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A taxonomic revision of Herminium L. (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae)
expand article infoBhakta Bahadur Raskoti, André Schuiteman§, Wei-Tao Jin, Xiao-Hua Jin
‡ Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
§ Royal Botanic Gardens, Richmond, United Kingdom
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Abstract

Herminium (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae) is a medium-sized genus widespread in the northern hemisphere, with a clear centre of diversity in the Himalayas. We present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of Herminium based on field observations and morphological studies, for which we examined about 2500 specimens. We recognize 49 species grouped into six formal sections, including one new species, Herminium tibeticum, from Tibet. We provide an identification key to the species, descriptions of the species, notes on ecology and distribution, and complete nomenclature for each species, including typifications. We here designate lectotypes for five species and reduce four taxa to synonymy.

Keywords

Herminium tibeticum, key, morphology, synonyms, taxonomy

Introduction

Herminium L. is a widely distributed genus, ranging from Europe through most of continental Asia to Japan, the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea (Fig. 1). However, most species are restricted to continental Asia, in particular to the Pan-Himalayan region, with only one, non-endemic species each in Europe (H. monorchis) and tropical Southeast Asia, including New Guinea (H. lanceum) (Hooker 1890; Tang and Wang 1937, 1940; Lang 1988; King and Pantling 1898; Press et al. 2000; Pridgeon et al. 2001; Pearce and Cribb 2002; Chen et al. 2009; Averyanov and Averyanova 2003; Averyanov 2010; Kurzweil 2010; Lee et al. 2013; Kurzweil and Lwin 2014).

In most of the earlier, floristic literature, such as Duthie (1906), Hooker (1890), King and Pantling (1898), and Tang and Wang (1937, 1940), Herminium was accepted in a broad sense. More recent authors, such as Seidenfaden (1977), Hara et al. (1978), Hunt (1970), Lang (1988), Pridgeon et al. (2001), Agrawala et al. (2010) and Ormerod (2013) took a more narrow view to the genus and recognized a number of small satellite genera, including Androcorys Schltr., Bhutanthera J. Renz, Frigidorchis Z.J. Liu & S.C. Chen, and Porolabium T. Tang & F.T. Wang. Raskoti et al. (2016) found that these satellite genera as well as certain misplaced members of Peristylus Blume and Platanthera Rich. were nested within Herminium s.l. This led these authors to propose a broader delimitation of the genus, which we also adopt in this revision.

As redefined, Herminium is a genus of 49 species of predominantly terrestrial orchids in the subtribe Orchidinae, characterized by having a (sub)globose tuber, a lip with a concave or spurred base, and pollinia with reduced caudicles. Unlike in the closely related genus Peristylus, the stigma-lobes are not adnate to the base of the lip. Most species have quite small, greenish, whitish or yellowish flowers arranged in racemes. Apart from regional treatments (e.g. Chen et al. 2009, Pearce and Cribb 2002, Pradhan 1976), no modern revision of the genus as a whole has been undertaken before. Here we present such a revision, which should make it easier to identify these inconspicuous orchids.

Figure 1.

Geographical distribution of Herminium.

Materials and methods

Vegetative as well as reproductive characters of Herminium were examined in the natural habitats and in herbaria. Herbarium specimens collected during our fieldwork were deposited in the Chinese National Herbarium (PE) and the National Herbarium and Plant Laboratories in Nepal (KATH). Flowers were preserved in formalin-acetic-acid-alcohol (FAA) for further study. Such material was studied in the laboratory under a stereomicroscope. Photographs and measurements were taken using image software of Nikon Instruments Inc., NIS-Elements D 3.10.

Specimens deposited at CAL, CDBI, DD, E, HNWP, KATH, K, KUN, LINN, PE, SIN, TI, and TAIF herbaria were examined. Photographs of the specimens were also studied from several herbaria (such as NY, P, UPS, W) where direct access was not possible. Over 2500 specimens, including types of most species, from the distributional range of Herminium have been examined.

Vegetative characters, such as tuber, leaf shape, phyllotaxy, and peduncle scales, and reproductive characters such as sepals, petals, lip and column, were examined. Flowers of dried specimens were rehydrated in boiling water prior to dissection. Floral characters such as bracts, sepals, petals, lip, and column were observed and measured with the help of a stereomicroscope. Literature, including Hooker (1890), King and Pantling (1898), Tang and Wang (1937, 1940), Pradhan (1976), Lang (1988), Press et al. (2000), Pearce and Cribb (2000; 2001), Boufford (2003), Chen et al. (2009), Agrawala et al. (2010), Averyanov (2010), Raskoti (2012, 2013), Ormerod (2013), Kurzweil (2010), and Kurzweil and Lwin (2014), was consulted for general distribution data and to assess some morphological characters of species we have been unable to examine ourselves. Thirty-seven morphological characters were compared (see Raskoti et al. 2016), and a set of diagnostic characters was chosen for the preparation of a dichotomous key. Based on phylogenetic analyses (Raskoti et al. 2016) and comparison of morphological characters with its relatives, a new species (Herminium tibeticum) is described and illustrated (see taxonomic treatment).

Habitat information is based on field observations, literature and herbarium labels. The distribution map was produced using DIVA GIS 7.5 (www.diva-gis.org) based on labels of representative specimens as well as data in the literature (e.g., Pearce and Cribb 2002, and Chen et al. 2009). Phenology is based on field observations of authors, information of lables and data in the literature (e.g., Pearce and Cribb 2002, and Chen et al. 2009)

General morphology

Tuber: Unbranched, smooth, globose to oblong or ovoid. Slender roots are produced from the stem just above the tuber. The simple, rounded tuber in Herminium represents a major difference with the subterranean parts of Eurasian species of Platanthera, in which a tuber is either absent or is drawn out into a tapering, root-like tip (Fig. 4).

Figure 2.

Habitat of Herminium. A H. choloranthum (Terrestrial) B H. quinquelobum (Epiphytic on tree trunk).

Figure 3.

Elevational range of Herminium.

Figure 4.

Subterranean parts of Herminium and Platanthera. A Herminium sp. B Platanthera sp.

Phyllotaxy: Leaf number and arrangement vary in Herminium. Leaves can be single or paired, or there can be more than two leaves; they can be basal or cauline, opposite, subopposite or spirally arranged. Except for H. monophyllum and H. monorchis, most of the subtropical and temperate species have several cauline leaves (e.g. Herminium lanceum, Herminium longilobatum, Herminium clavigerum) whereas subalpine and alpine species have only one or two basal leaves.

Leaves: Leaf shape in Herminium varies from linear, oblong, lanceolate, ovate, ovate-orbicular to sphathulate; the basal part always forms an amplexicaul sheath; the leaf apex can be obtuse, acute or acuminate. Linear leaves are restricted to subtropical and temperate species (H. lanceum, H. longilobatum, H. mackinnonii, H. quinquelobum); however; some subtropical and temperate species have ovate to oblong leaves (H. latilabre, H. clavigerum). Leaves may be shortly petiolate (H. humidicola), but are usually sessile.

Stem: Erect, glabrous. The stem may be abbreviated as in H. humidicola, H. handelii, and H. albomarginatum or elongate as in H. clavigerum, H. edgeworthii, and H. lanceum. The stem is covered by tubular sheaths but these do not produce a pseudostem, except in H. humidicola.

Inflorescence: This is almost always an unbranched raceme but in H. humidicola it is subcorymbose. The peduncle is cylindrical and smooth, except for the winged peduncle in H. hongdeyuanii. Most species have an elongate, densely many-flowered rachis (e.g. H. clavigerum, H. longilobatum, H. lanceum), but some, such as H. humidicola and H. albomarginatum have a short rachis with few, sometimes laxly arranged flowers. The peduncle may be shorter than the rachis or sometimes much longer.

Peduncle scales: In the subtropical and temperate species of Herminium, foliaceous peduncle scales are present (e.g. H. lanceum, H. latilabre, H. edgeworthi, H. fallax) but in several subalpine and alpine species, such as H. pugioniforme, H. josephi, and H. fimbriatum, they are absent.

Floral bracts: Most species have floral bracts, except Herminium humidicola, in which they are lacking. The shape of the floral bracts shows some variation. They can be ovate or triangular as in H. albomarginatum, H. oxysepalum, and H. chloranthum; reduced to tiny scales as in H. pugioniforme and H. biporosum; or they can be lanceolate as in H. monorchis, H. lanceum, and H. fallax. Floral bracts may be (sub) equal to the ovary as in H. josephi, H. himalayanum or distinctly shorter, or longer, as in H. clavigerum.

Ovary: Like all orchids, Herminium has an inferior ovary, which may be sessile or pedicelate, straight to arcuate, or twisted as in H. biporosum. Its shape ranges from cylindrical to fusiform. The ovary is usually beaked (abruptly tapered) at the apex. In Herminium monorchis and closely related species (H. ophioglossoides, H. pygmaeum) the ovaries are beaked and decurved.

Flower: Most species of Herminium have inflorescence with spirally arranged flowers, but several have subsecund flowers, e.g. H. monophyllum (Fig. 5). The flowers are resupinate (rarely not resupinate), small, usually pale to yellowish green as in Herminium monorchis, H. chloranthum, but sometimes white (H. coeloceras, forms of H. macrophyllum), whitish-green (e.g. H. mackinnonii, H. jaffreyanum), or rarely more colorful, as in the white-and-red H. albosanguineum. In some species the flowers open only slightly (e.g. H. humidicola).

Figure 5.

Flowers of representive species of Herminium. A H. monorchis B H. latilabre C H. forceps D H. fallax E H. lanceum F H. edgeworthii G H. monophyllum H H. quinquelobum I H. pugioniforme.

Dorsal sepal: Always concave. It can be ovate (e.g. H. josephi, H. souliei, H. alaschanicum, H. macrophyllum), elliptic to ovate-oblong (e.g. H. fallax, H. latilabre, H. monorchis, H. quinquelobum), or lanceolate-oblong (H. quinquelobum, H. ophioglossoides, H. glossophyllum) (Fig. 6). Some alpine species (e.g. H. humidicola and H. biporosum) have a nearly orbicular dorsal sepal. The dorsal sepal may be spreading, as in H. monophyllum and H. mackinnonii, or connivent with the lateral sepals or petals forming a hood, as in H. biporosum, H. lanceum, H. chloranthum, H. elisabethae, H. fallax, and H. alaschanicum.

Figure 6.

Dorsal sepal of Herminium. A H. monorchis B H. chloranthum C H. pygmaeum D H. josephi E H. monophyllum F H. lanceum G H. macrophyllum H H. glossophyllum I H. coeloceras J H. fallax K H. handelii L H. elisabethae M H. himalayanum N H. clavigerum O H. quinquelobum P H. macrophyllum Q H. mannii R H. biporosum.

Lateral sepals: The shape of lateral sepals is rather variable: oblong-obovate (H. monorchis), ovate-oblong (H. lanceum), ovate-lanceolate (H. fallax and H. alaschanicum), oblong-lanceolate (H. macrophyllum), ovate (H. latilabre and H. elisabethae), ovate to elliptic (H. pugioniforme), obliquely elliptic (H. chloranthum), or elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate (H. clavigerum) (Fig. 7). In most species, lateral sepals are spreading but they are completely reflexed in H. clavigerum, H. latilabre, H. edgeworthii, and H. pugioniforme; in H. gracile they are reflexed so as to become parallel to the lip. In H. latilabre, H. edgeworthii, and H. clavigerum, the lateral sepals have ciliate margins, whereas these are denticulate in H. oxysepalum.

Figure 7.

Lateral sepal of Herminium. A H. monorchis B H. chloranthum C H. pygmaeum D H. josephi E H. monophyllum F H. lanceum G H. macrophyllum H H. glossophyllum I H. coeloceras J H. fallax K H. gracile L H. elisabethae M H. himalayanum N H. clavigerum O H. quinquelobum P H. macrophyllum Q H. lanceum R H. biporosum.

Petals: Connivent with the dorsal sepals, except in H. jaffreyanum, H. monophyllum, H. quinquelobum and some other species, which have free, spreading petals. Their shape varies considerably: linear (H. fallax, H. lanceum, H. souliei, H. quinquelobum, H. mackinnonii, H. jaffreyanum, H. monophyllum), lanceolate (H. chloranthum, H. pygmaeum), oblong-lanceolate (H. ophioglossoides), ovate-lanceolate (H. macrophyllum, H. josephi, H. elisabethae), ovate to broadly ovate (H. biporosum, H. coeloceras, H. macrophyllum, H. ecalcaratum), oblong (H. coiloglossum), rhombic (H. monorchis), or spathulate (H. himalayanum) (Fig. 8).

Figure 8.

Petal of Herminium. A H. monorchis B H. chloranthum C H. pygmaeum D H. josephi E H. monophyllum F H. lanceum G H. josephi H H. coiloglossum I H. coeloceras J H. fallax K H. himalayanum L H. elisabethae M H. alaschanicum N H. ophioglossoides O H. quinquelobum P H. macrophyllum Q H. ecalcaratum R H. biporosum

Lip: Usually 3-lobed and with a concave and ecallose basal part that may be dilated as in H. coiloglossum, H. lanceum or not dilated as in H. alaschanicum. Some species, such as H. coeloceras, have a callus on the lip. In a few species the lip is entire, as in H. monophyllum, or 5-partite, as in Herminium quinquelobum. The shape of the lip may be ovate (H. josephi), oblong (H. lanceum), lingulate (e.g. H. biporosum, H. latilabre), or ovate-lanceolate (e.g. H. macrophyllum) (Fig. 9).

Figure 9.

Lip of Herminium. A H. monorchis B H. chloranthum C H. pygmaeum D H. josephi E H. monophyllum F H. macrophyllum G H. macrophyllum H H. alaschanicum I H. coeloceras J H. fallax K H. longilobatum L H. elisabethae M H. alaschanicum N H. lanceum O H. quinquelobum P H. kamengense Q H. coiloglossum R H. biporosum.

Spur: Lacking in most of the species, but a significant minority have a spurred lip (H. alaschanicum, H. albomarginatum, H. albosanguineum, H. albovirens, H. bulleyi, H. clavigerum, H. edgeworthii, H. quinquelobum, H. fallax, H. fimbriatum, H. forceps, H. handelii, H. himalayanum, H. humidicola, H. latilabre, H. mannii, H. singulum, and H. suave). The spur may be cylindrical (e.g. H. edgeworthii) or scrotiform (H. alaschanicum, H. quinquelobum, H. fallax). It is usually shorter than the ovary (e.g. H. alaschanicum, H. quinquelobum, H. forceps) but in a few species the spur is longer than the ovary (e.g. H. latilabre, H. edgeworthii) (Fig. 5). In some species, such as H. josephi, H. monorchis, H. ophioglossoides, and H. pygmaeum, the lip has a saccate base, which can be almost like a spur.

Column: Short but well-developed (Fig. 10). The anther is adnate to the column apex, 2-locular, with the locules parallel or divergent. Pollinia 2, oblong to ellipsoid, granular-farinaceous and sectile, with very short or vestigial caudicles. Viscidia globose (H. lanceum, H. longilobatum) or often involute, naked and hornlike (H. alaschanicum, H. josephi, H. monorchis) (Fig. 11). Rostellum triangular, often with arms. Stigma lobes 2, free, sometimes confluent, usually clavate and raised, in some species, such as H. albomarginatum and H. pugioniforme, pulvinate; in H. latilabre and closely related species the stigma lobes are extended along the entrance of the spur, but not adnate to the lip base as in Peristylus. There are two, usually prominent auricles laterally at the base of the anther.

Figure 10.

Column structure in Herminium. A H. monorchis B H. josephi C H. latilabre D H. monophyllum E H. kamengense F H. longilobatum F H. himalayanum H H. mannii I H. fallax.

Figure 11.

Pollinia structure in Herminium. A H. josephi B H. macrophyllum C H. pygmaeum D H. handelii E H. lanceum F H. fallax G H. forceps H H. latilabre I H. coeloceras.

Fruits: A capsule; longitudinally dehiscent; usually erect, beaked, oblong or fusiform, in some species it may be twisted.

Ecology

Almost all species of Herminium are terrestrial, but a few, such as H. lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk, H. mackinnonii Duthie and H. quinquelobum King & Pantl., occasionally grow as epiphytes on tree trunks or major branches of large trees (Fig. 2). Forests, woodlands and grasslands are a common habitat of Herminium, where the species grow in humus-rich soil in light shade. Many species are subalpine or alpine, growing fully exposed in high mountain valleys and meadows (e.g. H. albomarginatum, H. josephi, H. monorchis, H. pugioniforme) or on peaty soil in moraine areas (e.g. H. alaschanicum, H. chloranthum).

Herminium pugioniforme appears to reach the highest elevation of any orchid, said to occur up to 5500 m (Pridgeon et al. 2001; but see note under H. pugioniforme below). In contrast, H. monorchis grows at sea level in part of its range, e.g. in The Netherlands. In tropical and subtropical regions, all Herminium species are mountain plants, with many species growing at an elevation of around 4000 m (Fig. 3). A few species, such as H. lanceum, H. souliei and H. monorchis, have a wide distributional range, but many more, about one quarter of the species, are narrow endemics, including H. albosanguineum, H. handelii, H. kamengense, H. oxysepalum, and H. pygmaeum.

Little, if anything, is known about the pollination of nearly all species of Herminium. Only that of H. monorchis has been thoroughly studied (Nilsson 1979; Claessens and Kleynen 2016). The honey-scented flowers of this taxon produce small quantities of nectar and attract various species of minute insect, in particular parasitic wasps, flies, mosquitos and even beetles (Claessens and Kleynen 2016). The most important pollinators in Sweden were found to be female parasitic wasps of the genus Tetrastichus (Nilsson, 1979), which accounted for 65% of pollinia transfers, with other parasitic wasps accounting for 12.2%, while Diptera only accounted for 7.8%. Most Herminium species are superficially similar to H. monorchis, in that they have small greenish flowers, and they may have similar pollinators. A few species with longer spurs and larger, Platanthera-like flowers (here included in the new section Pseudoplatanthera), may well be moth-pollinated.

Phenology

In the Pan-Himalayan region, vegetative growth of Herminium species starts in March–May and flower buds appear in June. Flowering begins in June and reaches its peak in August. Fruiting occurs largely simultaneously with the flowering time. Leaf and stem decay in November–December. In the middle of winter, i.e. during December to February, plants of Herminium are dormant, surviving as subterranean tubers.

Taxonomic treatment

HERMINIUM Opera Var.: 251. 1758.

Androcorys Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 52. 1919. Type species: Androcorys ophioglossoides Schltr.

Bhutanthera J. Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 99. 2001. Type species: Bhutanthera albomarginata (King & Pantl.) J.Renz

Cybele Falc. in Lindl., Veg. Kingd., ed. 2: 183c. 1847, nom. inval.

Frigidorchis Z.J. Liu & S.C. Chen, J. Fairylake Bot. Gard. 6: 14. 2007. Type species: Frigidorchis humidicola Z.J. Liu & S.C. Chen

Monorchis Ség., Pl. Veron. 3: 251. 1754. Type species: Monorchis herminium O.Schwarz

Porolabium T. Tang & F.T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Peiping, Bot. Ser. 10: 36. 1940. Type species: Porolabium biporosum (Maxim.) Tang & F. T. Wang

Thisbe Falc. in Lindl., Veg. Kingd., ed. 2: 183c. 1847, nom. inval.

Type species

Herminium monorchis (L.) R.Br.

Description

Herbs; terrestrial or occasionally epiphytic. Tubers unbranched, globose to oblong-ellipsoid. Stem erect, one-to several-leaved. Leaves basal to cauline. Inflorescence racemose or rarely subcorymbose. Flowers erect, horizontal, or nodding; ovary and pedicel straight or arcuate, beaked. Sepals subequal; dorsal sepal connivent with petals and forming a hood; lateral sepals spreading, oblique. Petals usually thickened and fleshy; lip base shallowly concave, saccate or shortly spurred. Column very short; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, each attached to a viscidium via caudicle; viscidia often involute and hornlike, naked; rostellum triangular, with arm-like lobes; stigma lobes 2, free, raised, clavate or pulvinate; staminodes 2, usually prominent. Fruit usually erect, oblong to fusiform.

Infrageneric classification

Based on the phylogeny in Raskoti et al. (2016) and previous classifications of Lang (1988), Pridgeon et al. (2001), and Agrawala et al. (2010), we here propose the following infrageneric classification.

Herminium sect. Herminium

Note

Ovary rostrate, with the apex hook-like bent sideways or downwards (not always clearly so in H. monophyllum). Lip with or without a short spur, entire or lobed.

Type species

Herminium monorchis (L.) R.Br.

Species

1. H. alaschanicum, 6. H. bulleyi, 7. H. chloranthum, 9. H. coeloceras, 13. H. elisabethae, 16. H. forceps, 17. H. glossophyllum, 24. H. josephi, 27. H. kumaunense, 32. H. macrophyllum, 33. H. mannii, 34. H. monophyllum, 35. H. monorchis, 36. H. neotineoides, 37. H. ophioglossoides, 42. H. pygmaeum, 43. H. singulum, 46. H. tangianum, 47. H. tibeticum.

Herminium sect. Thisbe X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti , sect. nov.

Note

Ovary not with hooked-rostrate apex; lip not spurred, 2-, 3-, or 5-lobed.

Type species

Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk, here designated.

Species

10. H. coiloglossum, 11. H. ecalcaratum, 21. H. hongdeyuanii, 23. H. jaffreyanum, 26. H. kamengense, 28. H. lanceum, 30. H. longilobatum, 31. H. mackinnonii, 42. H. quinquelobum, 45. H. souliei, 49. H. yunnanense.

Herminium sect. Androcorys (Schltr.) X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti, stat. nov.

Basionym

Androcorys Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 52. 1919.

Note

Ovary not with hooked-rostrate apex; lip not spurred, entire, usually abruptly dilated at the base; anther-connective forming a hood over the thecae.

Type species

Androcorys ophioglossoides Schltr. (= Herminium gracile King & Pantl.)

Species

5. H. biporosum, 18. H. gracile, 25. ?H. kalimpongense, 38 H. oxysepalum, 39. H. pugioniforme, 40. H. pusillum, 48. H. wangianum.

Note

The aberrant H. kalimpongense Pradhan may not belong to this section (see discussion under Herminium kalimpongense).

Herminium sect. Bhutanthera (J.Renz) X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti, stat. nov.

Basionym

Bhutanthera J. Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 99. 2001.

Note

Ovary not with hooked-rostrate apex; lip spurred, 3-lobed; stigma cushion-like, not projecting beyond rostellum.

Type species

Herminium albomarginatum (King & Pantl.) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang

Species

2. H. albomarginatum, 3. H. albosanguineum, 4. H. albovirens, 15. H. fimbriatum, 19. H. handelii, 20. H. himalayanum, 22. H. humidicola.

Herminium sect. Cybele X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti, sect. nov.

Note

Plant 1-leaved; ovary not with hooked-rostrate apex; lip spurred, 3-lobed; stigma lobes projecting beyond rostellum.

Type species

Herminium fallax (Lindl.) Hook. f., here designated.

Species

14. H. fallax.

Herminium sect. Pseudoplatanthera X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti , sect. nov.

Note

Plant 2- or more-leaved; ovary not with hooked-rostrate apex; lip spurred, entire; stigma lobes projecting beyond rostellum.

Type species

Herminium clavigerum (Lindl.) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, here designated.

Species

8. H. clavigerum, 12. H. edgeworthii, 29. H. latilabre, 45. H. suave.

Key to the species

1 Ovary apex hooked sideways or downward, distinctly rostrate 2
Ovary apex straight or not distinctly rostrate 20
2 Plant with one or more leaves; lip with concave or saccate to globose base 3
Plant with two or more leaves; lip with distinct clavate or cylindrical spur 15
3 Lip entire or lateral lobes obscure 4
Lip 3-lobed with distinct lateral lobes 7
4 Plant with single leaf; lip without callus 34. H. monophyllum
Plant with two or more leaves; lip with or without callus 5
5 Lip pandurate 46. H. tangianum
Lip triangular to ovate 6
6 Flower green; lip deflexed, 3.5–5 mm long, in basal half of the blade with two parallel longitudinal keels; sac reduced to a slight bulge at the base of the lip 24. H. josephi
Flower white or green; lip subpatent to deflexed, 1.6–3.5 mm long, ecallose or with a single callus on the blade; sac subglobose 32. H. macrophyllum
7 Lip pandurate or subpandurate 8
Lip not pandurate 11
8 Petal constricted in the middle, lip lobes obscure 27. H. kumaunense
Petal not constricted in the middle, lip with distinct lobes 9
9 Leaves oblong, elliptic or spathulate, petal elliptic-lanceolate, lip fiddle-shaped 7. H. chloranthum
Leaves linear-oblong or lanceolate, petal trullate, lip not fiddle-shaped 10
10 Leaves linear-oblong, peduncle with lanceolate peduncle-scales, lip without callus 42. H. pygmaeum
Leaves lanceolate, peduncle without peduncle-scales, lip with two longitudinal calli 47. H. tibeticum
11 Flower white or green; lip with a large callus 12
Flower yellowish green; lip without callus 13
12 Lip lateral lobes oblong, callus not papillose 9. H. coeloceras
Lip lateral lobes lanceolate, callus papillose 36. H. neotineoides
13 Petals not abruptly narrowed above the middle, lip base with a tiny globose spur 17. H. glossophyllum
Petal abruptly narrowed above the middle, lip base lacking spur 14
14 Plant with two or more leaves, petals rhombic-caudate, c. 3 times longer than wide, lip side-lobes about half as long as the mid-lobe 35. H. monorchis
Plant with one leaf, petals lanceolate-caudate, c. 6–8 times longer than wide, lip side-lobes about 3/4 as long as the mid-lobe 37. H. ophioglossoides
15 Lip entire 16
Lip 3-lobed 17
16 Plant with more than one well-spaced oblong-lanceolate leaf, lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate 16. H. forceps
Plant with a single basal elliptic leaf, lateral sepals obliquely ovate 43. H. singulum
17 Leaves elliptic, oblong to lanceolate, petals ovate, oblique 13. H. elisabethae
Leaves linear 18
18 Floral bracts longer than the ovary, petals oblong-lanceolate, abruptly narrowed above middle 1. H. alaschanicum
Floral bracts shorter than the ovary 19
19 Spur scrotiform, shorter than ovary, petals ovate-lanceolate 33. H. mannii
Spur cylindrical, longer than ovary and pedicel, petals oblong-lanceolate 6. H. bulleyi
20 Lip not spurred, though possibly with a semiglobose saccate base, possibly dilated at base 21
Lip spurred, not dilated at base 39
21 Lip 2-, 3-, or 5-partite 22
Lip entire 32
22 Petals ovate 23
Petals linear or oblong 24
23 Plant with single basal linear-oblong leaf, flower yellowish-green 49. H. yunnanense
Plants with two alternate oblong leaves, flower white 11. H. ecalcaratum
24 Petals spreading, white 25
Petals connivent with dorsal sepal, yellowish green 27
25 Lip 5-lobed, lateral sepals oblong, petals linear 42. H. quinquelobum
Lip 3-lobed, lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, petals lanceolate or linear-lanceolate 26
26 Lateral lobes of lip reduced or sometimes absent, lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate 23. H. jaffreyanum
Lateral lobes of lip distinctly developed, lateral sepals ovate-oblong 31. H. mackinnonii
27 Lateral lobes of lip falcate 28
Lateral lobes of lip straight 29
28 Plant with single leaf, petals oblong 10. H. coiloglossum
Plant with two or more leaves, petals linear 45. H. souliei
29 Lip broadly ovate, petals slightly falcate 26. H. kamengense
Lip oblong, petals not falcate 30
30 Lip with a callus, lateral lobes coiled at anthesis 30. H. longilobatum
Lip without callus, lateral lobes not coiled 31
31 Peduncle not winged, lateral lobes longer than mid-lobe 28. H. lanceum
Peduncle winged, lateral petals shorter than mid-lobe 21. H. hongdeyuanii
32 Leaf cordate, fleshy, with reticulate markings, flower white 25. H. kalimpongense
Leaf not cordate, not fleshy, without markings, flower greenish 33
33 Lip with two sharply delimited pits at base, or with concave basal part separated into two cavities by a longitudinal callus ridge 34
Lip without pits or cavities at base, possibly with two shallow depressions, but these not sharply delimited or separated by a callus ridge 36
34 Anther-channels elongate, pollinia with well-developed caudicles; lateral sepals deflexed, held parallel with the lip 18. H. gracile
Anther channels very short, caudicles very short; lateral sepals patent, at about right angles to the lip 35
35 Inflorescence relatively lax: distance between at least some of the successive flowers about as long as or longer than the ovary; lateral sepals 3 mm long, lip 2.8–3 mm long 5. H. biporosum
Inflorescence dense: distance between successive flowers less than half as long as the ovary; lateral sepals 1.5–1.8 mm long, lip 1.4–1.8 mm long 39. H. pugioniforme
36 Margins of lateral sepals ciliate or dentate 37
Margins of lateral sepals glabrous and smooth 38
37 Lateral sepals ciliate, petals oblong 40. H. pusillum
Lateral sepals dentate, petals oblong-lanceolate 38. H. oxysepalum
38 Floral bracts shorter than the ovary; lip linear-ligulate, dilated at base 48. H. wangianum
Floral bracts at least in the lower flowers as long as or longer than the ovary; lip ovate 34. H. monophyllum
39 Stigma not cushion like, projecting beyond the rostellum; lip entire or 3-lobed 40
Stigma cushion like, situated underneath the rostellum; lip 3-lobed 44
40 Plant with one leaf, lip 3-lobed 14. H. fallax
Plant with more than one leaf, lip entire, lingulate 41
41 Spur shorter than pedicel and ovary 8. H. clavigerum
Spur equal to or longer than pedicel and ovary 42
42 Spur pointing upwards 12. H. edgeworthii
Spur pointing downwards 43
43 Leaves ovate to oblong, apex acute, spur longer than ovary 29. H. latilabre
Leaves linear, apex acuminate, spur equal to or shorter than ovary 45. H. suave
44 Inflorescence subcorymbose, floral bracts absent 22. H. humidicola
Inflorescence racemose, floral bract present 45
45 Lateral lobes of lip much reduced, distinctly shorter than the mid-lobe 19. H. handelii
Lateral lobes of lip distinct, nearly equal to the mid-lobe 46
46 Leaves opposite, apex of the dorsal sepal fimbriate 15. H. fimbriatum
Leaves subopposite or distant, apex of the dorsal sepal not fimbriate 47
47 Inflorescence 1–2-flowered 48
Inflorescence 3- or more-flowered 49
48 Sepals white, petals and lip red 3. H. albosanguineum
Sepals green, petals greenish or white, lip white 4. H. albovirens
49 Sepals white; inflorescence 3–4-flowered 20. H. himalayanum
Sepals green with white margins; inflorescence 5–20-flowered 2. H. albomarginatum

Herminium alaschanicum Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 31: 105. 1887.

Figs 8M, 9M

Monorchis alaschanica (Maxim.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Peristylus alaschanicus (Maxim.) N. Pearce & P.J. Cribb, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 117. 2001.

Type

MONGOLIA. Mont. Alaschan, 1873, Przewalski N.M., 163 (Holotype: LE! [LE01012203]; Isotype: K! [K000079038]).

Description

Plant 13–68 cm tall. Tubers oblong, 1–1.5 × ca. 0.5–1 cm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base, 3–4-leaved. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 2–15 × 0.4–1 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence 14–34 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with 3–5 lanceolate peduncle-scales 5–15 mm; rachis 4–8 cm, laxly many-flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5–26 mm, longer than ovary, apex cuspidate. Flowers green; pedicel and ovary twisted, beaked and much hooked toward apex, 5–15 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 3–3.5 × 1.2–3 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 3–3.5 × 1.2–2 mm, apex subacute. Petals ovate-lanceolate, falcate, 3.2–5 × 1.1–1.5 mm, narrowed above middle, fleshy, apex cuspidate. Lip oblong, 4–5.5 × 1.2–1.5 mm, base concave, spurred, 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes linear, 2.5 × 0.3 mm; mid-lobe linear-triangular, 1.5 × 0.5 mm, apex acute. Column 1 mm; pollinia obovoid; caudicles very short, viscidia involute, hornlike, rostellum triangular, armed, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

June–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Quercus-Abies forests, dry stony slopes, alpine meadows and valleys at elevations of 1800–4500 m.

Distribution

China, Mongolia, Nepal.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Gansu, Tianzhu county, Leigong mountain, 2800 m, 09.07.1964, Sino-Soviet Team,758 (PE); Min Hsien, 2500 m, 07.07.1936, Wang Z. B., 4879 A (PE); Hebei, Laiyuan county, Paishihshan; Inner Mongolia, Xing county, 1700 m, 16.07.1977, Zhao Y., 37 (PE); Qinghai, Nangqian county, 4300 m, 11.07.1965, Yang Y., 01149A (PE); Sichuan, Daofu county, Geka Town, Mugu, 3900 m, 26.08.2001, Luo Y.B., 695 (PE); between Luhua and Gyangze along Highway 317, 3385 m, 24.07.2005, Boufford D. E. et al., 33486 (K); Shaanxi, Wuqi county, 1800 m, 22.08.1956, Huang Team, 8216 (PE); Shanxi, Shai-wang-ping, 1800 m, 24.07.1921, Smith H., 6660 (PE); Tibet, Gyirong county, 4400 m, 31.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 3137 (PE); Lhasa, 8 km SSE of Lhasa, 4000 m, 03.08.1989, Dickoré B., 3411 (K); Nyalam, 4200 m, 04.09.1972, Tibetan Herb Survey Team, 1773 (PE); Radja and Yellow River Gorges, SW of Radja, 3350 m, 06.1926, Rock J. F., 14210 (K);West side of Jinsha Jiang opposite Luoxu, 3440 m, 30.07.2005, Boufford D. E. et al., 33797 (K); Yunnan, Gongshan county, 21.08.2007, Jin X. H., 9199 (PE); Lijiang, 2800 m, 27.06.1937, Yu T. T., 15224 (PE).

NEPAL: Mustang, Muktinath, 07.2007, Raskoti B. B., 501 (KATH); same locality, 3700 m, 07.08.1974, Joshie D. P. and Bhattacharya T. K., 2270/74 (K); 3 miles N of Shimen, 4300 m, 06.08.1973, Grey-Wilson and Phillips, 538 (K).

Herminium albomarginatum (King & Pantl.) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Platanthera albomarginata (King & Pantl.) Kraenzl., Orchid. Gen. Sp. 1: 939. 1901.

Peristylus albomarginatus (King & Pantl.) K.Y. Lang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34: 640. 1996.

Bhutanthera albomarginata (King & Pantl.) Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 101. 2001.

Basionym

Habenaria albomarginata King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8: 322, t.425. 1898.

Type

INDIA. Sikkim, Singalila, 13000 ft, 07.1896, Pantling R., 450 (Holotype: K! [K000387527]).

Description

Plant 10–14 cm tall. Tuber globose, 0.6–1.4 × 0.7–1.3 cm. Stem sheathed, 6.5–11 cm long, 2-leaved, sheaths tubular, ovate, obtuse, 2–3.5 × 0.6–0.7 cm. Leaves distant, orbicular-elliptic, obtuse shortly sheathing at base, 3–5 × 1.3–2.4 cm. Inflorescence 5–20-flowered, rachis 1–3 cm long, floral bracts lanceolate, 1–2 × 0.3–0.4 cm, upper bracts triangular, 1–1.5 mm long. Flower white, sepal green with white margin, ovary 4–6 mm, sessile, beaked. Dorsal sepal broadly elliptic-ovate, obtuse, 4 × 2.5 mm, lateral sepal elliptic-ovate, obtuse, 4 × 3 mm. Petal suborbicular, concave, 2 × 1 mm. Lip 3-lobed, 2 × 1 mm, lateral lobes oblong, mid-lobe oblong, obtuse, spur cylindrical, 2 mm long. Column 1.5 mm tall, pollinia clavate-elliptic, 1–1.2 mm, rostellum triangular, stigma pulvinate.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in alpine meadows and on grassy slopes at elevations of 3720–4270 m.

Distribution

India, Nepal

Specimens examined

INDIA: Sikkim, Nathang, 13.07.1877, King, 4367 (K); Sikkim, Tsomgo Chho, 08.07.1996, Long and Noltie, 71 (E); Sikkim, Yampung, 12.08.1913, Rohmoo, 1098 (E).

NEPAL: Bagmati, Rasuwa, Above Rupche Bhanjyang, Ganesh Himal, 3600 m, 02.07.1992, Baker W. J., Burkitt T. A., Miller J. T and Shrestha R., 9 (KATH).

Herminium albosanguineum (Renz) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Basionym

Bhutanthera albosanguinea Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 101. 2001.

Type

BHUTAN. Thimphu district, Darkey Pang Tso, north of the Paro, Wood J.R., 7405 (Holotype: E! [E00008001]).

Description

Plant 4.5 cm tall. Tuber not seen. Stem with tubular sheaths at base, 2-leaved. Leaves lanceolate, acute, 2.3–2.5 × 0.4–0.8 cm. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, 2-flowered; rachis 1 cm long; floral bract triangular. Flowers 1–1.3 cm across; sepals white, petals and lip red; pedicel and ovary twisted, 7–9 mm long. Dorsal sepal elliptic-obovate, rounded, margins glandular, 5 × 4 mm; lateral sepals elliptic, subacute, 6 × 4 mm. Petals spathulate, rounded, cucullate at apex, 5 × 2.2 mm (at wide apex). Lip 3-lobed, narrowed and subunguiculate at base, spurred, base 1 × 1 mm; lateral lobes lingulate, obtuse, 3 × 1 mm; mid-lobe lingulate, obtuse, 3 × 1 mm; spur conical, 2 mm long. Column short, 1.5–2 × 1.5 mm; pollinaria 1.6 mm long. Fruit not seen.

Flowering time

August.

Habitat

Terrestrial on rock crevices or cliffs at an elevation of 4100 m.

Distribution

Endemic to Bhutan.

Note

Our description is based on Pearce and Cribb (2001) and an image of the holotype, which is apparently the only collection made of this species so far. Herminium albosanguineum is similar to H. albomarginatum, but differs in having a fewer-flowered inflorescence, white sepals, red petals and lip. It is also similar to H. albovirens; see under that species for a comparison.

Herminium albovirens (Renz) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Basionym

Bhutanthera albovirens Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 102. 2001.

Type

BHUTAN. Tongsa district, Thita Tso, Rinchen Chu, 13. 07. 1937. Ludlow and Sherriff, 3441 (Holotype: BM! [BM000074511]).

Description

Plant 4–6 cm tall. Tuber globose, 0.5–1 × 0.4–0.5 cm. Stem with 2 leaves and tubular sheaths. Leaves subopposite, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, subacute, 1–1.9 × 0.4–1.1 cm. Inflorescence terminal, 1–2-flowered; floral bract lanceolate, acuminate, 3 × 0.5–1mm. Flowers white, sepals and petals yellowish green, 0.8–1cm across; pedicel and ovary fusiform, 6–8 mm long. Dorsal sepal ovate, obtuse, 5 × 3.5 mm; lateral sepals obliquely ovate, falcate, subacute, 6–6.5 × 3–4 mm. Petals obovoid, rounded, 3–5 × 2.5–4 mm. Lip deeply 3-lobed, spurred, base quadrate, 0.5 × 2 mm (wide); lateral lobes oblong, rounded, 3.5–4 × 0.8mm; mid-lobe oblong, rounded, 5 × 0.6 mm; spur conical, globose, rounded, curved forwards, 2–3 × 0.8–1 mm. Column short, broad, 1 mm tall; anther-cap long-beaked, 1.5–1.9 mm long.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial on alpine cliffs and in rock crevices at elevations of 4270–4720 m.

Distribution

Endemic to Bhutan.

Specimen examined

BHUTAN: Upper Kulong Chi district, Shingbe, 17.09.1949, Ludlow & Sherriff, 21196 (BM! [BM000074510]).

Note

Our description is based on Pearce and Cribb (2001) and an image of the holotype. Herminium albovirens is similar to H. albosanguineum, but differs in having yellowish-green sepals, yellowish-green to white petals and a white lip. More material of these species is needed to assess their variability.

Herminium biporosum Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 3, 31: 106. 1886.

Figs 6R, 7R, 8R, 9R

Porolabium biporosum (Maxim.) Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 10: 38. 1940.

Monorchis biporosa (Maxim.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Type

CHINA. Qinghai, near Lake Khuku-nor, 1880, Przewalski, Spec. 1 (Holotype: LE!).

Description

Plant 5–12 cm tall. Tubers globose, 6 × 4 mm. Stem slender, with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf. Leaf oblong-lanceolate, 1–3.5 × 0.4–0.6 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 2–10 cm, peduncle cylindrical without peduncle-scales, rachis 1–4 cm with 4–8-flowered; floral bracts scale like, ca. 1 mm. Flowers yellowish green; ovary twisted, fusiform, including pedicel 5–6 mm. Dorsal sepal forming a hood with petals, orbicular, 2.5 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 3×1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals ovate, oblique, 2 × 1mm. Lip deflexed, 1.5–2.8 ×1.5 mm, base dilated and with 2 sharply delimited pits, attenuate toward apex. Column 0.7 mm, with 2 lateral appendages at base of anther; anther cucullate, large, 2-locular; pollinia 2, each attached to a viscidium by a short caudicle; rostellum triangular, with spreading lateral lobes; stigma cushion situated below the rostellum. Fruit fusiform, 5 mm long.

Flowering time

July.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grasslands slopes at elevations of 3000–3600 m.

Distribution

China (Qinghai, Shanxi, Yunnan).

Specimen examined

CHINA: Yunnan, Fugong county, 3600 m, 17.07.2013, Jin X.H., Wang L.S.,Wang Q et al., ST0437 (PE).

Herminium bulleyi (Rolfe) Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 130. 1936.

Peristylus bulleyi (Rolfe) K. Y. Lang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 448. 1987.

Peristylus gracillimus (Hook. f.) Kraenzl. f. lankongensis Finet, Rev. Gén. Bot. 13: 522. 1901. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Mt. Hee-chan-men above Lan-kong, 2800 m, 3.9.1884, Delavay J. M., 681 (Holotype P! [P00363886]).

Habenaria beesiana W.W. Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 189. 1914. Type: CHINA. Eastern flank of the Lichiang Range, Lat. 27° 30’ N, 10,000 ft, August 1910, Forrest G., 6404 (Holotype E! [E00381988]; Isotype K! [K000796957]).

Platanthera praeustipetala Kraenzl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 103. 1921. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Pe Tsao Lin, Tén S., 1384 (Holotype: C).

Basionym

Habenaria bulleyi Rolfe, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 25. 1913.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, eastern slopes of the Tsan-Shan Range, west of Talifu, 7800 ft, 15.09.1905, Forrest G., 895 (Holotype: E! [E00059069]).

Description

Plant slender, 15–30 cm tall. Tubers oblong, 1–3.5 × ca. 0.5–1 cm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths, 2–4 leaved. The two lowest leaves subopposite, others more distant, linear, 4–10× 0.2–0.6 cm, apex acute or acuminate. Inflorescence 15–25cm; peduncle cylindrical, slender; peduncle-scales1–3, linear-lanceolate, 5–7 mm; rachis 5–15 cm, laxly many-flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 4–6 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green, secund; pedicel and ovary 5–10 mm, apex beaked. Dorsal sepal ovate-oblong, concave, 1.5–3.5 × 0.6–1.2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong, oblique, 3–4 × 0.8–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals ovate-lanceolate, ca. 3.5 × 1.5 mm, fleshy above middle, apex acute. Lip narrowly oblong, 3–4.5 × ca. 0.4 mm, 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes oblong, 0.6–2.5 mm; mid-lobe linear-oblong, 2–3 mm, wider than lateral lobes, apex obtuse; spur pendulous, curved forward, cylindrical, 4–6 mm, equal or longer than ovary, apex dilated, obtuse. Column ca. 1 mm; viscidia ellipsoid, rostellum triangular, stigma ca. 1 mm, drawn out at the base of the lip.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in forest margins, in dry pastures in open pine forest, or on grassy slopes at elevations of 2500–3500 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Daocheng county, Riwagongshe, Xiayong, 3300 m, 24.08.1981, Hengduan Mountain Team, 4193 (PE); Daocheng, 3500 m, 18.08.1973, Sichuan Botanical Survey Team, 2534 (PE); Muli, 03.08.1937, Yu T. T., 7560 (PE); Yunnan, Dali (‘Tali’), 3000 m, 08.1914, Schneider C., 3100 (K); Heqing county, 2500 m, 18.08.1929, Chang Q., 23708 (PE); Lichiang Range, 3050 m, 08.1922, Forrest G., 22016 (K); Shangri-La, 3200 m, 15.07.2001, HK Kadoorie Team, 1114 (PE); Shangri-La, 3250 m, 09.08.1981, Tang Z. X., Tian X.W., Zhang Z.H., 842 (PE); Xianggelila (Shangri-La), 3300 m, 13.08.1962, Zhongdian Team, 734 (PE); Shangri-La, Xiaozhongdian farm, Dongshan, 3250, 13.03.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 3025 (PE); Zhongdian County, Mt. Haba Shan, 07.2002, 2700 m, Sun Hang, 05 (K).

Notes

Herminium bulleyi is similar to H. mannii but the spur of H. bulleyi is much longer and curved whereas H. mannii has a scrotiform spur.

Herminium chloranthum Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 10: 34. 1940.

Figs 6B, 7B, 8B, 9B

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Shangri-La (Zhongdian County), 3000 m, 05.07.1937, Yu T. T., 11920 (Holotype: KUN!; Isotype: AMES! [AMES00104951], PE! [PE01432254]).

Description

Plant 4–16 cm tall. Tubers globose, 4–15 × 4–10 mm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths and 1–2 leaves at base. Leaves subopposite or opposite, oblong, elliptic, or spatulate, 2–7 × 0.3–2 cm, apex obtuse or acute. Inflorescence 3–14 cm; peduncle cylindrical, ebracteate; rachis 1–5 cm, laxly flowered; floral bracts ovate, shorter than ovary, apex obtuse. Flowers pale green; 5 mm across, pedicel and ovary twisted and hooked, 3–6 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, concave, 3–4 × 2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals obliquely lanceolate, 3–4 × 1–1.4 mm, apex obtuse. Petals elliptic to lancolate, falcate, 3–4 × 1.3–1.8 mm, upper half-fleshy, apex obtuse. Lip pandurate, 5.5 × 2.5 mm, concave with spur like saccate base, 3-lobed above middle; lateral lobes triangular, 0.5 × 0.8 mm, apex obtuse; midlobe triangular, 1 × 0.6 mm, apex obtuse. Column 0.7 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles nearly obsolete, viscidia involute, hornlike, rostellum triangular, armed, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 6–7 mm long.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in alpine grasslands and meadows at elevations of 2500–4100 m.

Distribution

China, Nepal.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Kangding county, near Suopo, 3600 m, 03.08.1982, Lang K. Y., Li L. Q., Fei Y., 948A (PE); Tibet, Medog county, Bomi-Medog Road, 08.09.2009, Jin X. H., Liu B. Q., Xu S. M., Zhao W., 2664 (PE); Nyalam county, 3800 m, 02.09.1972, Tibetan Herbal Survey Team,1909 (PE); Zayu county, Chawalong from Meigu to Ridong, 3700 m, 17.07.2010, Jin X. H., Liu B. Q., Xu S. M., Zhao W., STET0611 (PE); Yunnan, Li-Kiang Hsien, 07.1935, Wang C. W.,71033 (PE), Shangri-La, 3000 m, 05.07.1937, Yu T. T., 19920 (PE); Shangri-La, 4300 m, 18.08.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 3319 (PE).

NEPAL: Dhaulagiri, Mustang district, above Jharkot at 3800 m, 18.08.2011, Raskoti B. B.,00139 (KATH); Mustang, Bhena, 3780 m, 26.08.2001, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 01-072-16 (K).

Herminium clavigerum (Lindl.) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Figs 6N, 7N

Habenaria densa Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 326. 1835. Type: Nepal, Wallich N., 7046 (Holotype: K-WALLICH!).

Habenaria clavigera (Lindl.) Dandy, J. Bot. 68: 246. 1930.

Platantheroides densa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Szlach., Richardiana 4: 106. 2004.

Habenella clavigera (Lindl.) Szlach. & Kras-Lap., Richardiana 6: 34. 2006.

Basionym

Platanthera clavigera Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 289. 1835.

Type

INDIA, Himachal Pradesh, Simla, 08.1831, Dalhousie C., s.n. (Holotype: K-LINDL; Isotype K! [K000247390]).

Description

Plant 12–70 cm tall. Tubers, ovoid, 1–2 × 0.6–1 cm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base and 4–5 spaced leaves above middle. Leaves ovate to elliptic, 4–10 × 1–4 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence 20–36 cm, peduncle cylindrical with 1 foliaceous bract; rachis 5–28 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts longer than ovary, lanceolate, 5–20 cm, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary cylindrical-fusiform, apex beaked, 6–12 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovat-elliptic, 3–5 × 2–2.5 mm, margin ciliate, apex obtuse; lateral sepals obliquely elliptic-oblong, 3–5.5 × 1.5–2.5 mm, margin ciliate, apex obtuse. Petals obliquely oblong-ovate, 3–5 × 2–2.5 mm, apex acute. Lip lingulate, 4–5.5 × 1–1.5 mm, entire, apex obtuse; disk with a conic callus in front of mouth of spur; spur pendulous, clavate, 5–6 mm, much shorter than ovary. Column 5 mm; staminodes small, elliptic; anther locules nearly parallel; pollinia subglobose, with very short caudicles, viscidia orbicular; rostellum erect, triangular; stigma lobes separate, raised, shortly clavate to narrowly oblong, spreading on either side of base of lip.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in forest margins and on grassy slopes at elevations of 2300–3400 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Tibet, Cona county, 3200 m, 09.09.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 751858 (PE); Cona county, Mama town, 3040 m, 06.08.1974, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 2257 (PE); Cona county, Le town, 2430 m, 08.08.1974, Qinghai-TibetTeam, 2477 (PE); Cona county, Le bu courtyard, 2789 m, 07.09.2012, FLPH Tibet Expedition, 12–0655 (PE); Gyirong county, 2895 m, 07.08.2010, PE-Tibet Team, 00304 (PE); Gyirong county, 3200 m, 19.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 4713 (PE); Gyirong county, 3050 m, 24.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team,4789 (PE); Nyalam county, 2800 m, 14.08.1972, Tibetan Herb Survey Team, 1191 (PE), Yadong county, 3012 m, 28.08.2010, PE-Tibet Team, 02178 (PE); Yadong county, 2700 m, 11.08.1974, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 74–2255 (PE).

INDIA: Sikkim, Donang, 3050 m, 10.08.1943, Pradhan J., s.n. (K); Uttarakhand, Kumaon, 17.09.1900, Inayat, 24066 (K).

NEPAL: Bagmati, Rasuwa District, Dhunche, 1820 m, 27.08.1977, Saiju H. K., and Amatya P. M., 1777 (KATH); Janakpur, Dolakha District, 2400 m, 31.08.1983, Rajbhandari K. R., 9542 (KATH); Koshi, Dhankuta District, Chitre, 2000 m, 19.09.1983, Saiju H. K., Joshi L., Pradhan N., and Subedi M. N.,1 (KATH); Mahakali, Darchula District, Thin, 2300 m, 27.08.1980, Rajbhanari K. R. and Malla K. J. 5635 (KATH); Mechi, Ilam District, Hile, 2420 m, 06.10.1977, Pradhan P., Rajbhandari K. R. and Niraula R. 265 (KATH).

Herminium coeloceras (Finet) Schltr., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 97. 1912.

Figs 6I, 7I, 8I, 9I, 11I

Herminium unicorne Kraenzl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 5: 199. 1908. Type: CHINA. East Tibet, Tongolo, Soulié J. A., 2980 (Holotype: B, lost; Isotype: P! [P00361310]).

Herminium tenianum Kraenzl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 110. 1921. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Pe Tsao Lin, Tén S., 1387 (Holotype: C).

Monorchis coeloceras O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 96. 1949.

Monorchis teniana (Kraenzl.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 96. 1949.

Basionym

Peristylus coeloceras Finet, Rev. Gén. Bot. 13: 519. 1902.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Mt. Hee chan menn above Lan Kong, 11.07.1883, Delavay J. M.,68 (Lectotype, here chosen: P! [P00361306]). Syntypes: Yunnan, Mt. Hee chan menn above Lan Kong, 11.07.1883, Delavay J. M., s.n. (Syntype: P! [P00361307]); Yunnan, summit of Ma eul chan, 3500 m, 9.7.1889, Delavay J. M., s.n. (Syntype: P! [P00361303 & P00361304]); Yunnan, forest of Song pin above Ta pin tze, 2000 m, 18.8.1885, Delavay J. M., s.n. (Syntype: P! [P00361308 & P00361309]); Sichuan, Tongolo, Ragathong, August 1891, Soulié J. A., 322 (Syntype: P! [P00361305]).

Description

Plant 6–36 cm tall. Tubers oblong-ovoid, 10–25 × 5–10 mm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths and 2 opposite to subopposite leaves at base. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to oblong, 2–10 × 0.8–2 cm, apex obtuse or acute. Inflorescence 20–27 cm; peduncle cylindrical, slender; peduncle-scales1–3, lanceolate, 4–15 mm; rachis 2–10 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5–10 mm, equal or slightly longer than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers white, ca. 4 mm across, pedicel and ovary twisted, arcuate, beaked, 4–10 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals nearly rhombic to ovate, oblique, 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Lipspurred, nearly ovate, 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm, 3-lobed; disk with subglobose callus; lateral lobes oblong,1 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse; mid-lobe oblong, 2 × 1 mm, apex obtuse; spur globose-saccate. Column ca. 2 mm; pollinia globose, viscidia involute, hornlike, elliptic; rostellum with short arms, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

June–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests, and on grassy alpine slopes at elevations of 1800–3900 m.

Distribution

China, Myanmar.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Luding county, 1300 m, 12.07.1982, Lang K.Y., Li L.Q., Fei Y.Y., 624 (PE); Luding county, 1800 m, 20.08.1963, Guan K.J., Wang W.C., et al. 1762 (PE); Tibet, Zayu county, 3400 m, 13.08.2013, Jin X. H., Wang L. S., Wang Q et al., ST2901 (PE); Gonjo county, 3700, 20.08.1976, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 9681 (PE); Mainling county, 3400 m, 20.07.1972, Tibet Herb Survey Team, 4111 (PE); Nyingchi county, 3100 m, 31.07.1965, Zhang Y.T. and Lang K.Y., 1213 (PE); Pasang Lake, 3050 m, 18.08.1924, Kingdon-Ward F., 6107 (K); Yunnan, Shangri-La, 2830 m, 29.07.1997, Luo Y.B., 176 (9752) (PE); Lijiang county, 2500 m, 03.10.1983, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 14921 (PE).

Herminium coiloglossum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 15. 1906.

Figs 8H, 9Q

Monorchis coiloglossa (Schltr.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Szemeo, Henry A., 13556 (Holotype: B, lost; Isotype: K! [000079037], NY! [NY00008941]).

Description

Plant 7–31 cm tall. Tubers ovoid-oblong, 4–20 × 3–5 mm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf linear-oblong, 4–12 × 0.3–0.8 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 6–27 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with 2–7 lanceolate peduncle-scales; rachis 1.5–11 cm, laxly many flowered; floral bracts ovate, 1–3 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary twisted, straight, 4–6 mm. Dorsal sepal orbicular-ovate, concave, 1.2–1.5 × 1–1.2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, slightly oblique, 1.5–2 × 1–1.2 mm, apex obtuse. Petals hooded with dorsal sepal, oblong, oblique, 1.2 × 0.7 mm, apex obtuse. Lip oblong to nearly pandurate, 1.5–2 × 0.8–1 mm, contracted at middle, base dilated and concave, apex 3-lobed; lateral lobes triangular-falcate, ca. 0.2 × 0.08 mm, apex subacute; mid-lobe broadly triangular, 0.3 × 0.3 mm, apex obtuse. Column ca. 1 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles short, viscidia ovoid, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 4–5 mm long.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes at elevations of 1600–2800 m.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Yunnan, Jingdong county, 1600 m, 11.10.1939, Li M. K., 0449 (PE); Lanping Camp, way to Yakou, 2700 m, 11.06.1981, Hengduan Mountain Expedition Team, 3925 (PE).

Herminium ecalcaratum (Finet) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 101. 1919.

Fig. 8Q

Monorchis ecalcarata (Finet) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Basionym

Peristylus ecalcaratus Finet, Rev. Gén. Bot. 13: 520. 1901.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Mt. Heechan men (Lan Kong), 3000 m, 11.09.1885, Delavay J.M., 1692 (Lectotype, here chosen: P! [P00363792]); Syntype: Same locality, 2800 m, 03.09.1884, Delavay J.M., 682 (P! [P00363791]).

Description

Plant 8–20 cm tall. Tubers oblong-lanceolate, 4–10 × 3–5 mm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths at base, 2-leaved. Leaves alternate, oblong, 10–12 × 0.3–1 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 10–16 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with 1–4 ovate-lanceolate 2–3 mm peduncle-scales; rachis 3–7 cm, densely many-flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 2–3 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acute. Flowers white; pedicel and ovary arcuate, twisted, slightly beaked near apex, 2–4 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, concave, 1.5–2.2 × 0.8–1.3 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 1.5–2 × 0.7–1 mm, apex obtuse. Petals connivent with dorsal sepal, ovate, oblique, 1–1.5 × 0.8–1 mm, apex acute. Lip obovate, 1.6–2.3 × 1–1.4 mm, base concave, apex 3-lobed; lateral lobes triangular, 0.3 × 0.4 mm, apex obtuse; mid-lobe broadly ovate, 1 × 1 mm, apex obtusee. Column ca. 0.9 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles short, viscidia elliptic, rostellum triangular with two distinct lobes, stigma transversely oblong situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

September.

Habitat

Terrestrial on alpine grassy slopes and meadows at elevations of 2500–3900 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Specimen examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Hongyuan county, north of Partridge Hill, 3850 m, 02.07.1983, (without collector), 1284 (PE); Yunnan, Fugong county, Shangpa Town, Zhuminglin courtyard, 3020 m, 27.08.2005, Jin X.H.,7913 (PE); Heqing county, Fragrant river, 2600 m, 03.09.1929, Ching R.C., 24318 (PE); Lijiang county, east of Yulong mountain, 2900 m, 05.07.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 02698 B (PE).

Herminium edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Fig. 5F

Platanthera edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) R.K. Gupta, Fl. Nainital 349. 1968.

Platantheroides edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) Szlach., Richardiana 4: 106. 2004.

Basionym

Habenaria edgeworthii Hook.f. ex Collett, Fl. Siml. 504. 1902.

Type

INDIA. Himachal Pradesh, Simla, Banatar, 08.1834, Edgeworth s.n. (Holotype: K! [K000247384]).

Description

Plant 20–50 cm tall. Tuber subglobose to ellipsoid, 1–2.4 × 0.4–9 cm. Stem with tubular sheaths at base, 3–5-leaved. Leaves well-spaced, broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, lanceolate, 4–8 × 1–4 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 20–30 cm, peduncle cylindrical with foliaceous lanceolate bracts, apex acute, 1–3 × 2–4 cm, rachis 7–28 cm long with densely many flowers; floral bracts lanceolate, acute, equal or shorter than ovary, 5–15 × 2–3 mm. Flowers pale yellowish green to greenish yellow, ca. 1 cm long, pedicel and ovary arcuate, beaked, twisted, 5–15 cm long. Dorsal sepal broadly elliptic-ovate, concave, margin ciliated, 3–4 × 4–5 mm, lateral sepals reflexed, oblong ovate, margin ciliated, apex obtuse, 4.5–6 × 2–3 mm. Petals obliquely ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, 4–6 × 1.5–2 mm. Lip entire, lingulate, 7 × 2 mm with concave at base, slightly fleshy, clawed above base, apex obtuse, spur cylindrical, spreading upwards, longer than the ovaray, 1–2 cm long. Column 4 mm long, pollinia subglobose, with short caudicle, viscidia orbicular; rostellum triangular, ca. 2 mm; stigma lobes separate, clavate to oblong, ca. 2 mm, spreading on either side of lip base.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Quercus forest and forest margins, and in subalpine grassland at elevations of 1800–2500 m.

Distribution

China, India, Myanmar, Nepal.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Tibet, Yatung, 1897, Hobson H. E., s.n. (K); Jatung, 3050 m, 03.08.1936, Spencer Chapman F., 334 (K); Lhasa, 1947, Guthrie J., s.n. (K).

INDIA: Uttarakhand, Almora, S. R. and Winterbottom J. E., 41 (K).

NEPAL: Bagamati, Rasuwa District, Ghatte Khola, 1900 m, 21.08.1964, Shrestha T. B.,and Bista M. S., 1847 (KATH); Gandaki, Manang District, Dhanagyung-Dharapani, 2000 m, 07.08.1983, Rajbhandari K. R., 9061 (KATH); Karnali, Kalikot District, near Kadampur, 1800 m, 31.08.1985, Shakya P.R., Subedi N. N., and Uprety R., 8486 (KATH); Mahakali, Darchula District, Kasoti, 2430 m, 20.08.1984, Shakya P. R., Adhikari M. K., and Subedi N. N., 7968 (KATH).

Herminium elisabethae (Duthie) Tang & F.T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 129. 1936.

Figs 6L, 7L, 8L, 9L

Peristylus elisabethae (Duthie) R. K. Gupta, Fl. Nainital 351. 1968.

Basionym

Habenaria elisabethae Duthie, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 71: 44. 1902.

Type

INDIA. Uttaranchal, Tehri-Garhwal, Nag Tiba, 08.1899, 2743–3948 m, Mackinnon P. W., 22990 [a “Duthie 22990”] (Lectotype, here chosen: K! [K000387522]; Isolectotype: K! [K000387586]; P! [P00426409]). Syntypes: INDIA. Simla, Edgeworth, Lady E. Bubington Smith s.n. (Syntype: CAL); Naini Tal, up to 8000 ft, Davidson s.n. (Syntype: CAL); Tehri-Garhwal, 7000-10000 ft, Duthie 524 (Syntype: CAL); near Mussoorie, 6000–7000 ft, Mckinnon P. W., 22990 (Syntype: K! [K000387523]).

Description

Plant 10–40 cm tall. Tubers oblong-ellipsoid, 1–2.5 × 0.5–1 cm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths at base, 2–3-leaved. Leaves cauline, elliptic to lanceolate, 3–12 × 0.8–2 cm, apex acute or acuminate. Inflorescence 6–32 cm; peduncle cylindrical, slender; peduncle-scales 1 or 2, lanceolate, to 3 cm; rachis 3–22 cm, rather laxly to subdensely many-flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 4–8 mm, nearly equal to or shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers subsecund, yellowish green; pedicel and ovary arcuate, shortly beaked, 6–9 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, concave, 1.5–2 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblique, ovate, 1.5–2.3 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acute. Petals hooded with dorsal sepals, ovate, oblique, upper half fleshy, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Lip oblong, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, base concave, 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes oblong, 1 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse; mid-lobe oblong, 1.5 × 1.3 mm, apex obtuse; spur pendulous, oblong-clavate, 1 mm, apex obtuse. Column 1 mm; pollinia ellipsoid, viscidia involute, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 0.5–1 cm long.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests and on alpine grassy slopes at elevations of 2100–4100 m, once reported growing on oak trees.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal.

Specimens examined

BHUTAN: Gasa Dist., Upper Mo Chu, around Taktsimakhang, 3560–3600 m, 14.08.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-286-03 (K); Gasa Dist., Upper Mo Chu, 3900 m, 12.08.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-278-04 (K).

CHINA: Tibet, Cona county, 3300 m, 10.09.1974, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 75–1924 (PE); Gyirong county, 3200 m, 24.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 7071 (PE); Lhasa Dist., 0.5–0.7.1947, Guthrie J., s.n. (K); Luozha county, 2764 m, 17.08.2013, Chen, Y. S., Chang, Z.Y., Deng M., et al., 13–1461 (PE); Nyingchi county, 3100 m, 04.08.1965, Zhang Y.T., and Lang K.Y., 1319 (PE); Yadong county, 4100 m, 11.09.1974, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 74–2304 (PE); Yadong county, 3600 m, 25.08.2010, PE-Tibet Team, 01784 (PE); Yadong county, 3900 m, 27.08.2010, PE-Tibet Team, 02069 (PE); Zayu, junction of the Di Chu and Zayul Chu, “5000–7000 ft” (1500–2100 m), 16.07.1926, Kingdon-Ward F., 7145 (K); east of Jatung, 3050 m, 03.08.1936, Spencer Chapman F., 349 (K).

INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Kulu-Lahaul, 1888, Drummond J. R., 23/94 (K); Uttarakhand, Kumaon, 3650 m, undated, Strachey R. and Winterbottom J. E., 32 (K); Uttarakhand, Mussoorie, Nag Sika, 05.08.1898, Mackinnon P., 21766 (K); East of Tehri, 09.1901, Mackinnon P., 25412 (K).

NEPAL: Gandaki, Manang District, Hunde, 3350 m, 04.08.1983, Rajbhandari K. R., 8824 (KATH); Janakpur, Dolakha District, Sekpa to Gyangsar, 2800 m, 20.07.1977, Rajbhandari K. R., and Roy B., 1641 (KATH), Koshi, Sankhuwasabha District, Guphapokhari, 2900 m, 30.08.1989, Grey-Wilson C., Zmarzty S., Sinnott M., Long D., Mc Beath R., Noltie H. and Subedi M., 99 (K, KATH); Jaljale Himal, Gu-Padara ridge, 2780 m, 23.08.1984, Farille M. and Lachard G., 847536 (K); above Tukele, 3000 m, 24.07.1973, Grey-Wilson and Phillips, 361 (K); Langtang, 2900 m, 07.09.1971, Dobremez J. F., 1011 (K); Tinjure Danda, 2750 m, 07.09.1867, Williams and Stainton, 8409 (K).

Herminium fallax (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6:129. 1890.

Figs 5D, 6J, 7J, 8J, 9J, 10I, 11F

Habenaria fallax (Lindl.) King & Pantl., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8: 325. 1898.

Platanthera fallax (Lindl.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 111. 1919.

Monorchis fallax (Lindl.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Peristylus fallax var. dwarikae Deva & H.B. Naithani. Orchid Fl. N.W. Himalaya 187. 1986. Type: INDIA. Uttarakhand, Dodital, Uttarkashi, alt. 9200 ft, 8.1974, Dwarika Prasad s.n. (Holotype: DD).

Basionym

Peristylus fallax Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 298. 1835.

Type

NEPAL. Without precise locality, 1821, Wallich, 7412 (Holotype: K-LINDL!; Isotype: K-WALLICH! [K000974164]).

Description

Plant 14–30 cm tall. Tubers subglobose, 1–1.5 × ca. 0.8 cm. Stem with 1 basal leaf and 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base. Leaf oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, 6–13 × 0.8–2 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 11–22 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with or without 1 lanceolate peduncle scale to 20 mm; rachis 5–14 cm, densely many-flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 6–15 × 2.5 mm, basal one longer than flowers, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary twisted, straight, apex shortly beaked, 6–7 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, concave, 2–4 × 1.5–2.1 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals obliquely ovate, concave, 3–4.2 × 1–1.5 mm, apex subacute. Petals obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acute. Lip oblong, 3–5.5 × 1–2 mm, ecallose, 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes oblong, 1.5 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse, mid-lobe oblong, 1–2 × 2 mm, apex obtuse, spur oblong-clavate, 0.7–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, shallowly 2-lobed. Column 1.5–2 mm; pollinia globose, caudicles short, viscidia disklike; rostellum triangular, broad, with arms, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 1 cm long.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in forest margins and on roadside slopes at elevations of 3000–4000 m.

Distribution

China, Bhutan, India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

BHUTAN: Gasa District, W of Thanza, 3800–4000 m, 04.09.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-351-01 (K).

CHINA: Sichuan, Yanyuan county, 3600 m, 07.08.1983, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 12709 (PE); Tibet, Cona county, 3300 m, 10.09.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 751924 (PE); Gyilong county, 3150 m, 19.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 7017 (PE), Yadong county, Xiasima, 3600–3900 m, 02.08.2012, Jin X. H., Jin W.T., Xu S. 13226 (PE); Yunnan, Dali City, Xi zhou town, 3000 m, 17.07.2009, Yunnan Expedition, YN-ET 1652 (PE); without data, Forrest G., 6837 (K).

INDIA: Sikkim, Lachen, Hooker J. D., 288 (K); Utarrakhand, Kumaon, Munshiyari, 05.08.1900, Inayat, 24058 (K).

NEPAL: Koshi, Terhthum District, Tinjure, 3060 m, 06.07.1972, Shakya P. R., 1990 (KATH); Rapti, Dailekh District, Lamabagar to Hum, 16.07.1977, Rajbhandari K. R., and Roy B., 1450 (KATH); Mechi, Ilam District, Khapore, 3033 m, 10.07.1977, Pradhan P., Rajbhandari K. R., and Niraula R., 287 (KATH).

Herminium fimbriatum (Raskoti) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Basionym

Bhutanthera fimbriata Raskoti, Phytotaxa 62: 57–60. 2012

Type

NEPAL. Rasuwa, 3800 m, 14 July 2008, Raskoti B. B., 234 (Holotype: KATH!).

Description

Plant 11 cm tall. Tubers subglobose, 5 mm in diameter. Stem with an ovate, tubular sheath and 2 leaves at base. Leaves opposite, elliptic-ovate, 3.0–3.5 × 2.0–2.2 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence densely up to 8-flowered; peduncle 7 cm long, rachis 2.5 cm long, lower floral bracts ovate-triangular, 1 × 1 mm, apex acute, upper bracts lanceolate, 2 × 1 mm, apex acuminate. Flowers 1 cm across, sepals green with white margins, petals and lip white; pedicel and ovary fusiform, ridged, 7 mm long, apex beaked. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, 4.0–5.0 × 2.5 mm, margin of the apical portion weakly fimbriate, apex obtuse; lateral sepals elliptic-ovate, oblique, 5.0–6.0 × 2.0–2.5 mm, margin of the apical portion weakly fimbriate, apex obtuse. Petals orbicular-elliptic, concave, 2.5 x 2.5 mm, apex rotund. Lip oblong, 4.0 × 1.5 mm, fleshy, trilobed below the middle; side lobes oblong-lanceolate, 2.0 × 0.5 mm, apex acute; midlobe oblong, 2.5 × 1.0 mm, apex obtuse; spur cylindrical with slightly dilated apex, 3.0–4.0 mm long, apex obtuse. Column 1 mm long, pollinia clavate-elliptic. Fruit oblong.

Flowering time

July

Habitat

Terrestrial in subalpine meadows and open moist places at elevation of 3800 m.

Distribution

Endemic to Nepal.

Herminium forceps (Finet) Schltr., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 97. 1912.

Fig. 5C, 11G

Habenaria forceps (Finet) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 127. 1919.

Herminium tsoongii Tang & F. T. Wang, Contr. Inst. Bot. Natl. Acad. Peiping 2: 134. 1934. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, without precise locality, 06.06.1919, Tsoong K. K., 4916 (Holotype: N).

Herminium liguliforme Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin.1: 61. 1951. Type: CHINA. Sikang, Wang 66089 (Holotype: PE).

Basionym

Peristylus forceps Finet, Rev. Gén. Bot. 13: 521. 1902.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, in the mountains, 07.1897, Ducloux F., 319 (Lectotype, here chosen: P! [P00363813]; Isolectotype: P! [P00363812]). Syntypes: Kouy-Tcheou, Gan-pin area, 16.8.1897, Bodinier E. & Martin L., 1779 (Syntype: P! [P00363805]); Teou chan, 15.7.1899, Cavalerie J., 1779 (Syntype: P! [P00363806]); Above Ta pin tze, 11.8.1882, Delavay J. M., 381 (Syntype: P! [P00363808]); Mt. Hee Chan men (Lan Kong), 9.1884, Delavay J. M., 681 p.p. (Syntype: P! [P00363809]); Mt. Che tcho tze, above Ta pin tze, 8.8.1887, Delavay J. M. s.n. (Syntype: P! [P00363810 & P00363811]); Kouy-Yang area, 16.6.1898, Bodinier E., 2206 (Syntype: P! [P00363814]).

Description

Plant 12–40 cm tall. Tubers ovoid-oblongoid, 1–4 cm long. Stem slender, with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths and (2–)3–4(–5) widely spaced leaves. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4–10 × 0.5–2.3 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 10–30 cm; peduncle cylindrical, peduncle-scales several, often foliaceous, lanceolate, rachis 3–20 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5–20 mm, longer than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers green; pedicel and ovary arcuate, shortly beaked, 4–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-ovate, 2–3.5 × 1.5–3 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, slightly oblique, 2–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals ovate-lanceolate, oblique, 2–4 × 1–1.6 mm, apex obtuse. Lip lingulate, entire, 3–5 × 1–1.5 mm, ecallose, margin incurved, apex obtuse; spur pendulous, 0.8–1 mm, much shorter than ovary, apex obtuse. Column 1.5 mm; pollinia clavate, viscidium involute, horn-like; rostellum triangular with short arms, stigma transversely oblong situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

June–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Quercus-Abies forests along valleys, and on grassy slopes at elevations of 1200–4000 m.

Distribution

China (Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Guizhou, Guiyang, 1300 m, 03.05.2000, Luo Y.B., 291 (PE); Sichuan, Danba county, 3000 m, 6.8.1940, Qu G. L., 7539A (PE); Jinchuan county, 2600 m, 24.6.1958, Li X.,77885 (PE); Mianning county, 2000 m, 25.07.1959, Wang Z. B., 2168 (PE); Muli county, 2400 m, 1.10.1983, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 14895 (PE); Tibet, Zayu county, 3500 m, 13.7.2010, Jin X. H., Zhang S., Li Z., Wu B., Mu X., Li J., Jin W. T., STET0279 (PE); Yunnan, Mengtze, 1875, Hancock W., s.n. (K); Sundian county, 2404 m, 17.8.2007, Jin X. H, 9190 (PE); Shangri-La, 2830 m, 29.7.1997, Luo Y.B., 176 (9752) (PE).

Herminium glossophyllum Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 7: 127. 1936.

Figs 6H, 7H

Herminium ophioglossoides var. minus Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 7: 1333. 1936. Type: CHINA. NW Yunnan, Lidjiang, 1914–1916, Handel-Mazzetti H., 3975 (Holotype: WU! [WU0061504]).

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Likiang, Yangtze watershed, eastern slopes of Likiang Snow Range, 15.06.1922, Rock J.F., 4488 (Holotype: US; Isotype: AMES! [AMES00100253]).

Description

Plant 8–15 cm tall. Tubers oblong, 8–15 × 3–6 mm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths and 1–2 leaves at base. Leaves oblong-elliptic, 3–6 × 0.4–1.5 cm, apex subacute to obtuse. Inflorescence 8–13 cm; peduncle cylindrical, ebracteate; rachis 3–7 cm, laxly many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 3–5 mm, much shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary twisted, hooked at apex, 3–5 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-ovate, 2.5–3.5 × 1–1.6 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong-elliptic, oblique, 3–4 × 1.2–1.8 mm, apex acute. Petals lanceolate, oblique, 3.5–5 × 0.8–1 mm, apex acute. Lip oblong, base concave and dilated, 3-lobed above middle, 3–3.5 × 2–2.2 mm, tiny globose spur, lateral lobes linear, ca. 0.8 mm; mid-lobe linear-lanceolate, 1–1.2 mm, apex acute. Column ca. 1 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles nearly indistinct or very short, viscidia involute, hornlike, rostellum with short arms, stigma attached below the rostellum, transversely oblong. Fruit oblong, 5–8 mm long.

Flowering time

June–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes at elevations of 3100–3600 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Yanyuan county, Guangding, 3200 m, 02.07.1978, Luo Y. B., 233 (59) (PE); Kangding county, 3600 m, 03.08.1982, Lang K.Y., Li L.Q.,and Fei Y.,1544 (PE); Tibet, Zayu county, Zhuwagen, 3500–4000 m, 08.08.2012, Jin X. H., Jin W.T.,and Xu S., 13321 (PE); Yunnan, Lijiang, Yulong Snow Mountain, 3200 m, 06.07.2001, HK Kadoorie Team,1088 (PE); Shangri-La, 3200 m, 01.06.1937, Yu T.T.,11475 (PE).

Herminium gracile King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 65: 131. 1896; Perner & Luo, Orchids of Huanglong. 2007, photos on p. 38 (as “Androcorys pugioniformis”).

Figs 7K, 12

Androcorys gracilis (King & Pantl.) Schltr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 7: 397. 1920.

Androcorys ophioglossoides Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 53. 1919, syn. nov. Type: CHINA. Kouy-tcheou, Esquirol J., s.n. (Holotype: B, lost); Yunnan, Fugong county, Lumadeng, Yaping, 3400 m, Jin X.H et Zhang L., 11078 (Neotype: PE, here chosen).

Herminium esquirolii X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015, syn. nov. Not Herminium ophioglossoides Schltr.

Type

INDIA. Sikkim, Lachen valley, 07.1895, Pantling R., 397 (Lectotype: CAL! [CAL 0000000673]; Isolectotype: K! [K000880291], Isotype: P! [P00378583]).

Figure 12.

Herminium gracile. A Flowering plant B Flower (front view) C Flower (side view) D Ovary with column and lip E Dorsal, lateral sepals, petals (spread) F Section of the ovary G Floral bract.

Description

Plant 15 cm tall. Tuber globose, 4–6 × 3–5 mm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf shortly petiolate and sheathing, (narrowly) ovate-elliptic to oblong-spathulate, 0.7–65 × 0.4–1.0 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 7–10 cm, ebracteate, rachis 0.7–4 cm long, rather laxly 3–20-flowered, floral bracts scale-like, ca. 1 mm long, apex subtruncate to almost 3-dentate. Flowers yellowish green or green, 1.5–2 mm across, pedicel and ovary fusiform, slightly beaked, 2–4.5 mm long. Dorsal sepal hooded with petals, broadly oblong-ovate, 1–1.7 × 0.4–1.5 mm, concave, apex obtuse; lateral sepals deflexed, parallel to lip, obliquely elliptic-oblong, 2–2.8 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals oblong-elliptic to obliquely ovate, 1.0–2.3 × 1.0–1.3 mm, apex obtuse. Lip entire, oblong-lingulate, rather abruptly dilated at base, 1.0–2.6 × 0.3–0.5 mm, with two basal concavities separated by a longitudinal callus ridge, apex obtuse to subacute. Column ca. 1 mm tall; rostellum broadly triangular, anther locules divergent, with somewhat elongate, incurved anther-channels; pollinia ovoid, with short but distinct caudicles, viscidium globose, staminodes oblong, stigmas 2, pulvinate, attached to base of rostellum. Fruit fusiform, ca. 5 mm long.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial on shady, moss-covered slopes and in alpine grassland, at elevations of 3300–4200 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India.

Note

When describing Herminium gracile, King & Pantling erroneously interpreted the base of the lip with its two concavities as being part of the column, hence they and later authors believed that this species lacked the basal concavities of the lip that are seen in H. pugioniforme. In fact, the two taxa are quite similar in lip morphology, but differ in that H. gracile has well-developed caudicles (rudimentary in H. pugioniforme), distinct, elongated anther-channels (rudimentary anther channels), and deflexed lateral sepals that are held parallel with the lip (patent lateral sepals). In addition, H. gracile usually has a much more slender inflorescence with more widely spaced flowers. We find no significant differences in the protologue of Androcorys ophioglossoides; the fact that Schlechter stressed the uniqueness of this species makes us suspect that he did not compare it with Herminium gracile.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Qinghai, Maqin county, Dawu town 3980 m, 23.07.1993, Ho T. N. et al. 801 (PE); Shaanxi, Mei county, 3400 m, 30.06.1999, Zhu C. & Xu W., 1354 (PE).

INDIA: Sikkim, Chumbi Valley, 3350 m, 07.1895, Pantling R., 374A (K); Singalila Range, 3658 m, 07.1896, Pantling R., 374B (K, P); Singalila Range, 3658 m, 07.1896, Pantling R., 397 (E); North District, Lasha Chhu valley, NE of Thanggu, 18.08.1996, Edinburgh expedition to Northern Sikkim Team, 321 (E); West Bengal, Darjeeling, Sandrekpho, 3650 m, 07.1881, Gamble J. S., 9570 (K).

Herminium handelii X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Figs 6K, 11D

Bhutanthera alpina (Hand.-Mazz.) Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 102. 2001. Not Herminium alpinum (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 382. 1826 (= Chamorchis alpina (L.) Rich.).

Replaced name

Habenaria alpina Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 1336. 1936.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, between Mekong and Salwin, Handel-Mazzetti H., 9716 (Holotype: WU! [WU0038983]; Isotypes: AMES! [00099695], E! [E00381981]).

Description

Plant slender, 4–8 cm tall. Tubers globose, 0.5 × 0.4 mm. Stem at base with 2 leaves and 1–3 tubular sheaths. Leaves opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, 1.5–2.5 × 0.5–1 cm, apex obtuse or acute. Inflorescence 3–5 cm, peduncle ridged, 2–3 cm without peduncle scales, rachis 1 cm, densely 1–5-flowered; floral bracts triangular, ca 1mm. Flowers green; sepals, petals and lip margin flushed white; pedicel and ovary fusiform, 6 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse to subrounded; lateral sepals oblong, oblique, 2–3.5 × 2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals hooded with dorsal sepals, broadly ovate-orbicular, 1.5–2 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Lip ovate-lanceolate, 3–3.5 × ca. 2 mm, fleshy, 3-lobed below middle; lateral lobes orbicular-ovate, very small, apex obtuse; mid-lobe lingulate-lanceolate, 0.8–1 mm, apex acute; spur cylindrical, 2–3 mm, apex obtuse. Column 1.5 mm, stout; anther with distinct connective and 2 divergent locules; rostellum erect triangular with 2 distinct arms; pollinia 2, short, to a small naked viscidium, stigma conjoined, pulvinate.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in alpine meadows and rock crevices at elevations of 4230–4300 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

BHUTAN: Upper Kuru Chi district, Narim Thang, 25.07.1949, Ludlow, Sherriff and Hicks, 21345 (BM).

CHINA: Yunnan, Gongshan county, 4231 m, 03.08.2013, Jin X. H., Wang L.S., Wang Q et al., ST1778 (PE).

INDIA: Sikkim, Choktsering Chhu Valley, 14.07.1992, Long, McBeath, Noltie & Watson, 362 (E).

NEPAL: Bagmati, Rasuwa, Near Ganesh temple, 4250 m, 20.07.2008, Raskoti B. B., 0020089 (KATH); Langtang, Dupku Danda, 4200 m, 28.07.1986, Miehe G. and S., 7000 (K).

Herminium himalayanum (Renz) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Figs 6M, 7M, 8K, 10F, 13

Basionym

Bhutanthera himalayana Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 104. 2001.

Figure 13.

Herminium himalayanum. A Flowering plant B Flower (front view) C Flower (side view) D Dorsal sepal, petal and lateral sepal E Lip F Section of ovary with column and lip G Floral bracts H Column (front view) I Column (side view).

Type

BHUTAN. Upper Bumthang Chu district, Pangotang-Tsampa (Chamka), Ludlow, Sherriff and Hicks, 19304 (Holotype: E! [E00008024]).

Description

Plant 5–6.5 cm tall. Tuber ovoid to globose, 0.7–0.9 × 0.4–1 cm. Stem with 2 leaves and tubular sheaths. Leaves subopposite, sheathed, lanceolate-elliptic, obtuse to subacute, 1.7–2.2 × 0.4–0.9 cm. Inflorescence subsecund, laxly 3–4-flowered; rachis glabrous, 1–2 cm long; floral bracts triangular-lanceolate, acute, 0.5–0.6 × 0.6–0.8 mm. Flowers 0.7–0.9 cm across; white, dorsal sepal with a green central nerve; pedicel and ovary twisted, 5–6 mm long. Dorsal sepal ovate-elliptic, subacute, 4–5 × 3 mm; lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse to subacute, 6 × 2.8–3 mm. Petals spathulate, obtuse, cucullate at apex, 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm. Lip 3-lobed, spurred at base; lateral lobes linear, acute, 2–2.5 × 0.5–0.6 mm; mid-lobe linear to lingulate, obtuse, 3.5–4 × 0.5–0.8 mm; spur cylindrical-conical, obtuse, 1.5–2 mm long. Column 1.5–2 mm long; rostellum 0.25 mm long; pollinia 1.2 mm long.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial on alpine grassy slopes at elevations of 3960–4570 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China.

Specimens examined

BHUTAN: Thimphu district, Barshong (Parshong), 27.07.1914, Cooper, 1979 (E); Pumo La, 08.1938, Gould 1294 (K); Upper Pho Chu district, Kesha La (Chesha La), 27.07.1949, Ludlow, Sherriff and Hicks, 16640 (BM); Upper Bumthang Chu district, Marlung, 12.07.1949, Ludlow, Sherriff and Hicks, 19413 (BM, E); Upper Kulong Chu district, Shingbe, 24.06.1949, Ludlow, Sherriff and Hicks, 20401 (BM).

CHINA: Tibet, Yadong county, 4000 m, 01.08.2012, Jin X.H., Jin W.T. & Xu S., 13211 (PE).

Note

Herminium himalayana is closely related to H. albomarginatum but differs in having larger flowers (more than 5 mm across) and white sepals, and less than five flowers in an inflorescence.

Herminium hongdeyuanii Raskoti, Phytotaxa , 98 (1): 23–26. 2013.

Type

NEPAL. Chandragiri, 2200 m, 25.09.2012, Raskoti B. B., 571 (Holotype: KATH!).

Description

Plant 35–42 cm tall. Tubers subglobose, 10 × 5 mm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths at base, upper part with 3 leaves. Leaves cauline, alternate, linear, 15–21 × 0.5–1.0 cm, apex acuminate, base sheathing. Inflorescence 20 cm; peduncle 4–6 cm, ridged, without peduncle-scales; rachis 13–15 cm, with several secund flowers; floral bracts lanceolate, 5–10 × 1–2 mm, 1-veined, exceeding or shorter than the ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green, 2–3 mm across, secund, ovary fusiform, slightly arcuate, 5–9 mm long, ridged, apex slightly beaked; dorsal sepal suberect, ovate, 2 × 1 mm, apex sub-obtuse; lateral sepals spreading, ovate, oblique, 2.5 × 1.0 mm, apex sub-obtuse; petals forming a hood with dorsal sepal, oblong, 2.0–4.0 × 1.0 mm, apex obtuse, lip oblong, held horizontally, slightly curved, 1.0–3.0 × 0.5–1.0 mm, base dilated shallowly concave, contracted in the middle, with three ridges running from base to the midlobe, trilobed near apex; lateral lobes falcately triangular, 0.5 × 0.5 mm, apex sub-obtuse; midlobe triangular, 0.7 × 0.4 mm, apex sub-obtuse. Column ca. 1 mm; auricle ca. 0.5 mm, pollinia 0.5 mm, globose; viscidia ovoid, stigma transverse, ca. 1 mm, extending outwards from the rostellum.

Flowering time

September.

Distribution

Endemic to Nepal.

Specimen examined

NEPAL. Chandragiri, 2200 m, 25.09.2012, Raskoti B. B., 571 (KATH).

Habitat

Terrestrial on humus-rich grassy slopes at an elevation of 2200 m.

Note

This species is close to Herminium lanceum but differs in having smaller flowers and a ridged peduncle; the midlobe of the lip is longer than the lateral lobes, the lateral lobes are triangular and always wider than the midlobe.

Herminium humidicola (K.Y. Lang & D.S. Deng) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Frigidorchis humidicola (K. Y. Lang & D. S. Deng) Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen, J. Fairylake Bot. Gard.6 (3): 17. 2007.

Bhutanthera humidicola (K.Y. Lang & D.S. Deng) Ormerod, Taiwania 48: 139. 2003.

Basionym

Peristylus humidicola K. Y. Lang & D. S. Deng, Novon 6: 190. 1996 (‘humidicolus’).

Type

CHINA. Qinghai, Magen county, Dawu Xiang, Muchang, SE of Magen, 3980 m, 05.08.1993, Ho et al., 807 (Holotype: HNWP; Isotype: GH! [GH00243080], PE!).

Description

Plant 3–4.5 cm tall. Tuber globose 10–12 × 5–8 mm. Stem sheathed at base, 2–3 leaved. Leaves crowded, ovate-elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 cm, apex acute; petioles enclosed by 2 tubular sheaths forming a pseudostem 8–12 mm. Inflorescence 1.5–2 cm, equal or exceeding leaves, subcorymbose, densely 4–5-flowered. Flowers greenish-yellow; sepals white-margined apically; petals and lip becoming deep purple after pollination; pedicel and ovary 11–15 mm. Dorsal sepal suborbicular, 3–4.5 × 2.5 mm, margin denticulate toward apex; lateral sepals ovate-elliptic, 4 × 3 mm, slightly longer than dorsal sepal. Petals orbicular, 2–3 × ca.1.5 mm, fleshy, apex obtuse. Lip 3–4 mm, fleshy, spurred, 3-lobed toward its base; lateral lobes triangular, ca. 0.5 mm; mid-lobe lingulate-linear, 2–3 × ca. 0.7 mm; spur 1–2 mm long, rounded-obtuse. Column 1.5 mm, pollinia obovoid, caudicles short, viscidium disc like, rostellum triangular, shortly armed; stigmas clavate, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 6–10 mm long.

Flowering time

August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in alpine meadows and wet valleys at elevations of 3600–4500 m.

Distribution

Endemic to China (Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet).

Specimen examined

CHINA: Qinghai, Gande county, Along Road S101 from Gande to Maqin, 4172 m, 08.08.2014 Jin X. H., Jin W.T. and Cui Y.,1451 (PE).

Herminium jaffreyanum King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 65: 130. 1896.

Monorchis jaffreyana (King & Pantl.) O. Schwarz. Mitt. Thuring. Bot. Ges. 1:95.1949.

Type

INDIA. Sikkim, near the top of Sinchal, 8600 ft, Pantling R., 237 (Holotype: CAL; Isotypes: GH! [GH00100255], K! [K000079029, K000079030]).

Description

Plant 8–20 cm tall. Tuber oblong to ellipsoidal, 10–20 × 10–15 mm. Stem 6–12 cm, with tubular sheaths at base and 2 alternate leaves near middle. Leaves oblong, 10–22 × 0.7–1 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 6–12 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with or without a peduncle scale; rachis 10–14 cm, densely many-flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 3–7 mm, nearly equal to ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers pale green; pedicel and ovary arcuate, 3–7 mm, apex beaked. Flower 4 mm across, greenish. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate-elliptic, concave, 2–3 × 0.5–1 mm, apex obtuse, lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, slightly oblique, 2–3 × 0.5–1 mm apex obtuse. Petals spreading, oblong, 1.5–3 × ca. 0.2–0.5 mm, apex obtuse, lip oblong, base concave and dilated, 3-lobed above middle, lateral lobes reduced, ovate; mid-lobe triangular, apex obtuse. Column 7 mm, broad, anther discrete, parallel, pollinia obovoid, caudicles very short, viscidium globose, stigma transversely oblong situated below the rostellum.

Flowering

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial or epiphytic in humid area at elevations of 2500–3300 m.

Distribution

India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

INDIA. Sikkim, Singalila, 3048 m, 08.1892, Pantling R., 237 (K); Sikkim, 2134 m, Hooker J.D., 279 (K-LINDL); Singalila, 3050 m, 08.1896, Pantling R., 237 (E); Darjeeling, “Rungbool” (?), 2150 m, 8.1878, Gamble J. S., 3967A (K).

NEPAL: Koshi, Terhthum district, Tute Deurali, 2500 m, 29.08.2007, Raskoti B.B., 020139 (KATH).

Note

There are several specimens in various herbaria labelled as Pantling 237, but these are all from localities and elevations not corresponding to the locality and elevation cited in the protologue. Therefore, these are not isotype specimens.

Herminium josephi Rchb.f., Flora 55: 276. 1872.

Figs 6D, 7D, 8D, 8G, 9D, 10B, 11A

Monorchis josephi (Rchb.f.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Androcorys josephi (Rchb.f.) Agrawala & H.J. Chowdhery, Kew Bull. 65: 106.2010.

Herminium grandiflorum Lindl. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 129.1890, nom. invalid.

Herminium duthiei Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 130. 1890, syn. nov. Type: INDIA. Garwhal, near Kuris pass, 11000–12000 ft, 10.09.1885, Duthie J. F., 4424 (Holotype: K! [K000079026]).

Peristylus duthiei (Hook.f.) Deva & H.B. Naithani, Orchid Fl. N.W. Himalaya: 181.1986, syn. nov.

Monorchis duthiei (Hook.f.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95.1949, syn. nov.

Herminium forrestii Schltr., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 96.1912. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Lichiang Range, Forrest G., 2590 (Holotype: E! [E00059065]; Isotype: K! [K000079036]).

Monorchis forrestii (Schltr.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95.1949.

Type

INDIA. Sikkim, Hooker, 264 (Holotype: K-LINDL! [K000079043]; Isotypes: K! [K000881604], GH! [GH00100256], P! [P00378620]).

Description

Plant 5–26 cm tall. Tubers ovoid, 10–15 × 5–10 mm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths and 2 leaves at base. Leaves opposite or subopposite, oblong-elliptic, sphathulate or lanceolate, 2.5–10 × 0.5–2 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 6–20 cm; peduncle cylindrical, ebracteate; rachis 1.5–5 cm, subdensely many-flowered; floral bracts ovate-triangular, 2–3 mm, much shorter than pedicel and ovary, apex acute. Flowers green to yellowish green; pedicel and ovary twisted, 4–6 mm, apex strongly beaked. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, 2.5–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals lanceolate, oblique, 3–4.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals ovate-lanceolate, falcate, 3–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acute. Lip entire, ovate, (3–)4–5 × (2–)3–4 mm, disk with 2 closely spaced, parallel, longitudinal keels in basal half, apex acute. Column 1–1.5 mm; pollinia obovoid; caudicles short, viscidia involute, hornlike, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Quercus-Abies forests, forest margins, and alpine meadows at elevations of 1200–4550 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Nepal.

Selected specimens examined

BHUTAN: Phoji Ding, 3720 m, 03.08.1971, Ramesh Bedi, 618 (K); Gasa Dist., W of Thanza, 4140 m, 04.09.2000, Miehe G. & Miehe S., 00-350-30 (K).

CHINA: Sichuan, Kangding county, 3300 m, 26.07.1934, Smith H., 10832 (PE); Muli county, 2800 m, 02.08.1937, Yu C. T., 7550 (PE); Tibet, Gyirong county, 3100 m, 20.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 7665 (PE); Mainming, Namchabarwa NW slope, Pei No. 4 village - Nam La Tso, 3920 m, 12.09.1989, Dickoré B, 4983 (K); Yadong, Chumbi Valley, Kala Gompa, 3350 m, 22.06.1945, Bor and Kirat Ram, 19707 (K); Yatung to Gantsa, 3050–3650 m, 04.08.1936, Spencer Chapman F., 472 (K); Zayu county, Sangjiu, 3400 m, Jin X. H., Wang L. S., Wang Q. et al., ST2778 (PE); Zayu county, 4131 m, 29.08.2010, Jin X. H., Liu B., Quan X., Sun M., Zhao W., SET-ET 1029 (PE); Champitang, 3650 m, 01.08.1936, Spencer Chapman F., 823 (K); Yunnan, Che-tso-lo, 1200 m, 14.09.1924, Tsai H. T., 58580 (K); Fugong county, 4000 m, 24.08.1934, Tsai H. T., 58146 (PE); Lijiang, 3500 m, 03.08.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 02547 (PE); Weixi Lisu county, 3200 m, 19.07.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 01668 (PE).

INDIA. Sikkim, Lachen, 3353 m, 12.07.1849, Hooker J. D., sn (K); Lachen, 3048–4267 m, 31.07.1849, Hooker J. D., sn (K); Sikkim, 3048–4267 m, Hooker J. D., 264 (K).

NEPAL: Bagamati, Rasuwa District, Ghodatabela, 3000 m, Saiju H. K. and Roy B., 38 (KATH); Rasuwa District, Langtang, 3550 m, 13.07.2001, Bhatta G. D., Karkee D. B. and Pradhan N. B., 119 B (KATH); Gandaki, Kaski District, Ghorepani-Pun Hill, 3100 m, 13.07.1983, Rajbhandari K. R., 7677 (KATH); Janakpur, Dolakha District, Chutra-Charikot, 3820 m, 22.06.1980, Shakya P. R. and Roy B., 8563 (KATH); Dolakha District, Kalinchok Danda, 3600 m, 01.07.1975, Shakya P. R., Rajbhandari K. R., Pradhan P. and Saiju H. K., 2747 (KATH); Sagarmatha, Solukhumbu District, Tanboche-Firiche, 4550 m, Banerji M. L. and Shakya P. R., 5687 (KATH), Solukhumbu district, 4000 m, 22.08.1995, Miyamoto et al., 9592370 (TI); Seti, Darchula District, Chheti-Nechchra, 3400 m, 22.08.1984, Shakya P.R., Adhikari M. K. and Subedhi N. N., 8014 (KATH).

Note

While the type material of H. duthiei is referable to H. josephi, albeit a small-flowered form, most specimens in herbaria labelled as H. duthiei are in fact H. macrophyllum. It is possible that some degree of hybridization occurs between the two species.

Herminium kalimpongense Pradhan, Indian Orchids: Guide Identif. & Cult.1: 52–53. 1976.

Androcorys kalimpongensis (Pradhan) Agrawala & H.J. Chowdhery, Kew Bull. 65: 106. 2010.

Type

INDIA. West Bengal, Kalimpong, 16.06.1974, Pradhan U.C., (Holotype: Herbarium Pradhan, not located).

Description

Plant 12–15 cm tall. Tuber 1–1.5 × 1 cm, globose to ovoid globose. Stem 0.8–1 cm long with 1, sessile, radical leaf. Leaf cordate, 2–2.5 cm, somewhat fleshy. Scape slender, 12–15 cm with tubular, acute, peduncle-scales, rachis with 3–4 well-spaced flowers, floral bracts 1 cm, apex acuminate. Flower half-opening, sepals subequal. Dorsal sepal 6 × 2 mm, concave, apex obtuse; lateral sepals 6 × 1 mm, apex acute. Petals 6 × 1 mm, hooded with dorsal sepal, apex acute. Lip 7 × 1.5 mm, entire, base broader than apex, spurless. Column well-developed, anther broad, pollinia ovate-globose with small viscidia, stigma transversely oblong.

Flowering

August.

Habitat

Not known. Collected at an elevation of 2000 m.

Distribution

India.

Note

Our description is based on the protologue in Pradhan (1976). Although the cordate leaf of this species as described is different from that of all other species of Herminium, the floral characters suggest that it belongs in this genus. However, further study is required to determine its taxonomic position.

Herminium kamengense A.N. Rao, J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 25(2): 287. 2001.

Figs 9P, 10E

Type

Yarlung Zangbo–Brahmaputra Region. Kameng district, Bomdila, 2500 m, Rao A.N., 30600A (Holotype: TIPI!).

Description

Plant 15–35 cm tall. Tubers ca. 1.5 × 0.5 cm. Stem up to 18 cm tall, slender, with about 2 tubular sheaths in the lower half, 23-leaved. Leaves linear-oblong or narrowly laceolate, acuminate, 27 × 1.5 cm, sheathing at base. Inflorescence 24 cm long; rachis about 6–12 cm long, many flowered. Flowers about 7 mm long, green, floral bracts 6–10 × 1.5–2 mm, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, longer than ovary, pedicel and ovary 6–9 mm long. Dorsal sepal ovate, obtuse, 1.5–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm,; lateral sepals obliquely ovate, 2–3 × 1.4–2 mm, apex obtuse. Petals 2–3 × 0.7–1 mm, subfalcate, oblong-lanceolate, apex subacute. Lip broadly ovate, with a circular concavity at base; 4 × 3 mm, base dilated, 3-lobed above middle, lateral lobes oblong, 1.5 × 0.5 mm, midlobe 0.5 × 0.5 mm long, triangular; lateral lobes 1.5 mm long, narrowly oblong, divergent, projected forwards. Column about 1 mm long, with 2 staminodes. Pollinia sectile, obovoid, with minute viscidia, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 6–10 mm long.

Flowering

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Quercus forest on moist slopes at elevations of 2200–2500 m.

Distribution

China, India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

Yarlung Zangbo–Brahmaputra Region: Kameng district, Bomdila (2500 m), Rao A.N., 30600AB (CAL). NEPAL: Koshi, Dhankutta District, between Sidhuwa and Chitrye, 2200 m, 19.08.2012, Raskoti B. B., 00357 (KATH).

Herminium kumaunense Deva & Naithani, Orchid Fl. N.W. Himalaya: 159. 1986 (‘ kumaunensis’).

Type

INDIA. Lohit district, Jachup, Haridasan K., 3670 (Holotype: A.P. Forest Herbarium).

Description

Plant upto 12 cm tall. Tubers 2, ovoid, ca. 1.0 × 0.5 cm. Leaves 2, basal, unequal, about 6 × 0.7 cm apex acute. Inflorescence 5 cm long, with lax flowered. Flowers small, green, ovary beaked and strongly hooked; floral bract lanceolate, apex acute, slightly shorter than the ovary. Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate, acute, ca. 2.5 mm long; lateral sepal obliquely lanceolate, apex acute. Petals oblong, acute, ca. 2 mm long, slightly contracted at the middle. Lip subequal to sepals, broadly saccate in the lower half, obscurely 3-lobed in the upper half; lateral lobes ovate, acute, shorter than the middle; mid-lobe oblong, obtuse. Column short, pollinia ranal shaped, rostellum triangular.

Flowering time

August.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes at an elevation of 3000 m.

Distribution

India.

Notes

The description of this species is based on the protologue. Most of the characters are similar to Herminium pygmaeum except for the petals being constricted in the middle. More specimens and further study are necessary to determine its taxonomic status.

Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk, Blumea 11: 228. 1961.

Figs 5E, 6F, 7Q, 8F, 9N, 11E

Spiranthes lancea (Thunb. ex Sw.) Bakh. f. & Steenis, Syn. Pl. 2: 507.1807.

Aceras angustifolium Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1525.1832. Type: NEPAL. Gossainthan, Wallich N, 7061 (Holotype: K-LINDL! [K000883991]; Isotype K! [K000881603]).

Aceras lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 12.1840.

Aaceras longicrure C. Wright ex A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n.s. 6: 411 .1859. Type: JAPAN. Katonasima, Wright C. s.n. (Holotype not located; a hitherto unnamed specimen in K-LINDL, Wright C., 338, from the Loo Choo Islands, may be an isotype).

Aceras angustifolium var. longicrure (C. Wright ex A. Gray) Miquel; Prolus. Fl. Jap. 139.1866.

Platanthera angustifolia (Lindl.) Rchb.f., Otia Bot. Hamburg. 1: 39.1878.

Herminium angustifolium (Lindl.) Ridl. in Forbes, Nat. Wand. East. Archip. 519. 1885.

Herminium angustifolium var. longicruris (C. Wright ex A. Gray) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 10: 109. 1896.

Herminium altigenum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.12: 334. 1922. Type: CHINA, Tibet, Batang-Litang, Gambu gong ka, 4700 m, Limpricht W., 2327 (Holotype: BRSL; Isotype B, lost).

Herminium minutiflorum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19: 373. 1924. Type: CHINA, Lo-fou-shan, 1000 m, 9.1917, Levine C.O., 1479 (Holotype: B, lost).

Herminium stenostachyum Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 130. 1936. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Sjemen, 5500 ft, Henry A., 13556 (Holotype: K! [K000079032]).

Herminium angustifolium var. nematolobum Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin.7: 1332. 1936. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Taiwah-se, 1916, Schoch 265 (Holotype: WU! [WU0061579]).

Monorchis angustifolia (Lindl.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Monorchis minutiflora (Schltr.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Herminium angustifolium var. brevilabre Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin.1: 61.1951. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Tsai H.T., 61889 (Holotype: PE).

Herminium longicrure (C. Wright ex A. Gray) Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin.1: 61.1951, not Benth. & Hook. f. (1883).

Herminium lanceum var. longicrure (C. Wright ex A. Gray) H. Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 44: 60. 1969.

Basionym

Ophrys lancea Thunb. ex Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21:223. 1800.

Type

INDONESIA. JAVA, Thunberg C. P., 21289 (Holotype: UPS!).

Description

Plant 10–66 cm tall. Tubers ovoid, globose or ellipsoid, 10–15 × 5–20 mm. Stem with two tubular sheaths at base and 2–5 leaves. Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, 0.5–2.5 × 0.4–1.5 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence 5–40 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with linear-lanceolate peduncle-scales 1–7 cm; rachis 5–35 cm, laxly many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 3–12 mm, equal or longer than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers pale yellowish green, pedicel and ovary 4–10 mm, slightly beaked at apex. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, concave, 2.2–4 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 2–4 × 1–2 mm, apex acute. Petals connivent with dorsal sepals, linear, 2–4 × 0.5–1 mm, apex acute. Lip oblong, 4–8 × 1–2 mm, base dilated, 3-lobed near middle, lateral lobes linear, 3 × 0.3 mm; mid-lobe oblong, 1 × 0.3 mm, apex obtuse. Column 1.4 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles short, viscidia orbicular, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Capsule oblong, 1 cm long.

Flowering time

June–October.

Habitat

Terrestrial in pine forests and on grassy slopes at elevations of 700–3743 m (–4700 m: type of H. altigenum), occasionally epiphytic on trunks of Quercus sp.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, East Timor, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.

Selected specimens examined

CHINA: Fujian, Chong county, 2060 m, 11.08.1964, Jian et al., 400644 (PE); Gansu, Kang county, 1200 m, 18.08.1963, Zhang Z. Y., 16695 (PE); Choni Dist., 3350 m, Purdom W., s.n. (K); Guangdong, Boro county, Luofushan, 1000 m, 17.08.1917, Levine C.O., s.n. (PE); Guangxi, Longping, Huaping forest 750 m, 25.08.1962, (collector not mention), Q13 (6) (PE); Guizhou, Zhenfeng county, Nongchang town, peak of Longshan, 1600 m, 30.07.1996, Luo Y.B, 118 (K, PE); Henan, Lushi county, 1000 m, 06.09.1935, Liou K. M., 5454 (PE); Hubei, Shengnongjia, forest region, Songyu commune, Nicha river, Silong temple, 2200 m, 02.09.1976, Shennongjia Team, 22845 (PE); without data, Henry A., 6421 (K); Changyang, Wilson E. H., 2236, 6202 (K); Ichang, Patung Dist., Henry A., 856, 2042, 3912 (K); Hunan, Sangzhi county, 1500 m, 13.07.1958, Li H. J., 4098 (PE); Jiangxi, Dayu county, 1020 m, 19.06.1962, Yue et al., 1372 (PE); Shaanxi, Shanyang county, 1950 m, 31.08.1952, Wang Z. B., 16359 (PE); Sichuan, Nanchuan county, 1580 m, 01.08.1957, Li G., 63155 (PE); Yajiang county, 3220 m, 13.08.1960, Guan Z.T., 510358 (PE); Kikiang Hsien, 1050–1350 m, 11.06.1928, Fang W. P., 1332 (K); Taiwan, Tattaka, Musha Dist., 2100 m, 09.07.1912, Price W. R., 763 (K); Urai, 30.03.1921, Price W. R., 320 (K); Tibet, Medog county, near Deergong, 1600 m, 20.08.1974, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 4436 (PE); Mainling, Namchabarwa NW slope, above Pei No. 4 village, 3400 m, 10.09.1989, Dickoré B, 4915 (K); Nyalam county, Lixin to Zhangmu, 2600 m, 12.10.1990, Li B.S and Li H., 14236 (PE); Zayu county, 2000 m, 09.09.1935, Wang Q. W., 66224 (PE); Yunnan, Dali (Ta-li) Hsien, 2400 m, 21.10.1937, Tsai H. T., 53894 (K); Talifou, 04.07.1882, Delavay J. M., s.n. (K); Ta-li Hsien, 2400 m, 21.10.1937, Tsai H. T., 53894 (K); Fugong county, 2555 m, 26.08.2005, Jin X. H., 7805 (PE); near Lichiang, 3400 m, 30.07.1914, Schneider C., 2061 (K); Menghai County, 1200 m, 15.09.1991, Tsi Z. H., 91-537 (K); NE of Tengyueh, 3050 m, 06.1912, Forrest G., 8364 (K).

EAST TIMOR: Fatumasse, 05.1896, Newton F., s.n. (K).

INDIA: Darjeeling, 2280 m, 21.08.1870, Clarke C.B., (SIN); Uttarakhand, Kumaon, Budhi, Kali valley, 3743 m, 14.09.1900, Inayat, 14104 (K); Garwhal near the Kuari Pass, 3353–3658 m, 10.09.1885, Duthie J. F., 4424 (K); Rilam valley, 2743 m, 21.08.1884, Duthie J. F., 3413 (K).

INDONESIA: Bali, Mt Agung, 1500–2000 m, 06.04.1936 (K); Java, Idjen, 1924, Franck C. W., 569 (P); Sumbawa, Mt Batulanteh, 300 m, 22.04.1961, Kostermans, 18388A (K).

JAPAN: de ki, Koya San, 05.1888, SC, (P), Osumi, 08.1887, SC (P); Satsuma, Kawagiri, 07.1888, SC, (P), Hakodaté, 18.09.1993, Faurie U. J., 11018 (P), Hakone, 30.08.1871, Savatier P., 1318 (P); Nambu Prov., 1865, Maximowicz C. J., s.n. (K); Tosa Prov., 28.07.1888, Elwes H. J., s.n. (K); Nagasaki, 07.1862, Oldham R., 808, 848 (K); Ryukyu Islands, Wright C., 338 (K-LINDL); Yona, Kunigami-son, Okinawa-hontoo, 10.04.1974, Furuse M., 5534 (K).

KOREA REPUBLIC: Ile Quelpaert, Hallaisan, 10.1907, Taquet E.J. 393 (P).

NEPAL: Gandaki, Lamjung District, Bahun Danda, 1500 m, 06.11.2001, Subedi A., Chaudhary R. P. and Shakya L. R., 820 (TUCH); Janakpur, Ramechhap District, Patkhare to Bhandar, 2200–2300 m, 05.08.1985, Ohba H., Kikuchi T., Wakabayanshi M., Suzuki M., Kurosaki N., Rajbhandari K. R. and Wu S. K., 8571357 (KATH); Koshi, Dhankuta District, Sidhuwa, 2270 m, 27.08.1989, Grey-Wilson C., Zmarzty S., Sinnott M., Long D., McBeath R., Noltie H., and Subedi M., 27 (KATH); Mechi, Ilam District, Hile-Chintapu, 2933 m, 07.10.1977, Pradhan P., Rajbhandari K. R., and Niraula R., 288 (KATH).

PHILIPPINES: Luzon, Bontoc Subprovince, 1911, Vanoverbergh M, 1302 (K, P); Bontoc Subprovince, 13.07.1914, Vanoverbergh M, 623 (P); Benguet Subprovince, Pauai, 1911, Santos J. K., 31930 (K, P); Mt. Boadan, 6000ft, 25.09.1921, Ramos M. and Edano G. 71 (K, SIN).

THAILAND: Chiengmai, 1900–2100 m, 17.08.1965, UNESCO Training Expedition, 1079 (SIN). VIETNAM: Tokin, Chapa, 07.1928, Pételot P.A., 5161 (P); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Doup Mt., HLF 5201 (LE), HLF 5282 (LE).

Herminium latilabre (Lindl.) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Figs 5B, 10C, 11H, 14

Platanthera acuminata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 289. 1835. Syntypes: NEPAL, Wallich N, 7040A (Syntype: K-LINDL; Isosyntype: K); INDIA, Kumaon, Wallich N. (leg. Blinkworth), 7040B (Syntype: K-LINDL; Isosyntype: K).

Habenaria cumminsiana King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 64: 343. 1895. Syntypes: INDIA, Sikkim, Gantong, Cummins s.n. (not seen); same locality, 3650 m, 08.1894, Pantling R., 329 (Holotype: CAL, n.v.; Isotype K! [K000974255]).

Habenaria bonatiana Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 104.1913. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Maire E. E., 7558 (Holotype: B, lost; Isotype: AMES! [AMES00099726]).

Platanthera cumminsiana (King & Pantl.) Renz, Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 117. 2001.

Platantheroides latilabris (Lindl.) Szlach., Richardiana 4: 107. 2004.

Platantheroides cumminsiana (King & Pantl.) Szlach., Richardiana 4: 106. 2004.

Habenella latilabris (Lindl.) Szlach. & Kras-Lap., Richardiana 6: 36. 2006.

Habenella cumminsiana (King & Pantl.) Szlach. & Kras-Lap., Richardiana 6: 35. 2006.

Basionym

Platanthera latilabris Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 289. 1835.

Figure 14.

Herminum latilabre. A Flowering plant B Flower (front view) C Flower (side view) D Ovary with lip and spur (side view) E Dorsal sepal F Lateral sepal and petal G Lip H Floral bract I Pollinia.

Type

INDIA. North, Wallich N (leg. Blinkworth), 7040 p.p. (Holotype: K-LINDL!, Isotype: K! [K000974253]).

Description

Plant 15–68 cm tall. Tuber ellipsoid, 1–2.5 cm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base and 3–4 leaves. Leaves spirally arranged, well-spaced, ovate, 5–12 × 2–5 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence 11–28 cm, peduncle cylindrical with 1–4 peduncle scales; rachis 4–30 cm, laxly many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, apex acuminate, equal or longer than ovary, 1–2 cm. Flowers yellowish green; ovary and pedicel cylindrical-fusiform, arcuate, and beaked, 1–1.5 mm. Dorsal sepal connivent with petals, broadly ovate, cymbiform, 4–7 × 3–5 mm, margin ciliate, apex obtuse; lateral sepals refluxed, oblong-ovate, oblique, 5–8 × 3–4 mm, margin ciliate, apex obtuse. Petals oblong, oblique, 4–7 × 3–5 mm, apex subacute. Lip oblong-lingulate, 6–13 × 1–1.5 mm, entire, apex obtuse; disk with a conic callus in front of mouth of spur; spur cylindrical, 8–18 mm, longer than ovary. Column 0.5 mm; staminodes subsquare; anther locules nearly parallel; pollinia obovoid, with very short caudicles and orbicular viscidia; rostellum triangular; stigma lobes separate, raised, oblong to narrowly oblong, parallel, spreading on either side of base of lip. Fruit fusiform, 1–1.5 mm long.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial inforest margins and grasslands at elevations of 1600–3650 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Huei-li Hsien, 2900 m, 16.09.1932, Yu T. T., 1499 (PE); Muli county, 2400 m, 01.10.1983, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 14888 (PE); Yunnan, Gongshan county, 2662 m, 02.08.2007, Jin X. H.,9135 (PE); Lijiang, near Yulongshan, 2900 m, 05.08.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 2692 (PE); Wenshan county, 14.08.1985, Ji Z.H, Song S. Y., Wang Z. T., 428 (PE).

INDIA: Sikkim, Lachen Valley, 3050 m, 07.1897, Pantling R., 331A (K); Singalila, 3650 m, 07.1896, Pantling R., 331B (K).

NEPAL: Bagamati, Rasuwa District, Sherpagaun, 2700 m, 06.09.1971, Dobremez J. F., 974 (KATH); Dhaulagiri, Mustang District, Kalopani, 2600 m, 14.08.1975, Joshi D. P. and Bhattacharya T. K., 75/3270 (KATH); Karnali, Mugu District, Rara, 3640 m, 08.1963, Itoh K., and Rajbhandary S., 1215 (KATH).

Herminium longilobatum S.N. Hegde & A.N. Rao, Himalayan Pl. J. 1(2): 47. 1982.

Fig. 10F

Type

Yarlung Zangbo–Brahmaputra Region, Towang, 2800 m, Hegde, 3208-A (Holotype: TIPI!).

Description

Plant 30–50 cm tall. Tubers ovoid, globose to oblong. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths at base and few well-spaced leaves near middle. Leaves 8–20 × 0.5–1.5 cm, linear to oblong, acuminate. Inflorescence 8–30 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with peduncle-scales 0.5–2.4 cm; rachis 5–18 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1.5–5 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers pale green; ca. 4 mm across, pedicel and ovary arcuate, 4–7 mm, shortly beaked. Dorsal sepals 2.0 × 1.5 mm, concave, ovate, apex subacute. Petals lanceolate, 2.0 × 1.5 mm, apex subacute. Lip oblong, 3-lobed, with a callus at base, midlobe very short, lanceolate, obtuse; lateral lobes 10 mm long, more than 10 times longer than the midlobe, filiform, coiled. Column 1 mm, short; anther cells 2, parallel; staminodes 2, lateral; rostellum 2-lobed; stigmas 2, transversely oblong, divergent. Fruit oblong, 7 mm long.

Flowering: August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in oak forest at elevations of 2500–2800 m.

Distribution

China, India, Nepal.

Specimen examined

Yarlung Zangbo–Brahmaputra Region: Kameng district, Towang, Hegde, 3208 A-C (Orchid Herbarium, Tipi); Phudong-Dirang, Hajra 54808 (ASSAM). NEPAL: Sagarmatha, Solukhumbu district, below Sete, 2500 m, Raskoti B. B., 01299 (KATH).

Note

Herminium longilobatum is similar to Herminium lanceum but the lateral lobes of lip are much longer (10 vs. 3 mm) and the lip often has a callus at the base.

Herminium mackinnonii Duthie, Journ, As. Soc. Beng. Nat. His.71:44.1902.

Monorchis mackinnonii (Duthie) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95.1949.

Type

INDIA. Lehari-Garhwal, near Mussoorie, 6000 ft, 30.08.1901, Mackinnon P. W., 25421 (Holotype: K! [K000079024]; Isotype: AMES! [AMES00100258]).

Description

Plant 15–30 cm tall. Tuber oblong, 7–1.5 × 5–12 mm. Stem with tubular sheaths and 2 basal, subopposite leaves. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 10–16 × 1–1.5 cm, acute to acuminate. Inflorescence 10–20 cm, cylindrical, with or without peduncle-scales, rachis 10–15 cm, subdensely many-flowered, floral bracts 5 mm, broadly lanceolate, acuminate, shorter than the ovary. Flowers subsecund, spreading, 5–10 mm across, ovary straight, slightly beaked at 6 mm. Dorsal sepals ovate-oblong, 2.5–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, obtuse; lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm, acute. Petals linear-lanceolate, 3 × 1 mm, apex acute. Lip deflexed, 3-lobed above middle, basal part concave, dilated and with a small concavity atthe base, lateral lobes linear, apex acute, midlobe lanceolate, apex obtuse. Column 1 mm, anther cells parallel, pollinia ovate ellipsoid, caudicles very short, viscidium discoid, rostellum triangular armed, stigma 2, transversely oblong, lying beneath the rostellum.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial or epiphytic on trunk or large branches of oak trees at elevations of 2400–2700 m.

Distribution

India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

NEPAL: Koshi, Bhuje Danda to Tamur River, 2700 m, 03.08.1989, Grey-Wilsonet al., 135 (KATH); Mechi, Ilam District, Hille-Chintapu, 2450 m, 07.10.1977, Pradhan P., Rajbhandari K. R. and Niraula R., 289 (KATH).

Herminium macrophyllum (D. Don) Dandy, J. Bot. 70: 328. 1932.

Figs 6G, P, 7G, 8P, 9F, G, 11B

Herminium congestum Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 18: t.1499.1832. Type: NEPAL. Gossain Than, 1821, Wallich N., 7068 (Holotype: K-LINDL! [K000079039]; Isotypes K-WALLICH! [K001126683], K!, E! E00188162], BM! [BM000034357], E! [E00188162]).

Spiranthes macrophylla (D. Don) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 708.1826.

Peristylus macrophyllus (D. Don) Lawkush, Vik. Kumar & Bankoti, Indian J. Forest. 36(3): 388. 2013.

Peristylus duthiei var. inayatii Deva & H.B. Naithani, Orchid Fl. N.W. Himalaya 185.1986, syn. nov. Type: INDIA. Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh District, Kumaon, Ralam Valley; 19.8.1900; Inayat 24103 (Holotype: DD).

Basionym

Neottia macrophylla D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 27. 1825

Type

NEPAL. 1819, Wallich N. s.n. (Holotype: BM! [BM000034355]).

Description

Plant 8–25 cm tall. Tubers ovoid, 6–15 × 5–10 mm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths and 2–3 leaves at base. Leaves oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, 3–10 × 0.6–2 cm, apex subacute to obtuse. Inflorescence 6–15 cm; peduncle cylindrical, without or rarely with 1 foliaceous peduncle-scale; rachis 2–9 cm, subdensely flowered; floral bracts ovate-triangular, 1–3 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acute. Flowers white or green, or green with white tips; pedicel and ovary twisted, hooked at apex, 3–6 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, 0.5–2 × 0.8–1.2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong, 1.5– 2 × 0.5–1 mm, apex acute. Petals obliquely ovate-triangular, fleshy, 1.5–2 × 0.7–1.2 mm, apex acute. Lip ovate-lanceolate, 1.6–3 × 0.6–1 mm, with spur like globose saccate base, dilated, disk at base concave, with a single raised crest, indistinctly 3-lobed at base; lateral lobes obscure, margin crenulate, mid-lobe ovate-triangular, 0.5 × 0.5 mm, apex acute. Column ca. 1 mm; pollinia subglobose; caudicles short, viscidia involute, hornlike, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

June–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Quercus-Abies forests and on alpine grassy slopes and meadows at elevations of 2400–4620 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan.

Notes

This species has often been confused with H. duthiei, which we consider to be a synonym of H. josephi. Most specimens identified as H. duthiei in the past are referrable to H. macrophyllum.

Specimens examined

BHUTAN: Pele-la and Ri-Tang, 2500–3350 m, 30.06.1938, Gould R. J., 735 (K); Sela-la, 3962 m, 30.06.1971, Ramesh Bedi, 349 (K); Gasa, Robluthang, 4620 m, 25.07.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-239-10 (K); Bumthang, between Gorsuem and Tsochen Chen, 3660 m, 22.06.2000, Miehe G. and S., 00-119-02 (K); Paro, Chomolhari Chu, 4060 m, 05.07.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-161-09 (K).

CHINA: Tibet, Gyirong county, 3800 m, 16.07.1975, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 6388 (PE); Gyirong county, 3400 m, 22.06.1972, Tibetan Herb Survey Team, 494 (PE); Champilang, 3650 m, 01.08.1936, Spencer Chapman F., 818 (K).

INDIA. Sikkim, Lachen, 07-08.1849, 3350–3650 m, Hooker J. D., 265 (K, K-LINDL); sine loc., 3950–4250 m, Hooker J.D., 266 (K); Nathula Range, 4300 m, 28.06.1985, Lachuypa S. T., 31 (K); Singalila, 3050 m, 08.1896, Lachen Valley, 3650 m, 08.1895 & 97, Lachong Valley, 2750 m, 07.1897, Pantling R., 384 (K); Chemathang, 4250, 25.06.1983, Starling et al., A.G.S.E.S. 138 (K); Uttarakhand, Garhwal, Kidar Kantha, 4570 m, 11.06.1904, Drummond J.R., 22792 (K).

NEPAL: Dhaulagiri, Mustang District, Thorong Phedi 4500 m, 20.08.1999, Mikage M., Yoshimitsu M., Kaneda A., Mouri C., Tatsukawa S., Asada Y., Senoo M.,9962979 (KATH); Karnali, Mugu District, Chankheli lekh, 3250 m, 13.08.1985, Shakya P. R., Subedi N. N. and Uprety R., 8600 (KATH); Gandaki Zone Kaski District, Birethanti-Ghorepani, 3100 m, 12.07.1983, Rajbhandari K. R.,7667 (KATH); Langtang, Palpa, 3550 m, 07.09.1986, Miehe G. and S., 11011 and 11034 (K); Serpagaon–Langtang, 2750 m, 13.07.1967, Malla, s.n. (K); Taplejung, Ghunsa, 3400 m, 26.09.1985, Damant, 96 (K); Ringmo–Taksindhu, 3000 m, Banerjee and Shakya P.R., 5567 (K); Kunde, Khumbu, 3950 m, 27.07.1966, Schilling A.D., 948 (K); east of Jumbesi, above Ringmo, Sola, 2800 m, 22.07.1966, Schilling, A.D., 1032 (K); Yalung, 4100 m, 22.06.1969, Shrestha T.B., 15837 (K); Kalingchok, 12.09.1970, Kanai, Chuma and Nagano, 674065 (K); environs of Ghunsa, 3520 m, 08.09.1989, Crawford S. et al., KEKE 431 (K); Tharepati, east of Kathmandu, 3200 m, 27.06.1973, Grey-Wilson and Phillips, 179 (K); Lisue, .3200 m, Itoh and Rajbhandari, 1118 (K).

Herminium mannii (Rchb.f.) Tang & F.T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 128. 1936.

Figs 6Q, 10H

Habenaria gracillima Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 163. 1890. Type: INDIA. Khasia Hills, Munnipore, 4000–5000 ft, Clarke C. B. s.n. (not found).

Peristylus gracillimus (Hook.f.) Kraenzl., Orchid. Gen. Sp. 1: 513. 1898.

Habenaria duclouxii Rolfe, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 25. 1913. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Ducloux F., 226 (Lectotype, here chosen: K! [K000827046W]). Syntype: Yunnan, western slopes of the Tsan-Shan Range near head of Yang-pi pass, 9.1905, Forrest G., 906 (Syntype: E! [E00381984]).

Habenaria spiranthiformis Ames & Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 52. 1919. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, Maire E. E., 2616 (Holotype: AMES! [AMES00100097]).

Platanthera mannii (Rchb.f.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 114. 1919.

Herminium yuanum Tang & F.T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 129. 1936. Type: CHINA. Sichuan, Li county, 2900 m, 17.09.1932, Yu T. T., 1543 (Holotype: PE! [PE00027291]).

Herminium spiranthiforme (Ames & Schltr.) Tang & F.T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin.1: 62. 1951.

Peristylus mannii (Rchb. f.) Mukherjee, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 21(3): 153. 1953.

Basionym

Coeloglossum mannii Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 54. 1876.

Type

INDIA. Assam, Khasia Hills, 5000 ft; Mann s.n. (Holotype: W).

Description

Plant 10–43 cm tall. Tubers oblong, 1–2.5 × 0.5–1 cm. Stem with 2–4 leaves and 2 tubular sheaths at base. Leaves linear, 3–14 × 0.2–0.4 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence 10–37 cm; peduncle cylindrical, peduncle-scales 1–5, lanceolate, 2–20 mm; rachis 4–16 cm, laxly many-flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 2–4 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers pale yellowish green; ca. 3 mm across, pedicel and ovary 2–5 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, concave, 2–2.5 × 0.8–1 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong-lingulate, 2–2.5 × 0.8–1 mm, apex obtuse. Petals hooded with dorsal sepals, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 2–2.5 × ca. 0.8 mm, apex obtuse. Lip oblong-ovate, 2.5–3 × 0.8–1 mm, base deeply concave, ecallose, 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes oblong, 0.8–1.5 mm; mid-lobe oblong, slightly attenuate, 1–2 mm, spur pendulous, scrotiform, 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Column 0.3–0.5 mm; pollinia globose, caudicles short, viscidia ellipsoid, rostellum triangular, shortly armed, stigma transversely oblong-clavate, extended outwards at base of lip.

Flowering time

August–October.

Habitat

Terrestrial in forest margins and on grassy slopes at elevations of 1700–3400 m.

Distribution

China, India, Myanmar, Nepal.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Danba county, 3000 m, 06.08.1940, Qu G.L.,7539A (PE); Jinchuan county, 3100 m, 15.06.1958, Li X., 77748 (PE); Luding county, 1300 m, 12.07.1982, Lang K.Y., Li L.Q., Fei Y., 624 (PE); Mianning, 1800 m, 30.09.1938, Yu T. T., 17814 (PE); Mianning, 2000 m, 25.07.1959, Wang Z.B., 2168 (PE); Muli, 2300 m, 18.07.1937, Yu T.T., 7319 (PE); Yajiang county, 3080 m, 30.07.1960, Guan Z.T., 41–0728 (PE); Yunnan, Gongshan county, 3337 m, 11.09.2005, Jin X. H.,7983 (PE); Songming County (Sung-Ming KuoTung), 2200 m, 10.10.1950, Mao P.I., 161 (PE); mid-W Yunnan, 1520 m, 09.1924, Forrest G., 25104 (K); Wenshan county, Bozhushan, Xiaoheijing, 2400 m, 31.07.1993, Shui Y. M., 003196 (PE).

INDIA: Assam, Khasi Hills, Mawphlang, 1800 m, 31.07.1954, Chand T. R., 7890 (K); Meghalaya, 11.09.1984, Naithani, H. B., 1175 (DD); Nagaland, Kegurma Edge, 2100 m, 10.11.1885, Clarke C. B., 61858 (K).

NEPAL: Koshi, Taplejung, Guphapokhari at 2900 m, 29.08.2007, Raskoti B. B., 250 (TUCH).

Herminium monophyllum (D. Don) P. F. Hunt & Summerh., Kew Bull. 20: 51. 1966.

Figs 5G, 6E, 7E, 8E, 9E, 10D

Androcorys monophylla (D. Don) Agrawala & H. J. Chowdhery, Kew Bull. 65: 106. 2010.

Herminium gramineum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 305. 1835. Type: NEPAL. Precise locality unknown, 1821, Wallich N., 7413 (Holotype: K-LINDL! [K000079040]; Isotypes: K-WALLICH! [K001127309 & K001127310]).

Spiranthes monophylla (D. Don) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 709. 1826.

Monorchis monophylla (D. Don) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Basionym

Neottia monophylla D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 27. 1825.

Type

NEPAL. Precise locality unknown, 1819, Wallich N. s.n. (Holotype: BM! [BM000034436]).

Description

Plant 6–15 cm tall. Tuber globose, 5–9 × 4–6 mm. Stem slender, 2.5–7; sheaths tubular, 1–2.5 cm long, with 1 leaf at base. Leaf linear-oblong, apex acute, 3.5–5.5 × 0.2–0.6 cm. Inflorescence 4–10 cm, laxly to subdensely many-flowered, rachis glabrous, 2–6 cm, floral bracts lanceolate, apex trifid, 3–8 × 1–1.5 mm. Flowers subsecund, yellowish green, 4–7 mm across, pedicel and ovary arcuate, 3–4.5 mm long, apex beaked. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate-oblong, 2–2.5 × 1.2–1.5 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, 2–3 × 1–1.2 mm, apex obtuse. Petals linear, falcate, 2.5 × 0.8 mm, apex obtuse. Lip ovate, concave, entire, 2.5 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Column 2–4 mm tall, pollinia clavate, caudicles short, viscidium disc like, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in open forest or forest margins at an altitude of 1000–2000 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, India, Nepal.

Specimens examined

INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Simla, 1800 m, Drummond J. R. (leg. Donie J. M.) s.n. (K); Uttarakhand, below Mussoorie, 1370 m, 01.08.1932, Stewart R. R., 12317 (K).

NEPAL: Bagmati, Lalitpur district Godawari 1820m, 05.08.1978, Anon, 297 (KATH); Sindhupalnchok District Bhungloo, 1850 m, 11.09.1964, Benerji M. L., Shrestha T. B. and Upadhyaya A. V., 2656 (KATH); Kathmandu district, Sivapuri, 1880 m, 01.08.1979, Dahal S. and Dawadi N., 834 (KATH); Mahakali, Baitadi District, Ganna-Nala Bagar, 1000 m, 15.07.1984, Shakya P. R., Adhikari M. K. and Subedi M. N., 7859 (KATH); Seti, Doti District, Doti-Baga lekha, 1950 m, 30.06.198, Shakya P. R., Sharma L. R. and Amatya K. R., 6223 (KATH); Ganesh Himal, Haku, 1700 m, 07.07.1984, Farille M., Jordan D. and Lachard G., 847034 (K); Kumaon, near Sasa, 2100–2400 m, 14.07.1886, Duthie J. F., 5997 (K); Kumaon, Shania, Sargu Valley, 31.07.1900, Inayat, 24107 (K).

Herminium monorchis (L.) R. Br. in W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. 5: 191. 1813.

Figs 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A, 9A, 10A

Orchis monorchis (L.) Crantz, Stirp. Austr. Fasc., ed. 2, 2: 478. 1769.

Epipactis monorchis (L.) F.W. Schmidt, Samml. Phys.-Ökon. Aufs.1: 246. 1795.

Arachnites monorchis (L.) Hoffm., Deutschl. Fl. Bot. Taschenb. 4: 179.1804.

Satyrium monorchis (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 507. 1807.

Monorchis herminium O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1:95. 1949.

Herminium alaschanicum Maxim. var. tanguticum Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 31: 105. 1887. Type: China, Gansu, Tangut, 3050 m, 1880, Przewalski N. M., s.n. (Holotype: LE, n.v.; Isotype: K!).

Herminium tanguticum Rolfe., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 51. 1903. Type: China, Gansu, Tangut, 3050 m, 1880, Przewalski N. M., s.n. (Holotype: K! [K000079031]; Isotype: LE, n.v.).

Herminium haridasanii A.N.Rao, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16: 725. 1992, syn. nov. Type: Yarlung Zangbo–Brahmaputra Region, Lohit Distr., Hot Springs, 3000 m, Haridasan 3764-A (Holotype: Orchid Herbarium Tipi, n.v.).

Basionym

Ophrys monorchis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 947.1753.

Type

Without country and precise locality, Anon, s.n. (Lectotype: LINN! [LINN-HL1056–22]).

Description

Plant 5–38 cm tall. Tubers globose, 5–10 × 4–10 mm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths at base and (1–)2–3leaves. Leaves subopposite to well-spaced, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 2–13 × 0.5–2.9 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 3–38 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with 0–4 ovate-lanceolate to linear peduncle-scales (sometimes leaf-like), rachis 2–24 cm, densely to sublaxly many flowered; floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 2–7 mm, shorter than or as long as ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary twisted, beaked and strongly hooked at apex, 3–7 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepal ovate-lanceolate, slightly oblique, 2–2.7 × 0.8–1.1 mm, apex subacute. Petals rhombic-caudate, falcate, fleshy, 2.5–4.7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acute. Lip oblong, 2–5 × 1.1–1.5 mm, base concave forming an almost spur-like sac, 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes linear-triangular, 0.9–1.2 × 0.4 mm, apex acute; mid-lobe linear-triangular, 2.2–3 × 0.4–1 mm, apex (sub)acute. Column 0.8 mm; pollinia subglobose; caudicles very short, viscidia large, involute, hornlike, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblongoid, suberect, c. 9 mm long.

Flowering time

(June–)July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in broad-leaved or coniferous forests, extensively grazed meadows on chalk and limestone, swampy grassland, alpine meadows and valleys; in Asia at elevations of 600–4700 m; in Europe (including the Caucasus) 0–2400 m.

Distribution

China, India, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, C and W Asia, most parts of Europe, excluding the Mediterranean zone and the far North.

Selected specimens examined

(only a small sample of the numerous European specimens studied are cited below). AUSTRIA: Tirol, Falzthurntal, 1100 m, 10.07.1936, Milne-Redhead, E. 2380 (K).

CHINA: Gansu, Xiahe county, 2400 m, 07.07.1937, Fu K.T., 1078 (PE); Central Gansu, Lien hoa shan between Taochow and Totao, 3050 m, 14.07.1920, Rock J. F., 12736 (K); Hebei, Santaoho, 1700 m, 23.08.1934, Wang C.W., 62296 (PE); Henan, Yuchaishan, Honan, 1150, 03.07.1932, Hao K.S., 3703 (PE); Jilin, Jiao county, near Peitayang, 500 m, 14.07.1931, Kung H.W., 1848 (PE); Inner Mongolia, Nearby HaiLa Er Shi, 600 m, 04.07.1951, Wang Z. D., 1167 (PE); Qinghai, Datong county, near Guanghui Temple, 1950 m, 25.07.1936, Liu K. M.,6077 (PE); Shaanxi, Mei county, Taibeishan, Tangyu, Shangbansi, 2700 m, 02.07.1999, Zhu C., Wang X,1428 (PE); Shandong, Taishan, 1800 m, 18.07.1956, Chang C.,41 (PE); Shanxi, Ningwu county, Dong zhai,near Fen river, 1670 m, 15.07.1957, Liu J., 1598 (PE); Sichuan, Xiangcheng Xian, vicinity of Reda twon, Rizhao Shen Shan, 3600–3850 m, 15.07.2004, Boufford D. E. et al., 30665 (K); Jiulong Xian, Tanggu Cun, N of Tanggu Xiang village along Jiulong - Kangding Rd, 3900 m, 21.07.2005, Boufford D. E. et al., 33293 (K); Tibet, Bomi county, 2700 m, 12.07.1965, Zhang Y.T. and Lang K. Y., 552 (PE); Lhasa, north of Naiguodong, 4300 m, 17.08.1965, Zhang Y.T. and Lang K.Y., 1633 (PE); Mainling county, 3100 m, 29.07.1974, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 3727 (PE); Champilang, 3650 m, 01.08.1936, Spencer Chapman F., 455 (K); Yunnan, Shangri-La, 3000 m, 06.07.1996, Luo Y.B., 71 (PE); Shangri-La, 3200 m, 25.07.1937, Yu C. T., 12433 (PE).

ESTONIA: Tartu, Emajogi River, 2 km east of Ropka, 20.06.1930, Sirgo V. s.n. (K).

FRANCE: Seine-et-Oise, Bois du Coudray near Marles, 20.06.1852, Maillard A. s.n. (K)

GERMANY: Würtemberg, Donnstetten, 07.1876, Kemmler s.n. (K).

INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Spiti, Tabo, 3050 m, 18.08.1933, Gill, H.A.C., 2043 (K); Lahul, Kyelang, 3140 m, 04.07.1941, Bor N.L., 14970 (K); Kashmir, Jilail, 2750 m, 25.08.1876, Clarke C.B., 30737 (K); Sikkim, Nathong, 13.07.1877, King G., 4365 (K); Uttarakhand, Kumaon, Barphu, Gari Valley, 12.08.1900, Inayat, 24106 (K).

ITALY: Cuneo, S. Anna di Valdieri, 1700 m, 08.07.1906, Ferrari, E. and Gola, G. (K).

JAPAN: Khusiro, 08.08.1893, Faurie U.J., 10809 (K, P).

SOUTH KOREA: Ouen san, 07.1906, Faurie U.J., 242 (P).

MONGOLIA: Ik’e lala, 26.06.1924, Licent, E. 7508 (K); Orkhon Valley, 14.07.1899, du Chazaud 91 (P).

NEPAL: Janakpur, Dolakha District, Kalinchok, 3600 m, 10.07.1985, Bhattrai N., Shrestha M., Pradhan N., and Shakya S., 10A (KATH); Koshi, Sankhuwasabha District, Ta Dasa to Makalu Base Camp, 4000–4680 m, 27.08.1988, Suzuki M., Narushashi N., Kurosaki S., Kadota Y., Subedhi M. N., Minaki M., Noshiro S. and Ikeda H., 8850 (KATH); just north of Shimen, 4000 m, 05.08.1973, Grey-Wilson and Phillips, 524 (K).

ROMANIA: Transylvania, Cluj, Ratacita Valley, 800 m, 24.07.1949, Tretiu T. and M. 3098 (K)

RUSSIA: Pskow Prov., Ostrow Dist., Kudep River near Kosly, 07.07.1898, Dzeiwer A. and Puring N. s.n. (K); Balkaria, Khyzny-su, Ogary-Kishlyk, 2050 m, 03.07.1927, Bush E. and N. s.n. (K); Minnusinsk Dist., 06.06.1913, Kuznetsov I. V. 2553 (K); Ussuri, Maack R. K. s.n. (K, P); Siberia, Altai Mts., von Ledebour C. F. s.n. (P); Siberia, Irkutsk, 06.1888, Karo F. K. s.n. (P); northern shore of Lake Baikal, 01.07.1855, Radde G. s.n. (K); Dauria, 1831, von Fischer K. F. s.n. (P); Manschuria, Amur River near Bachurowa, 26.06.1895, Komarov V. 439 (K); Amur region, Blagowjestschensk, 07.1898, Karo F 211 (K); Coast of Manschuria (Lat. 44–45 N), 07.08.1859, Wilford C. 1168 (K); SE Manschuria, near Possiet Bay, 1860, Maximowicz C. J., s.n. (K); Khabarovskiy territory, Ayano-Mayskiy Dist., Chouyka River near Nelkan village, 09.08.1978, Kharkevich S. and Buch T., s.n. (K).

SWEDEN: Örnsberg on Kuinekulle, 05.07.1841, Lagerheim N. and C. s.n. (K).

SWITZERLAND: Meiringen, 600 m, 06.1914, Gamble J. S. s.n.

UNITED KINGDOM: Dorset, Batecombe Down, 60 m, 21.07.1956, Summerhayes, V. S. 2940 (K).

Herminium neotineoides Ames & Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 42. 1919.

Peristylus neotineoides (Ames & Schltr.) K. Y. Lang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 453. 1987.

Monorchis neotineoides (Ames & Schltr.) O. Schwarz. Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Type

CHINA. Sichuan, Western Szechuan, 12000 ft, 1907, Wilson E. H., 1768 (Holotype: AMES! [AMES 00100259]; Isotypes: AMES! [AMES00100261], K! [K000796955]).

Description

Plant 20–38 cm tall. Tubers oblong-ovoid, 1–2 × 1–1.5 cm. Stem with 2–3 tubular sheaths and 2 leaves at base. Leaves subopposite, oblong-lanceolate, 4–15 × 0.8–3 cm, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence 25–28 cm, peduncle cylindrical, with 1 peduncle-scale; rachis 8–18 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 5–15 × 1–2 mm, longer than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers green; pedicel and ovary 4–5 mm. Dorsal sepal elliptic, 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals spreading, elliptic, 2–2.5 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals hooded with dorsal sepal, ovate-lanceolate, oblique, 2–2.5 × ca. 1 mm, concave, apex obtuse. Lip ovate, 2–3 × 2–2.5 mm, base concave, 3-lobed toward apex; disk with a subglobose callus; lateral lobes lanceolate, falcate, apex obtuse; mid-lobe ovate-lanceolate, slightly longer and broader than lateral lobes, apex obtuse; spur saccate; Column ca. 1.5 mm, viscidia ovate, rostellum triangular, 1 mm, stigma transversely oblong.

Flowering time

July.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes and pastures between Pinus trees at elevations of 3100–4000 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Kangding county, 3150 m, 24.07.1963, Guan K. & Wang W. et al. 340 (PE).

Herminium ophioglossoides Schltr., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 96. 1912.

Fig. 9N

Monorchis ophioglossoides (Schltr.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Lijiang, 10000 ft, 07.1906, Forrest G., 2466 (Holotype: E! [E00188160]; Isotypes: K! [K000079034], P! [P00378738]).

Description

Plant 6–26 cm tall. Tubers globose to ovoid, 10–30 × 5–15 mm. Stem with 2–3 tubular sheaths and 1–3 leaves at base. Leaves elliptic-lingulate, 2–10 × 0.5–3 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 4–20 cm; peduncle cylindrical, ebractiate or rarely single foliaceous sterile bract, 0.5–3 cm; rachis 1–14 cm, laxly many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 2–5 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary arcaute, twisted, beaked at apex, 4–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 3.5–5 × 1–2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 3–5 × 1–2 mm, apex obtuse. Petals narrowly lanceolate-caudate, falcate, 5–7 × 0.6–0.9 mm, apex obtuse. Lip oblong, 5–7 × 1.5–2.5 mm, base deeply concave with 1 mm, globose spur, 3- lobed at or below middle; lateral lobes linear, 2–4 × ca. 0.5 mm at base; mid-lobe linear, 3–5 × ca. 0.4 mm, apex acute. Column ca. 1 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles indistinct or very short, viscidia involute, hornlike, rostellum triangular, with arm-like lobes, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 5–11 mm long.

Flowering time

June–July.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes at elevations of 2100–3600 m.

Distribution

China (Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Qinghai, Tongde county, Hebei town, Naxiuma, 3550 m, 27.07.1990, Wu et al. 4978 (PE); Sichuan, Muli county, 3500 m, 16.06.1937, Yu C. T., 6324 (PE); South Szechuan between Yenyuan Hsien and Hunbea, 2900 m, 12.06.1914, Schneider C., 1465 (K); Yunnan, Lijiang County, near Jade Lake, 2800 m, 04.07.1996, Luo, Y. B., 59 (K); Lijiang, east of Yulong mountain, 2900, 05.08.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team,02693A (PE); Lichiang Range, 3048 m, 06.1906, Forrest G., 2466 (K); Zhongdian,3200 m, 01.06.1937, Yu T. T.,11475 (PE); Zhongdian county, Tuguanchun, 2870 m, 20.07.1997, Luo Y. B.,153 (9726) (K, PE); Hee-chan-men Pass, 14.06.1887, Delavay J. M., s.n (K).

Herminium oxysepalum (K.Y. Lang) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Basionym

Androcorys oxysepalus K.Y. Lang, Guihaia 16: 106. 1996.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Shangri-La, 3700 m, 10.08.1981, Hengduan Mountain Team of Institute of Botany, 2917 (Holotype: PE!).

Description

Plant 6–16 cm tall. Tuber globose, ca. 5 × 5 mm in diam. Stem slender, with 2 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf elliptic or oblong, 1.5–1.7 × 0.8–0.9 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 5–12 cm, rachis 1.8–4 cm, 6–7-flowered; floral bracts ovate, ca. 0.1 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acute. Flowers green, ovary and pedicel fusiform, slightly beaked, 3–3.3 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, concave, ca. 1–1.5 × 1–1.6 mm, margin denticulate, apex acute; lateral sepals spreading, oblong-lanceolate, concave, ca. 2.5–3 × 1–1.3 mm, margin denticulate, apex acuminate. Petals oblong-lanceolate, oblique, concave, ca. 1.5–2 × 0.8–1 mm, apex obtuse. Lip deflexed, lingulate-lanceolate, ca. 1.5–2 mm, fleshy, base dilated, apex obtuse. Column ca. 0.5 mm, anther with 2 divergent, hooded locules and broad connective; pollinia 2, clavate, attached to a viscidium by short caudicle; rostellum triangular; stigma 2 pulvinate, attached to base of rostellum. Fruit fusiform, 5–7 mm long.

Flowering time

August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Abies forest at an elevation of 3700 m.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Yunnan, Zhongdian, 3700 m, 10.08.1981, Hengduan Mountain Team of Institute of Botany, 2917 (PE); Tibet, Yadong county, 25.08.2013, FLPH Tibet Expedition Team, 13–2182 (PE).

Herminium pugioniforme Lindl. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 130. 1890.

Fig. 5I

Herminium nivale Schltr., Acta Horti Gothob. 1: 134. 1924. Type: CHINA. Sichuan, Dongrergo, Smith H., 3631 (Holotype: UPS!).

Monorchis pugioniformis (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 96. 1949.

Androcorys pugioniformis (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) K. Y. Lang, Guihaia 16: 105. 1996.

Type

INDIA. Uttarakhand, Garhwal, Dudu Glacier under Srikanta, 14000–15000 ft, 10.08.21883, Duthie J. F., 517 (Syntype: K! [K000387533]); Sikkim, Samdong, 16000 ft, 11.09.1849, Hooker J. D., s.n. (Syntype: K! [K000387531], K-LINDL!); Kashmir, Kilan Marg, 12000 ft, 08.1877, Aitchison, 106 (Syntype: K! [K000387532]).

Description

Plant 5–20 cm tall. Tuber globose, 5–8 × 4–8 mm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf oblanceolate, 2–4 × 0.4–1.2 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 3–10 cm, rachis 1–4 cm, 3–20-flowered; floral bracts ovate, much reduced, shorter than ovary, apex acute. Flowers green; ovary and pedicel 4–5 mm, fusiform, apex beaked, 3–5 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly elliptic-orbicular, concave, 1.5–2.5 × 1–1.2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals obovate to elliptic, oblique 1.7–2.2 × 1–1.2 mm, apex obtuse. Petals obovate, oblique, concave, 1.3–1.5 × 0.5–0.8 mm, apex obtuse. Lip narrowly lingulate-oblong, 1.5–2.0 mm long, base rather abruptly dilated, 0.6–1.1 mm wide, with two basal concavities separated by a longitudinal callus ridge, apex obtuse. Column 0.5–1 mm, anther with 2 divergent locules hooded with ca. 0.6 mm broad connective; pollinia 2, clavate, attached to ellipsoid viscidium by short caudicle; rostellum triangular; stigma gibbous, attached to base of rostellum. Fruit fusiform, 3–4 mm long.

Flowering time

July–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in Abies forests, alpine grasslands, meadows and valleys at elevations of 2700–5200(–5500) m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Nepal.

Note

Pridgeon et al. (2001: 257) stated that this species may occur up to 5500 m, but we have not seen specimens collected above 5200 m.

Specimens examined

BHUTAN: Gasa, Baiteng, 5040 m, 25.08.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-329-04 (K); Gasa, Upper mangde Chu near Kitchisabo, 5190 m, 11.09.2000, Miehe G. and S., 00-368-17 (K); Tangey, lower Tsorim Chu, 4670 m, 14.09.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-385-17 (K); Paro, Tso Phu Valley, 4610 m, 08.07.2000, Miehe G. and Miehe S., 00-175-24 (K).

CHINA: Sichuan, Songpan county, Huanglongsi, 3450 m, 30.07.2002, Luo Y.B., 853 (PE); Tibet, Bomi county, Zhamo Highway, 4200 m, 27.07.2010, Southern Tibet Expedition, STET1287 (PE); Dagze county, 5200 m, 02.09.1965, Zhang Y.T. and Lang K.Y., 2475 (PE); Damxung, Nyainqentanglha Shan, 4880 m, 11.08.1989, Dickoré B., 3753 (K); Lhasa, 5000 m, 19.08.1965, Zhang Y.T. and Lang K.Y., 1938 (PE); Lhasa, Ximala Hill, mountain, 4900 m, 10.08.1965, Zhang Y.T., Lang K.Y., 2114 (PE); Medog county, 2664 m, 08.09.2009, Southeast Tibet Expedition, SET-ET 1362 (PE); Melong Gompa, 4900–5200 m, 02.07.1932, Gould B. J., 2236 (K); Zayu county, Chawalong from meigu to Ridong, 4500 m, 17.07.2010, Southern Tibet Expedition, STET0655 (PE); Yunnan, Zhongdian, 3880 m, 11.08.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team, 3018 (PE).

INDIA: Kashmir, Mt. Kolahoi, 4250 m, Stewart R. R., 9390 (K).

NEPAL. Rasuwa, Gosaithan, 4000 m, 21.07.2008, Raskoti B. B., 20149 (KATH).

Herminium pusillum Ohwi & Fukuy., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 48 (571): 430. 1934.

Androcorys pusillus (Ohwi & Fukuy.) Masam., Hokuriku J. Bot. 12: 88. 1963.

Androcorys japonensis Maek., J. Jap. Bot. 12: 96. 1936. Type: JAPAN. Hondo, Shinano Prov., Mt. Yuo, 18.08.1902, Yabe Y. s.n. (Holotype: Herb. Univ. Imp. Tokyo).

Type

CHINA. Taiwan. Taichu (Mt. Niitakayama), 07.1933, Ohwi J., (TAI!).

Description

Plant 10–22 cm tall. Tuber globose, 5–7 mm in diam. Stem slender, with 1–3 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf ovate, 2–4.5 × 1–2.2 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 5–10 cm, rachis ca. 2.5 cm, 8–13-flowered; floral bracts ovate, ca. 1.5 mm, shorter than ovary. Flowers green; ovary and pedicel, fusiform, slightly beaked, 3–4 mm. Dorsal sepal erect, broadly ovate, concave, 1–1.2 × ca. 1 mm, margin irregularly ciliated, apex obtuse; lateral sepals spreading, oblong, 2–3 × 0.7–1 mm, margin ciliated, apex obtuse. Petals oblong, concave, 1.2–1.5 × ca. 1 mm, base cuneate, apex obtuse. Lip lingulate, 2–2.2 × ca. 0.7 mm, fleshy, base dilated, apex obtuse. Column short, anther with 2 divergent, hooded locules and broad connective; pollinia 2, clavate, attached to a viscidium by short caudicle; rostellum triangular; stigmalobes 2, pulvinate, attached to base of rostellum.

Flowering time

July.

Habitat

Terrestrial in forest margins and alpine valleys at elevations of 2500–3500 m.

Distribution

China, Korea, Japan.

Specimens examined

CHINA: TAIWAN, Hualien county, Nanhuchih shelter, 3100–3400 m, 07.07.2005, Chuan T., 215 (TAIF).

Herminium pygmaeum Renz, Edinb. J. of Bot. 56(1):106. 2001.

Figs 6C, 7C, 8C, 9C, 11C

Type

BHUTAN. Thimphu district, below Darkey Pang Tso, north of Paro, 3960 m, 04.08.1991, Noltie H. J., 105 (Holotype: E! [E00008013]).

Description

Plant 2–16 cm tall. Tuber globose, 3–4 × 3–4 mm. Stem with a sheath and 2–3 basal leaves. Leaves linear-oblong, 1.5–3.5 × 0.5–0.15 cm, apex subacute. Inflorescence 2–10 cm, peduncle cylindrical with 1.5–2.5 × 0.5–2 mm, lanceolate, acute peduncle-scales, rachis glabrous, 2–4.5 mm long subdensely 3–5-flowered; floral bracts minute, lanceolate, acute, 0.5–2 × 0.5–0.6 mm. Flowers secund, 3–5 mm long, sepals green, petals yellowish, pedicel and ovary swollen, 3–5 × 1–1.3 mm, apex beaked and strongly hooked. Dorsal sepal ovate, concave, 3–4 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse, lateral sepals ovate-lancelate, oblique, apex obtuse, 3–4 × 1.5–2 mm. Petals trowel-shaped, oblique, fleshy and narrowed towards apex, apex subacute, 3–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, lip ovate, base concave, spurless, 3–4 × 2–2.5 mm, 3-lobed above middle, lateral lobes triangular, obtuse; mid-lobe narrowly triangular, apex acute, 1 mm long. Column 0.7 mm tall, pollinia globose; caudicles indistinct, viscidia involute, horn-like, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 4–5 mm long.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial on wet cliff ledge at elevations of 3900–4000 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Tibet, Yadong county, Xiakangbu to Shangkangbu, Road 714, 71 km, 3965 m, 24.08. 2013, FLPH Expidition Team, 13-2115 (PE).

Herminium quinquelobum King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Nat. Hist. 65: 130. 1896.

Figs 5H, 6O, 7O, 8O, 9O

Monorchis quinqueloba (King & Pantl.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 96.1949.

Type

INDIA. Sikkim, Tendong, 7000 ft, 08.1894, Pantling R., 339 (Holotype CAL; Isotype: K! [K000079023]).

Description

Plant 15–30 cm tall. Tubers oblong to subglobose, 15–20 × 5–15 mm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths at base and 2–3 leaves. Leaves subopposite, linear-lanceolate, 10–17 × 1–2 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 10–20 cm; peduncle with a foliaceous linear-lanceolate peduncle-scale; rachis 10–15 cm, many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 3–8 mm, equal or longer thna ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers greenish white; pedicel and ovary straight, apex beaked, 5–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 2–3.5 × 0.5–1 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong, 2–3 × 0.6–1 mm, apex subacute. Petals linear, 1.6–3.5 × ca. 0.3–0.5 mm, apex acute. Lip oblong, 5-lobed, 2–3.5 × 0.7–1 mm, base dilated and concave; basal lobes triangular, lateral lobes linear, 1 × 0.5 mm, apex acute; mid-lobe oblong-triangular, 1.5 × 0.5 mm, apex acuminate. Column ca. 7 mm, stigma transversely oblong, situated underneath the rostellum; auricles oblong, rostellum triangular; pollinia obovoid; caudicles short, viscidia disklike. Fruit oblong, 1 cm long.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial on moist slopes or epiphytic in evergreen broad-leaved forests at elevations of 2100–3000 m.

Distribution

Bhutan, China, India, Nepal.

Specimen examined

CHINA: Yunnan, Gongshan county, 2200 m, 03.09.1982, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 9908 (PE).

INDIA: Sikkim, Tendong, 2134 m, 08.1894, Pantling R., 339 (K).

NEPAL: Janakpur, Dolakha district, Jiri, 2950 m, 21.09.1964, Benerji M. L., Shrestha T. B. and Upadhyay A. V., 2877 (KATH); Koshi, Dhankuta district Chitrya, 2240 m, 11.09.1977, Pradhan P. and Shrestha N.,89 (KATH); Mechi, Ilam district Hile, 2390 m, 06.09.1977, Pradhan P., Rajbhandari K. R. and Niraula R., 263 (KATH); between Tala (2050 m) and Tale Bisauna (2750 m), 10.09.1970, Kanai H., Chuma C. and Nagano T., s.n. (K).

Herminium singulum Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 10: 35. 1940.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Salween-Chiukiang, east of Wang-tzang, 2800 m, Yu T.T., 20231A (Holotype: PE! [PE01432256]).

Description

Plant 10–30 cm tall. Tubers subglobose, 8–10 mm. Stem with one or two tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf elliptic, 2–5 × 1–2 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 6–25 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with 1 or 2 lanceolate peduncle-scales, 1–1.5 cm; rachis 2–10 cm, sublaxly 4 or many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 5 × 2 mm, shorter or longer than to ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers pedicel and ovary arcuate, apex beaked, 6–10 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate, 2–3 × 1–1.3 mm, concave, apex acute; lateral sepals reflexed, obliquely ovate, 2.5–3 × 0.8–1 mm, apex acute. Petals ovate, oblique, ca. 1.8–2.2 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Lip lanceolate, 3.2–5 × 1–1.3 mm, entire, base dilated and spurred, apex obtuse; spur cylindrical shorter than ovary. Column 1.5 mm; caudicles short, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below rostellum.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial in forest margins at elevations of 2600–2800 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Yunnan, Gongshan county, Dulong, Gaolingshan, 1979, Liu L.H., et al. 08–14 (PE); Salween-Chiukiang, 2800 m, 03.09.1938, Yu T. T., 20231A (PE).

Herminium souliei (Finet) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 51. 1903.

Herminium souliei Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 22. 1910, nom. illeg. (non (Finet) Rolfe). Type: CHINA. Tibet, Kiala Dist., Togolo, near Tat-sien-lou, 1898, Soulié J. A., s.n. (Holotype: B, lost; Isotype: [presumably Soulié 407] P!).

H. souliei var. lichiangense W. W. Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 337. 1915. TYPE: CHINA. Yunnan, eastern flank of the Lichiang Range, 11000 ft, 08.1910, Forrest G., 6399 (not found).

H. limprichtii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih.4: 42. 1919. TYPE: CHINA. Yunnan, Talifu, 3500 m, 08.1913, Limpricht H. W., 1003 (Holotype: B, lost).

Monorchis limprichtii (Schltr.) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

M. souliei (Finet) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 95. 1949.

Basionym

Herminium angustifolium var. souliei Finet, Rev. Gén. Bot. 13: 518. 1901.

Type

CHINA. Tibet, Kiala Dist., Togolo, 18.08.1893, Soulié J. A., 407 (Holotype: P! [P00378650]; Isotypes: K! [K000079033], P! [P00378650]).

Description

Plant 8–38 cm tall. Tubers oblong-ellipsoid, 8–25 × 5–15 mm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base and 2–4 leaves. Leaves well-spaced, linear to lanceolate, 4–20 × 0.5–1.5 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 5–25 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with peduncle-scales 0.5–2.5 cm; rachis 2.5–20 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 2–5 mm, equal, shorter or longer than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers pale green; pedicel and ovary arcuate, 5–10 mm, shortly beaked. Dorsal sepal ovate, concave, 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 2.9–3.5 × 1.2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals connivent with dorsal sepal forming a hood, linear, 2–3 × 0.4–0.6 mm, apex obtuse. Lip oblong, 2.6–4.5 × 0.7–1.2 mm, 3-lobed; lateral lobes linear-falcate, 0.5 × 0.3 mm; mid-lobe oblong, 0.6 × 0.3 mm, apex obtuse. Column 1 mm; pollinia ovoid; caudicles short, viscidia ovoid, rostellum triangular, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Capsule oblong, 1 cm.

Flowering time

July–August.

Habitat

Terrestrial in broad-leaved forests margins or on grassy slopes at elevations of 1400–4200 m.

Distribution

China, Nepal.

Note

Morphologically, Herminium souliei is similar to Herminium lanceum, but H. souliei is shorter in stature and the lip is flatter, which gives the flowers a more spidery appearance.

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Muli county, 2800 m, 03.08.1937, Yu C. T., 7564 (PE); Yanyuan county, Yuanbao area, Dalin town, 3200 m, 20.07.1983 (PE); Qinghai-Tibet Team, 12041A (PE); Xiangcheng county, 3900 m, 12.08.1983, Qinghai-Tibet Team, 4780 (PE); Daofu county, 3600 m, 26.08.2001, Luo Y.B., 687 (PE); Yunnan, eastern slopes of Likiang Snow Range, 1922, Rock J. F., 5851 (K); Lijiang, 3500 m, 03.08.1981, Beijing Hengduan Mountain Team,02550 (PE); Qiaojia county, 1400 m, 15.09.1932, Tsai H. T., 52045 (PE); Shangri-La, 2900 m, 17.09.1962, Zhongdian Team, 2116 (PE); Shangri-La, 3250 m, 09.08.1981, Tian et al., 842 (PE).

NEPAL: Koshi, Dhankutta district, Chitrye, 2400 m, 29.08.2007, Raskoti B. B.,02007 (KATH).

Herminium suave Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 131. 1936.

Peristylus forrestii (Schltr.) K. Y. Lang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 454. 1987. Not Herminium forrestii Schltr.

Replaced name

Habenaria forrestii Schltr., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 101. 1912. Type: CHINA. Yunnan, eastern flank of the Lichiang Range, 11000–12000 ft, 15.09.1906, Forrest G., 2875 (Holotype: E! [E00381990]; Isotype: P! [P00378752]).

Description

Plant slender, 17–33 cm tall. Tubers oblong, 1–2.5 × 0.5–1 cm. Stem with upto 3 tubular sheaths and 2–3 leaves at base. Leaves linear, 1.5–8 × 0.1–0.4 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence 12–30 cm; peduncle cylindrical, peduncle-scales 1–3, lanceolate, 3–10 mm; rachis 5.5–13 cm, laxly to sub-densely many flowered; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 3–4 mm, much shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers green, ovary and pedicel 5–8 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, ca. 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblong, falcate, reflexed, ca. 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals ovate, oblique, ca. 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Lip lingulate, ca. 3 mm, base concave, entire, apex obtuse; spur pendulous, curving forward, cylindrical, 5–8 mm, ca. equal to or longer than ovary, slightly dilated toward apex. Column ca. 1 mm, pollinia ovoid; caudicles short; viscidia ovate, rostellum triangular, armed, stigma transversely oblong, drawn out at base of lip.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes at elevations of 1700–3900 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Sichuan, Muli, 2600 m, 12.08.1937, Yu T.T., 7674 (PE); Yunnan, without data, Maire E. E., 38 (K).

Herminium tangianum (S. Y. Hu) K. Y. Lang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 458. 1987.

Herminium latifolium Homotypic synonyms: Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 3: 325. 1931, not (A. Rich.) Lindl. 1832 (= Benthamia chlorantha (Spreng.) Garay & G.A. Romero).

P. ecalcaratus Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin.1: 64. 1951, not Finet 1901.

Basionym

Peristylus tangianus S. Y. Hu, Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 27: 461. 1974.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, 20.08.1906, Ducloux F., 3971 (Holotype P! [P00378693]).

Description

Plant 20–30 cm tall. Tubers subglobose to oblong-ellipsoid, 10–20 mm. Stem with 3–4 tubular sheaths at base and 2–3 subbasal leaves. Leaves orbicular or elliptic, 2.1–5 × 2–2.6 cm, apex subacute to acuminate. Peduncle cylindrical, with several triangular lanceolate peduncle-scales, rachis 4–10 cm, subdensely many-flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 6–7 mm, slightly shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers white; pedicel and ovary twisted, beaked, ca. 8 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, ca. 2.5 × 1.6 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals oblanceolate, ca. 2.6 × 1 mm, apex obtuse. Petals ovate, oblique, 1.2–2.4 × ca. 1.2 mm, apex obtuse. Lip decurved, ovate-pandurate, ca. 2.5 × 1.4 mm, somewhat fleshy, base dilated and shallowly concave, contracted near middle, margin entire, apex dilated and obtuse. Column short; viscidia elliptic, ca. 0.8 mm.

Flowering time

August.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Note

Our description is based on Chen et al. (2009).

Herminium tibeticum X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti, sp. nov.

Fig. 15

Type

CHINA. Tibet, Medog, 52 km region of the road from Bomi to Motuo, 3600–3700 m, 28.08.2012, Jin X.H., Jin W.T. and Xu S.Z., 13185 (PE).

Figure 15.

Herminium tibeticum. A Flowering plant B Flower (side view) C Flower spread (front view) D Dorsal sepal, lateral sepal and petal E Lip F Section of ovary with column G Floral bract H Column with stigma (front view) I Anther cap, auricles and viscidium.

Diagnosis

Herminium tibeticum is similar to Herminium pygmaeum and H. josephi, but differs from the former in having strongly falcate petals and a lip with a callus; from the latter in having a 3-lobed and cuneate lip.

Description

Plant 13–16 cm tall. Tubers subglobose, 4–8 × 4–6 mm, with slender roots. Stem with tubular sheaths at base, and often 1 or rarely 2-leaved. Leaves cauline, lanceolate, 4.0–5.0 × 0.8–1.0 cm, apex acute, base sheathing. Peduncle 7–8 cm, slender, without peduncle-scales; rachis 2.5–5.5 cm, with five to several subsecund flowers; floral bracts ovate,1–2 × 0.5–1.0 mm, about equal to the pedicel, apex acute. Flowers drooping, greenish, 4–5 mm across, ovary fusiform, shortly pedicellate, slightly arcuate, 4–7 mm long, ridged, apex strongly beaked. Dorsal sepal ovate, 3.0 × 1.9 mm, 1-veined, apex sub-obtuse; lateral sepals spreading, ovate, oblique, 3.0 × 1.3 mm, apex obtuse. Petals lanceolate, falcate, 3.0–5.0× 1.0–1.5 mm, 1-veined, middle portion crenulate, apex acute. Lip cuneate, apiculate, 5.5–6.0 × 1.5–2.5 mm, base saccate, concave, with two longitudinal 1.9 mm long calli, 3-nerved, shallowly 3-lobed; lateral lobes triangular, smaller than the midlobe, 1.0 × 0.4 mm, crenulate, apex obtuse; midlobe narrowly triangular,1.2 × 1.0 mm, apex sub-obtuse. Column ca. 1.4 mm long; stigma transverse, ca. 2.8 mm long, rostellum 0.5 mm, three lobed, mid-lobe larger than the lateral lobes; auricle ca. 0.6 mm long; pollinia 1.2 mm, globose; viscidia globose.

Flowering time

July.

Distribution

Endemic to China.

Habitat

Terrestrial in grassland on open slopes in evergreen forest at elevations of 3600–3700 m.

Etymology

Named for Tibet, origin of type.

Notes

Herminium tibeticum is most similar to Herminium pygmaeum Renz in petal and lip shape; it differs from the latter in having strongly falcate petals, and a lip with two parallel longitudinal calli at the base.

Herminium wangianum X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & L.Q. Huang, Cladistics 2015.

Herminium spirale (Not) (A. Rich.) Rchb. f., Bonplandia (Hannover) 3: 213. 1855 (= Benthamia africana (Lindl.) Hermans).

Replaced name

Androcorys spiralis Tang & F. T. Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 10: 38. 1940.

Type

CHINA. Tibet, Chayu, 3500 m, 09.1935, Wang C.W., 66285 (PE!).

Description

Plant 5–12 cm tall. Tuber globose, 5–8 mm in diam. Stem slender, with 2 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf oblong, 2–2.5 × 0.8–1 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 4–5 cm, ebracteate, rachis 2–2.5 cm, 3–8-flowered; floral bracts spirally twisted, linear, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers green; ovary and pedicel, fusiform, apex shortly beaked, 3–7 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate-elliptic, concave, 1.5–2 × 1.3–1.8 mm, apex apiculate; lateral sepals spreading, oblong-lanceolate, 2–2.5 × 1–1.2 mm, apex obtuse. Petals oblong, oblique, 1.3–2 × 0.5–0.7 mm, apex obtuse. Lip linear-lingulate, 1.8–2.1 mm, fleshy, base dilated and ca. 0.8 mm wide, apex obtuse. Column short, anther with 2 divergent, hooded locules and broad connective; pollinia 2, clavate, attached to a viscidium by short caudicle; rostellum triangular; stigma 2 pulvinate, attached to base of rostellum.

Flowering time

September.

Habitat

Forested slopes at elevations of 2800–4800 m.

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan).

Specimen examined

CHINA: Qinghai, Zadoi county, 4800 m, 25.07.1965, Liu S. W., 217 (PE); Sichuan, Muli county, 2800 m, 15.08.1937, Yu T. T., 7736 (PE); Tibet, Zayu county, 3500 m, 09.1935, Wang C. W., 66285 (PE); Zayu county, 2800 m, 08.1938, Wang Q. W., 65222 (PE); Zayu county, Chawalong, 3200 m, 08.1935, Wang C. W., 65782 (PE); Nyalam county, 4600 m, 20.08.2010, PE-Tibet Team, 01640 (PE).

Herminium yunnanense Rolfe, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 24. 1913.

Monorchis yunnanensis (Rolfe) O. Schwarz, Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges. 1: 96. 1949.

Type

CHINA. Yunnan, Tsan-Shan Range, near Yang Bi Pass, Forrest G., 907 (Holotype: E! [E00188161]).

Description

Plant 15–27 cm tall. Tubers ovoid-oblong, 5–20 × 4–8 mm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths and 1 leaf at base. Leaf linear-oblong, 8–14 × 0.5–1 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 14–22 cm; peduncle cylindrical, with few lanceolate peduncle-scales; rachis 5–9 cm, densely many-flowered; floral bracts ovate, 3–5 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers yellowish green; pedicel and ovary, twisted, beaked at apex, 3–6 mm. Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, concave, 1.5–2 × 1–1.6 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, slightly oblique, 1.5–2.3 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals hooded with dorsal sepal, concave, ovate, 1–1.5 × 1–1.3 mm, apex subacute. Lip oblong, 2–2.5 × 1–2 mm, concave, apex 3-lobed; lateral lobes triangular, 0.5 × 0.3 mm, apex acute; mid-lobe triangular, 0.7 × 0.7 mm, apex obtuse. Column ca. 1 mm; pollinia globose; caudicles short, viscidia ovoid; rostellum clavate, stigma transversely oblong, situated below the rostellum. Fruit oblong, 5–7 mm long.

Flowering time

August–September.

Habitat

Terrestrial on grassy slopes at elevations of 2200–3300 m.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Specimens examined

CHINA: Yunnan, Fugong county, 19.07.2013, Jin X. H, Wang L. S., Wang Q. et al. ST0599 (PE); Chuxiong city, 2200 m, 23.09.1939, Li M. K.,0170 (PE); Yangbi county, 2673 m, 24.07.2006, Jin X. H., 8273 (PE).

Excluded species

Herminium gongganum Ormerod, Taiwania 58: 27 (2013).

Note. Judging from the protologue, an image of the holotype, and our own field observations of similar plants (which had fleshy rootstocks, lacking a tuber), this taxon belongs to the genus Platanthera. Efimov (2016) transferred this species to Platanthera.

Herminium orbiculare Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 129 (1890).

Note. Based on an examination of living and type material as well as a phylogenetic analysis using DNA data (Jin et al., unpublished) it is apparent that this species belongs in Platanthera, necessitating the following new combination.

Platanthera orbicularis (Hook.f.) X.H. Jin, Schuit. & Raskoti, comb. nov.

Basionym

Herminium orbiculare Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 129 (1890).

Type

CHINA. Xizang, Chumbi Valley, Rungboo (Kungphu), King’s Collector s.n. (Holotype: K! [K000079022]).

Acknowledgements

Special thanks are due to Vincent Droissart and Tariq Stévart for the critical reading and editing of the manuscript. We are sincerely grateful to curators and technical staff of the herbaria listed for their invaluable assistance. We are grateful to Zhu Yunxi for preparing the line drawings. Funds were provided by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31670194, 31470299, J1310002, 31110103911), and Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y4ZK111B01).

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