Corresponding author: Neus Nualart ( email@example.com )
Academic editor: Dennis Stevenson
© 2017 Neus Nualart, Neus Ibáñez, Pere Luque, Joan Pedrol, Lluís Vilar, Roser Guàrdia.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Nualart N, Ibáñez N, Luque P, Pedrol J, Vilar L, Guàrdia R (2017) Dataset of herbarium specimens of threatened vascular plants in Catalonia. PhytoKeys 77: 41-62. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.77.11542
This data paper describes a specimens’ dataset of the Catalonian threatened vascular plants conserved in five public Catalonian herbaria (BC, BCN, HGI, HBIL and MTTE). Catalonia is an administrative region of Spain that includes large autochthon plants diversity and 199 taxa with IUCN threatened categories (EX, EW, RE, CR, EN and VU). This dataset includes 1,618 records collected from 17th century to nowadays. For each specimen, the species name, locality indication, collection date, collector, ecology and revision label are recorded. More than 94% of the taxa are represented in the herbaria, which evidence the paper of the botanical collections as an essential source of occurrence data.
Catalonia, conservation, Cormophyta, herbarium, northeastern Iberian Peninsula, specimen, threatened flora
For the maintenance of ecosystem processes, effective conservation is essential (
The aim of this project is (1) to join the specimens’ data of endangered plants in Catalonia in a unique dataset, (2) to improve the accessibility of this data for conservation purposes, (3) to describe the taxonomical, chorological and temporal diversity of this dataset and (4) to evaluate if it is representative of this kind of flora. Five public herbaria have participated and all their data have been published through GBIF in a unique dataset. The herbaria included are those who already have these specimens informatizated but in the future we plan to include more collections.
Some of these herbaria have yet evaluated their specimens of threatened plants in previews works. In the herbarium of the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC) the specimens of some collections have been analyzed to assess if the threatened but also the endemic taxa of Catalonia were well represented in the herbarium (
Catalonia is an administrative region in the northeastern corner of Spain in the Mediterranean Coast that covers approximately 32,000 km² (Figure
The vascular flora of Catalonia includes 4,831 taxa (
In this project, we have compiled the records of the threatened taxa specimens included in the Catalonia Red List (
This project includes the specimens conserved in the following public herbaria of Catalonia: (1) BC of the Botanical Institute of Barcelona, (2) BCN of the University of Barcelona, (3) HGI of the University of Girona, (4) HBIL of the Public Foundation Institut d’Estudis Ilerdencs and (5) MTTE of the museum Museu de les Terres de l’Ebre. The BC herbarium (http://www.ibb.bcn-csic.es/en/documentacio/herbari/) is the largest collection of plants in Catalonia, and the second in Spain. This collection, with about 800,000 specimens, is specialized in western Mediterranean flora and has served as reference for the main floras of this region. In this project we have included the general collection and also historical collections as the Salvador’s herbarium from 17th and 18th century, the collections of F. Trèmols (1831–1900) and E. Vayreda (1848–1901) from 19th century and those of J. Cadevall (1846–1921) and Fr. Sennen (1861–1937) from 19th to early 20th century, which allows a very high temporal representation. The BCN herbarium (http://crai.ub.edu/ca/coneix-el-crai/CeDocBiV/herbari) hosts more than 400,000 specimens, with a great representation of all the major groups of plants. This herbarium has a wide range of specimens from the Pyrenees, the Ebre Basin, the Mediterranean coastal areas and some tropical South American. As for historical collections, the most outstanding are those of J. Planellas (1821–1888), J. Teixidor (1836–1885), Fr. Sennen, P. Font Quer (1888–1964) and T.M. Losa (1893–1965). HGI herbarium, created in 1976, stores about 23,200 specimens mainly of the Girona province and also includes a historical collection of Isern’s herbarium from 19th century, and the collection of L. Pericot (1899–1978). The HBIL herbarium was created in 1942 and stores more than 15,000 sheets of vascular plants collected basically from the Lleida province. The MTTE herbarium includes near 3,500 specimens of the Ebre delta regional area.
Although some of these specimens are already available in GBIF portal (CeDoc de Biodiversitat Vegetal: BCN-Cormophyta http://www.gbif.org/dataset/834f1756-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a; Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC http://www.gbif.org/dataset/838475f4-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a; Universitat de Girona: HGI-Cormophyta http://www.gbif.org/dataset/835727b6-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a), this new dataset includes specimens not yet published and summarizes the data from all these herbaria. The information provides a joint and overall vision of all the specimens that will be useful for conservation policy and scientific research.
The searching of endangered plants in the herbaria allowed us to find 1,618 specimens from Catalonia. Although in these herbaria there are also many specimens collected in other Spanish regions or other countries, we have only recorded those collected in Catalonia. Table
Representation of the Catalonian threatened taxa in the dataset.
|RE + RE (EW)||16||11||68.75||48|
Number of taxa according to the specimens’ range and the IUCN category.
|Number of specimens|
|RE + RE (EW)||8||2||1||·||·||·||·|
The scientific names of this dataset are those accepted in the Catalonia Red List, which follow mainly Flora dels Països Catalans (
This dataset includes 1,618 records of threatened vascular plants (106 Pteridophyta, 6 Equisetophyta, 36 Lycopodiophyta, 11 Coniferophyta and 1,459 Magnoliophyta). Figure
Families with 18 or more specimens (number of the taxa in the upper axis and number of specimens in the lower axis).
Some families are overrepresented in the dataset, like Polygalaceae with only one threatened taxon (Polygala vayredae) with 54 specimens (see Table
On the contrary, some families with many threatened taxa (seven or more) have few specimens (less than 50), so they are not well represented in the dataset. It is the case of Orchidaceae (nine taxa but only 18 specimens), that are usually not well represented in the herbaria due they are difficult to well press and their flowers quickly lose their color. The low presence of Cyperaceae (seven taxa but only 20 specimens) may be due to the difficulty of the identification of the Carex species, and the scarce presence of the threatened species in Catalonia—they only appear in a few localities in the Pyrenees. Asteraceae (10 taxa and 51 specimens) is one of the families with more threatened taxa and also the richest within plants in the Mediterranean region. The low representation of this family in the herbaria could be explained because five of the ten threatened taxa have three or less specimens; they are endemic species with a narrow distribution area (Centaurea loscosii, Hieracium recoderi or Hieracium vinyasianum) and species recently found in Catalonia as Filago lusitanica (
Taxa with more than 30 specimens.
|Cistaceae||Halimium halimifolium ssp. halimifolium||34||VU|
The taxa with more specimens in the herbaria (Table
The taxa with only a single specimen are shown in Table
Taxa with only one specimen. The herbarium and the collection year of each specimen are indicated.
|Aspleniaceae||Asplenium trichomanes ssp. inexpectans||CR||BCN||1994|
|Cyperaceae||Carex lachenalii ssp. lachenalii||VU||BC||2007|
|Plantaginaceae||Linaria oligantha ssp. oligantha||RE||BC||1919|
|Polygonaceae||Polygonum romanum ssp. gallicum||VU||HGI||1995|
It is important to note that some specimens have been collected at the beginning of the 21st century, and in some cases they are the testimony of the first plant citation in Catalonia. It is the case of Asplenium majoricum, an endemism of Northern Mallorca and the Eastern Iberian Peninsula, recently founded in the south of Catalonia (
There are 11 taxa of the Catalonian Red List that do not have any specimen from the study area (Catalonia) in the herbaria included (Table
On the other hand, Hieracium recoderi is an endemic taxon of Catalonia with very few localities and in GBIF there are some Catalonian specimens in other herbaria. Woodsia pulchella is an alpine orophyte with a single locality in the Pyrenees and there exists only some specimens (
Kingdom : Plantae
Phylum : Coniferophyta, Equisetophyta, Lycopodiophyta, Magnoliophyta, Pteridophyta
Class : Equisetopsida, Filicopsida, Lycopodiopsida, Magnoliopsida (Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones), Pinopsida, Polypodiopsida
Order : Alismatales, Apiales, Asparagales, Asterales, Brassicales, Caryophyllales, Ceratophyllales, Equisetales, Ericales, Fabales, Gentianales, Geraniales, Hydropteridales, Isoetales, Lamiales, Liliales, Lycopodiales, Malpighiales, Malvales, Nymphaeales, Ophioglossales, Pinales, Poales, Polypodiales, Ranunculales, Rosales, Saxifragales, Solanales, Zygophyllales
Family : Alismataceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asparagaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Butomaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyperaceae, Droseraceae, Dryopteridaceae, Elatinaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Hypericaceae, Iridaceae, Isoetaceae, Juncaceae, Lamiaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Liliaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Malvaceae, Marsileaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Orchidaceae, Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Polygonaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Pteridaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Ruppiaceae, Salicaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Violaceae, Woodsiaceae, Xanthorrhoeaceae, Zosteraceae, Zygophyllaceae
The present dataset covers all the area of Catalonia (for a description of this area see “Study area” in “Project description”). The 96.48% of the records in the dataset are georeferenced. The coordinate system used is MGRS (UTM squares) and the accuracy of the grids is 10 km2 (the coordinates have been generalized to blur sensitive locality information due to the threatened degree of these taxa).
The collecting intensity map (Figure
Aiguamolls de l’Empordà is the most prospected area and also the region with the maximum number of endangered taxa (Table
On the other hand, the region of Alta Garrotxa since only two threatened taxa lives in this region has been over-collected: Oplismenus undulatifolius with 6 specimens and the regional endemism Polygala vayredae, with 51 specimens yet explained above (see Table
Taxa without specimens in the herbaria included in the dataset. Catalonian specimens in other herbaria are indicated.
|Family||Taxon||IUCN||Other Catalonian spec.|
|L. Sáez, herb. pers.|
|Orobanchaceae||Rhinanthus angustifolius||VU||L. Sáez, herb. pers. (4 specimens)|
|L. Sáez, herb. pers.|
Number of specimens and taxa of the most prospected areas, with more than 40 specimens.
|UTM (regions)||Dataset||Catalonia Red Book|
|31TEG07 (Aiguamolls de l’Empordà)||72||16||19|
|31TEG28 (Cap de Creus)||59||10||7|
|31TDG57 (Alta Garrotxa)||57||2||2|
|31TDG99 (Serra de l’Albera)||58||12||13|
|31TDF16 (Delta del Llobregat)||52||6||7|
|31TCF44 (Cap de Salou)||47||8||7|
If we evaluate the collecting intensity map separated for each herbarium (Figure
Number of specimens and taxa of the hotspot areas defined in the Red Book of Catalonia; only squares with more than 8 taxa are recorded.
|UTM||Catalonia Red Book||Dataset|
|31TEG07 (Aiguamolls de l’Empordà)||19||72||16|
|31TEG15 (Montgrí - baix Ter)||13||35||13|
|31TDG99 (Serra de l’Albera)||13||58||12|
|31TEG06 (Empúries - l’Armentera)||12||14||10|
|31TCF00 (Delta de l’Ebre)||12||19||6|
|31TCH32 (Naut Aran)||11||33||8|
|31TEG17 (Cap de Creus)||10||20||11|
|31TBF72 (Massís del Port)||10||37||10|
|31TBE99 (Delta de l’Ebre)||10||24||9|
|31TCE09 (Delta de l’Ebre)||10||21||4|
|31TCH22 (Naut Aran)||9||22||7|
|31TDF27 (Delta del Llobregat)||9||35||9|
|31TBF90 (Delta de l’Ebre)||9||17||7|
|31TBF71 (Massís del Port)||9||11||5|
|31TCG31 (Ivars d’Urgell)||8||17||6|
Another important region is Ivars d’Urgell (31TCG31), a small area of halophilous and gypsum vegetation with 8 threatened taxa and included in the PEIN; this region is represented in the herbaria by 6 taxa and 17 specimens.
On the other hand, some UTM squares with a high number of threatened taxa have a poor presence in the herbaria. In some cases because they are littoral squares with a large part of the area in the sea like 31TBE99 and 31TCE09 from Delta de l’Ebre and 31TEG17 from Cap de Creus. But in other, the prospecting intensity is too low relating the number of threatened taxa; for instance, 31TCF55 in the littoral of Tarragona with only 10 specimens collected between 1893 and 1993 and 31TBF71 in the mountainous Massís del Port in the south with 11 specimens collected between 1917 and 2008.
Comparative map of the number of taxa of the dataset and that according to
The 20.37% of the squares have a negative difference (green color), indicating that there are more taxa in the dataset than in the Red Book. This is due, on one hand, to new citations published by different local botanists after the Red Book publication in 2010. For instance, in the UTM square 31TDG19, situated in La Cerdanya in the center of the Catalonian Pyrenees, the dataset includes specimens of Gagea pratensis and Gagea reverchonii published by
Finally, highlight that for more of the 50% of the squares (difference zero or negative) all the taxa have almost a specimen which indicates the good representativeness of this kind of flora in the herbaria.
The 92.27% of the specimens have the collecting year indicated in the label. Among this, the temporal coverage is between 1861 and 2015 (Figure
The maximum number of specimens was collected since 1980 when the number of botanists dedicated to floristic studies significantly increases. After the regulation of the threatened flora in Catalonia with the publication in 2008 of the Catalogue of Endangered Flora (
On the other hand, Figure
The creation of this dataset has included different processes: (1) specimens searching, (2) specimens digitalization, (3) dataset documentation, (4) dataset unification and analysis and (5) dataset publication at the GBIF portal. The first three steps have been done by the responsibility of the curator of each herbarium.
1. The search of all the specimens of the Catalonian threatened taxa has been done exhaustively thanks to a list of synonyms prepared in
2. The digitalization of the specimens has been done by different programs that allow the inclusion in the database of all the information in the label. In BC herbarium this step is managed with Herbar (Pando et al. 1994-2010), in BCN with an own application developed in Access, in HGI with an own program developed in File Maker Pro 2.0 by Macintosh (
3. The dataset documentation includes all the revisions that have been taken place to improve the information of each specimen, such as check the locality of collecting thanks to information from the botanists’ documentation and the database. Also the names of the collectors have been checked—when they were not clear—according to the calligraphy in the label. Moreover, all the localities have been geo-referenced wherever possible using coordinates UTM 10 Km2 (MGRS system) from Catalonia geographical viewer (http://www.icc.cat/vissir3). In those specimens with more precise coordinates in the label, the coordinates have been generalized to blur sensitive information due to the threatened degree of these taxa. Furthermore, the locality information has been completed indicating wherever possible, the province and the municipality according to
4. For the dataset unification a list of fields has been decided considering the maximum possible number of common fields in the different herbaria databases. This list includes the following information: (1) the catalog number, (2) the taxon name, (3) the information about the identification (date and researcher), (4) the locality information (country, province, municipality, locality name, UTM coordinates and altitude in meters), (5) the ecology and (6) the gathering information (date, collector, collector number and exsiccate or field campaign). Each curator has prepared its dataset in an Excel table and finally all the records of each herbarium have been unified in a single dataset. The analysis for describe the dataset (tables and graphics presented in this paper) have been carried out in Excel from this unique dataset. Distribution maps have been created using ArcGis 10.2.
5. For the publication in the GBIF portal all the data have been accommodated to fulfil the Darwin Core Standard (
Once the dataset has been completed (after the forth step of the methodology) a revision of the data has been carried out by comparing the distribution map obtained from the herbarium data of each taxon with that published in the Red Book and in the “Biodiversity data bank of Catalonia” (
Other processes of quality control have been implemented in the third step yet explained in the methodology.
Object name: Darwin Core Archive Threatened plants of Catalonia.
Character encoding: UTF-8
Format name: Darwin Core Archive format
Format version: 1.0
Licenses of use: This Dataset is made available under the Open Data Commons Attribution License: http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/1.0
Metadata language: English
Date of metadata creation: 2016-19-12
Hierarchy level: Dataset
We appreciate the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya, government of Catalonia (‘‘Ajuts a grups de recerca consolidats’’, 2014SGR514) for the realization of this article. We thank David Pérez Prieto for his help with the maps elaboration.