Research Article
Research Article
Gentiana mopanshanensis (Gentianaceae), a new species from Yunnan, southwest China
expand article infoTao Chen, Ting-Ting Wang, Shao-Yun Liu, Huan-Chong Wang§
‡ Yunnan University, Kunming, China
§ Herbarium of Yunnan University, Kunming, China
Open Access


Gentiana mopanshanensis, a new species of the family Gentianaceae is here described and illustrated. This species is presently known only from the Mopanshan Mountain, Yunnan Province, southwest China. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence data has shown that this new species is a member of the series Fimbriatae of the section Chondrophyllae. Morphologically, it mostly resembles G. mairei and G. panthaica, but differs clearly from the latter two species in the shape and size of the leaves, and the characters of the corolla throat and plicae.

Key words

Diffuse herbs, endemism, ITS sequence, Mopanshan Mountain, series Fimbriatae, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau


The genus Gentiana L. belongs to the family Gentianaceae and comprises more than 360 species that are distributed worldwide in the temperate and alpine regions, especially in Europe, Asia and North America (Ho and Liu 1990; Yuan et al. 1996; Yuan and Küpfer 1997). The plants of this genus are typical mountain plants, and most of the species are adapted to alpine habitats (Ho et al. 1996). The greatest diversity of Gentiana is found in the Tibeto-Himalayan region, where more than 250 species are native (Ho and Liu 2001). Relevant biogeographic studies have identified this region as the source area for Gentiana and related genera (Favre et al. 2016; Matuszak et al. 2016). The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Gentiana are now still incompletely clear, and its classification remains controversial (Favre et al. 2014, 2020; Sun et al. 2018; Sun and Fu 2019; Fu et al. 2021, 2022). Many Gentiana species have ornamental value and are also of pharmaceutical interest due to their interesting phytochemical properties (Mariana et al. 2013; Mirzaee et al. 2017; Jiang et al. 2021).

China is endowed with numerous species of Gentiana, including many endemics (Ho and Pringle 1995). While members of Gentiana can be found throughout the country, they are mostly concentrated in the Southwest Mountainous area, which includes the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountains (Ho et al. 1988; Bai 2000). Ho and Pringle (1995) recognized 248 species from China in their "Flora of China", which accounts for more than 2/3 of the genus’ total species. Nevertheless, new species have been frequently discovered in China in recent years (e.g., Hsieh et al. 2007; Yang et al. 2008; Ho and Liu 2010; Wu et al. 2012; Yu et al. 2012; Yang et al. 2020; Favre et al. 2022). These new discoveries highlighted the need for continued field exploration and taxonomic research in this area.

During recent field surveys in Mopanshan Mountain, Xinping County, Yunnan Province, southwest China, we discovered an unknown species of Gentiana. After a phylogenetic analysis using ITS sequences to infer its systematic position and a detailed comparison with morphologically similar species, it became clear that this plant represents a distinct new species.

Materials and methods

Morphological analyses

This study including plant collection, specimen preparation, observation, and analysis followed the normal practice of plant taxonomic survey and herbarium taxonomy (Davis and Heywood 1963). Morphology of the new species was studied based on observation of living plants and specimens housed at YUKU. Digital images of type specimens of genus Gentiana are available at the JSTOR Global Plants ( and at the Chinese Virtual Herbarium (; in addition, the collections housed at GBIF, KUN and YUKU were examined and compared with the new species. The dried specimens were examined under stereomicroscopes for morphological studies, and various organs were measured using rulers and metric vernier calipers. Terminology followed Ho and Liu (2001), Beentje (2010) and Mayfield (2021).

Phylogenetic study

To determine the phylogenetic position of the putative new species, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was used as the molecular marker. The total genomic DNA of this new species is extracted from silica-gel dried leaves using the DNA secure plant kit (Tiangen, Amsterdam, Netherlands). The PCR protocol followed by Shabir et al. (2022). The ITS primers used in this study were ITS4 and ITS5, as described by Yuan and Küpfer (1995) and He et al. (2016). The PCR products were bidirectionally sequenced with the same primers used for PCR amplifications in an ABI 3730 XL DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems) at the Kunming Branch of Beijing Qingke Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Yunnan, China).

There are a total of 44 species of Gentiana to be used, which are representatives of most sections of Gentiana, including G. sect. Chondrophyllae Bunge, G. sect. Frigida Kusnezow, G. sect. Monopodiae (H. Smith) T. N. Ho, G. sect. Phyllocalyx T. N. Ho and G. sect. Stenogyne Franchet. In addition, Swertia rosulata (Baker) Klack, Halenia taruga-gasso Gilg and Gentianella gentianoides (Franchet) H. Smith were selected as outgroups. The dataset for phylogentic analysis consists of 60 taxa, 46 of which were obtained from the GenBank. Voucher specimen and GenBank accession information for taxon are listed in Appendix 1.

All sequences were aligned with MAFFT (Katoh and Standley 2013) using ‘auto’ strategy and normal alignment mode. Gap sites were removed with trimAl (Capella-Gutiérrez et al. 2009) using the “-automate” command. The best-fitting substitution models SYM+I+G model for Bayesian inference were selected using ModelFinder (Kalyaanamoorthy et al. 2017) in BIC criterion. MrBayes 3.2.6 (Ronquist et al. 2012) was used to conduct Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Runs were performed for 5 million generations with a sampling of trees every 500 generations. The initial 25% of sampled data were discarded as burn-in.

Results and taxonomic treatment

Gentiana mopanshanensis Huan C. Wang & Tao Chen bis, sp. nov.

Figs 1, 2, 3


China. Yunnan Province: Xinping County, Mopanshan Mountain, near the top of mountain, alt. 2480 m, 23°56′23″N, 101°59′23″E, 3 April 2023, in flower, H. C. Wang et al. XP19775 (Holotype: YUKU!; isotypes: YUKU!).


Gentiana mopanshanensis is distinguishable from all other similar species of the genus by the combination of its rosulate basal leaves lanceolate to gladiate, up to 5 (6) cm long, cauline leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, throat of corolla blue maculate, plicae with 5–10 fimbriations, and fimbriation irregular in length, usually 0.5–2 mm long.

Figure 1. 

Gentiana mopanshanensis sp. nov. (Drawn by Ting T. Wang) A habit B flower (front view) C dissected corolla D dissected calyx E seed.


The specific epithet “mopanshanensis” is derived from the type locality of the new species, the Mopanshan Mountain, and the Latin suffix -ensis, indicating the place of origin or growth.

Figure 2. 

Gentiana mopanshanensis sp. nov. (Photographed by HCW and TC) A habitat B habit C root D leaf blade (side view, showing adaxially densely and minutely papillate and transparent denticulate on margin) E closed flower F flower (front view) G dissected flower (showing the stamens and style) H mature fruit protruding from persistent corolla I stamens J pistils K seed.


Biennial herbs, diffuse, 5–15 cm in height. Root slightly fleshy, 4–6 cm long, with conspicuous rootstock. Stems yellow-green or purplish-red, smooth, much branched at base; branches procumbent or ascending. Basal leaves rosulate, persistent at anthesis, sessile or subsessile; blades lanceolate to gladiate, (1–) 3–5 (–6) cm long, 0.2–0.7 (–1) cm wide, both surfaces densely and minutely papillate, apex acuminate, margin transparent, densely denticulate, basal veins 1–3, distinct, midvein convex beneath. Cauline leaves opposite, semiamplexicaul, base proximally compounded, petiole tube 1–1.5 mm long; blades lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 0.3–2 cm long, 0.1–0.6 cm wide, apex acuminate, margin transparent, densely denticulate, both surfaces densely and minutely papillate, basal veins 1–3, midvein convex beneath. Flowers solitary, terminal on branch. Pedicels yellowish green, glabrous, 3–12 mm long, purplish-red striped. Calyx 5–8 mm long, obconic, yellow-green; tube campanulate, 4–5 mm long, 2–3 mm in diameter, slightly longer than lobes; lobes 5, acicular or subulate, 1.5–3 mm long, papillate on margin; veins ridged on abaxial surface, decurrent towards calyx tube; sinus between lobes obtuse to sub-rounded. Corolla 8–14 mm long, 5–8 mm in diameter, trumpet-shaped, blue-white, outside with copper-green stripes, inside with deeply blue spots in throat; tube tubular, 5–8 mm long, 4–6 mm in diameter, golden inside; lobes ovate to broadly ovate, 2–3 mm long, 2–3 mm wide, apex acute, margin entire; plicae triangular-ovate, 2–2.5 mm long, apex irregularly laciniate, fimbriate, with 5–10 fimbriations, usually 0.5–2 mm long. Stamens 5, filaments filiform-subulate, 3–6 mm long, inflated at middle, inserted in lower middle of corolla tube; anthers rectangular-rounded, 0.6–1 mm long. Ovary stipitate, ellipsoid or fusiform, 2.5–3 mm long, apex obtuse, base attenuate; style clavate, 0.5–1 mm long, stigma bifid, extrorse. Capsules obovate, exerted beyond persistent corolla, gynophore up to 15 mm long, narrowly winged on both margins. Seeds ovate-triangular, up to 1.5 mm long, yellowish-brown, densely striato-reticulate on seed coats.

Figure 3. 

Holotype of Gentiana mopanshanensis sp. nov.(YUKU-05008414).


Gentiana mopanshanensis has a long flowering and fruiting period. It starts flowering in March and continues until August, and its fruiting period is from May to September.

Distribution and habitat

Gentiana mopanshanensis is currently only found in the Mopanshan Mountain (Fig. 4), which is located in the southeast of Xinping County, at the southwestern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The mountain is situated east of the Yuanjiang River valley and has an elevation ranging from 1370 to 2611 meters. G. mopanshanensis usually occurs at elevations between 2400 and 2550 meters and mainly grows in wet meadows near the peak of the mountain. It can also be occasionally found under the thickets predominated by Lithocarpus variolosus Chun (Fagaceae) and Quercus guyavifolia H.Lév. (Fagaceae). In meadow habitats, this new species is commonly associated with G. praticola Franchet (Gentianaceae), Polygala dunniana H.Lév. (Polygalaceae), Arundinella hookeri Munro ex Keng (Gramineae), Fragaria nilgerrensis Schlecht. ex J. Gay (Rosaceae), Roscoea tibetica Batalin (Zingiberaceae) and Bistorta paleacea Yonek. et H.Ohashi (Polygonaceae).

Figure 4. 

Geographical distribution of Gentiana mopanshanensis sp. nov. (red dot).

Molecular phylogenetics

The ITS sequence region of Gentiana mopanshanensis comprises 625 base pairs with a GC content of 57.12%. The alignment of 60 ITS sequences resulted in a matrix of 662 total characters, of which 344 are constant, 93 of the variable characters are singleton sites and 225 characters are parsimony informative sites.

As shown in the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 5), phylogenetic analyses using the ITS sequence data demonstrated that the new species belongs to a clade representing the Gentiana section Chondrophyllae with maximum support. In this clade, G. mopanshanensis falls within the subclade corresponding to series Fimbriata Marq. with 0.993 posterior probabilities. It constituted a monophyletic lineage with G. panthaica Prain et Burkill and G. mairei H.Lév. with maximum support (PP = 1) and were resolved as sister to them. The phylogenetic result is also supported by the morphological characteristics.

Figure 5. 

Mrbayes tree of Gentiana based on ITS sequences showing phylogenetic placement of G. mopanshanensis. Mrbayes posterior probabilities are shown near the nodes. G. mopanshanensis is marked by a red box.


Based on phylogenetic analyses, Gentiana mopanshanensis should be assigned to the series Fimbriatae of the section Chondrophyllae. Its placement within this series is also supported by its particular morphological characters: stems much branched at the base, basal leaves well developed, leaf blades and calyx with densely and minutely papillate, calyx lobes acicular or subulate, plicae apex fimbriate, obovate capsule with strong and broad wings at apex.

This new species is most similar to Gentiana mairei and G. panthaica in terms of habit, and flower shape and size, especially plicae apex fimbriate. However, G. mopanshanensis can be distinguished from G. mairei by its biennial (vs. annual) habit, basal leaves lanceolate to gladiate (vs. ovate to ovate-elliptic), (1–) 3–5 (–6) cm (vs. 0.7–1.4 cm) long, 0.2–1 cm (vs. 0.3–0.7 cm) wide, cauline leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate (vs. ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate), with blue spots (vs. blackish, white or pale yellow stripes) in throat, plicae with 5–10 (vs. 8–10) fimbriations, irregular (vs. nearly equal) in length, ususally 0.5–2 mm (vs. 2–2.5 mm) long. G. mopanshanensis differs from G. panthaica in biennial (vs. annual) habit, basal leaves lanceolate to gladiate (vs. ovate-elliptic to ovate), cauline leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate (vs. lanceolate, narrowly elliptic or ovate-triangular), plicae with 5–10 (vs. 15–20) fimbriations, filament laciniate (vs. filiform, curly). A detailed morphological comparison between these three species is summarized in Table 1.

Table 1.

Morphological comparison of G. mopanshanensis, G. maire, G. panthaica.

Characters G. mopanshanensis G. mairei G. panthaica
Habit biennial annual annual
-Basal leaf lanceolate to gladiate 3–5 (6) cm × 0.2–0.7 (1) cm ovate to ovate-elliptic, 7–1.5 cm × 3–0.7 cm ovate-elliptic to ovate, 0.9–2 cm × 0.4–1 cm
-Cauline leaf lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 0.3–1.5 cm × 0.1–0.4 cm ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate 0.55–1.1 cm × 0.25–0.4 cm lanceolate, narrowly elliptic or ovate-triangular, 0.6–0.8 cm × 0.25–0.3 cm
-Tube campanulate, 4–5 mm long obconic, 3–4 mm long obconic, 3–4 mm long
-Lobe acicular or subulate, 1.5–3 mm long filiform-subulate,2–2.5 mm long filiform to filiform-conical, 1.5–3 mm long
-Coroll trumpet-shaped, 8–14 mm long, 5–8 mm in diam. obconic 8.5–12 mm long, 5–8 mm in diam. obconic 8–14 mm long, 5–10 mm in diam.
-Lobe ovate to broadly ovate, 2–3 mm long ovate-orbicular, 2.5–3 mm long ovate, 2.5–3.5 mm long
-Plicae triangular-ovate, with 5–10 fimbriae ovate-oblong, with 8–10 fimbriae ovate, with 15–20 fimbriae
-Filament filiform-subulate, 3–6 mm long filiform, 3–3.5 mm long filiform-subulate, 3–4 mm long
-Anther rectangular-rounded ellipsoid ellipsoid
-Ovary ellipsoid or fusiform, 2.5–3 mm long ellipsoid, 2.5–3 mm long ellipsoid, 3–4 mm long
-Style clavate, 0.5–1 mm long linear, 0.7–1.5 mm long clavate, 0.7–1.2 mm long
Fruit obovoid, 4–7 mm long obovoid, 4.5–5.5 mm long obovoid, 4–5 mm long
Seed ovate-triangular, 1–1.5 mm long ellipsoid, 1.3–1.5 mm long ellipsoid, 1.3–1.5 mm long

Additional specimens examined

Gentiana mopanshanensis. China. Yunnan: Xinping County, Mopan Mountain, alt. 2509 m, 13 August 2012, in flower and fruit, Xinping County Census team 5304270757 (IMDY0019083); same location, alt. 2406 m, 18 June 2023, in flower and fruit, T. Chen et al. XP23338 (YUKU).

Gentiana mairei. China. Yunnan: Dali City, Cangshan Mountain, alt. 3800 m, 22 July 2009, Z.J.Yin et al. 1631 (KUN-1220364); Jingdong County, Wuliangshan Mountain, alt. 3100 m, 19 November 1956, B.Y.Qiu 53823 (KUN-00088281).

Gentiana panthaica. China. Yunnan: Heqing County, Mae Shan, 15 August 2020, Q.P. Wang et al. HQ 8930 (YUKU); Nanjian County, Wuliangshan Mountain, alt. 2270 m, 24 March 2012, E.D. Liu et al. 3587 (KUN-1224606); Dali City, Cangshan Mountain, alt. 3800 m, 15 July 2009, Z.J.Yin et al. 1362 (KUN-1220362); same location, 13 July 2009, Z.J.Yin et al. 1111 (KUN-1220361); Luquan County, Daheiqing, alt. 3150 m, 2 July 1990, R.F.Fang et al. 83 (KUN-551847).


We are grateful to the editors of PhytoKeys and the anonymous reviewers for critical comments on the manuscript.

Additional information

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Ethical statement

No ethical statement was reported.


This study was supported by grants-in-aid from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No.31960040) and the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) program (2019QZKK0502).

Author contributions

Investigation: HCW,TC, SYL, TTW. Writing - original draft: TC. Writing - review and editing: HCW,TC.

Author ORCIDs

Tao Chen

Ting-Ting Wang

Shao-Yun Liu

Huan-Chong Wang

Data availability

All of the data that support the findings of this study are available in the main text.


  • Bai PY (2000) Gentiana L. In: Wu ZY (Ed.) Flora Yunnanica, Vol. 11. Science Press, Beijing, 47–634.
  • Beentje H (2010) The Kew Plant Glossary: An Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 160 pp.
  • Capella-Gutiérrez S, Silla-Martinez JM, Gabaldon T (2009) trimAl: A tool for automated align ment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 25(15): 1972–1973.
  • Davis PH, Heywood VH (1963) Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 558 pp.
  • Favre A, Matuszak S, Sun H, Liu E, Yuan YM, Muellner-Riehl AN (2014) Two new genera of Gentianinae (Gentianaceae): Sinogentiana and Kuepferia supported by molecular phylogenetic evidence. Taxon 63(2): 342–354.
  • Favre A, Michalak I, Chen CH, Wang JC, Pringle JS, Matuszak S, Sun H, Yuan YM, Struwe L, Muellner-Riehl AN (2016) Out-of-Tibet: The spatio-temporal evolution of Gentiana (Gentianaceae). Journal of Biogeography 43(10): 1967–1978.
  • Favre A, Pringle JS, Heckenhauer J, Kozuharova E, Gao QB, Lemmon EM, Lemmon AR, Sun H, Tkach N, Gebauer S, Sun SS, Fu PC (2020) Phylogenetic relationships and sectional delineation within Gentiana (Gentianaceae). Taxon 69(6): 1221–1238.
  • Fu PC, Twyford AD, Sun SS, Wang HY, Xia MZ, Tan CX, Zhou XJ, Chen SL (2021) Recurrent hybridization underlies the evolution of novelty in Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. AoB Plants 13(1): plaa068.
  • Fu PC, Chen SL, Sun SS, Favre A (2022) Strong plastid degradation is consistent within section Chondrophyllae, the most speciose lineage of Gentiana. Ecology and Evolution 12(8): e9205.
  • He D, Xiang X, He JS, Wang C, Cao G, Adams J, Chu H (2016) Composition of the soil fungal community is more sensitive to phosphorus than nitrogen addition in the alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Biology and Fertility of Soils 52(8): 1059–1072.
  • Ho TN, Liu SW (1990) The infrageneric classification of Gentiana (Gentianaceae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History 20: 169–192.
  • Ho TN, Liu SW (2001) A worldwide monograph of Gentiana. Science Press, 455 pp.
  • Ho TN, Liu SW (2010) Two new species of Gentianaceae from northwestern Yunnan, China. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 20(2): 166–169.
  • Ho TN, Pringle JS (1995) Gentianaceae. In: Wu ZY, Reven PH (Eds) Flora of China, Vol.16. Science Press, Beijing, China and Missour Botsnical Garden Press, St. Louis, Missouri, 140 pp.
  • Ho TN, Liu SW, Wu QR (1988) Gentianaceae. In: Ho TN (Ed.) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, vol.62. Science Press, Beijing, 411 pp.
  • Ho TN, Liu SW, Lu XF (1996) A phylogenetic analysis of Gentiana (Gentianaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 34(5): 505–530.
  • Hsieh TY, Hsu TC, Kono Y, Ku SM, Peng CI (2007) Gentiana bambuseti (Gentianaceae), a new species from Taiwan. Botanical Studies 48(3): 349–355.
  • Jiang M, Cui BW, Wu YL, Nan JX, Lian LH (2021) Genus Gentiana: A review on phytochemistry, pharmacology and molecular mechanism. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 264: 113391.
  • Kalyaanamoorthy S, Minh B, Wong T, von Haeseler A, Jermiin L (2017) ModelFinder: Fast model selection for accurate phylogenetic estimates. Nature Methods 14(6): 587–589.
  • Katoh K, Standley DM (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: Improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(4): 772–780.
  • Mariana V, Ioan V, Andra VI (2013) Introducing in the architectural landscape of some Gentiana spontaneous species with ornamental. Analele Universitatii din Oradea. Fascicula Protectia Mediului 21: 308–315.
  • Matuszak S, Favre A, Schnitzler J, Muellner-Riehl AN (2016) Key innovations and climatic niche divergence as drivers of diversification in subtropical Gentianinae in southeastern and eastern Asia. American Journal of Botany 103(5): 899–911.
  • Mirzaee F, Hosseini A, Jouybari BH, Davoodi A, Azadbakht M (2017) Medicinal, biological and phytochemical properties of Gentiana species. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 7(4): 400–408.
  • Ronquist F, Teslenko M, Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, Larget B, Liu L, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP (2012) MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61(3): 539–542.
  • Shabir M, Kumar A, Dwivedi MD, Tiwari JK (2022) Gentiana ranae (Gentianaceae), a new species from India revealed by morphology and molecular phylogenetic analysis. Rheedea 32: 1–23.
  • Sun SS, Fu PC (2019) Study on taxonomy and evolution of Gentianeae (Gentianaceae). Acta Botanica Boreali Occiden-talia Sinica 39(2): 363–370.
  • Sun SS, Fu PC, Zhou XJ, Cheng YW, Zhang FQ, Chen SL, Gao QB (2018) The complete plastome sequences of seven species in Gentiana sect. Kudoa (Gentianaceae): Insights into plastid gene loss and molecular evolution. Frontiers in Plant Science 9: 493.
  • Wu LH, Leon CJ, Wang ZT (2012) Gentiana zhenxiongensis (Gentianaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Annales Botanici Fennici 49(3): 197–200.
  • Yang SY, Du F, Wang J (2008) A new species of genus Gentiana-Gentiana gracilis. Journal of Southwest Forestry College 05: 1–2.
  • Yang SY, Cao HF, Du F, Wang J, Zhang QR, Wang WT (2020) A new species of Gentiana, Gentiana ciliolat a and it’s two subspecies of subsp. ciliolata and subsp. longiloba of Yunnan & Sichuan Provinces. American Journal of Plant Sciences 11(07): 1137–1143.
  • Yu JH, He H, Zhang BY, Yuan SS, Chen CM (2012) A new species of Gentiana L.—G. hsinganica from Inner Mongolica, China. Bulletin of Botanical Research 32(1): 1–3.
  • Yuan YM, Küpfer P (1995) Molecular phylogenetics of the subtribe. Gentianinae (Gentianaceae) inferred from the sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 196: 207–226.
  • Yuan YM, Küpfer P (1997) The monophyly and rapid evolution of Gentiana sect. Chondrophyllae Bunge (Gentianaceae): Evidence from the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 123(1): 25–43.
  • Yuan YM, Küpfer P, Doyle JJ (1996) Infrageneric phylogeny of the genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany 83(5): 641–652.

Appendix 1

Table A1.

Species sequence information downloaded from the GenBank.

GenBank Species Voucher information Herbarium
KU512339 G. panthaica Prain et Burk. GXJ2011-055
KT907686 G. panthaica Prain et Burk. Favre & Matuszak 061a KUN
KT907673 G. mairei Levl. Wang hong et al. 01-0062 KUN
KT907643 G. epichysantha Hand.-Mazz. Favre & Matuszak 131a KUN
KF563953 G. epichysantha Hand.-Mazz. Favre & Matuszak 131a KUN
KT907728 G. tatsienensis Franch. Wang Lisong, et al. 07-13 KUN
KU512348 G. pseudoaquatica Kusnezow GXJ2011-043
KT907644 G. faucipilosa H. Smith Favre & Matuszak 37a KUN
KF563954 G. faucipilosa H. Smith Favre and Matuszak 37a KUN
MT483837 G. haynaldii Kanitz
MT483859 G. haynaldii Kanitz
KT907613 G. asterocalyx Diels Favre & Matuszak 106a KUN
KT907653 G. heleonastes H. Smith ex Marq. Favre 206a KUN
KT907646 G. forrestii Marq. Penghua, Liu Ende et al. 9538 KUN
KT907705 G. rubicunda Franch. Wang hong et al. 03-1098 KUN
KU512351 G. rubicunda Franch. YG2011392
KT907651 G. grata H. Smith Favre & Matuszak 32a KUN
KT907666 G. linoides Franch. ex Hemsl. Chen HS, CHC 2866 TNM
KU512331 G. linoides Franch. ex Hemsl. GXJ2011-068b
KT907687 G. papillosa Franck. Chen HS, CHC 2867 TNM
KT907645 G. flavomaculata Hayata Chen HS, CHC 2364 TNM
KT907618 G. bella Franch. ex Hemsl. H.S. Chen CHC 2850 TNM
KT907741 G. zollingeri Fawcett Chen HS CHC 2372 TNM
KU512311 G. algida Pall. GXJ20130174
KU512312 G. algida Pall. PG110833
KT907652 G. handeliana H. Smith Liu Ende et al. 1209080 LZ
KT907680 G. nubigena Edgew. Wang Lisong, et al. 07-55 KUN
KT907723 G. striolata T. N. Ho Favre 221a KUN
KU512317 G. atuntsiensis W. W. Smith GXJ2011-072
KU512318 G. atuntsiensis W. W. Smith GXJ2011-080
KT907627 G. cephalantha Franch. ex Hemsl. Favre 325 KUN
KF563950 G. cephalantha Franch. ex Hemsl. Favre 325 KUN
KT907642 G. duclouxii Franch. Favre & Matuszak 076 KUN
MN124367 G. lawrencei var. farreri (I. B. Balfour) T. N. Ho fu2016060_2
MN124366 G. lawrencei var. farreri (I. B. Balfour) T. N. Ho fu2016176_5
KT907624 G. caelestis (Marq.) H. Smith Favre & Matuszak 193a KUN
KT907715 G. sino-ornata Balf.f. Favre & Matuszak 224a KUN
KU512319 G. caelestis (Marq.) H. Smith GXJ2011-078
KF563963 G. purdomii Marq. Favre 311 KUN
KF563961 G. phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke Favre & Matuszak 33a KUN
KT907690 G. phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke Favre & Matuszak 33a KUN
MN339943 G. stipitata Edgew.
MN339944 G. stipitata Edgew.
AJ489922 Swertia rosulata (Baker) Klack. Piso, Wohlhauser, Zeltner M023 NEU
MT199413 Halenia taruga-gasso Gilg MO05693166
MK416129 Gentianella gentianoides (Franch.) H. Smith xuechy090094
login to comment