stützer; Pfaffia lanata (Poir.) Gibert var. peteriana Kuntze; Pfaffia poiretiana (Schult.) Stuchlik; Pfaffia tenuis N.E.Br.; Pfaffia tomentosa Mart.; Xeraea phagnaloides (Griseb.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12637 (LIL) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

*Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng.) Hicken, Apuntes Hist. Nat. 2: 93. 1910.

Syn.: Gomphrena sericea Spreng., nom. illeg.; Gomphrena tuberosa Spreng.; Gomphrena tuberosa Spreng. var. glabrescens Moq.; Gomphrena tuberosa Spreng. var. sericea (Mart.) Seub; Gomphrena tuberosa Spreng. var. vestita Moq.; Pfaffia sericea (Spreng.) Mart.; Pfaffia sericea (Spreng.) Mart. forma glabrescens (Moq.) O.Stützer; Pfaffia sericea (Spreng.) Mart. forma vestita (Moq.) O.Stützer

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caazapá, Canindeyú, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: T. Meyer 16151 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

AMARYLLIDACEAE Nothoscordum sp.

Herb.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18481 (cited in Ramella 2008: 286).

ANACARDIACEAE *Astronium balansae Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 45. 1881.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Central, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 725 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 12(2): 394.1876.

Syn.: Lithraea gilliesii Griseb.; Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl. var. lorentziana Hieron. ex Lillo; Lithraea ternifolia (Hook.) F.A.Barkley; Schinus brasiliensis Marchand ex Cabrera, pro parte; Schinus molleoides Vell.; Schinus ternifolius Hook.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2212 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

Schinopsis balansae Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 286. 1885.

Syn.: Quebrachia morongii Britton; Schinopsis balansae Engl. var. pendula Tortorelli

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2284 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

Schinus fasciculatus (Griseb.) I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 257. 1938.

Syn.: Duvaua fasciculata Griseb.; Duvaua praecox Griseb. var. glomerata Griseb.; Schinus huyngan Molina var. heterophylla Kuntze; Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera forma fasciculatus (Griseb.) Cabrera; Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera forma heterophyllus (Kuntze) Cabrera

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18432 (BM).

ANNONACEAE Rollinia emarginata Schltdl., Linnaea 9: 318. 1835.

Syn.: Rollinia emarginata Schltdl. var. longipetala (R.E.Fr.) R.E.Fr.; Rollinia glaucescens Sond.; Rollinia hassleriana R.E.Fr.; Rollinia hassleriana R.E.Fr. var. vestita R.E.Fr.; Rollinia longipetala R.E.Fr.; Rollinia sonderiana Walp.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 716 (BM, FCQ, MO).

APIACEAE Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague, J. Bot. 61: 131. 1923.

Syn.: Apium ammi Urb.; Apium ammi forma filamentosum (Kuntze) H.Wolff; Apium ammi Urb.forma nanum Kuntze; Apium ammi Urb.forma pedunculata Chodat; Apium ammi Urb.var. filamentosum Kuntze; Apium ammi Urb.. var. genuinum H.Wolff, nom illeg.; Apium ammi Urb. var. leptophyllum (Pers.) Kuntze; Apium laciniatum (DC.) Urb. forma elatius (Hook. & Arn.) H.Wolff; Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F.Muell.; Apium ranunculifolium (DC.) Reiche, nom. illeg.; Apium ranunculifolium auct. non Kunth; Helosciadium laciniatum DC. var. elatius Hook. & Arn.; Helosciadium leptophyllum (Pers.) DC.; Helosciadium ranunculifolium DC.; Pimpinella leptophylla Pers.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2264 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Eryngium ebracteatum Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 4(2): 759. 1798.

Syn.: Eryngium ebracteatum Lam. var. poterioides (Griseb.) Urb.; Eryngium poterioides Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2221 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Eryngium eburneum Decne., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 20: 23. 1873.

Syn.: Eryngium bracteosum (DC.) Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 30 (BM).

*Eryngium elegans Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 1: 348. 1826.

Syn.: Eryngium elegans Cham. & Schltdl. var. genuinum Urb., nom. illeg.; Eryngium elegans Cham. & Schltdl. var. macrocephalum Urb.; Eryngium elegans Cham. & Schltdl. var. microcephalum Urb.; Eryngium elegans Cham. & Schltdl. var. uncinatum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Urb.; Eryngium uncinatum Cham. & Schltdl.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2233 (FCQ).

Eryngium horridum Malme

Syn.: Eryngium schwackeanum Urb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi v-144 (FCQ).

Eryngium pandanifolium Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 1: 336. 1826.

Syn.: Eryngium decaisneanum Urb.; Eryngium oligodon Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2234 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Eryngium sp. 1

Herb.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2201 (FCQ).

Eryngium sp. 2

Herb.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2202 (FCQ).

Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 3(1): 153. 1789.

Syn.: Hydrocotyle multiflora Ruiz & Pav.; Hydrocotyle umbellata L. var. bonariensis (Lam.) Spreng.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Itapúa, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi v-136 (FCQ).

*Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 1: 364. 1826.

Syn.: Hydrocotyle callicephala Cham. & Schltdl.; Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. var. minuta (Pohl ex DC.) Urb.; Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. var. obtusiloba Urb.; Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. var. truncatiloba Urb.; Hydrocotyle minuta Pohl ex DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5282 (CTES, G, MO) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f., Suppl. Pl. 177. 1782.

Syn.: Hydrocotyle batrachoides DC.; Hydrocotyle natans Cirillo; Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. var. brasiliensis Urb.; Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. var. inciso-crenata Urb.; Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. var. lobata Urb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caazapá, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 48 (BM).

APOCYNACEAE Asclepias mellodora A.St.-Hil., Hist. Pl. Remarq. Bresil 227. 1826.

Syn.: Asclepias campestris Decne.; Asclepias campestris Decne. var. angustifolia Kuntze; Asclepias campestris Decne. var. schlechteri Kuntze; Asclepias curupi E.Fourn.; Asclepias jangadensis S.Moore; Asclepias marginata Decne. var. bodenbenderi Kuntze; Asclepias mellodora A.St.-Hil. var. bodenbenderi (Kuntze) Bollwinkel; Asclepias mellodora A.St.-Hil. var. minor A.St.-Hil.; Asclepias mellodora A.St.-Hil. var. multinervis (E.Fourn.) Bollwinkel; Asclepias multinervis E.Fourn.; Asclepias nervosa Decne.; Asclepias papillosa Silveira; Asclepias umbellata Vell.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1976 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Asclepias sp.

Herb.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 714 (FCQ).

Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 19: 137. 1861.

Syn.: Aspidosperma crotalorum Speg.; Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. forma malmeana Markgr.; Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. forma schlechtendaliana Markgr.; Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. forma spegazziana Markgr.; Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. var. pendula Speg.; Aspidosperma quebrachoideum Rojas Acosta; Macaglia quebracho Kuntze

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18445 (BM, G, MO, NY).

Forsteronia glabrescens Müll.Arg., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 6(1): 102. 1860.

Syn.: Thyrsanthus glabrescens (Müll.Arg.) Miers

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 366 (BM, CTES).

Morrenia odorata (Hook. & Arn.) Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 24: 71. 1838.

Syn.: Cynanchum odoratum Hook. & Arn.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2290 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Oxypetalum balansae Malme, Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 34(7): 51. 1900.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2282 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

*Rhabdadenia ragonesei Woodson, Lilloa 5: 199. 1940.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Vera 210 (BM).

Schubertia grandiflora Mart., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. (Martius) 1: 57. 1824.

Syn.: Araujia grandiflora (Mart.) Morong

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2287 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC., Prodr. (DC.) 8: 365. 1844.

Syn.: Peschiera acuminata Miers; Peschiera affinis (Müll.Arg.) Miers; Peschiera albidiflora Miers; Peschiera australis (Müll.Arg.) Miers; Peschiera australis (Müll.Arg.) Miersvar. hilariana (Müll.Arg.) L.Allorge; Peschiera catharinensis (A.DC.) Miers; Peschiera hilariana (Müll.Arg.) Miers; Tabernaemontana australis Müll.Arg.; Tabernaemontana hilariana Müll.Arg.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Morinigo et al. 1 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

*Thevetia bicornuta Müll.Arg., Linnaea 30: 392. 1860.

Syn.: Cascabela bicornuta (Müll.Arg.) Lippold, nom. nud.; Thevetia paraguayensis Britton

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7924 (cited in Ezcurra et al. 1992: 115).

ARACEAE Anthurium paraguayense Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 361. 1898.

Syn.: Anthurium coriaceum auct. non G. Don; Anthurium rodrigoi A.D.Hawkes

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: O. Kuntze 1492 (cited in Croat and Mount 1988: 11).

Philodendron tweedieanum Schott, Bonplandia 7: 29. 1859.

Syn.: Philodendron dubium Chodat; Philodendron petraeum Chodat; Philodendron petraeum Chodatvar. triangulare Chodat & Vischer; Philodendron petraeum Chodatvar. valenzuelae Chodat & Vischer

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 19 (BM).

*Pistia stratiotes L., Sp. Pl. 2: 963. 1753.

Syn.: Pistia occidentalis Blume; Pistia stratiotes L. var. linguiformis (Blume) Engl.; Pistia stratiotes L. var. obcordata (Schleid.) Engl.

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2364 (BM, UNR).

ARECACEAE *Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3(8) 286. 1845.

Syn.: Acrocomia chunta Covas & Ragonese; Acrocomia totai Mart.; Cocos aculeata Jacq.

Palm.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

Butia paraguayensis (Barb.Rodr.) L.H.Bailey, Gentes Herb. 4: 47. 1936.

Syn.: Butia amadelpha (Barb.Rodr.) Burret; Butia arenicola (Barb.Rodr.) Burret; Butia dyerana (Barb.Rodr.) Burret; Butia pungens Becc.; Butia wildemaniana (Barb.Rodr.) Burret; Butia yatay (Mart.) Becc. subsp. paraguayensis (Barb.Rodr.) Xifreda & Sanso; Butia yatay (Mart.) Becc. var. paraguayensis (Barb.Rodr.) Becc.; Cocos amadelpha Barb.Rodr.; Cocos arenicola Barb.Rodr.; Cocos dyerana Barb.Rodr.; Cocos paraguayensis Barb.Rodr.; Cocos wildemaniana Barb.Rodr.; Syagrus amadelpha (Barb.Rodr.) Frambach; Syagrus arenicola (Barb.Rodr.) Frambach; Syagrus dyerana (Barb.Rodr.) Becc.; Syagrus paraguayensis (Barb.Rodr.) Glassman; Syagrus wildemaniana (Barb.Rodr.) Frambach ex Dahlgren

Palm.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 20497 (BM, G, NY).

Copernicia alba Morong, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 7: 246. 1893.

Syn.: Copernicia australis Becc.; Copernicia australis Becc. var. alba (Morong) Bertoni ex Hauman; Copernicia australis Becc. var. nigra (Morong) Bertoni; Copernicia cerifera Mart.; Copernicia chacoana Rojas Acosta, nom. superfl.; Copernicia nigra Morong ex Becc., nom. nud.; Copernicia ramulosa Burret; Copernicia rubra Morong; Coryphomia tectorum Rojas Acosta

Palm.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: T. Meyer 16106 (LIL) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

*Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman, Fieldiana, Bot. 31(17): 382. 1968.

Syn.: Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc.; Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. var. australe (Mart.) Becc.; Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. var. genuinum Becc. nom. illeg.; Cocos acrocomoides Drude; Cocos arechavaletana Barb. Rodr.; Cocos australis Mart.; Cocos datil Drude & Griseb.; Cocos geriba Barb.Rodr.; Cocos martiana Drude; Cocos plumosa Hook.f.; Cocos romanzoffiana Cham.; Cocos romanzoffiana Cham. var. macropindo Becc.

Palm.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE *Aristolochia fimbriata Cham., Linnaea 7: 210. 1832.

Syn.: Aristolochia ciliata Hook.; Aristolochia ciliosa Benth.; Howardia fimbriata (Cham.) Klotzsch

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12683 (LIL) (cited in Ahumada 2010: 30).

ASTERACEAE *Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Prodr. (DC.) 5: 522. 1836.

Syn.: Acanthospermum humile DC. var. hispidum (DC.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18505 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Acmella decumbens (Sm.) R.K.Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8: 80. 1985.

Syn.: Ceratocephalus decumbens (Sm.) Kuntze; Ceratocephalus decumbens (Sm.) Kuntzevar. macropoda (DC.) Kuntze; Rudbeckia decumbens Sm.; Spilanthes americana (L.f.) Hieron. var. stolonifera (DC.) A.H.Moore; Spilanthes arnicoides DC. var. macropoda (DC.) Baker; Spilanthes decumbens (Sm.) A.H.Moore; Spilanthes decumbens var. macropoda (DC.) A.H.Moore; Spilanthes helenioides Hook. & Arn.; Spilanthes macropoda DC.; Spilanthes stenophylla Hook. & Arn.; Spilanthes stolonifera DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2220 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

Aspilia pascalioides Griseb., Symb. Fl. Argent. 191. 1879.

Syn.: Wedelia pascalioides (Griseb.) B.L.Turner

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1981-B (FCQ)

Aspilia silphioides (Hook. & Arn.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. [Bentham & Hooker f.] 2(1): 372. 1873.

Syn.: Gymnopsis helianthoides DC.; Leighia silphioides Hook. & Arn.; Wedelia silphioides (Hook. & Arn.) B.L.Turner

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9729 (FCQ).

Baccharis microcephala (Less.) DC., Prodr. (DC.) 5: 425. 1836.

Syn.: Baccharis mendes-magalhaensis Barreto, nom. nud.; Baccharis microptera Baker; Molina microcephala Less.

Shrub or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7664 (CTES, G) (cited in Soria and Zardini 1995: 366).

Baccharis phyteumoides (Less.) DC., Prodr. (DC.) 5: 425. 1836.

Syn.: Molina phyteumoides Less.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1462 (FCQ) (cited in Soria and Zardini 1995: 367).

Centratherum punctatum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. (ed. 2) 7: 384. 1817.

Syn.: Ampherephis aristata Kunth; Ampherephis intermedia Link; Ampherephis mutica Kunth; Ampherephis pilosa Cass.; Ampherephis pulchella Cass.; Ampherephis violacea Schrank; Baccharodes holtonii (Baker) Kuntze; Baccharodes muticum (Kunth) Kuntze; Baccharodes punctatum (Cass.) Kuntze; Baccharodes violaceum (Schrank) Kuntze; Baccharodes brachylepis (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) Kuntze; Baccharodes punctatum (Cass.) Kuntze; Centratherum aristatum Cass.; Centratherum brachylepis Sch.Bip. ex Baker; Centratherum brevispirum Cass.; Centratherum camporum (Hassl.) Malme; Centratherum camporum (Hassl.) Malmevar. longipes (Hassl.) Malme; Centratherum holtonii Baker; Centratherum intermedium (Link) Less.; Centratherum longispinum Cass.; Centratherum muticum (Kunth) Less.; Centratherum pulchellum (Cass.) Steud.; Centratherum punctatum Cass. forma brachyphyllum Hassl.; Centratherum punctatum Cass. forma foliosum (Chodat) Hassl.; Centratherum punctatum Cass. subsp. camporum Hassl.; Centratherum punctatum Cass. var. foliosa Chodat; Centratherum punctatum Cass. var. parviflorum Baker; Centratherum violaceum (Schrank) Gleason; Crantzia ovata Vell.; Spixia violacea Schrank

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7963 (cited in Cabrera et al. 2009: 72).

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Fl.Napoli 5: 209. 1836.

Syn.: Carduus lanceolatus L.; Carduus vulgaris Savi; Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop.; Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Airy Shaw, comb. superfl.

Herb. Introduced.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2308 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Conyza primulifolia (Lam.) Cuatrec. & Lourteig, Phytologia 58: 475. 1985.

Syn.: Conyza chilensis Spreng.; Conyza chilensis Spreng. var. carnea Chodat & Hassl.; Conyza chilensis Spreng. var. guaranitica Chodat & Hassl.; Conyza myosotifolia Kunth; Conyza scabiosifolia J.Remy; Conyza yungasensis Rusby; Erigeron chilensis (Spreng.) D.Don ex G.Don; Inula primulifolia Lam.; Marsea chilensis (Spreng.) Kuntze; Marsea chilensis (Spreng.) V.M.Badillo, nom. illeg.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 1253.

Egletes viscosa (L.) Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. 252. 1832.

Syn.: Cotula viscosa L.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: T. Meyer 15856 (LP) (cited in Soria and Zardini 1995: 373).

*Enydra anagallis Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 409. 1848.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 120 (BM).

Eupatorium candolleanum Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1: 243. 1835.

Syn.: Barrosoa candolleana (Hook. & Arn.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Eupatorium candolleanum Hook. & Arn. var. lancifolium Baker; Eupatorium candolleanum Hook. & Arn. var. paranaensis Baker; Eupatorium palustre (DC.) Baker var. guaraniticum Chodat, nom. illeg.; Eupatorium palustre (DC.) Baker var. verbenaceum Chodat

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7949 (CTES) (cited in Cabrera et al. 1996: 57).

Eupatorium catarium Veldkamp, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51(1): 121. 1999.

Syn.: Eupatorium clematideum Griseb., nom. illeg.; Eupatorium pauciflorum auct. non Kunth; Eupatorium urticifolium L.f.; Eupatorium urticifolium L.f. var. clematideum (Griseb.) Hieron.; Eupatorium urticifolium L.f. var. nanum Hieron.; Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: T. Meyer 16044 (LIL) (cited in Cabrera et al. 1996: 65).

Eupatorium hecatanthum (DC.) Baker, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 6(2): 365. 1876.

Syn.: Eupatorium populifolium Hook. & Arn., nom. illeg.; Hebeclinium hecatanthum DC.; Hebeclinium urolepis DC.; Urolepis hecatantha (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2332 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Eupatorium hirsutum Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1: 239. 1835.

Syn.: Chromolaena hirsuta (Hook. & Arn.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Eupatorium congestum Hook. & Arn. var. hirsutum (Hook. & Arn.) Cabrera; Eupatorium congestum Hook. & Arn. var. truncatum Hassl.; Eupatorium hirsutum Hook. & Arn. var. alfa Hook. & Arn.; Eupatorium hirsutum Hook. & Arn. var. triseriale Hassl.; Eupatorium tozziifolium DC. var. subpetiolatum Chodat

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12634 (LIL, LP, SI) (cited in Cabrera et al. 1996: 83).

*Eupatorium kleinioides Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. (folio ed.) 4: 94. 1820.

Syn.: Campuloclinium kleinioides (Kunth) DC.; Eupatorium kleinioides Kunth var. microcephalum Chodat; Eupatorium kleinioides Kunth var. subglabratum Hieron.; Eupatorium sanctopaulense B.L.Rob. var. subglabratum (Hieron.) Malme; Eupatorium subglabratum (Hieron.) Cabrera & Vittet; Praxelis kleinioides (Kunth) Sch.Bip.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Concepción, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5226 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Eupatorium macrocephalum Less., Linnaea 5(1): 136. 1830.

Syn.: Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) DC.; Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) DC. var. strigosum DC.; Chromolaena pratensis Gardner; Eupatorium denudatum Chodat; Eupatorium donianum Hook. & Arn.; Eupatorium macrocephalum Less. var. angustifolium Baker; Eupatorium macrocephalum Less. var. stigmatosum (Chodat) Hassl.; Eupatorium macrocephalum Less. var. strigosum Baker; Eupatorium stigmatosum Chodat; Eupatorium stigmatosum Chodatvar. subcalvatum Chodat; Eupatorium stigmatosum Chodatvar. violaceum Chodat

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9727 (FCQ).

Eupatorium orbignyanum Klatt, Neue Compos. 3. 1881.

Syn.: Chromolaena densiflora (Morong) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Chromolaena orbignyana (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Eupatorium densiflorum Morong; Eupatorium oxylepis DC. var. densiflorum (Morong) Hassl.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9732 (FCQ).

*Eupatorium ostenii B.L.Rob., Ostenia 356. 1953.

Syn.: Praxelis ostenii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5209 (CTES, G, MO) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Eupatorium squarrulosum Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1: 239. 1835.

Syn.: Chromolaena ascendens (Sch.Bip. ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Chromolaena congesta (Hook. & Arn.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Chromolaena squarrulosa (Hook. & Arn.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Eupatorium ascendens Sch.Bip. ex Baker; Eupatorium ascendens Sch.Bip. ex Baker var. parcisetosum B.L Rob.; Eupatorium caaguazuense Hieron. var. nervosum Chodat; Eupatorium congestum Hook. & Arn.; Eupatorium liatridium DC.; Eupatorium tozziifolium DC.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M.M. Arbo 1834 (CTES) (cited in Cabrera et al. 1996: 186).

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Hook. & Arn.) DC. var. subcordata (DC.) Baker, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 6(2): 184. 1876.

Syn.: Gymnocoronis subcordata DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 113 (BM).

*Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19(12): 371. 1892.

Syn.: Achyrophorus brasiliensis Gardner, nom. illeg.; Achyrophorus chillensis (Kunth) Sch.Bip.; Achyrophorus chillensis (Kunth) Sch.Bip.; Achyrophorus sagittatus Phil.; Achyrophorus selloi Sch.Bip.; Apargia chillensis Kunth; Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Griseb.; Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Griseb. var. chacoensis Hassl.; Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Griseb. var. sulfurea Kuntze; Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Griseb. var. tweediei (Hook & Arn.) Baker; Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.; Hypochaeris tweediei (Hook. & Arn.) Cabrera; Leontodon chillense (Kunth) DC.; Porcellites brasiliensis Less.; Seriola brasiliensis (Less.) Less.; Seriola tweediei Hook. & Arn.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2207 (FCQ).

*Mikania periplocifolia Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1: 243. 1835.

Syn.: Mikania araucana Phil.; Mikania auricularis Griseb.; Mikania niederleinii Hieron.; Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. subsp. paraguayensis Malme; Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. periplocifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Baker; Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. sagittifolia Hassl.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5275 (CTES, G, MO) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Pacourina edulis Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2: 800. 1775.

Syn.: Pacourinopsis dentata Cass.; Pacourinopsis edulis Aubl. var. spinosissima Britton; Pacourinopsis integrifolia Cass.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 114 (BM).

Picrosia longifolia D.Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 184. 1830.

Syn.: Picrosia australis Decne.; Picrosia longifolia D.Don var. angustissima Kuntze; Prenanthes subdentata Hook.; Psilopogon albiflorus Phil.; Tragopogon fritillarioides Less.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1990 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Podocoma notobellidiastrum (Griseb.) G.L.Nesom, Phytologia 76: 112. 1994.

Syn.: Baccharidastrum notobellidastrum (Griseb.) Herter; Conyza notobellidastrum Griseb.; Conyza notobellidastrum Griseb. var. oblongifolia Griseb.; Erigeron notobellidastrum (Griseb.) Blake; Erigeron pauciflorus Less., nom. nud.; Marsea notobellidiastrum (Griseb.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 1433.

Pseudogynoxys benthamii Cabrera, Brittonia 7(2): 56. 1950.

Syn.: Pseudogynoxys cabrerae H.Rob. & Cuatrec.; Senecio benthamii Baker, nom. illeg.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7780 (CTES, G) (cited in Cabrera et al. 2009: 28).

Pterocaulon lorentzii Malme, Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 27(3-13): 22. 1901.

Syn.: Pterocaulon malmeanum Chodat; Pterocaulon virgatum (L.) DC. forma angustifolia Arechav.; Pterocaulon virgatum (L.) DC. forma spicata Arechav.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2326 (BM, FCQ).

Sphagneticola brachycarpa (Baker) Pruski, Novon 6(4): 411. 1996.

Syn.: Aspilia callosa Chodat; Aspilia silphioides (Hook. & Arn.) Benth. & Hook. forma parvifolia Chodat; Stemmodontia brachycarpa (Baker) Morong; Thelechitonia brachycarpa (Baker) H.Rob. & Cuatrec.; Wedelia brachycarpa Baker; Wedelia callosa (Chodat) B.L.Turner; Wedelia pilosa Baker; Wedelia pilosa Bakervar. brachycarpa Hassl.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1985 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Senecio grisebachii Baker, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 6(3): 313. 1884.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: C. Vogt 154 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

Tessaria integrifolia Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 213. 1798.

Syn.: Gynheteria incana Spreng., pro parte; Tessaria ambigua DC. var. uniflora Cuatrec.; Tessaria dentata Ruiz & Pav.; Tessaria legitima DC.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2281 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Vernonia chamaedrys Less., Linnaea 4: 259. 1829.

Syn.: Cacalia chamaedrys (Less.) Kuntze; Vernonanthura chamaedrys (Less.) H.Rob.; Vernonia ilex Chodat

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2307 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Vernonia incana Less., Linnaea 4: 277. 1829.

Syn.: Cacalia incana (Less.) Kuntze; Vernonia inmunis Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Central, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 117 (BM).

Vernonia pseudoincana (Hieron.) Cabrera, Candollea 54: 110. 1999.

Syn.: Cacalia rubricaulis (Bonpl.) Kuntze var. pseudoincana (Hieron.) Kuntze; Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl. var. australis auct. non Hieron.; Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl. var. denudata Baker; Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl. var. latifolia Less.; Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl. var. pseudoincana Hieron.; Vernonia salicifolia Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5239 (G) (cited in Cabrera et al. 2009: 225).

Vernonia remotiflora Rich., Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 112. 1792.

Syn.: Lepidaploa remotiflora (Rich.) H.Rob.; Vernonia hirtiflora Sch.Bip. ex Baker; Vernonia lithospermoides Baker; Vernonia sessiliflora Willd. ex Less.; Vernonia tricholepis DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2210 (FCQ).

Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. [Humboldt & Bonpland] 2: 66. 1809.

Syn.: Cacalia rubricaulis (Bonpl.) Kuntze; Lessingianthus rubricaulis (Bonpl.) H.Rob.; Vernonia chromolepis Gardner; Vernonia intermedia DC. var. ramosior DC.; Vernonia linearis D.Don ex Hook. & Arn., nom. nud.; Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl. var. australis Hieron.; Vernonia rubricaulis Bonpl. var. bonplandiana Less.

Herb. Pastures on saturated soil.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1477 (FCQ).

Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers., Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 2: 404. 1807.

Syn.: Cacalia scorpiodes (Lam.) Kuntze; Chrysocoma repanda Vell.; Conyza scorpioides Lam.; Cyrtocymura scorpioides (Lam.) Cass.; Vernonia arborescens (L.) Sw. var. corrientensis Hieron.; Vernonia centriflora Link & Otto; Vernonia flavescens Less.; Vernonia lanuginosa Gardner; Vernonia longeracemosa Mart. ex DC.; Vernonia subrepanda Pers.; Vernonia tournefortioides Kunth

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: C. Vogt 160 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

BEGONIACEAE *Begonia cucullata Willd. var. cucullata, Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(1): 414. 1805.

Syn.: Begonia cucullata Willd. var. hookeri (A.DC.) L.B.Sm. & B.G.Schub.; Begonia hookeri Sw.; Begonia paludicola C.DC.; Begonia semperflorens Link & Otto; Begonia semperflorens Link & Otto var. hookeri A.DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 648 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

*Begonia cucullata Willd. var. arenosicola (C.DC.) L.B.Sm. & B.G.Schub., Darwiniana 5: 106. 1941.

Syn.: Begonia arenosicola C.DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Itapúa, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7725 (G) (cited in Ramella 2008: 163).

BIGNONIACEAE Anemopaegma flavum Morong, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 7: 188. 1893.

Syn.: Anemopaegma sylvestre S.Moore; Anemopaegma symmetricum Rusby

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 1585.

Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq.) Sandwith, Kew Bull. 8: 460.1953 [1954].

Syn.: Adenocalymma friesianum Kraenzl.; Arrabidaea acuminata (J.R.Johnst.) Urb.; Arrabidaea barquisimetensis Pittier; Arrabidaea guaricensis Pittier; Arrabidaea lenticellosa Pittier; Arrabidaea obliqua (Kunth) Bureau; Arrabidaea obliqua var. hirsuta (DC.) Dugand; Arrabidaea obovata DC.; Arrabidaea ovalifolia Pittier; Arrabidaea praecox Hassl.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. forma glabrescens Sprague; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. forma mollis (Sprague) Hassl.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. forma puberula Hassl.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. forma subglabra Hassl.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. var. elliptica Sprague; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. var. genuina Hassl., nom. illeg.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. var. induta Hassl.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. var. oxyphylla Sprague & Sandwith; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. var. praecox (Hassl.) Hassl.; Arrabidaea rhodantha Bureau & K.Schum. var. typica Sprague, nom. illeg.; Arrabidaea rotundata (DC.) Bureau ex K.Schum.; Arrabidaea sickiana J.C.Gomes; Arrabidaea spraguei Pittier; Bignonia acuminata J.R.Johnst.; Bignonia balbisiana DC.; Bignonia balbisiana DC. var. glabra DC.; Bignonia balbisiana DC. var. hirsuta DC.; Bignonia boliviana Rusby; Bignonia columbiana Morong; Bignonia corallina Jacq.; Bignonia dichotoma Jacq.; Bignonia glabrata Kunth; Bignonia hibiscifolia Cham.; Bignonia obliqua Kunth; Bignonia rotundata DC.; Bignonia villosa Bertero ex Spreng.; Cremastus balbisianus (DC.) Miers; Cuspidaria hibiscifolia (Cham.) Bureau; Panterpa dichotoma (Jacq.) Miers; Petastoma obliqum (Kunth) Miers; Piriadacus hibiscifolius (Cham.) Pichon; Tabebuia chapadensis S.Moore

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 812 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Note: This species is being transferred to the genus Fridericia (basionym Bignonia dichotoma Jacq.) as a result of phylogenetic study, see Lohmann (in press).

Bignonia binata Thunb., Pl. Bras. 3: 35. 1821.

Syn.: Adenocalymma ocositense Donn.Sm.; Arrabidaea schumanniana Huber; Bignonia eximia Morong; Bignonia noterophila DC.; Bignonia purpurea Lodd. ex Hook.f.; Bignonia umbellulata DC.; Clytostoma binatum (Thunb.) Sandwith; Clytostoma elegans Standl.; Clytostoma isthmicum Pittier; Clytostoma noterophilum (DC.) Bureau & K.Schum.; Petastoma multiglandulosum Kraenzl.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2324 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham., Linnaea 7: 658. 1832.

Syn.: Bignonia coccinea Vell.; Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. var. latifolia Hassl.; Macfadyena coccinea (Vell.) Miers; Macfadyena cynanchoides (Cham.) Morong; Macfadyena cynanchoides (Cham.) Morong var. latifolia Hassl.; Spathodea dolichandra Steud.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Vera 215 et al. (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Dolichandra uncata (Andrews) L.G.Lohmann, Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venezuela 273. 2008.

Syn.: Bignonia pachyptera DC., nom. nud.; Bignonia uncata Andrews; Bignonia uncata Sims, nom. illeg.; Bignonia uncinata G.Mey.; Dolichandra fenzliana Miq.; Doxantha uncata (Andrews) Miers; Macfadyena fenzliana (Miq.) Miq.; Macfadyena guatemalensis S.F.Blake; Macfadyena hassleri Sprague; Macfadyena hispida (DC.) Seem.; Macfadyena mollis (Sond.) Seem.; Macfadyena pubescens S.Moore; Macfadyena uncata (Andrews) Sprague & Sandwith; Macfadyena uncinata (G.Mey.) A.DC.; Macfadyena unculata K.Schum.; Pachyptera puberula DC.; Spathodea hispida DC.; Spathodea mollis Sond.; Spathodea uncata (Andrews) Spreng.; Spathodea uncinata (G.Mey.) Spreng.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 1602.

Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) L.G.Lohmann, Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venezuela 273. 2008.

Syn.: Batocydia exoleta Mart. ex DC.; Batocydia unguis Mart. ex DC., nom. nud.; Batocydia unguis-cati (L.) Mart. ex Britton, nom. illeg.; Bignonia acutistiopula Schltdl.; Bignonia californica Brandegee; Bignonia catharinensis Schenk; Bignonia dasyonyx S.F.Blake; Bignonia exoleta Vell.; Bignonia gracilis Lodd.; Bignonia inflata Griseb.; Bignonia lanuginosa Hemsl.; Bignonia pseudounguis Desf.; Bignonia triantha DC.; Bignonia tweediana Lindl.; Bignonia unguis L.; Bignonia unguis-cati L.; Bignonia unguis-cati L. var. exoleta (Vell.) Sprague; Bignonia unguis-cati L. var. gracilis (Lodd.) DC.; Bignonia unguis-cati L. var. guatemalensis K.Schum. & Loes.; Bignonia unguis-cati L. var. radicans DC.; Bignonia unguis-cati L. var. serrata Bureau & K.Schum.; Bignonia vespertilia Barb.Rodr.; Dolichandra kohautiana C.Presl; Doxantha acutistipula (Schltdl.) Miers; Doxantha adunca Miers; Doxantha chelophora Miers, nom. nud.; Doxantha dasyonyx (S.F.Blake) S.F.Blake; Doxantha exoleta (Vell.) Miers; Doxantha mexicana Miers, nom. nud.; Doxantha praesignis Miers, nom. nud.; Doxantha radicans (DC.) Miers; Doxantha serrulata Miers, nom. nud.; Doxantha tenuicula Miers, nom. nud.; Doxantha torquata Miers, nom. nud.; Doxantha tweediana (Lindl.) Miers; Doxantha unguis (L.) Miers; Doxantha unguis var. microphylla Chodat; Doxantha unguis-cati (L.) Miers; Doxantha unguis-cati (L.) Miers var. exoleta (Vell.) Fabris; Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H.Gentry; Microbignonia auristellae Kraenzl.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 802 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos, Loefgrenia 50: 2. 1970.

Syn.: Bignonia heptaphylla Vell.; Handroanthus avellanedae (Lorentz ex Griseb.) Mattos var. paullensis (Toledo) Mattos; Handroanthus eximus (Miq.) Mattos; Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb. var. paulensis Toledo; Tabebuia eximia (Miq.) Sandwith; Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo; Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. var. lepidota (Bureau) Toledo; Tecoma curialis Saldanha; Tecoma eximia Miq.; Tecoma impetiginosa Mart. ex DC. var. lepidota Bureau; Tecoma ipe (Mart. ex K.Schum.) Standl.; Tecoma ipe (Mart. ex K.Schum.) Standl. var. desinens Sprague; Tecoma ipe (Mart. ex K.Schum.) Standl. forma glabra Sprague; Tecoma ipe (Mart. ex K.Schum.) Standl. forma grandiflora Sprague; Tecoma ipe (Mart. ex K.Schum.) Standl. forma parviflora Sprague

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 1619 (as Tabebuia heptaphylla).

Handroanthus pulcherrimus (Sandwith) S.Grose, Syst. Bot. 32(5): 666. 2007.

Syn.: Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandwith; Tecoma petropolitana Glaz., nom. nud.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 20498 (BM, G).

Pithecoctenium cynanchoides DC., Prodr. (DC.) 9: 195. 1845.

Syn.: Anemopaegma clematideum Griseb.; Bignonia baclei DC.; Pithecoctenium clematideum (Griseb.) Griseb.; Pithecoctenium cynanchoides DC. var. pellucidum Hassl.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 803 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Note: This species is being transferred to the genus Amphilophium as a result of phylogenetic study, see Lohmann (in press).

Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook.f. ex S.Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4(3): 423. 1895.

Syn.: Bignonia aurea Silva Manso; Bignonia squamellulosa DC., nom. nud.; Handroanthus caraiba (Mart.) Mattos; Handroanthus leucophlaeos (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos; Tabebuia argentea (Bureau & K.Schum.) Britton; Tabebuia caraiba (Mart.) Bureau; Tabebuia suberosa Rusby; Tecoma argentea Bureau & K.Schum.; Tecoma argentea Bureau & K.Schum. forma parviflora Hassl.; Tecoma aurea (Silva Manso) DC.; Tecoma caraiba Mart.; Tecoma caraiba Mart. var. grandiflora Hassl.; Tecoma caraiba Mart. var. squamellulosa (DC.) Bureau & K.Schum.; Tecoma leucophlaeos Mart. ex DC.; Tecoma squamellulosa DC.; Tecoma trichocalycina DC.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Vera et al. 219 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Tabebuia nodosa (Griseb.) Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 258. 1879.

Syn.: Bignonia morongii Britton; Tabebuia nodosa (Griseb.) Griseb. var. parviflora Griseb.; Tecoma nodosa Griseb.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2288 (BM, CTES).

BORAGINACEAE Cordia americana (L.) Gottschling & J.S.Mill., Syst. Bot. 31(2): 364. 2006.

Syn.: Cordia patagonula Aiton; Patagonula alba Rojas Acosta, nom. nud.; Patagonula americana L.; Patagonula americana L. var. glabra Cham.; Patagonula americana L. var. hirsuta Fresen; Patagonula australis Salisb.; Patagonula fuscata Rojas Acosta, nom. nud.; Patagonula glabra (Cham.) Miers; Patagonula tweediana Miers

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2235 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

*Cordia ecalyculata Vell., Fl. Flumin. 96. 1829.

Syn.: Cordia leptocaula Fresen.; Cordia salicifolia Cham.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 20493 (G) (Ramella 2008: 175).

*Heliotropium elongatum Hoffm. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4: 736. 1819.

Syn.: Heliotropium elongatum Hoffm. ex Roem. & Schult. var. genuinum I.M.Johnst., nom. illeg.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18507 (BM, G).

*Heliotropium indicum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 130. 1753.

Syn.: Heliophytum indicum (L.) DC.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9726 (FCQ).

Heliotropium procumbens Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Heliotropium no. 10. 1768.

Syn.: Heliotropium inundatum Sw.; Heliotropium inundatum Sw. forma elliptica Chodat.; Heliotropium inundatum Sw. forma pusilla Hassl.; Heliotropium inundatum Sw. var. chacoense R.E.Fr.; Heliotropium riparium Mart. ex Chodat

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9725 (FCQ).

Heliotropium transalpinum Vell. var. arcanum Di Fulvio & Espinar, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 39(1-2): 119. 2004.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Misiones, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: Reales 236 (LIL) (cited in Di Fulvio and Ariza Espinar 2004: 122).

Heliotropium transalpinum Vell. var. transalpinum, Fl. Flumin. 68. 1829.

Syn.: Heliotropium monostachyum Cham.; Heliotropium tiaridioides Cham. var. schizocarpum I.M.Johnst.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7806 (LIL) (cited in Di Fulvio and Ariza Espinar 2004: 119).

*Tournefortia rubicunda Salzm. ex DC., Prodr. (DC.) 9: 536. 1845.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 20467 (G) (cited in Ramella 2008: 175).

*Tournefortia salzmannii DC., Prodr. (DC.) 9: 524. 1845.

Syn.: Tournefortia salzmannii DC. var. blanchetiana Chodat & Hassl.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 796 (BM, CTES).

BROMELIACEAE *Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker, Gen. Pl. [Bentham & Hooker f.] 3: 664. 1883.

Syn.: Aechmea pulchra (Beer) Mez; Aechmea tinctoria (Mart.) Mez; Macrochordion bromeliifolium (Rudge) Beer; Tillandsia bromeliifolia Rudge

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: C. Vogt 162 (CTES, FCQ).

*Aechmea distichantha Lem. var. schlumbergeri E.Morren ex Mez, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 3(3): 343. 1892.

Syn.: Aechmea grandiceps (Griseb.) Mez; Aechmea polystachya (Vell.) Mez var. longifolia A.Cast.; Chevaliera grandiceps Griseb.; Platyaechmea distichantha (Lem.) L.B.Sm. & W.J.Kress var. schlumbergeri (E.Morren ex Mez) L.B.Sm. & W.J.Kress

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: C. Vogt & P. Ríos 122 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

*Bromelia balansae Mez, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 3(3): 191. 1891.

Syn.: Bromelia argentina Baker; Bromelia laciniosa auct. non Mart. ex Schult. f.; Bromelia pinguin auct. non L.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

*Pseudananas sagenarius (Arruda) Camargo, Revist Agric. (Piracicaba) 14(7, 8): reprint page 4. 1939.

Syn.: Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult. var. sagenarius (Arruda) Bertoni; Ananas macrodontes E.Morren; Ananas microcephalus Bertoni; Ananas sagenaria (Arruda) Schult.f.; Ananas sativus Schult. var. macrodontes (Arruda) Bertoni; Ananas sativus Schult. var. sagenarius (Arruda) Bertoni; Bromelia sagenaria Arruda; Pseudananas macrodontes (E.Morren) Harms

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2355 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Tillandsia bandensis Baker, J. Bot. 25: 234. 1887.

Syn.: Tillandsia bandensis Baker var. intermedia Hassl.; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. var. majuscula Mez

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 715 (FCQ).

Tillandsia didisticha (E.Morren) Baker, J. Bot. 26: 16. 1888.

Syn.: Anoplophytum didistichum E.Morren; Tillandsia crassifolia Baker; Tillandsia disticha auct. non Kunth; Tillandsia oranensis Baker; Tillandsia purpurea Griseb., nom. illeg.; Tillandsia vernicosa A.Cast., nom. illeg.

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: C. Vogt 180 (FCQ).

Tillandsia duratii Vis. var. saxatilis (Hassl.) L.B.Sm., Phytologia 16: 79. 1968.

Syn.: Tillandsia confusa Hassl.; Tillandsia confusa Hassl. var. minor Hassl.; Tillandsia confusa Hassl. var. saxatilis Hassl.; Tillandsia confusa Hassl. var. saxitilis Hassl.; Tillandsia decomposita Baker; Tillandsia duratii Vis. var. confusa (Hassl.) L.B.Sm.; Tillandsia tomentosa N.E.Br.; Tillandsia weddellii Baker

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: C. Vogt 157 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

*Tillandsia meridionalis Baker, J. Bot. 26: 15. 1888.

Syn.: Tillandsia pulchella Mez, nom. illeg.; Tillandsia stricta Mez, nom. illeg.; Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Sims var. paraguariensis Hassl.

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

*Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L., Sp. Pl. (ed. 2) 1: 410. 1762.

Syn.: Diaphoranthema recurvata (L.) Beer; Renealmia recurvata L.; Tillandsia monostachys Gillies ex Baker, nom. nud.; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma argentea André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma brevifolia André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma caespitosa André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma contorta André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma elongata André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma genuina André, nom. illeg.; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma major André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma minor André; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. forma minuta (Mez) A.Cast.; Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. var. ciliata E.Morren ex Mez; Tillandsia recurvata var. minuta Mez

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Concepción, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

Tillandsia tenuifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 286. 1753.

Syn.: Tillandsia astragaloides Mez; Tillandsia autumnalis F.Muell.; Tillandsia bicolor auct. non Brongn.; Tillandsia pulchella Hook.; Tillandsia pulchella Hook. var. rosea Lindl.; Tillandsia pulchella Hook. var. surinamensis Mez; Tillandsia rosea Lindl.; Tillandsia tenuifolia L. var. surinamensis (Mez) L.B.Sm.

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: C. Vogt & Contreras 705 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

Tillandsia tricholepis Baker, J. Bot. 16: 237. 1878.

Syn.: Tillandsia polytrichoides E. Morren; Tillandsia tricholepis var. argentea Hassl.

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9720 (FCQ).

*Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L., Sp. Pl. (ed. 2) 1: 411. 1762.

Syn.: Renealmia usneoides L.; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma cretacea Mez; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma crispa André; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma ferruginea André; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma filiformis André; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma genuina André, nom. illeg.; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma longissima André; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. forma major André; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. var. cretacea (Mez) Mez; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. var. ferruginea (André) Mez; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. var. longissima (André) Mez; Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. var. robusta (Mez) Mez

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Caazapá, Concepción, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: C. Vogt 133 (CTES, FCQ).

*Tillandsia vernicosa Baker, J. Bot. 25: 241. 1887.

Syn.: Tillandsia drepanophylla Baker

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2329 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

CABOMBACEAE Cabomba caroliniana A.Gray var. flavida Orgaard, Nordic J. Bot. 11(2): 201. 1991.

Syn.: Cabomba australis Speg.

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2328 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

CACTACEAE Cereus stenogonus K.Schum., Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 165. 1899.

Syn.: Cereus dayami Speg.; Cereus roseiflorus Speg.; Piptanthocereus dayami (Speg.) F.Ritter, nom. illeg.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 709 (FCQ).

Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw., Syn. Pl. Succ. 197. 1812.

Syn.: Cactus phyllantus L.; Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw. var. paraguayense (F.A.C.Weber) Backeb.; Phyllocactus phyllanthus (L.) Link; Phyllocactus phyllanthus (L.) Linkvar. paraguayense F.A.C.Weber

Epiphytic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Vera 229 et al. (FCQ).

Harrisia martinii (Labour.) Britton, Addisonia 2: 55. 1917.

Syn.: Cereus martinii Labour.; Eriocereus martinii (Labour.) Riccob.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 710 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Monvillea cavendishii (Monv.) Britton & Rose, Cactaceae [Britton & Rose] 2: 21. 1920.

Syn.: Cereus cavendishii Monv.; Cereus paxtonianus Monv.; Cereus rhodoleucanthus K.Schum.; Cereus saxicolus Morong; Praecereus saxicolus (Morong) N.P.Taylor

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 733 (BM, FCQ, MO).

Opuntia anacantha Speg. var. retrorsa (Speg.) R.Kiesling, Candollea 53(2): 475. 1998.

Syn.: Opuntia retrorsa Speg.; Opuntia fuscolineata Starmühler & Muncher; Platyopuntia retrorsa (Speg.) F. Ritter

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 647 (FCQ).

Opuntia elata Salm-Dyck var. cardiosperma (K.Schum.) R.Kiesling, Fl. Entre Rios [Burkart & Bacigalupo] IVB: 412. 2005.

Syn.: Opuntia cardiosperma K.Schum.; Opuntia chakensis Speg.; Opuntia delaetiana (F.A.C.Weber) Vaupel; Opuntia elata Salm-Dyck var. delaetiana F.A.C.Weber

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 711 (FCQ).

*Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw., Philos. Mag. Ann. Chem. 7: 112. 1830.

Syn.: Cereus saglionis Lem.; Rhipsalis penduliflora N.E.Br.; Rhipsalis saglionis (Lem.) Otto

Epiphyte.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Concepción, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

Rhipsalis sp.

Epiphyte.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 479 (FCQ).

CALYCERACEAE *Acicarpha tribuloides Juss., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 348. 1803.

Syn.: Acicarpha laxa R.E.Fr.; Acicarpha pinnatifida Miers; Acicarpha tribuloides Juss. var. dentata Kuntze; Acicarpha tribuloides Juss. var. pinnatifida (Miers) Kuntze; Cryptocarpha tribuloides (Juss.) Cass.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: C. Vogt 142 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

CAMPANULACEAE Wahlenbergia linarioides (Lam.) A.DC., Mongr. Campan. 158. 1830.

Syn.: Campanula arida Kunth; Campanula chilensis Molina; Campanula linarioides Lam.; Wahlenbergia arida (Kunth) Griseb.; Wahlenbergia linarioides (Lam.) A.DC. var. arida (Kunth) Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2251 (FCQ).

CANNABACEAE Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg., Silva 7: 64. 1895.

Syn.: Celtis aculeata Sw.; Celtis diffusa Planch.; Celtis glycycarpa Mart. ex Miq.; Celtis morifolia Planch.; Celtis pubescens (Kunth) Spreng.; Celtis spinosa Spreng.; Celtis spinosissima (Wedd.) Miq.; Celtis triflora (Klotzsch) Miq.; Mertensia aculeata (Wedd.) Schult.; Mertensia iguanaea (Jacq.) Schult.; Mertensia pubescens Kunth; Momisia aculeata (Sw.) Klotzsch; Momisia iguanaea (Jacq.) Rose & Standl.; Momisia pubescens (Kunth) F.G.Dietr.; Momisia spinosissima Wedd.; Momisia tarijensis Wedd.; Momisia triflora Ruiz ex Klotzsch; Rhamnus iguanaeus Jacq.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2291 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

CANNACEAE Canna glauca L., Sp. Pl. 1: 1. 1753.

Syn.: Canna glauca L. var. angusta J.W.Richardson; Canna glauca L. var. rubro-lutea Hook.; Canna hassleriana Kraenzl.; Canna pedicellata C.Presl; Canna stolonifera A.Dietr.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2314 (BM, CTES).

*Canna indica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 1. 1753.

Syn.: Canna achiras Gillies ex Lindl.; Canna amabilis T.Koyama & Nb.Tanaka; Canna brasiliensis Link; Canna coccinea Mill.; Canna compacta Roscoe; Canna edulis Ker Gawl.; Canna esculenta Lodd., nom. nud.; Canna indica Ruiz & Pav., nom. superfl.; Canna lanuginosa Roscoe; Canna limbata Roscoe; Canna plurituberosa T.Koyama & Nb.Tanaka; Canna rubricaulis Link; Canna speciosa Roscoe ex Sims; Canna variegatifolia Ciciarelli; Canna warszewiczii A.Dietr.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5317 (G) (cited in Ramella 2008: 247).

CAPPARACEAE Capparicordis tweediana (Eichler) H.H.Iltis & X.Cornejo, Brittonia 59(3): 251. 2007.

Syn.: Capparis tweediana Eichler

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Bernardi 18446 (BM, MO).

Capparis flexuosa (L.) L., Sp. Pl. (ed. 2) 1: 722. 1762.

Syn.: Capparis cynophallophora L.; Morisonia flexuosa L.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18468 (BM, G).

Capparis retusa Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 18. 1879.

Syn.: Capparis cynophallophora L. var. cuneata Malme; Capparis cynophallophora var. retusa (Griseb.) Kuntze

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 726 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

Cleome paludosa Willd. ex Eichler, Fl. Bras. (Martius) 13(1): 255. 1865.

Syn.: Cleome paludosa Willd. ex Eichlervar. brevipes Hauman

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2254 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

CARYOPHYLLACEAE *Polycarpon suffruticosum Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 77. 1874.

Syn.: Polycarpon anomalum Hassl.; Polycarpon australis Britton; Polycarpon suffruticosum Griseb. var. virens Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: B. Balansa 4588 (BM, G).

CELASTRACEAE *Maytenus officinalis Mabb., Feddes Repert. 101: 274. 1990.

Syn.: Celastrus spinifolium Larrañaga; Maytenus aquifolium Mart.; Maytenus hassleri Briq.; Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek; Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek forma angustior Briq.; Maytenus pilcomayensis Briq.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18376 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/, as Maytenus ilicifolia).

COMBRETACEAE *Terminalia triflora (Griseb.) Lillo, Contr. Conoc. Arb. Argent. 20. 1910.

Syn.: Chuncoa triflora Griseb.; Myrobalanus balansae Kuntze; Myrobalanus triflora (Griseb.) Kuntze; Terminalia balansae (Kuntze) K.Schum.; Terminalia balansae (Kuntze) Hassl., comb. superfl.; Terminalia hassleriana Chodat; Terminalia hassleriana Chodatvar. bernardiensis Chodat

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 821 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

COMMELINACEAE Commelina diffusa Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (N.L. Burman) 18. 1768.

Syn.: Commelina cayennensis Rich.; Commelina cayennensis Rich.var. pubescens Griseb.; Commelina longicaulis Jacq.; Commelina nudiflora auct. non L.; Commelina sellowiana Kunth

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Concepción, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 693 (BM, FCQ).

*Commelina erecta L., Sp. Pl. 1: 41. 1753.

Syn.: Commelina elegans Kunth; Commelina pohliana Seub.; Commelina sulcata Willd.; Commelina virginica auct. non L.; Commelina virginica L. var. australis C.B.Clarke

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5212 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

*Commelina platyphylla Klotzch, Reis. Br.-Guiana [Ri. Schomburgk] 3: 897. 1849.

Syn.: Commelina balansae (C.B.Clarke) Herter; Commelina platyphylla Klotzsch ex Seub. var. balansae C.B.Clarke

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 631 (BM, CTES).

Floscopa glabrata (Kunth) Hassk., Commelin. Ind. 166. 1870.

Syn.: Dithyrocarpus glabratus Kunth

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1447 (FCQ).

*Tradescantia anagallidea Seub., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 3(1): 249. 1871.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Canindeyú, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Vera et al. 230 (FCQ).

*Tripogandra glandulosa (Seub.) Rohweder, Abh. Auslandsk., Reihe C, Naturwiss. 18: 156. 1956.

Syn.: Descantaria glandulosa (Seub.) G.Brückn.; Descantaria pflanzii G.Brückn.; Descantaria radiata (C.B.Clarke) G.Brückn.; Tradescantia glandulosa Seub.; Tradescantia pflanzii G.Brückn.; Tradescantia radiata C.B.Clarke; Tripogandra pflanzii (G.Brückn.) Burkart, comb. superfl.; Tripogandra pflanzii (G.Brückn.) Celarier, comb. superfl.; Tripogandra pflanzii (G.Brückn.) Rohweder; Tripogandra radiata (C.B.Clarke) Bacigalupo

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1992 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

CONVOLVULACEAE Aniseia argentina (N.E.Br.) O´Donell, Lilloa 23: 473. 1950.

Syn.: Aniseia cernua Moric. forma parviflora Chodat & Hassl.; Aniseia cernua Moric. var. ambigua Meisn.; Ipomoea argentina N.E.Br.; Ipomoea argentinensis Speg.; Ipomoea cernua (Moric.) Arechav. forma chacoensis Hassl.; Ipomoea cernua (Moric.) Arechav. forma obtusiflora Hassl.; Ipomoea cernua (Moric.) Arechav. forma palmirense Arechav.; Ipomoea cernua (Moric.) Arechav. forma platensis Hassl.; Ipomoea cernua (Moric.) Arechav. forma yapeyuana Arechav.; Ipomoea cernua (Moric.) Arechav. var. ambigua (Meisn.) Arechav.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Concepción, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1461 (FCQ).

*Convolvulus crenatifolius Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. [Ruiz & Pavon] 2: 10. 1799.

Syn.: Convolvulus crenatifolius Ruiz & Pav. var. argentinica Hallier f.; Convolvulus crenatifolius Ruiz & Pav. var. montevidensis (Spreng.) Hallier f.; Convolvulus montevidensis Spreng.; Convolvulus montevidensis Spreng. var. megapotamicum Meisn.; Ipomoea montevidensis (Spreng.) G.Don

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 717 (FCQ).

Dichondra microcalyx (Hallier f.) Fabris, Fl. Prov. Buenos Aires 5a: 74. 1965.

Syn.: Dichondra repens auct. non J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.; Dichondra repens J.R.Forst. & G.Forst var. microcalyx Hallier f.; Dichondra sericea Sw. var. microcalyx (Hallier f.) H.T.Buck

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2257 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

*Evolvulus glomeratus Nees & Mart. subsp. grandiflorus (D.Parodi) Ooststr., Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 14: 232. 1934.

Syn.: Evolvulus grandiflorus D.Parodi; Evolvulus martii Meisn. forma saltense Arechav.; Evolvulus paraguariensis Chodat & Hassl.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7974 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Evolvulus sericeus Sw., Prodr. (Swartz) 55. 1788.

Syn.: Evolvulus anomalus Meisn.; Evolvulus araucanus Phil.; Evolvulus holosericeus Kunth; Evolvulus sericeus Sw. var. holosericeus (Kunth) Ooststr.; Evolvulus sericeus Sw. var. latior Meisn.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 800 (BM, FCQ).

*Ipomoea carnea Jacq. subsp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D.F.Austin, Taxon 26: 237. 1977.

Syn.: Batatas crassicaulis Benth.; Ipomoea crassicaulis (Benth.) Robinson; Ipomoea fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy; Ipomoea gossypioides D.Parodi; Ipomoea texana Coult.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 367 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer) O’Donell, Arq. Mus. Paranaense 9: 222. 1952.

Syn.: Ipomoea triloba auct. non L.; Jacquemontia grandifolia Dammer

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: Rosaliz Garcia et al. 1 (FCQ, UNP).

*Ipomoea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. 445. 1917.

Syn.: Convolvulus acuminatus Vahl; Convolvulus bogotensis Kunth; Convolvulus congestus (R.Br.) Spreng.; Convolvulus indicus Burm.f.; Convolvulus mollis Kunth; Convolvulus portoricensis Spreng.; Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.; Ipomoea bogotensis (Kunth) G.Don; Ipomoea cathartica Poir.; Ipomoea congesta R.Br.; Ipomoea mollis (Kunth) G.Don; Ipomoea portoricensis (Spreng.) G.Don; Ipomoea vahliana House; Pharbitis acuminata (Vahl) Choisy; Pharbitis acuminata var. congesta Choisy; Pharbitis bogotensis (Kunth) Choisy; Pharbitis cathartica (Poir.) Choisy; Pharbitis mollis (Kunth) Choisy; Pharbitis rosea Choisy

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5261 (CTES, G, MO) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Iseia luxurians (Moric.) O’Donell, Bot. Soc. Argent. Bot. 5(1-2): 77. 1953.

Syn.: Ipomoea grisebachiana Meisn.; Ipomoea jamesonii Choisy; Ipomoea luxurians Moric.; Ipomoea sericantha Griseb. nom. illeg.; Ipomoea sericea Spreng. ex Choisy; Jacquemontia luxurians (Moric.) Hallier f.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú.

Voucher: T. Meyer 15965 (LIL) (cited in O’Donell 1953: 80).

CUCURBITACEAE Cayaponia citrullifolia (Griseb.) Cogn. ex Griseb., Abh. Ges. Wiss. Goett. 24: 135. 1879.

Syn.: Antagonia citrullifolia Griseb.; Cayaponia breviloba (Griseb. ex Cogn.) Lillo, nom. nud.; Cayaponia citrullifolia (Griseb.) Cogn. ex Griseb. var. breviloba Griseb. ex Cogn.; Cayaponia latifolia Cogn.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2325 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

*Melothria pendula L., Sp. Pl. 1: 35. 1753.

Syn.: Melothria fluminensis Gardner

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5313 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Melothria warmingii Cogn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 6(4): 27. 1878.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2327 (BM, FCQ).

Momordica charantia L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1009. 1753.

Syn.: Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviata Ser.

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Morinigo et al. 2 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

CYPERACEAE Carex trachycystis Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 314. 1879.

Syn.: Carex bonariensis Desf. ex Poir. forma remota Kük.; Carex bonariensis Desf. ex Poir. var. remota Kük.; Carex bonariensis Desf. ex Poir. var. trachycystis (Griseb.) Kük.; Carex sororia auct. non Kunth

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2215 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

Cyperus aggregatus (Willd.) Endl., Cat. Horti Vindob. 1: 93. 1842.

Syn.: Cyperus argentinus Boeckeler; Cyperus cayennensis Willd. ex Link; Cyperus flavomariscus Griseb.; Cyperus flavus (Vahl) Nees; Cyperus flavus (Vahl) Neesvar. aggregatus (Willd.) Kük.; Cyperus flavus (Vahl) Neesvar. angustatus Kük.; Cyperus flavus (Vahl) Neesvar. argentinus (Boeckeler) Kük. ex Osten; Cyperus flavus (Vahl) Neesvar. laevis (Kunth) Kük.; Didymia cyperomorpha Phil.; Kyllinga cayennensis Lam.; Mariscus aggregatus Willd.; Mariscus cayennensis (Lam.) Urb.; Mariscus flavus Vahl

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2261 (FCQ).

*Cyperus digitatus Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1820, 1: 205. 1820.

Syn.: Cyperus digitatus Roxb. forma contractior Kük.; Cyperus digitatus Roxb. var. obtusifructus Kük.; Cyperus hieronymi auct. non Boeckeler

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12615 (SI) (cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 331).

Cyperus entrerianus Boeckeler, Flora 61: 139. 1878.

Syn.: Cyperus conoideus Rich.; Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz. forma conoideus (Rich.) Nees; Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz. var. entrerianus (Boeckeler) Barros; Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz. var. tucumanensis (Boeckeler) C.B.Clarke ex Chodat; Cyperus surinamensis Rottb. var. strictus Kük.; Cyperus tucumanensis Boeckeler

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 651 (BM, FCQ, MO).

*Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Enum. Pl. [Vahl] 2: 364. 1805.

Syn.: Chlorocyperus giganteus (Vahl) Palla; Cyperus comosus Poir.

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 804 (BM, FCQ).

*Cyperus haspan L., Sp. Pl. 1: 45. 1753.

Syn.: Cyperus adenophorus Schrad.; Cyperus americanus (Boeckeler) Palla; Cyperus autummalis (Rottb.) Vahl; Cyperus cayennensis Willd. ex Link; Cyperus efoliatus Boeckeler; Cyperus haspan L. subsp. juncoides (Lam.) Kük.; Cyperus haspan L. var. adenophorus (Schrad.) Kük.; Cyperus haspan L. var. americanus Boeckeler; Cyperus haspan L. var. riparius (Schrad. ex Nees) Kük.; Cyperus juncoides Lam.; Cyperus riparius Schrad. ex Nees; Scirpus autumnalis Rottb., nom. illeg.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 695 (BM, FCQ).

*Cyperus impolitus Kunth, Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 2: 78. 1837.

Syn.: Chlorocyperus balansae (Maury) Palla; Cyperus serrae Palla; Cyperus balansae Maury; Cyperus laetus J.Presl & C.Presl var. balansae (Maury) Kük.; Cyperus laetus J.Presl & C.Presl var. capitatus Boeckeler; Cyperus laetus J.Presl & C.Presl var. hassleri (C.B.Clarke) Kük.; Cyperus laetus J.Presl & C.Presl var. impolitus (Kunth) Kük., pro parte; Cyperus laetus J.Presl & C.Presl wacketii Kük.; Mariscus balansae (Maury) C.B.Clarke; Mariscus hassleri C.B.Clarke; Mariscus impolitus (Kunth) J.Raynal

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: Spichiger et al. 5288 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

*Cyperus laxus Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1: 146. 1791.

Syn.: Cyperus diffusus Vahl; Cyperus diffusus Vahlvar. umbrosus (Lindl. & Nees) Kük.; Cyperus elegans auct. non L.; Cyperus limbatus Maury; Cyperus umbrosus Lindl. & Nees ex Nees

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7728 (SI) (http://www.tropicos.org/).

ARACEAE Cyperus odoratus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 46. 1753.

Syn.: Cyperus acicularis (Nees) Steud.; Cyperus cephalophorus J.Presl & C.Presl; Cyperus conglobatus Link; Cyperus densiflorus G.Mey.; Cyperus engelmannii Steud.; Cyperus ferax Rich.; Cyperus ferax Rich. subsp. engelmanni (Steud.) Kük.; Cyperus ferax Rich. subsp. speciosus (Vahl) Kük.; Cyperus ferax Rich. var. acicularis (Nees) Kük; Cyperus ferax Rich. var. bulbiferus Barros; Cyperus ferax Rich. var. conglobatus (Link) Kük.; Cyperus ferax Rich. var. maximilianii (Schrad. ex Nees) Boeckeler; Cyperus ferox Vahl; Cyperus flexuosus Vahl; Cyperus hamiltonii Kunth; Cyperus huarmensis (Kunth) M.C.Johnst.; Cyperus jubaeiflorus Rudge; Cyperus maximilianii (Schrad. ex Nees) Griseb.; Cyperus pohlianus (Nees) Kuntze; Cyperus speciosus Vahl; Diclidium lenticulare Schrad. ex Nees; Diclidium lomentaceum Nees; Diclidium maximilianii Schrad. ex Nees; Diclidium odoratum Schrad. ex Nees; Diclidium uliginosum Schrad. ex Nees; Mariscus ferax (Rich.) C.B.Clarke; Mariscus pohlianus Nees; Torulinium confertum Desv.; Torulinium ferax (Rich.) Urb.; Torulinium odoratum (L.) Hooper

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2339 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

*Cyperus prolixus Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 1: 206. 1815.

Syn.: Comostemon schottii Nees; Cyperus amplissimus Steud.; Cyperus bisumellatus Steud.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7772 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

*Cyperus reflexus Vahl, Enum. Pl. [Vahl] 2: 299. 1805.

Syn.: Cyperus haematostachys Steud.; Cyperus reflexus Vahl forma capitata Osten; Cyperus reflexus Vahl var. macrostachys Boeckeler; Cyperus reflexus Vahl forma major Maury; Cyperus sellowii Link

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5290 (CTES, G, NY) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Cyperus surinamensis Rottb., Descr. Pl. Rar. 20. 1772.

Syn.: Cyperus denticulatus Schrad. ex Schult.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12616 (SI) (cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 343).

*Eleocharis bonariensis Nees, J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 398. 1840.

Syn.: Chaetocyperus bonariensis (Nees) Nees; Chaetocyperus obtusatus Nees; Eleocharis aciculariformis Greenm.; Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult. subsp. bonariensis (Nees) Osten; Eleocharis striatula E.Desv.; Scirpus striatulus (E.Desv.) Griseb.

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5291 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Eleocharis contracta Maury, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 31: 139. 1889.

Syn.: Eleocharis nodulosa (Roth) Schult. var. subnodulosa Svenson, pro parte; Eleocharis nodulosa (Roth) Schult. var. tenuis Boeckeler; Eleocharis posadensis Kük.

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2348 (BM, FCQ).

*Eleocharis elegans (Kunth) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 150. 1817.

Syn.: Eleocharis geniculata auct. non (L.) Roem. & Schult.; Scirpus crassiculmis Griseb.; Scirpus elegans Kunth

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 649b (BM).

*Eleocharis flavescens (Poir.) Urb., Symb. Antill. 4(1): 116. 1903.

Syn.: Eleocharis albivaginata Boeckeler var. flaccida (Rchb. ex Spreng.) Boeckeler; Eleocharis albivaginata Boeckeler var. humilis Boeckeler; Eleocharis albivaginata Boeckeler var. stricta Boeckeler; Eleocharis arechavaletae Boeckeler; Eleocharis flaccida (Rchb. ex A.Spreng.) Urb.; Eleocharis flaccida (Rchb. ex A.Spreng.) Urb. var. arechavaletae Osten; Eleocharis ochreata (Nees) Steud.; Eleocharis ochreata (Nees) Steud. var. flaccida (Rchb. ex A.Spreng.) Boeckeler; Eleogenus ochreatus Nees; Eleogenus ochreatus Nees var. flaccidus Nees; Eleogenus ochreatus Nees var. minor Nees; Scirpus flaccidus Rchb. ex A.Spreng.; Scirpus flavescens Poir.; Scirpus gaudichaudianus Kunth; Scirpus ochreatus (Nees) Kunth; Trichophyllum ochreatum (Nees) House

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Concepción, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2271 (BM, FCQ).

Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roem. 7 Schultes] 2: 149. 1817.

Syn.: Scirpus interstincta Vahl

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Vera et al. 212 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Eleocharis minima Kunth, Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 2: 139. 1837.

Syn.: Chaetocyperus polymorphus Nees & Lindl., pro parte; Eleocharis durandii Boeckeler; Eleocharis tenuissima Boeckeler; Eleocharis wrightiana Boeckeler

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 175 (BM).

Eleocharis montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 153. 1817.

Syn.: Eleocharis consanguinea Kunth; Eleocharis montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. var. nodulosa (Roth) Svenson; Eleocharis nodulosa (Roth) Schult.; Eleocharis nodulosa (Roth) Schult. forma trigyna Barros; Eleogenus nodulosus (Roth) Nees; Scirpus montanus Kunth; Scirpus nodulosus Roth

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2349 (BM, FCQ).

Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth, Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 2: 149. 1837

Syn.: Eleocharis albivaginata Boeckeler var. macrostachya Boeckeler; Eleocharis galapagensis Svenson; Eleocharis mesopotamica Boeckeler; Eleogenus sellowianus (Kunth) Nees; Scirpus sellowianus (Kunth) Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 142 (BM).

Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 2: 97. 1817.

Syn.: Isolepis autumnalis (L.) J.Presl & C.Presl; Scirpus autumnalis L.; Scirpus mucronulatus Michx.

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 179 (BM).

Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link, Hort. Berol. [Link] 1: 292. 1827.

Syn.: Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. var. complanata (Retz.) Kük.; Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. var. complanata (Retz.) Barros, comb. superfl.; Scirpus complanatus Retz.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 357.

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl, Enum. Pl. [Vahl] 2: 287. 1805.

Syn.: Fimbristylis annua (All.) Roem. & Schult.; Fimbristylis annua (All.) Roem. & Schult. forma tomentosa (Vahl) Kük.; Fimbristylis annua (All.) Roem. & Schult. var. diphylla (Retz.) Kük.; Fimbristylis brachyphylla Schult.; Fimbristylis communis Kunth; Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl; Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahlvar. tomentosa (Vahl) Barros; Fimbristylis dregeana Kunth; Fimbristylis ecklonii Nees; Fimbristylis laxa Vahl; Fimbristylis polymorpha Boeckeler; Fimbristylis subtristachya Steud.; Fimbristylis tomentosa Vahl; Scirpus annuus All.; Scirpus dichotomus L.; Scirpus diphyllus Retz.

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2343 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

*Fuirena umbellata Rottb., Descr. Icon. Rar. Pl. 70. 1773.

Syn.: Scirpus umbellatus (Rottb.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5298 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., Descr. Icon. Rar. Pl. 13. 1773.

Syn.: Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.; Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. ex Kük. forma gracilis (Boeckeler) Kük.; Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. var. longifolia Boeckeler; Kyllinga cruciformis Schrad. ex Roem. & Schult.; Kyllinga sororia Kunth; Kyllinga tenuis Baldwin

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Central, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2218 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

*Kyllinga odorata Vahl, Enum. Pl. [Vahl] 2: 382. 1805.

Syn.: Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. ex Kük.; Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. ex Kük. forma bulbiferus (Kük.) Kük.; Kyllinga leucocephala Baldwin; Kyllinga martiana Schrad. ex Nees; Kyllinga monocephala Kunth, nom. illeg.; Kyllinga odorata Vahl var. bulbifera Kük.; Kyllinga odorata Vahl var. genuina Osten, nom. illeg.; Kyllinga odorata Vahl var. gracilis Boeckeler; Kyllinga odorata Vahl var. rigida Boeckeler; Kyllinga pellucido-albida Boeckeler; Kyllinga sesquiflora Torr.; Kyllinga triceps auct. non Rottb.

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2260 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

*Kyllinga vaginata Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1: 148. 1791.

Syn.: Cyperus obtusatus (J.Presl & C.Presl) Mattf. & Kük.; Kyllinga obtusata J.Presl & C.Presl; Kyllinga peruviana Lam.; Kyllinga pungens Link; Kyllinga rigida Baldwin; Kyllinga stricta Schrad. ex Nees; Kyllinga tenuis Boeckeler, nom. illeg.

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 701 (BM, FCQ).

Pycreus flavicomus (Michx.) C.D.Adams, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78(1): 254. 1991.

Syn.: Cyperus albomarginatus (Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees) Steud.; Cyperus albomarginatus (Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees) Steud. var. pachyanthemos Kük.; Cyperus albomarginatus (Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees) Steud. var. sabulosus (Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees) Kük.; Cyperus flavicomus Michx.; Cyperus sabulosus (Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees) Steud.; Pycreus albomarginatus Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees; Pycreus sabulosus Mart. & Schrad. ex Nees

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1445 (FCQ).

*Pycreus lanceolatus (Poir.) C.B.Clarke, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 538. 1894.

Syn.: Cyperus helvus Liebm., nom. illeg.; Cyperus lepidus Phil.; Cyperus lanceolatus Poir.; Cyperus olfersianus Kunth; Cyperus olfersianus Kunthvar. maximilianii Boeckeler; Pycreus helvus (Liebm.) C.B.Clarke; Pycreus olfersianus (Kunth) Nees; Pycreus propinquus Nees

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 652 (FCQ).

Rhynchospora asperula (Nees) Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2(8-9): 144. 1855.

Syn.: Calyptrostylis asperula Nees; Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton var. asperula (Nees) Kük.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1472 (FCQ).

Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton, Trans. New York Acad. Sci. 11: 84. 1892.

Syn.: Calyptrostylis fascicularis Nees; Calyptrostylis florida (Rudge) Nees; Dichromena corymbosa (L.) J.F.Macbr.; Rhynchospora aurea Vahl; Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton var. florida (Rudge) Kük.; Rhynchospora florida (Rudge) Schult.; Rhynchospora surinamensis (Rottb.) Nees; Schoenus floridus Rudge; Schoenus surinamensis Rottb.; Scirpus corymbosus L.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2226 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

Rhynchospora praecincta Maury ex Micheli, Neue Denkschr. Allg. Schweiz. Ges. Gesammten Naturwiss. 31(1): 146. 1890.

Syn.: Rhynchospora hyalinolepis Boeckeler

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1455 (FCQ).

*Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale, Rhodora 46: 275. 1944.

Syn.: Dichromena glauca (Vahl) J.F.Macbr.; Rhynchospora glauca Vahl var. altior Kük.; Schoenus rugosus Vahl

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5235 (CTES, G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Rhynchospora velutina (Kunth) Boeckeler, Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1869: 149. 1869.

Syn.: Dichromena sellowiana Kunth; Dichromena velutina Kunth; Pachymitra rufa Nees ex Boeckeler, nom. nud.; Pachymitra velutina Kunth ex Nees, nom. nud.; Psilocarya divergens Nees; Psilocarya mexicana Liebm.; Psilocarya pauloensis Boeckeler; Psilocarya pohlii Nees; Psilocarya rufa Nees; Psilocarya sellowiana (Kunth) Nees; Psilocarya velutina (Kunth) Nees; Rhynchospora auraeformis C.B.Clarke; Rhynchospora kuekenthalii H.Pfieff.; Rhynchospora kuekenthalii Herter, nom. illeg.; Rhynchospora mexicana C.Wright ex Sauvalle; Rhynchospora robusta (Kunth) Boeckeler; Rhynchospora rufa (Nees) Boeckeler; Rhynchospora rufa (Nees) Boeckeler var. liebmanniana C.B.Clarke; Rhynchospora velutina (Nees) Boeckeler var. divergens (Nees) Boeckeler ex Kük.; Rhynchospora velutina (Nees) Boeckeler var. glabrescens Boeckeler; Rhynchospora velutina (Nees) Boeckeler var. pohlii (Nees) Boeckeler ex Kük.; Rhynchospora velutina (Nees) Boeckeler var. sellowiana (Kunth) Boeckeler; Schoenus mollis Schrad.ex Nees, nom. nud.; Schoenus velutinus Schrad. ex Kunth., nom. nud.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1453 (FCQ).

*Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A.Mey.) Soják, Čas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Přír. 140(3-4): 127. 1972.

Syn.: Elytrospermum californicus C.A.Mey.; Malacochaete assimilis Ces.; Malacochaete chilense Nees & Meyen ex Boeckeler; Malacochaete oligostachya Phil. ex Boeckeler; Malacochaete riparia Nees & Meyen; Malacochaete sanguinolenta Nees & Meyen ex Boeckeler; Malacochaete tatora Nees & Meyen, nom. nud.; Schoenoplectus riparius (J.Presl & C.Presl) Palla; Scirpus californicus (C.A.Mey.) Britton, comb. superfl.; Scirpus californicus (C.A.Mey.) Steud.; Scirpus californicus (C.A.Mey.) Steud. var. tatora (Kunth) Barros; Scirpus californicus (C.A.Mey.) Steud. subsp. tatora (Kunth) T.Koyama; Scirpus chamissonis Schrad. ex Boeckeler; Scirpus decipiens A.St.-Hil. ex Nees; Scirpus rigidus Schrad. ex Nees; Scirpus riparius J.Presl & C.Presl

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 13.

Scleria melaleuca Rchb. ex Schltdl. & Cham., Linnaea 6(1): 29. 1881.

Syn.: Scleria pratensis Lindl. ex Nees; Scleria pterota C.Presl, nom. nud.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2370 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

DIOSCOREACEAE *Dioscorea subhastata Vell., Fl. Flumin. Icon. 10: t. 121. 1831.

Syn.: Dioscorea friesii R.Knuth; Dioscorea guaranitica Chodat & Hassl.; Dioscorea guaranitica Chodat & Hassl. forma subcoriacea Chodat & Hassl.; Dioscorea guaranitica Chodat & Hassl. var. balansae Pellegr.; Dioscorea lagoa-santa Uline ex R.Knuth; Dioscorea lagoa-santa Uline ex R.Knuthvar. rotiflora Uline; Dioscorea piratinyensis R.Knuth

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea & M. Vera 478 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

EBENACEAE Diospyros inconstans Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. 34. 1790.

Syn.: Maba inconstans (Jacq.) Griseb.; Macreightia inconstans (Jacq.) A.DC.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Central, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 20478 (BM) (Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 1987).

ERIOCAULACEAE *Syngonanthus caulescens (Poir.) Ruhland, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30(2): 147. 1901.

Syn.: Dupatya caulescens (Poir.) Kuntze; Eriocaulon caulescens Poir.; Eriocaulon splendens Bong.; Paepalanthus caulescens (Poir.) Kunth

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5362 (cited in Ramella 2009: 201).

ERYTHROXYLACEAE Erythroxylum cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E.Schulz, Pflanzenr. (Engler) [Heft 29] 4. Fam. 134: 121. 1907.

Syn.: Erythroxylum cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz var. silvaticum O.E.Schulz; Erythroxylum cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz var. squarrosum O.E.Schulz; Erythroxylum microphyllum A.St.-Hil. var. cuneifolium Mart.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 645 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, UNR).

Erythroxylum sp.

Shrub.

Voucher: J. De Egea & M. Vera 472 (BM, FCQ).

EUPHORBIACEAE Acalypha communis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34: 23. 1865.

Syn.: Acalypha agrestis Morong ex Britton; Acalypha apicalis N.E.Br.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. agrestis (Morong ex Britton) Chodat; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. forma grandifolia Müll.Arg.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. guaranitica Chodat & Hassl.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. hirta Müll.Arg.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. salicifolia Pax & K.Hoffm.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. saltensis Pax & K.Hoffm.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. tomentella Müll.Arg.; Acalypha communis Müll. Arg. var. tomentosa Müll.Arg.; Acalypha cordobensis Müll.Arg.; Acalypha cordobensis Müll.Arg. var. rotundata Griseb.; Acalypha gracilis Griseb., nom. illeg.; Acalypha hirta Spreng., nom. illeg.; Acalypha montevidensis Klotzsch ex Pax & K.Hoffm. nom. nud.; Acalypha paraguariensis Chodat & Hassl.; Acalypha variabilis Klotzsch ex Baill. var. angustifolia Baill.; Ricinocarpus cordobensis (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 686 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

*Acalypha multicaulis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34: 53. 1865.

Syn.: Acalypha multicaulis Müll.Arg. var. glabrescens Pax & K.Hoffm; Acalypha pruriens Chodat & Hassl., nom. illeg.; Ricinocarpus multicaulis (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Caaguazú, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5320 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Adelia membranifolia (Müll.Arg.) Chodat & Hassl., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 5: 604. 1905.

Syn.: Adelia membranifolia (Müll.Arg.) Chodat & Hassl. forma hirsuta Chodat & Hassl.; Adelia membranifolia (Müll.Arg.) Chodat & Hassl. var. spinosa Chodat & Hassl.; Adelia spinosa (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Adelia spinosa (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & K.Hoffm. var. hassleri Pax & K.Hoffm.; Adelia spinosa (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & K.Hoffm. var. hirsuta (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Ricinella membranifolia Müll.Arg.; Ricinella membranifolia Müll.Arg. var. spinosa Chodat & Hassl.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7961 (cited in Bernardi 1984: 61, as Adelia spinosa).

Caperonia castaneifolia (L.) A.St.-Hil., Hist. Pl. Remarq. Bresil 245. 1826.

Syn.: Caperonia bahiensis Müll.Arg. forma latior Chodat & Hassl.; Caperonia latior (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Croton castaneifolius L.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 2021.

Caperonia cordata A.St.-Hil., Hist. Pl. Remarq. Bresil 245. 1826.

Syn.: Caperonia cordata var. mollis Pax & K. Hoffm.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caazapá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 829 (BM, FCQ).

Caperonia glabrata Pax & K. Hoffm., Pflanzenr. (Engler) [Heft 57] 4, Fam. 147, VI: 43. 1912.

Herb. In swamps.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Misiones, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2341 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Caperonia palustris (L.) A.St.-Hil., Hist. Pl. Remarq. Bresil 245. 1826.

Syn.: Croton palustris L.

Aquatic herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Central, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter et al. 99 (BM).

Chiropetalum griseum Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 57. 1879.

Syn.: Argythamnia grisea (Griseb.) Allem & Irgang; Argythamnia mollis Kuntze, nom. nud.; Chiropetalum cupreum Pax & K.Hoffm.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 2024.

Chiropetalum tricoccum (Vell.) Chodat & Hassl., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 5: 502. 1905.

Syn.: Argythamnia lineata (Klotzsch) Baill., nom. illeg.; Argythamnia tricocca (Vell.) Müll.Arg.; Chiropetalum lineatum Klotzsch, nom. nud.; Chiropetalum tricoccum (Vell.) Chodat & Hassl. forma latifolius Chodat & Hassl.; Desfontaena tricocca Vell.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 794 (BM, CTES, FCQ).

Croton argenteus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1004. 1753.

Syn.: Cicca argentea (L.) Kuntze; Cicca montevidensis (Klotzsch ex Baill.) Kuntze; Croton integer (Chodat) Radcl.-Sm. & Govaerts; Julocroton argenteus (L.) Didr.; Julocroton camporum Chodat & Hassl.; Julocroton elaeagnoides S.Moore; Julocroton integer Chodat; Julocroton integer Chodat forma parvifolia Chodat & Hassl.; Julocroton linearifolius (Chodat & Hassl.) Croizat; Julocroton montevidensis Klotzsch ex Müll.Arg.; Julocroton montevidensis Klotzsch ex Müll.Arg. var. linearifolius Chodat & Hassl.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9723 (FCQ).

Croton bonplandianus Baill., Adansonia 4: 339. 1864.

Syn.: Croton pauperulus Müll. Arg.; Croton rivinoides Chodat; Croton sparsiflorus Morong

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Perez et al. 1 (FCQ, UNP).

Croton eskuchei Ahumada, Darwiniana 37(1-2): 172. 1999.

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: U.G. Eskuche 2527 (CTES) (cited in Ahumada 1999: 174).

Croton gracilipes Baill., Adansonia 4: 333. 1864.

Syn.: Croton hasslerianus Chodat

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2243 (BM, FCQ).

Croton subpannosus Müll.Arg. ex Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 96. 1874.

Syn.: Croton dentosus Griseb.; Julocroton brittonianum Morong; Julocroton serratus Müll.Arg.; Julocroton subpannosus Müll.Arg.; Julocroton subpannosus Müll.Arg. var. chacoensis Croizat; Julocroton subpannosus Müll.Arg. var. formosensis Croizat; Julocroton subpannosus Müll.Arg. var. posadensis Croizat; Julocroton subpannosus Müll.Arg. var. uruguayensis Croizat

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2242 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

Croton urucurana Baill., Adansonia 4: 335. 1864.

Syn.: Croton dracona Larragaña; Croton succiruber D.Parodi

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: C. Vogt 132 (CTES, FCQ).

*Croton villosissimus (Chodat & Hassl.) Radcl.-Sm. & Govaerts, Kew Bull. 52: 186. 1997.

Syn.: Julocroton villosissimus Chodat & Hassl.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Canindeyú, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5240 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Croton sp.

Subshrub.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1975 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Euphorbia klotzschii Oudejans, Phytologia 67: 46. 1989.

Syn.: Anisophyllum ovalifolium Klotzsch & Garcke; Chamaesyce ovalifolia (Klotzsch & Garcke) Croizat; Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small var. montevidensis (Boiss.) Croizat; Euphorbia ovalifolia (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., nom. illeg.; Euphorbia ovalifolia var. montevidensis Boiss.; Euphorbia serpens Kunth var. montevidensis (Boiss.) Cabrera

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Vera et al. 238 (BM, FCQ).

* Microstachys ramosissima A.St.-Hil., Prodr. (DC.) 15(2): 1187. 1866.

Syn.: Actinostemon anisandrus (Griseb.) Pax; Actinostemon luquense Moroni; Dactylostemon anisandrus Griseb.; Sebastiania anisandra (Griseb.) Lillo; Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. var. ramosissima (A.St.-Hil.) Müll.Arg.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2283 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

Note: This taxon is treated as Sebastiania by Melo (2006) and Athiê de Souza (2011), but the combination has not yet been published; it was treated as Sebastiania brasiliensis by Zuloaga et al. (2008), but that species is confined to coastal Brazil (Athiê de Souza, pers. comm.).

Philyra brasiliensis Klotzsch, Arch. Naturgesch. 1: 199. 1841.

Syn.: Argythamnia brasiliensis (Klotzsch) Müll.Arg.; Ditaxis brasiliensis (Klotzsch) Baill.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18466 (BM).

*Sapium haematospermum Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34: 217. 1865,

Syn.: Excoecaria biglandulosa (L.) Müll.Arg. var. stenophylla Müll.Arg.; Excoecaria haematosperma (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.; Sapium aucuparium Jacq. var. stenophyllum (Müll.Arg.) Griseb.; Sapium biglandulosum (L.) Müll.Arg. forma longifolium (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.; Sapium biglandulosum (L.) Müll.Arg. var. longifolium Müll.Arg.; Sapium biglandulosum (L.) Müll.Arg. var. stenophyllum Müll.Arg.; Sapium gibertii Hemsl.; Sapium haematospermum Müll.Arg. forma arborea Chodat & Hassl.; Sapium linearifolium Hemsl.; Sapium longifolium (Müll.Arg.) Huber; Sapium rojasii H.Lév.; Sapium stenophyllum (Müll.Arg.) Huber; Stillingia sylvatica L. var. paraguayensis Morong

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi v-161 (FCQ).

*Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill.) L.B.Sm. & Downs, Fl. Ilustr. Catarin. 1 (Euforbiác.): 308. 1988.

Syn.: Gymnanthes klotzschiana Müll.Arg., nom. illeg.; Gymnanthes marginata Baill., nom. nud.; Sebastiania klotzschiana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.; Sebastiania klotzschiana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. var. brachyclada (Müll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Sebastiania klotzschiana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. var. trichoneura Müll.Arg.; Sebastiania commersoniana Baill.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: R. Spichiger & et al. 5341 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Tragia geraniifolia Klotzsch ex Baill., Étude Euphorb. 461. 1858.

Syn.: Tragia geraniifolia Klotzsch ex Baill. var. multifida Griseb.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2240 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Tragia volubilis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 980. 1753.

Syn.: Tragia volubilis L. var. guaranitica Chodat & Hassl.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2300 (BM, FCQ).

FABACEAE Aeschynomene denticulata Rudd, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 32: 69. 1955.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2315 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

*Aeschynomene montevidensis Vogel, Linnaea 12: 83. 1838.

Syn.: Aeschynomene montevidensis Vogel var. microphylla Chodat & Hassl.; Macromiscus brasiliensis Turcz.

Herb or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: S. Keel & L. Spinzi 1475 (FCQ).

Aeschynomene sensitiva Sw., Prodr. 107. 1788.

Syn.: Aeschynomene sensitiva Sw. var. paucifoliolata Chodat & Hassl.; Aeschynomene sensitiva P.Beauv., nom. illeg.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M.A. Walter 208 (BM).

Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg., Physis (Buenos Aires) 6: 314. 1923.

Syn.: Acacia angustiloba DC.; Acacia microphylla Willd.; Acacia niopo (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth; Acacia peregrina (L.) Willd.; Acacia falcata (Benth.) Speg.; Acacia peregrina (L.) Speg. var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul; Mimosa acacioides Benth.; Mimosa niopo (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir.; Mimosa parvifolia Poir.; Mimosa peregrina L.; Niopa peregrina (L.) Britton & Rose; Piptadenia falcata Benth.; Piptadenia niopo (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Spruce; Piptadenia peregrina (L.) Benth.; Piptadenia peregrina (L.) Benth. var. falcata (Benth.) Chodat & Hassl.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18498 (BM).

Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mart.) J.F.Macbr., Contr. Gray Herb. 59: 22. 1919.

Syn.: Bauhinia microphylla Vogel; Pauletia bauhinioides (Mart.) A.Schmitz; Perlebia bauhinioides Mart.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: Reales 276 (LIL) (cited in Fortunato 1986: 544).

Caesalpinia paraguariensis (D.Parodi) Burkart, Darwiniana 10(1): 26. 1952.

Syn.: Acacia paraguariensis D.Parodi; Caesalpinia coriaria Micheli, nom. illeg.; Caesalpinia melanocarpa Griseb.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 703 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var. patellaria (DC. ex Collad.) Kartesz & Gandhi, Phytologia 71(2): 93. 1991.

Syn.: Cassia biglandulosa Bertol.; Cassia patellaria DC. ex Collad.; Cassia patellaria DC. ex Collad. var. longifolia Benth.; Cassia patellaria DC. ex Collad. var. ramosa Vogel; Cassia villosissima (Britton & Rose) Lundell; Chamaecrista nictitans var. ramosa (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby; Chamaecrista patellaria (DC. ex Collad.) Greene; Chamaecrista villosissima Britton & Rose

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9728 (FCQ).

*Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Pers.) Greene, Pittonia 4(20D): 31. 1899.

Syn.: Cassia bifoliolata DC. ex Collad.; Cassia bifoliolata DC. ex Collad. var. pentandra (Raddi) Desv.; Cassia bifoliolata DC. ex Collad. var. rotundifolia (Pers.) Desv., nom. illeg.; Cassia fabaginifolia Kunth; Cassia monophylla Vell.; Cassia pentandra Raddi; Cassia pentandria Larrañaga, nom. illeg.; Cassia rotundifolia Pers.; Cassia tenuivenosa A.P.D.Jones; Chamaecrista bifoliolata (DC. ex Collad.) Greene

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7754 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Crotalaria micans Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 228. 1822,

Syn.: Crotalaria anagyroides Kunth; Crotalaria brachystachys Benth.; Crotalaria dombeyana DC.; Crotalaria stipulata Vell.; Crotalaria triphylla Vell.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Ortiz 133 (FCQ).

Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 4(2): 1047. 1806.

Syn.: Acacia angustisiliqua (Lam.) Desf.; Acacia virgata (L.) Gaertn.; Acuan depressum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kuntze; Acuan texanum Britton & Rose; Acuan tracyi Britton & Rose; Desmanthus depressus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.; Desmanthus pratorum Macfad.; Desmanthus tatuhyensis auct. non Hoehne; Desmanthus tenellus DC.; Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. var. depressus (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) B.L.Turner; Mimosa angustisiliqua Lam., nom. superfl.; Mimosa depressa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir.; Mimosa virgata L.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Guairá, Ñeembucú, San Pedro.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2224 (BM, CTES, FCQ, MO).

Desmodium cuneatum Hook. & Arn., Bot. Misc. 3: 195. 1832.

Syn.: Meibomia cuneata (Hook. & Arn.) Hoehne; Meibomia brevipes (Vogel) Kuntze

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: F. Mereles 9735 (FCQ).

Desmodium incanum DC., Prodr. (DC.) 2: 332. 1825.

Syn.: Desmodium canum (J.F.Gmel.) Schinz & Thell.; Desmodium frutescens Schindl.; Desmodium supinum (Sw.) DC.; Hedysarum canescens Mill.; Hedysarum canum J.F.Gmel., nom. illeg.; Hedysarum frutescens Jacq., nom. illeg.; Hedysarum incanum Sw., nom. illeg.; Hedysarum racemosum Aubl.; Meibomia cana (J.F.Gmel.) Blake; Meibomia incana (DC.) Vail; Meibomia incana (Sw.) Hoehne, nom. illeg.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1997 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

Discolobium pulchellum Benth., Comm. Legum. Gen. 42. 1837.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7778 (SI) (cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 2179).

Dolichopsis paraguariensis (Benth.) Hassl., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 7(3): 162. 1907.

Syn.: Vigna paraguariensis Benth.

Herb or climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Caazapá, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2313 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 7: 102. 1893.

Syn.: Acacia melalobiata Rojas Acosta; Calliandra pacara Griseb.; Enterolobium glaucescens Mart.; Enterolobium timbouva auct. non Mart.; Feuilleea pacara (Griseb.) Kuntze; Mimosa contortisiliqua Vell.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: Z. Gálvez et al. 03 (FCQ, UNP).

*Eriosema platycarpon Micheli, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 28(7): 34. 1883.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5227 (CTES, G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Erythrina crista-galli L., Mant. Pl. 1: 99. 1767.

Syn.: Coladendron crista-galli (L.) Kuntze; Erythrina fasciculata Benth.; Erythrina laurifolia Jacq.; Erythrina pulcherrima Tod.; Erythrina speciosa Tod.; Micropteryx crista-galli (L.) Walp.; Micropteryx fasciculata (Benth.) Walp.; Micropteryx laurifolia (Jacq.) Walp.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18366 (BM).

Erythrina dominguezii Hassl., Physis (Buenos Aires) 6: 123. 1922.

Syn.: Erythrina chacoensis Speg., nom. nud.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Canindeyú, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18518 (BM).

*Galactia marginalis Benth., Comm. Legum. Gen. 62. 1837.

Syn.: Cologania heterophylla Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.; Galactia heterophylla (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Vail, nom. illeg.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12645 (AS) (http://www.tropicos.org/).

Galactia sp.

Herb?. habit not noted on label.

Voucher: A.G. Schulz 7699 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. 28. 1760.

Syn.: Geoffraea bredemeyeri Kunth; Geoffraea striata (Willd.) J.F.Macbr., comb. superfl.; Geoffraea striata (Willd.) Morong; Geoffroea superba Bonpl.; Robinia striata Willd.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18472 (BM).

Gleditsia amorphoides (Griseb.) Taub., Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 10(10): 638. 1892.

Syn.: Garugandra amorphoides Griseb.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 724 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, UNR).

Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 28(7): 41. 1883.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 825 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, SI).

Indigofera asperifolia Bong. ex Benth., Ann. Nat. Hist. 3: 431. 1839.

Syn.: Anila asperifolia (Bong. ex Benth.) Kuntze; Indigofera asperifolia Hochst. ex Baker, nom. illeg.; Indigofera retrusa N.E.Br.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caazapá, Canindeyú, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 633 (FCQ).

*Indigofera microcarpa Desv., J. Bot. Agric. 3: 79. 1814.

Syn.: Indigofera sabulicola Benth.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: T. Rojas 12621 (AS) (http://www.tropicos.org/).

*Inga vera Willd. subsp. affinis (DC.) T.D.Penn., Gen. Inga: Bot. 716. 1997.

Syn.: Feuilleea affinis (DC.) Kuntze; Feuilleea meissneriana (Miq.) Kuntze; Feuilleea uruguensis (Hook. & Arn.) Kuntze; Inga acutifolia Benth.; Inga affinis DC.; Inga arinensis Hoehne; Inga arrabideae Steud.; Inga meissneriana Miq.; Inga spuria Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd var. sordida Benth.; Inga soluta Pittier; Inga uraguensis Hook. & Arn.; Inga uraguensis Hook. & Arn. var. parvifolia Chodat & Hassl.; Inga uraguensis Hook. & Arn.var. parvifolia forma tomentosula Chodat & Hassl.; Inga velloziana Mart.; Mimosa umbellata Vell.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 826 (FCQ).

Lupinus gibertianus C.P.Sm., Sp. Lupinorum 13: 206. 1940.

Syn.: Cytisus heptaphyllus Vell.; Lupinus aspersus C.P.Sm.; Lupinus bonplandianus C.P.Sm.; Lupinus hassleranus C.P.Sm.; Lupinus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Hassl.; Lupinus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Hassl. forma hilarianus Benth.; Lupinus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Hassl. forma typicus Hassl., nom. illeg.; Lupinus hilarianus Benth., nom. superfl.; Lupinus propedubius C.P.Sm.; Lupinus sanctae-anae C.P.Sm.; Lupinus subumbellatus C.P.Sm.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Itapúa, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18479 (BM).

Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb., Symb. Antill. 9(4): 457. 1928.

Syn.: Lotus maritimus Vell., nom. illeg.; Phaseolus crotalarioides Mart. ex Benth.; Phaseolus hastifolius C.Mart. ex Benth.; Phaseolus lathyroides L.; Phaseolus lathyroides L. forma chacoensis Hassl.; Phaseolus lathyroides L. forma hirsutus Hassl.; Phaseolus lathyroides L. forma reapandus Hassl.; Phaseolus lathyroides L. forma typicus Hassl., nom. illeg.; Phaseolus lathyroides L. var. genuinus Hassl., nom. illeg.; Phaseolus lathyroides L. var. semierectus (L.) Hassl.; Phaseolus maritimus (Vell.) Benth.; Phaseolus psoraleoides Wight & Arn.; Phaseolus semierectus L.; Phaseolus semierectus L. var. angustifolius Benth.; Phaseolus semierectus L. var. nanus Benth.; Phaseolus semierectus L. var. subhastatus Benth.; Phaseolus strictus Braun & Bouché

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caazapá, Central, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1998 (BM, FCQ).

Microlobius foetidus (Jacq.) M.Sousa & G.Andrade subsp. paraguensis (Benth.) M.Sousa & G.Andrade, Anales Inst Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México, Bot. 63: 106. 1992.

Syn.: Goldmania paraguensis (Benth.) Brenan; Piptadenia paraguensis (Benth.) Lindm.; Piptadenia quadrifolia N.E.Br.; Pithecellobium paraguense Benth.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: C. Vogt 170 (CTES, FACEN, FCQ).

Mimosa caaguazuensis Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 65: 704. 1991.

Syn.: Mimosa nervosa Bong. ex Benth. var. macrophylla Hassl.; Mimosa procurrens auct. non Benth.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Misiones, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 2227.

*Mimosa guaranitica Chodat & Hassl., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 4(6): 555. 1904.

Syn.: Mimosa guaranitica Chodat & Hassl. forma heterotricha Burkart

Subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Amambay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, San Pedro.

Voucher: R. Spichiger et al. 5238 (G) (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/fdp/).

Mimosa hexandra Micheli, Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 30(2/7): 91. 1889.

Syn.: Mimosa acanthophora Harms; Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze forma micheliana Hassl.; Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze forma vepres (Lindm.) Hassl.; Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze subsp. hexandra (Micheli) Hassl.; Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze var. gymnocarpa Hassl.; Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze var. hexandra (Micheli) J.F.Macbr.; Mimosa coroncoro Killip & Dugand; Mimosa fascifolia Rizzini; Mimosa hexandra Micheli var. tropica S.Moore; Mimosa hexandra var. vepres (Lindm.) Chodat & Hassl.; Mimosa vepres Lindm.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: Cited in Zuloaga et al. 2008: 2235.

Mimosa strigillosa Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1(3): 399. 1840.

Syn.: Mimosa dolichocephala Harms; Mimosa dolichocephala Harmsvar. sabulicola (Chodat & Hassl.) Hassl.; Mimosa sabulicola Chodat & Hassl.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 1975 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO).

*Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub., Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(3): 176. 1892.

Syn.: Brasilettia dubia (Spreng.) Kuntze; Caesalpinia dubia Spreng.; Peltophorum vogelianum Benth.; Peltophorum vogelianum Benth. forma ferruginea Chodat & Hassl.; Peltophorum vogelianum Benth.Benth. forma glabrata Chodat & Hassl.; Peltophorum vogelianum Benth. forma intermedia Chodat & Hassl.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: Cited in Vogt and Mereles 2005: 10.

Prosopis affinis Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16 [Sprengel] 2: 326. 1825.

Syn.: Prosopis algarrobilla Griseb.; Prosopis algarrobilla Griseb. var. nandubay (Lorentz ex Griseb.) Hassl.; Prosopis nandubey Lorentz ex Griseb.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 723 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, UNR).

Prosopis alba Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 131. 1874.

Syn.: Prosopis atacamensis Phil.; Prosopis siliquastrum (Cav. ex Lag.) DC. var. longisiliqua Phil.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: L. Bernardi 18422 (BM).

Prosopis nigra (Griseb.) Hieron., Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. 4: 283. 1881.

Syn.: Prosopis algarrobilla Griseb. var. nigra Griseb.; Prosopis dulcis Kunth var. australis Benth.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 722 (FCQ).

Prosopis sp.

Tree.

Voucher: A. Sánchez et al. 08 (FCQ, UNP).

Pterogyne nitens Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. Sér. 2, 20: 140. 1843.

Syn.: Pterogyne nitens forma parvifolia Chodat & Hassl.

Tree.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí.

Voucher: M. Peña-Chocarro et al. 2289 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI).

Rhynchosia corylifolia Mart. ex Benth., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 15(1B): 202. 1862.

Syn.: Rhynchosia corylifolia Mart. ex Benth. forma glabrior Chodat & Hassl.; Rhynchosia corylifolia Mart. ex Benth. var. discolor Chodat & Hassl.; Rhynchosia corylifolia Mart. ex Benth. var. erecta Micheli ; Rhynchosia corylifolia Mart. ex Benth. var. orbiculata Chodat & Hassl.; Rhynchosia reticulata (Sw.) DC. forma oblongifolia Chodat & Hassl.; Rhynchosia reticulata (Sw.) DC. forma ovalifolia Chodat & Hassl.; Rhynchosia reticulata (Sw.) DC. forma subumbellata Chodat & Hassl.

Herb.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro.

Voucher: E. Hassler 2276 (cited in Grear 1978: 119).

Rhynchosia rojasii Hassl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 77. 1909.

Syn.: Rhynchosia ituana Hoehne

Climber.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Amambay, Caaguazú, Guairá, Ñeembucú.

Voucher: P. Jörgensen 4889 (A, F, NY, S, US) (cited in Grear 1978: 101).

Senegalia bonariensis (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Seigler & Ebinger, Phytologia 88(1): 50. 2006.

Syn.: Acacia bonariensis Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.

Tree or shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Caazapá, Canindeyú, Central, Cordillera, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 728 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, UNR).

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, Handbuch 2: 140. 1829.

Syn.: Cassia caroliniana Walter; Cassia ciliata Raf.; Cassia falcata L.; Cassia foetida Pers., nom. illeg.; Cassia macradena Collad.; Cassia obliquifolia Schrank; Cassia occidentalis L.; Cassia occidentalis L. var. aristata Collad.; Cassia planisiliqua L.; Cassia planisiliqua Lam., nom. illeg.; Cassia plumieri DC.; Ditremexa occidentalis (L.) Britton & Rose ex Britton & Wilson; Senna occidentalis (L.) Roxb., comb. superfl.

Herb or subshrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea et al. 682 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

Senna pendula (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. paludicola H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 393. 1982.

Syn.: Cassia bicapsularis L. forma pilosa Chodat & Hassl.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: M. Morinigo et al. 05 (FCQ, UNP).

Sesbania virgata (Cav.) Pers., Syn. Pl. [Persoon] 2(2): 316. 1807.

Syn.: Aeschynomene virgata Cav.; Coronilla virgata (Cav.) Willd.; Coursetia virgata (Cav.) DC.; Sesbania marginata Benth.

Shrub.

Departmental distribution in Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Central, Canindeyú, Concepción, Cordillera, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes.

Voucher: J. De Egea & R. Elsam 830 (BM, CTES, FCQ, G, MO, PY, SI, UNR).

Stylosanthes