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Citation: Espinosa M, López J (2013) Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura (Spain). PhytoKeys 25: 1–13. doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.25.5341 Resource ID: GBIF key: http://gbrds.gbif.org/browse/agent?uuid=835d30de-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a
Resource citation: University of Extremadura (2013) Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura, Spain. 36451 data records. Contributors: Espinosa M, López J, Devesa JA, Ortega-Olivencia A, Ruiz T, Tormo R, Rodríguez-Riaño T, Viera MC, Carrasco JP, Muñoz A, Montero I, Vázquez FM, Navarro ML, Valtueña FJ and Malato-Beliz JVC. Online at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=collectionherbariumextremadura, http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/255 and http://www.eweb.unex.es/eweb/botanica/herbario/, versión 1.0 (Last updated on 2013-05-23), GBIF key: http://gbrds.gbif.org/browse/agent?uuid=835d30de-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Data Paper ID: doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.25.5341
The herbarium of University of Extremadura (UNEX Herbarium) is formed by 36451 specimens of vascular plants whose main origin is the autonomous region of Extremadura (Spain) and Portugal, although it also contains a smaller number of specimens from different places, including the rest of peninsular Spain, the Baleares Islands, the Macaronesian region (Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores), northwest of Africa (Morocco) and Brazil. 98% of the total records are georeferenced.
It is an active collection in continuous growth. Its data can be accessed through the GBIF data portal at http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/255 and http://www.eweb.unex.es/eweb/botanica/herbario/. This paper describes the specimen associated data set of the UNEX Herbarium, with an objective to disseminate the data contained in a data set with potential users, and promote the multiple uses of the data.
Extremadura, herbarium collection, Liliopsida, Magnoliopsida, Spain, Portugal, Baleares islands, Macaronesian region, Morocco, Brazil, UNEX Herbarium, vascular plant taxonomy
Established in 1986, the specimens that the herbarium of vascular plants collection of University of Extremadura (UNEX Herbarium) incorporates is the result of the work of collections and identifications by different researchers, associated with the Botany Area (Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences) of the University of Extremadura. Chief amongst these individuals include: Professor Juan Antonio Devesa, founder and director of the herbarium until 2004, and Dr. Trinidad Ruiz, curator and current director of the UNEX Herbarium. Significant contributions have also been made by Professor Ana Ortega-Olivencia, Dr. Rafael Tormo, Dr. Josefa López, and Dr. Tomás Rodríguez-Riaño. Other researchers who contributed to the growth of the UNEX Herbarium includes, Mª Carmen Viera, Jacinto Pedro Carrasco, Adolfo Muñoz, Inmaculada Montero, and Francisco Mª Vázquez. In addition, the disinterested work developed throughout time by a lot of students of the University of Extremadura, especially, Mª Luisa Navarro Pérez and Dr. Francisco Javier Valtueña.
The development of different research projects has made it possible to improve the quality of the herbarium. Among them, the numerous compilations carried out by differents members of the Botany Area in order to elaborate the first flora of the Extremadura region (
Limited and unpredictable funding has always pose challenge for ensuring sustained growth of the collection facility since its establishment.
As depicted in Figure 1, majority of the specimens in UNEX Herbarium belong to class Magnoliopsida (27143 specimens) and Liliopsida (8508 specimens). These classes are followed by Filicopsida (505 specimens), Lycopsida (138 specimens), Coniferopsida (104 specimens), Equisetopsida (24 specimens), Ophioglossopsida (14 specimens), Gnetopsida (6 specimens), Taxopsida (4 specimens) Cycadopsida and Gingkgopsida (both with 2 specimens), and Psilotopsida (1 specimen).
UNEX herbarium represents 210 families, of which 22% and 21% of the specimens belongs to Poaceae and Fabaceae family respectively. This is followed by Asteraceae (15%), Scrophulariaceae (6%), Lamiaceae (6%), Caryophyllacae (5%), Brassicaceae (4%), Cyperaceae (4%), Rubiaceae (3%), Ranunculaceae (3%), Liliaceae (3%), Boraginaceae (3%), Apiaceae (3%), and Cistaceae (2%). The herbarium includes 1253 genera (Figure 3), significant ones amongst them are Trifolium (1345 specimens), Ranunculus (623 specimens), Scrophularia (583 specimens), Vicia (537 specimens), Stipa (505 specimens), Galium (479 specimens), Juncus (439 specimens), Vulpia (381 specimens), Medicago (365 specimens) and Bromus (342 specimens).
Taxonomic coverage (as per classes) of the UNEX Herbarium.
Taxonomic coverage (as per families) of the UNEX Herbarium.
Taxonomic coverage (as per genus) of the UNEX Herbarium.
Phylum: Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida, Liliopsida, Filicopsida, Lycopsida, Coniferopsida, Equisetopsida, Ophioglossopsida, Gnetopsida, Taxopsida, Cycadopsida, Gingkgopsida, Psilotopsida.
Family: Acanthaceae, Aceraceae, Adiantaceae, Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, Alismataceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Araucariaceae, Arecaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Aspidiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Athyriaceae, Azollaceae, Balanophoraceae, Balsaminaceae, Basellaceae, Begoniaceae, Berberidaceae, Betulaceae, Bignoniaceae, Blechnaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Buddlejaceae, Butomaceae, Buxaceae, Cactaceae, Callitrichaceae, Calycanthaceae, Calyceraceae, Campanulaceae, Cannabaceae, Cannaceae, Capparaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Casuarinaceae, Celastraceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Characeae, Chenopodiaceae, Cistaceae, Clethraceae, Clusiaceae, Cneoraceae, Commelinaceae, Convolvulaceae, Coriariaceae, Cornaceae, Crassulaceae, Cryptogrammaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cunoniaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyathaceae, Cycadaceae, Cyperaceae, Davalliaceae, Dicksoniaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Dipsacaceae, Droseraceae, Ebenaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Elaphoglossaceae, Elatinaceae, Empetraceae, Ephedraceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Fontinalaceae, Frankeniaceae, Fumariaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Ginkgoaceae, Globulariaceae, Grossulariaceae, Guttiferaceae, Haloragaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Hemionitidaceae, Hippocastanaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Hypolepidaceae, Iridaceae, Isoetaceae, Juglandaceae, Juncaceae, Juncaginaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lemnaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Loranthaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Lythraceae, Magnoliaceae, Malpighiaceae, Malvaceae, Maranthaceae, Marsileaceae, Melastomataceae, Meliaceae, Melianthaceae, Mimosaceae, Molluginaceae, Monimiaceae, Moraceae, Myoporaceae, Myricaceae, Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Najadaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Oleaceae, Onagraceae, Ophioglossaceae, Orchidaceae, Orobanchaceae, Osmundaceae, Oxalidaceae, Paeoniaceae, Papaveraceae, Passifloraceae, Phytolaccaceae, Pinaceae, Piperaceae, Pittosporaceae, Plantaginaceae, Platanaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Podocarpaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Polygonaceae, Polypodiaceae, Pontederiaceae, Portulacaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Primulaceae, Proteaceae, Psilotaceae, Pteridaceae, Punicaceae, Pyrolaceae, Rafflesiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Ruppiaceae, Rutaceae, Salicaceae, Santalaceae, Sapindaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Selaginellaceae, Simaroubaceae, Sinopteridaceae, Solanaceae, Sparganiaceae, Sterculiaceae, Styracaceae, Symplocaceae, Tamaricaceae, Taxaceae, Theaceae, Theligonaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Tiliaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Typhaceae, Ulmaceae, Umbelliferaceae, Urticaceae, Valerianaceae, Verbenaceae, Violaceae, Vitaceae, Zannichelliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Zygophyllaceae
Specimens deposited in the UNEX Herbarium have been collected mainly from Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) northwest of Africa (Morocco) and Brazil. As indicated in Figure 4, maximum number of specimens included in the dataset are collected from Spain (31490) followed by Portugal (3488), Brazil (722) and Morocco (111) respectively. With regards to collections from Spanish provinces, Badajoz contributes 16910 specimens, followed by Cáceres (6855 specimens) and Cádiz (1012 specimens). Other sampling areas include Almería (711 specimens), Jaén (495 specimens), Málaga (411 specimens), Gerona (388 specimens), Huesca (371 specimens), León (308 specimens), Oviedo (293 specimens), Granada (290 specimens), Huelva (260 specimens) and Lérida (249 specimens).
Geographic coverage of the UNEX Herbarium.
The specimens better represented in the database correspond to elements of the Mediterranean forest and/or scrubland. These specimens are developed under a seasonal climate of mild winters and hot and dry summers, with abundant rainfall in autumn and spring. Frequent in this climate are forest fires, to which the vegetation is adapted. Specimens from Brazil (except one specimen collected in the state of Santa Catarina), are collected in the state of Río Grande do Sul. This state has a humid subtropical climate and a hydrography classified into three major regions: Uruguay River Basin, Guaiba River, and Litoral.
Coordinates: 38°0'0"S and 52°0'0"N Latitude; 115°0'0"W and 65°0'0"E longitude.
1911 – 2013. As shown in Figure 5, earliest collection event is dated back to 1911. Maximum number of specimens are collected during 1986–2000 (24833), followed by 2001–2012 (5038), 1971–1985 (4556), 1956–1970 (979), 1941–1955 (270), and 1911–1940 (16). There are 759 specimens for which period of collection cannot be ascertained.
Collection name: UNEX Herbarium, University of Extremadura.
Collection identifier: http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/255
Formation period: 1986-2013
Specimen preservation method: Dried and pressed
Curatorial unit: 36451 with an uncertainty of 0 (Sheets)
Curatorial unit: 1253 with an uncertainty of 0 (Genera)
Temporal coverage of the UNEX Herbarium.
Dried and pressed method has been adopted for preservation of the specimens deposited in the collection. After collection of specimens in the field (see “sampling description” for the collection protocol) they are pressed and dried with the aim of adapting them to a flat surface and remove water from the tissue, thereby preventing their degeneration or attacks by bacteria, fungi or insects that would destroy them.
Assembly of specimens: The dried material is mounted on a holder constituted by an A3 cardboard (42 × 29.7 cm) and a resistant paper (so-called jacket) dimension A2 (42 × 59.4 cm) that perfectly covers the cardboard, thus protecting the specimen. The assembly is made on the cardboard with transparent tape, allowing both that the specimen be tighten to the holder and that the assembly be aesthetic.
Registration of herbarium specimens: After assembly, specimens are registered and labeled. Registration is done in a database (Microsoft Office Access Database → DarwinCore 1.2) in which each specimen is assigned a reference number allocated consecutively. The information contained in the record of each specimen is: institution owner of the herbarium, reference number, scientific name of the family and species, date of collection, georeferencing data (country, province, town), habitat, Legitimavit, and Determinavit. All log data are printed and constitute the sheet label.
Treatment of specimens: Before putting the specimens in the herbarium they are stored in hermetic plastic boxes and kept for 72 hours in cold storage (freezers) at -40°C. In this way the material is decontaminated from possible attacks of pathogens that can destroy them and the rest of material already in the herbarium.
Storage of specimens: Finally, the specimens are kept inside compact enclosures in shelves where they are arranged taking into account the four main groups: pteridophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots. Within each main group the specimens are alphabetical arranged by families and genera.
Iberian Peninsula is the most significant geographic zone represented in UNEX Herbarium. Figure 6 depicts the collections from various provinces of Iberian Peninsula. Over 5000 specimens are collected from two provinces (Badajoz and Cáceres). Two provinces (Cádiz and Almería) contributed specimens in the range of 500-1500. The specimens collected from morocco (111 sheets) are representatives for an area greater than 50% of the country (Fig. 7a). Conversely, specimens from Brazil (721 sheets) cover not more than 3% of the area of the country (Fig. 7b).
Geographical distribution of specimens in the Iberian Peninsula, Baleares, Canarias, Madeira and Azores.
Geographical distribution of specimens in (a) Morocco and (b) Brazil.
As evident from the previous section, the specimens deposited in the UNEX Herbarium comes from diverse regions, which is outcome of several research projects depositing the specimens. As a result, specimens are not collected using a single, uniform protocol. Of the materials from donations or purchases (e.g. herbarium of Dr. J.V.C. Malato-Beliz) the protocol followed for the collection of specimens is unknown. The methodology used in collecting plants by researchers from the Botany Area may change depending on the objectives pursued by the work they are carried out for.
In general, collection takes place following previous available references drawn from scientific works, herbarium material or indications from reliable collectors. The collection campaigns are designed to be more or less exhaustive of different available areas depending on the purpose of the collection (e.g. for taxonomic works, we do exhaustive inspections of whole territories with expansion of the collection area beyond known indications).
Each specimens and associated data record was subjected to two quality procedures; (a) taxonomic determination or identification and (b) geo-referencing. For taxonomic identification, trusted experts were contacted, the 85% of the material has been identified by investigators of the Botany Area of the University of Extremadura. These experts have authored number of monographs, which include Vegetación y Flora de Extremadura (
Besides the above mentioned authoritative literature, experts have also relied upon the biology of the reproduction of different taxa of the family Fabaceae (
The 98% of the records in the collection are georeferenced. A total of 58.38% have MGRS coordinates and the rest geographical coordinates. The MGRS coordinate system has been transformed into geographical coordinates through a geographic calculator (http://www.asturnatura.com/sinflac/calculadora-conversiones-coordenadas.php), while at the same time maintaining the MGRS coordinates in the database. The accuracy of these coordinates grids varies from 1 km2 to 10 km2. The geographical coordinates have been taken through the description of localities and search of these localities in
Object name: Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura (Spain)
Character encoding: UTF-8
Format name: Darwin Core Archive format
Format version: 1.0
Publication date of data: 2013-05-18
Licenses of use: This database “Herbarium of Vascular Plants Collection of the University of Extremadura (Spain)”is made available under license Open Data Commons Attribution: http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/
DarwinCore elements: Twenty two (22) DarwinCore (http://purl.org/dc/terms/) elements included in the dataset published through the GBIF network. These are (a) modified, (b) infraspecificEpithet, (c) eventDate, (d) family, (e) basisOfRecord, (f) kingdom, (g) typeStatus, (h) collectionCode, (i) catalogNumber, (j) scientificName, (k) locality, (l) individualCount, (m) scientificNameAuthorship, (n) institutionCode (o) decimalLongitude, (p) country, (q) preparations, (r) identifiedBy, (s) stateProvince, (t) recordedBy, (u) recordNumber, (v) decimalLatitude, (w) genus, (x) specificEpithet and (y) occurrenceRemarks.
Character encoding: iso-8859-1
Format name: Access
Format version: 1.0
Metadata language: English
Date of metadata creation: 2013-03-20
Hierarchy level: Dataset
We wish to thank the Government of Spain for financial support to the UNEX Herbarium through of the projects CGL2005-24206-E and PTA2010-3138-I. Funding was partially obtained from the Economy, Trade, and Innovation Council of Extremadura (CCV004).