Research Article
Research Article
Bryophyte flora of Mount Tebu Forest Reserve, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia
expand article infoNur Saidatul Atiqah, Elizabeth Pesiu, Muhammad Syafiq Sarimi, Nor Aishah Shafie, Chin Wen Koid, Nik Norhazrina§, Nur Syazwana§, Gaik Ee Lee
‡ Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
§ Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Open Access


A checklist of the bryophyte flora of Mount Tebu Forest Reserve in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia, is presented. A total of 189 taxa in 71 genera and 26 families were enumerated. This figure represents 63% of the 298 bryophyte species recorded so far for the State of Terengganu. Out of 189 taxa of bryophytes, 26 liverworts are new additions to the bryoflora of Terengganu. The most prominent liverwort family is represented by Lejeuneaceae, with 54 species from 17 genera, while the moss family is the Sematophyllaceae, with 34 taxa in 13 genera. The majority of the species are epiphytes, either corticolous or ramicolous. Almost half of the bryophyte species have wider elevational ranges and occur from the lowlands to the summit of Mount Tebu.

Key words

Biodiversity, bryophytes, checklist, Malaysia, Marchantiophyta, taxonomy


Mount Tebu (1039 m) is the second-highest mountain after Mount Lawit (1519 m) in the northernmost part of Terengganu (Fig. 1). It is located within one of the primary mountain ranges of Peninsular Malaysia, known as the Timur Range (Banjaran Timur). The mountain comprises undulating lowlands, hill and upper hill dipterocarp forest. It has been gazetted as one of the state forest reserves, including the lowlands of Lata Belatan Recreational Forest at the base of Mount Tebu. Geologically, Mount Tebu is composed of unconsolidated alluvium, metasedimentary and igneous rocks in the lowlands to the summit of the mountain (Mohamed and Ali 2014). The unique landscape feature provides ample habitat for a diverse flora and fauna community with high conservation value (see Abdul Rahim et al. (2014) for several extensive floristic and ecological studies). It also offers a variety of vegetation and habitats favourable to the growth and diversity of bryophytes. The history of bryophyte exploration in Terengganu has been reviewed by Lee et al. (2019). The early investigation was conducted by British and Japanese bryologists and yielded only a few bryophyte species, nine being mosses and two were liverworts (Dixon 1926; Yamada 1979; Inoue 1984). Subsequently, more recent collections of bryophytes from this region have been carried out, of which 11 species of bryophyte have been reported for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia and 77 taxa are new records to Terengganu (Lee et al. 2018, 2022; Pesiu et al. 2021; Sarimi et al. 2021).

Figure 1. 

The map of Peninsular Malaysia shows the study area, Mt. Tebu Forest Reserve. Map modified from Dr Blofeld -, CC BY 3.0.

Study area

Mount Tebu Forest Reserve is located at latitude 5.5914°N and longitude 102.6122°E in the Besut District, the northern part of Terengganu. The highest peak reaches 1039 m above sea level, including Lata Belatan Recreational Forest at its base, an entering point to the forest reserve. The foot of this mountain is often shaded by riparian forests where bryophytes are easily found within this area, ranging from 40–100 m a.s.l. with medium canopy cover. The closest rivers are Sungai Besut, Sungai Keluang Besar and Sungai Setiu. Most trees are from the families Dipterocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae and Myrtaceae. They grow on both sides of a valley and throughout the trails. Streams are moderate to fast water currents, often creating a few natural pools on the granite surfaces.

Materials and methods

This study is based on the authors’ intensive bryophyte explorations from April 2019–November 2021 in Terengganu and a re-examination of previous moss collections of A. Damanhuri was made during the Mount Tebu scientific expedition in 2012. All the bryophyte samples were collected from various microhabitats along the trails within the study area, including tree trunks and branches, rocks, soils, fallen logs, rotten wood and leaves. Liverwort specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMTP) and moss specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKMB). About 1000 samples of bryophytes were collected from the study area and were examined by light microscopy. The drawing of the specimen was produced using an Olympus BX43 microscope, equipped with a drawing tube.

Results and discussion

A total of 189 taxa in 71 genera and 26 families were found in the Mount Tebu Forest Reserve, of which 109 are mosses and 80 are liverworts (Figs 24). This represents 63% of the 298 bryophyte species recorded so far for the State of Terengganu (Pócs and Lee 2016; Pesiu et al. 2021; Sarimi et al. 2021; Lee et al. 2022). Out of 80 species of liverworts, 26 are reported for the first time for Terengganu. The largest liverwort family found is the Lejeuneaceae, with 54 species, followed by Lepidoziaceae (eight species) and Radulaceae (seven species). The largest moss family is the Sematophyllaceae, with 34 taxa, followed by Calymperaceae (32 taxa) and Hypnaceae (seven taxa). The smallest liverwort and moss families were represented by only one species, for example, liverworts: Calypogeiaceae, Pallaviciniaceae, Plagiochilaceae, Solenostomataceae and Schistochilaceae and mosses: Diphysciaceae, Myuriaceae, Neckeraceae and Thuidiaceae. As expected, the distinct dominance of species is from the family Lejeuneaceae and mosses Sematophyllaceae and Calymperaceae, representing about 60% of all the bryophyte species found in Mount Tebu. They are the most common bryophyte families in the lowland tropical rainforests with high light intensity, dense canopy, high temperatures and many evergreen tree species.

Figure 2. 

Mosses and their habit A Diphyscium mucronifolium Mitt B Leucobryum sanctum (Schwägr.) Hampe C Fissidens ceylonensis Dozy & Molk D Pyrrhobryum latifolium (Bosch & Sande Lac.) Mitt E Arthrocormus schimperi (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk F Octoblepharum albidum Hedw G Mitthyridium fasciculatum (Hook. & Grev.) H. Rob H Ectropothecium buitenzorgii (Bél.) Mitt. I Syrrhopodon muelleri (Dozy & Molk.) Sande Lac.

Figure 3. 

Liverworts and their habit A Bazzania uncigera (Reinw., Blume & Nees) Trevis B Pycnolejeunea grandiocellata Steph C Caudalejeunea reniloba (Gottsche) Steph D Leptolejeunea epiphylla (Mitt.) Steph E Bazzania densa (Sande Lac.) Schiffn F Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook.) Gray G Drepanolejeunea pentadactyla (Mont.) Steph.

Figure 4. 

Liverworts from Mount Tebu Forest Reserve, all in ventral view A Frullania gracilis (Reinw. et al.) Nees B Frullania trichodes Mitt C. Cololejeunea wightii Steph D Bazzania longicaulis (Sande Lac.) Schiffn E Bazzania albifolia Horik F Ptychanthus striatus (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Nees G Thysananthus spathulistipus (Reinw. et al.) Lindenb H Heteroscyphus coalitus (Hook.) Schiffn I Radula formosa (Spreng.) Nees J Spruceanthus polymorphus (Sande Lac.) Verd K Drepanolejeunea vesiculosa (Mitt.) Steph L Lejeunea sordida (Nees) Nees M Lepidolejeunea integristipula (J.B. Jack & Steph.) R.M. Schust N Pycnolejeunea grandiocellata Steph. (Scale = 0.5 mm).

Our study found that the diversity of moss species was higher than that of liverworts, a scenario similar to all the states in Peninsular Malaysia (Fig. 5). Reasons may be lower liverwort collecting, difficulty identifying liverwort species and lack of comprehensive field guides and local bryologists dealing with liverwort. The moss flora of Peninsular Malaysia has been well-studied taxonomically, in which exploration and species inventory of mosses have been more intensive and detailed. Thus far, 524 moss species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia and all but Perlis and Malacca are well-represented with above 100 species (Yong et al. 2013; Ellis et al. 2019a, b). In comparison, only 491 taxa of liverworts are known from Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting that several States, particularly the northern regions, such as Perlis, Kedah and the east coast (Kelantan), have been under-collected and understudied (Lee and Gradstein 2021; Lee et al. 2022). The State of Pahang seems to be the centre of bryophyte diversity in Peninsular Malaysia (Fig. 5). The presence of major highlands and montane forests in Pahang often provides more favourable and more varied microhabitats for a rich bryophyte flora.

Figure 5. 

The number of bryophyte species reported from the States of Peninsular Malaysia.

Most of the bryophyte species in Mount Tebu are epiphytic, growing on the bark of tree trunks, on branches or tree stumps and the base of trees (Fig. 6). About half (49%) of ca. 1000 specimens examined were collected on trees (trunks, branches, twigs), while 22% were from leaves, 14% from rocks, 9% from soil or humus and 6% from rotten logs. About 18 species had broad substrate preferences and occurred on bark and branches of trees, leaves, soils and decaying logs. Others had more narrow preferences and occurred on only one substrate type, for example, Pallavicinia lyellii and Solenostoma comatum were always found on soil, Ephemeropsis tjibodensis and Leptolejeunea epiphylla occurred exclusively on leaves and Diphyscium mucronifolium grew only on rock (Appendix 1).

Figure 6. 

Habitats of bryophyte species of Mount Tebu Forest Reserve A lowland dipterocarp forest B area around the summit C–E bryophytes on tree bases, branches, trunks F on rocks G, H on leaves.

The distribution of the bryophyte species in Mount Tebu shows a distinct elevational differentiation from sea level to the mountain’s summit (Fig. 7). About half of the moss species have wide elevational ranges and occur from the lowlands to the summit of Mount Tebu. The remaining half of the species have more narrow elevational ranges and are restricted to a lower range, below 500 m. Liverwort species have wider elevational ranges and occur in all elevation belts. However, both groups show a similar trend where most of the species are elevational generalist species, occurring in most rainforest belts and lowland specialists, being found only below 500 m. Of 189 taxa, only 29 species are restricted to the submontane rainforest and occur exclusively at 700–1000 m a.s.l. For example, Acroporium condensatum and Mastopoma uncinifolium are obligate highland species known only from Cameron Highlands, Mount Jerai and Mount Tebu (this study) (Tixier 1980; Yong et al. 2006). Other moss species typical of high elevations found in Mount Tebu are Campylopus exasperatus, Leucoloma molle, Pogonatum cirratum subsp. macrophyllum, Acroporium stramineum and Trichosteleum saproxylophilum and liverworts are Frullania gracilis, F. trichodes, Cheilolejeunea ceylanica, C. trifaria, Cololejeunea aequabilis, C. appressa, C. equialbi, C. falcata, C. inflectens, C. metzgeriopsis, C. obliqua, C. ocelloides, C. sigmoidea, C. stephanii, Drepanolejeunea dactylophora, Ptychanthus striatus, Schistochila aligera, Spruceanthus polymorphus and Tuyamaella molischii.

Figure 7. 

The elevational distribution of bryophyte taxa found in Mount Tebu Forest Reserve.


We want to thank Mr Syamsul Bahri Mahammud and Mr Mat Rafi Daud, our local nature guides, for their invaluable assistance during the field sampling in Mount Tebu Forest Reserve and to Mr Baizul Hafsyam Badli Sham, Ms Noor Shahirah Ibrahim and Mr Muhammad Fatihah Syafiq for helping and support during the fieldwork. We extend our gratitude to Matt von Konrat, the subject editor, as well as Anders Hagborg and two anonymous reviewers, whose invaluable comments greatly improved earlier drafts of the manuscript.

Additional information

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Ethical statement

No ethical statement was reported.


The fieldwork was financially supported by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) Malaysia through Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2018/WAB13/UMT/03/1) awarded to G.E. Lee.

Author contributions

Conceptualization: GEL. Data curation: NN, MSS, NSA, NS, CWK, GEL, NAS, EP. Investigation: NN, GEL. Methodology: MSS, NS, EP, GEL, NN. Supervision: GEL. Writing - original draft: GEL. Writing - review and editing: EP, NAS, NN, CWK, NSA, MSS, NS.

Author ORCIDs

Elizabeth Pesiu

Nik Norhazrina

Gaik Ee Lee

Data availability

All of the data that support the findings of this study are available in the main text.


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Appendix 1

Table A1.

Substrate preferences and elevational distributions of bryophyte taxa in Mount Tebu. Corti: Corticolous (tree trunk), Epi: Epiphyllous (leaf), Ligni: Lignicolous (rotten log), Rami: Ramicolous (tree branch), Saxi: Saxicolous (rock), Terri: Terricolous (soil). An asterisk indicates new additions to the State of Terengganu (*).

No. Taxon Substrate preference Elevation (m)
Bryophyta (Mosses)
I. Calymperaceae Kindb.
1 Arthrocormus schimperi (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. Corti, Saxi 60–110
2 Calymperes afzelii Sw. Corti 50–130
3 Calymperes boulayi Besch. Corti 60 –110
4 Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal. Corti, Saxi 50–1005
5 Calymperes fasciculatum Dozy & Molk. Corti, Rami 50–1005
6 Calymperes graeffeanum Müll. Hall. Corti 60–110
7 Calymperes lonchophyllum Schwägr. Corti, Ligni 50–970
8 Calymperes lonchophyllum Schwägr. subsp. beccari (Hampe) M.Menzel Ligni 110–940
9 Calymperes mollucense Schwägr. Corti, Rami, Saxi, Ligni 50–130
10 Calymperes porrectum Mitt. Corti 60–110
11 Exostratum blumii (Hampe) L.T.Ellis Corti, Saxi, Ligni 60–110
12 Leucophanes augustifolium Renauld & Cardot Corti, Saxi, Terri 50–1005
13 Leucophanes glaucum (Schwägr.) Mitt. Corti 50–130
14 Leucophanes octoblepharioides Brid. Corti, Rami, Saxi 50–970
15 Mitthyridium constrictum (Sull.) H.Rob Corti, Epi, Rami 60–110
16 Mitthyridium fasciculatum subsp. cardotii (M.Fleisch.) B.C.Tan & L.T.Ellis Corti 50–130
17 Mitthyridium fasciculatum (Hook. & Grev.) H.Rob. Corti, Rami 50–1005
18 Mitthyridium flavum (Müll. Hal.) H.Rob. Corti 50–130
19 Mitthyridium junquilianum (Mitt.) H.Rob. Corti, Rami 50–130
20 Mitthyridium repens (Harv.) H.Rob. Corti 50–970
21 Mitthyridium undulatum (Dozy & Molk.) H.Rob. Corti, Rami 50–970
22 Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. Corti 50–130
23 Syrrhopodon albo-vaginatus Schwägr. Ligni 50–130
24 Syrrhopodon aristifolius Mitt. Corti 50–1005
25 Syrrhopodon confertus Sande Lac. Corti 50–1005
26 Syrrhopodon croceus Mitt. Corti, Saxi 50–1005
27 Syrrhopodon muelleri (Dozy & Molk.) Sande Lac. Corti 50–970
28 Syrrhopodon prolifer Schwägr. Corti, Ligni 110–940
29 Syrrhopodon spiculosus Hook. & Grev. Corti, Ligni 50–970
30 Syrrhopodon stoneae W.D.Reese Corti 50–130
31 Syrrhopodon trachyphyllus Mont. Corti 50–940
32 Syrrhopodon tristichus Schwägr. Corti 60–940
II. Daltoniaceae Schimp.
33 Distichophyllum cuspidatum (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. Corti 110–940
34 Distichophyllum nigricaule var. cirratum (Renauld & Cardot) M.Fleisch Corti, Saxi 110–940
35 Ephemeropsis tjibodensis K.I.Goebel Epi 60–110
III. Dicranaceae Schimp.
36 Campylopus ericoides (Griff.) A.Jaeger Saxi 100–1005
37 Campylopus exasperatus (Nees & Blume) Brid. Saxi 940–1005
38 Dicranella coarctata (Müll. Hal.) Bosch & Sande Lac. Terri 110–940
39 Leucoloma amoene-virens Mitt. Saxi 50–130
10 Leucoloma molle (Müll. Hal.) Mitt. Corti 940–1005
IV. Diphysciaceae M.Fleisch
41 Diphyscium mucronifolium Mitt. Saxi 60–970
V. Fissidentaceae Schimp.
42 Fissidens ceylonensis Dozy & Molk. Saxi 60–110
43 Fissidens crassinervis Sande Lac. Terri 50–970
44 Fissidens hollianus Dozy & Molk. Corti 60–110
45 Fissidens javanicus Dozy & Molk. Saxi 60–110
46 Fissidens oblongifolius Hook. f. & Wilson Corti 70–80
47 Fissidens pellucidus Hornsch. Terri 70–80
VI. Hypnaceae Schimp.
48 Ectropothecium buitenzorgii (Bél.) Mitt. Corti, Ligni, Saxi, Terri 50–970
49 Ectropothecium ichnotocladum (Müll. Hal.) A.Jaeger Corti, Saxi 50–940
50 Isopterygium albescens (Hook. in Schwägr.) A.Jaeger Corti 50–130
51 Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum (Sull. & Lesq.) Z.Iwats. Terri 110–940
52 Vesicularia dubyana (Müll. Hal.) Broth. Corti, Saxi, Terri 50–130
53 Vesicularia miquelii (Sande Lac.) M.Fleisch. Corti 60–110
54 Vesicularia reticulata (Dozy & Molk.) Broth. Saxi 70–80
VII. Hypnodendraceae Broth.
55 Hypnodendron dendroides (Brid.) Touw Saxi 110–940
56 Hypnodendron subspininervium (Müll. Hal.) A.Jaeger subsp. arborescens (Mitt.) Touw Corti 110–940
VIII. Leucobryaceae Schimp.
57 Leucobryum aduncum Dozy & Molk. Corti, Ligni, Saxi, Terri 50–970
58 Leucobryum aduncum var. scalare (M.Fleisch.) A.Eddy Corti 50–970
59 Leucobryum bowringii Mitt. Corti, Saxi 50–970
60 Leucobryum candidum (P.Beauv.) Wilson Corti, Saxi 50–970
61 Leucobryum chlorophyllosum Müll. Hal. Corti 50–970
62 Leucobryum javense (Brit.) Mitt. Corti, Terri 100–1005
63 Leucobryum microleucophanoides A.Johnson Corti 100–970
64 Leucobryum sanctum (Schwägr.) Hampe Corti, Saxi, Terri 50–970
IX. Meteoriaceae Kindb.
65 Aerobryidium crispifolium (Broth. & Geh.) M.Fleisch. Corti, Rami 60–110
66 Aerobryopsis longissima (Dozy & Molk.) M.Fleisch. Corti 50–130
X. Myuriaceae M.Fleisch.
67 Oedicladium pseudorufescens (Hampe) B.C.Tan & Mohamed Corti, Saxi 50–970
XI. Neckeraceae Schimp.
68 Himantocladium plumula (Nees in Brid.) M.Fleisch. Corti 60–110
XII. Polytrichaceae Schwägr.
69 Pogonatum cirratum subsp. fuscatum (Mitt.) Hyvönen Terri 110–940
70 Pogonatum cirratum subsp. macrophyllum (Dozy & Molk.) Hyvönen Saxi 940–1005
XIII. Pottiaceae Hampe
71 Barbula consanguinea (Thwaites & Mitt.) A.Jaeger Saxi 60–110
72 Hyophila involuta (Hook.) A.Jaeger Saxi, Terri 50–130
XIV. Rhizogoniaceae Broth.
73 Pyrrhobryum latifolium (Bosch & Sande Lac.) Mitt. Corti 50–130
74 Pyrrhobryum medium (Besch.) Manuel Corti 60–110
XV. Sematophyllaceae Broth.
75 Acanthorrhynchium papillatum (Harv.) M.Fleisch. Corti, Ligni 50–130
76 Acroporium adspersum (Hampe) Broth. Corti 60–110
77 Acroporium condensatum E.B.Bartram Saxi 940–1005
78 Acroporium diminutum (Brid.) M.Fleisch. Corti 60–1005
79 Acroporium joannis-winkleri Broth. Corti, Ligni, Terri 60–1005
80 Acroporium lamprophyllum Mitt. Corti 50–130
81 Acroporium rigens (Dixon) Dixon Saxi, Terri 50–1005
82 Acroporium stramineum (Reinw. & Hornsch.) M.Fleisch. Terri 940–1005
83 Acroporium strepsiphyllum (Mont.) B.C.Tan Corti, Saxi 60–1005
84 Clastobryophilum bogoricum (Bosch & Sande Lac.) M.Fleisch. Corti 50–130
85 Clastobryum caudatum (Sande Lac.) M.Fleisch. Corti 70–80
86 Clastobryum cuculligerum (Sande Lac.) Tixier Corti 60–110
87 Clastobryum epiphyllum (Renauld & Cardot) B.C.Tan & Touw Corti, Rami 60–110
88 Gammiella tonkinensis (Broth. & Paris) B.C.Tan Rami 100–970
89 Isocladiella surcularis (Dixon) B.C.Tan & Mohamed Corti 60–110
90 Mastopoma uncinifolium (Broth.) Broth. Rami 940–1005
91 Meiothecium microcarpum (Harv.) Mitt. Corti 50–130
92 Papillidiopsis bruchii (Dozy & Molk.) W.R.Buck & B.C.Tan Corti 60–110
93 Papillidiopsis complanata (Dixon) W.R.Buck & B.C.Tan Corti, Ligni 50–1005
94 Papillidiopsis luxurians (Dozy & Molk.) W.R.Buck & B.C.Tan Corti, Ligni, Saxi 50–940
95 Papillidiopsis malesiana W.R.Buck & B.C.Tan Corti 50–130
96 Rhaphidostichum bunodicarpum (Müll. Hal.) M.Fleisch. Corti, Saxi 50–130
97 Rhaphidostichum piliferum (Broth.) Broth. Corti 60–110
98 Taxithelium instratum (Brid.) Broth. Corti 50–130
99 Taxithelium isocladium (Bosch & Sande Lac.) Renauld & Cardot Corti, Epi, Rami 50–130
100 Taxithelium kerianum (Broth.) Broth. Corti, Rami 60–940
101 Taxithelium lindbergii (A.Jaeger) Renauld & Cardot Epi, Rami 110–1005
102 Taxithelium nepalense (Schwägr.) Broth. Corti 60–110
103 Trichosteleum boschii (Dozy & Molk.) A.Jaeger Corti, Ligni, Rami, Saxi 50–1005
104 Trichosteleum saproxylophilum (Müll. Hal.) B.C.Tan et al. Terri 940–1005
105 Trichosteleum singapurense M.Fleisch. Corti 70-80
106 Trichosteleum stigmosum Mitt. Corti, Ligni, Rami 50–130
107 Trismegistia lancifolia (Harv.) Broth. Corti, Saxi 50–970
108 Trismegistia lancifolia var. pseudoplicata (Harv.) Broth. Corti, Ligni 60–940
XVI. Thuidiaceae Schimp.
109 Thuidium pristocalyx (Müll. Hal.) A.Jaeger Saxi 50–940
Marchantiophyta (Liverworts)
I. Calypogeiaceae Arnell
1 *Asperifolia arguta (Nees & Mont.) A.V.Troitsky et al. Terri 63–340
II. Frullaniaceae Lorch
2 Frullania apiculata (Reinw. et al.) Nees Epi 850–1000
3 *Frullania gracilis (Reinw. et al.) Nees Corti 980
4 *Frullania trichodes Mitt. Epi 800
III. Lejeuneaceae Cavers
5 Caudalejeunea reniloba (Gottsche) Steph. Corti, Epi, Rami 40–1039
6 Ceratolejeunea minor Mizut. Epi 100
7 Ceratolejeunea singapurensis (Lindenb.) Schiffn. Epi 100
8 Cheilolejeunea ceylanica (Gottsche) R.M.Schust. & Kachroo Corti, Epi 900–1000
9 Cheilolejeunea trapezia (Nees) Kachroo & R.M.Schust. Corti, Epi, Rami 80–1000
10 Cheilolejeunea trifaria (Reinw. et al.) Mizut. Epi 1006
11 Cololejeunea aequabilis (Sande Lac.) Schiffn. Epi 900–1000
12 Cololejeunea appressa (A.Evans) Benedix Epi 600–1000
13 Cololejeunea equialbi Tixier Epi 880–1000
14 Cololejeunea falcata (Horik.) Benedix Epi 600–1000
15 Cololejeunea floccosa (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Schiffn. Epi 80–1000
16 Cololejeunea inflata Steph. Epi 80–1000
17 Cololejeunea inflectens (Mitt.) Benedix Epi 900–1000
18 Cololejeunea lanciloba Steph. Epi 80–500
19 Cololejeunea metzgeriopsis (K.I.Goebel) Gradst. et al. Epi 780
20 Cololejeunea obliqua (Nees & Mont.) Schiffn. Epi 800–1000
21 Cololejeunea ocelloides (Horik.) Mizut. Epi 900–1000
22 Cololejeunea planissima (Mitt.) Abeyw. Epi 80–1000
23 Cololejeunea schmidtii Steph. Epi 300–1000
24 Cololejeunea sigmoidea Jovet-Ast & Tixier Epi 800–1000
25 Cololejeunea stephanii Benedix Epi 900–1006
26 Cololejeunea verrucosa Steph. Epi 100–900
27 *Cololejeunea wightii Steph. Corti 100–900
28 Colura acroloba (Prantl) Jovet-Ast Epi 100–900
29 Colura ari (Steph.) Steph. Epi 100–1000
30 Colura conica (Sande Lac.) K.I.Goebel Corti, Epi 100–900
31 Colura corynophora (Nees et al.) Trevis. Corti, Epi 100–1000
32 Colura inuii Horik. Epi 100–1000
33 Drepanolejeunea dactylophora (Nees et al.) J.B.Jack & Steph. Epi 850–1006
34 Drepanolejeunea levicornua Steph. Epi 80–1000
35 Drepanolejeunea longicornua (Herzog) Mizut. Epi 100–1000
36 Drepanolejeunea pentadactyla (Mont.) Steph. Epi 100–1000
37 Drepanolejeunea spicata (Steph.) Grolle & R.L.Zhu Corti, Epi, Rami 100–1000
38 Drepanolejeunea ternatensis (Gottsche) Schiffn. Corti, Epi, Rami 100–1000
39 Drepanolejeunea thwaitesiana (Mitt.) Steph. Epi 80–1000
40 *Drepanolejeunea vesiculosa (Mitt.) Steph. Epi 60–100
41 Lejeunea adpressa Nees Corti, Epi 90–500
42 Lejeunea micholitzii Mizut. Epi 900–1000
43 *Lejeunea sordida (Nees) Nees Corti 89
44 Lepidolejeunea bidentula (Steph.) R.M.Schust. Corti, Epi 63–340
45 *Lepidolejeunea integristipula (J.B.Jack & Steph.) R.M.Schust. Corti 63–340
46 Leptolejeunea amphiophthalma Zwickel Epi 80–1000
47 Leptolejeunea subacuta A.Evans Epi 300–1000
48 Leptolejeunea epiphylla (Mitt.) Steph. Epi 80–1000
49 Leptolejeunea maculata (Mitt.) Schiffn. Epi 80–1000
50 Leptolejeunea vitrea (Nees) Schiffn. Epi 80–1000
51 Lopholejeunea eulopha (Taylor) Schiffn. Epi 100–900
52 Metalejeunea cucullata (Reinw. et al.) Grolle Epi 900–1000
53 Microlejeunea punctiformis (Taylor) Steph. Corti, Epi 89–940
54 *Ptychanthus striatus (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Nees Corti 980
55 *Pycnolejeunea grandiocellata Steph. Corti 60–100
56 *Spruceanthus polymorphus (Sande Lac.) Verd. Corti 980
57 Tuyamaella molischii (Schiffn.) S.Hatt. Epi 780–1006
58 *Thysananthus spathulistipus (Reinw. et al.) Lindenb. Rami 48
IV. Lepidoziaceae Limpr.
59 *Bazzania albifolia Horik. Corti 89–700
60 *Bazzania asymmetrica (Steph.) N.Kitag. Corti, Rami 100–200
61 *Bazzania calcarata (Sande Lac.) Schiffn. Corti 100
62 *Bazzania densa (Sande Lac.) Schiffn. Corti 89–700
63 *Bazzania longicaulis (Sande Lac.) Schiffn. Corti, Terri 89–700
64 *Bazzania uncigera (Reinw. et al.) Trevis. Corti, Saxi 89–700
65 *Kurzia gonyotricha (Sande Lac.) Grolle Terri 89
66 *Lepidozia trichodes (Reinw. et al.) Nees Terri 89
X. Lophocoleaceae Vanden Berghen
67 *Heteroscyphus aselliformis (Reinw. et al.) Schiffn. Corti 89
68 *Heteroscyphus coalitus (Hook.) Schiffn. Terri 89
69 *Heteroscyphus succulentus (Gottsche) Schiffn. Corti 89
XI. Pallaviciniaceae Mig.
70 *Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook.) Gray Terri 60
XII. Plagiochilaceae Müll.Frib.
71 Plagiochila bantamensis (Reinw. et al.) Mont. Corti, 89
XIII. Radulaceae Müll.Frib.
72 Radula acuminata Steph. Epi 80–1000
73 Radula assamica Steph. Epi 60–100
74 *Radula formosa (Spreng.) Nees Corti 60–100
75 Radula grandilobula Promma & Chantanaorr. Epi 100
76 Radula javanica Gottsche Corti, Epi 60–100
77 Radula nymannii Steph. Epi 60–100
78 Radula tjibodensis K.I.Goebel Epi 80–1000
IX. Solenostomaceae Stotler & Crand.-Stotl.
79 *Solenostoma comatum (Nees) C.Gao Terri 60
X. Schistochilaceae H.Buch
80 *Schistochila aligera (Nees & Blume) J.B.Jack & Steph. Corti 994
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