Characters. A Syagrus vagans with large adaxial fiber bundles reaching nearly ½ across the mesophyll, fiber bundles scattered throughout the mesophyll, mesophyll minor veins, abaxial fibers and a primary vein that is nearly connected to the hypodermis B S. lilliputiana showing a large marginal vein with an exaggerated fibrous sheath, adaxial minor veins, and an air bubble artifact C S. coronata with a large marginal fiber bundle, large adaxial fiber bundles, a small vein with an exaggerated fibrous sheath, and unattached primary vein D S. harleyi with a sclerenchymous hypodermis on the margin and along the adaxial surface, along with adaxial fiber bundles and abaxial minor vein symmetry (mirrored anatomy) and fibrous extensions from minor veins forming a girder E S. orinocensis with a mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy layers, marginal vein with fibrous sheath noticeably thickened adaxially, many fiber bundles along the adaxial surface, many of which are only one-cell thick and others reaching less than 1/5 across the mesophyll, also note very small abaxial fiber bundles often alternating with abaxial minor veins F S. vermicularis with an adaxial fiber bundle forming a continuous single layer of fiber cells in the hypodermis. abf = abaxial fiber bundle adf = adaxial fiber bundle abv = abaxial minor vein adv = adaxial minor vein b = trapped air bubble artifact c = cuticle e = epidermis fb = larger fiber bundle g = girder vein h = hypodermis hf = fibrous hypodermis m = mesophyll mf = marginal fiber bundle mp = palisade mesophyll ms = spongy mesophyll mv = mesophyll minor vein pv = primary vein sv = secondary vein vex = vein with exaggerated fibrous sheath w = wax. Bar scale = 0.25 mm.

  Part of: Noblick LR (2017) Key to Syagrus identification using leaflet margin anatomy: Supplement to “A revision of Syagrus (Arecaceae)”. PhytoKeys 81: 19-46.