Phylogenetic relationship of Echinocactus inferred with the cpDNA matrix. Maximum parsimony 50% majority rule consensus tree of 4 most parsimonious trees of 347 steps with a consistency index of 0.681 and retention index of 0.848. Values in nodes correspond (from left to right) to maximum parsimony bootstrap (mpb), maximum likelihood bootstrap (mlb) and posterior probabilities (pp). The black star indicates the HEA clade with three subclades: Astrophytum, Echinocactus and Homalocephala highlighted.

  Part of: Vargas-Luna MD, Hernández-Ledesma P, Majure LC, Puente-Martínez R, Macías HMH, Luna RTB (2018) Splitting Echinocactus: morphological and molecular evidence support the recognition of Homalocephala as a distinct genus in the Cacteae. PhytoKeys 111: 31-59.